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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Alaska has 4. 0 trillion tons of low-sulfur coal: Is there a future for this resource  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demand for and use of low-sulfur coal may increase because of concern with acid rain. Alaska's low-sulfur coal resources can only be described as enormous: 4.0 trillion tons of hypothetical onshore coal. Mean total sulfur content is 0.34% (range 0.06-6.6%, n = 262) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. There are 50 coal fields in Alaska; the bulk of the resources are in six major fields or regions: Nenana, Cook Inlet, Matanuska, Chignik-Herendeen Bay, North Slope, and Bering River. For comparison, Carboniferous coals in the Appalachian region and Interior Province have a mean total sulfur content of 2.3% (range 0.1-19.0%, n = 5,497) with a mean apparent rank of high-volatile A bituminous coal, and Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains Cretaceous and Tertiary coals have a mean total sulfur content of 0.86% (range 0.02-19.0%, n = 2,754) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. Alaskan coal has two-fifths the total sulfur of western US coals and one-sixth that of Carboniferous US coals. Even though Alaska has large resources of low-sulfur coal, these resources have not been developed because of (1) remote locations and little infrastructure, (2) inhospitable climate, and (3) long distances to potential markets. These resources will not be used in the near future unless there are some major, and probably violent, changes in the world energy picture.

Stricker, G.D. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashless low-sulfur fuel Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Blendstocks for Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel in PADD III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17... markets for low ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Transportation...

5

LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

8

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

9

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das Department of Civil Engineering IIT Kanpur Introduction The bituminous pavement rehabilitation alternatives are mainly overlaying, recycling and reconstruction. In the recycling process the material from deteriorated pavement, known as reclaimed asphalt

Das, Animesh

11

Use of POTW biosolids in bituminous concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although wastewater treatment helps alleviate water pollution, it creates residual by-products that can pose a disposal dilemma. Four main practices are presently employed to dispose of wastewater treatment plant sludge: land application, composting, incineration, and landfilling. A fifth disposal method that may help to alleviate the sludge disposal problem in future years is the incorporation of sludge into useful end products such as fertilizer or construction materials. This research was designed to evaluate the properties of bituminous concrete mixes that had anaerobically digested sewage sludge incorporated into their design. In doing so, it was desired to verify the work of Wells concerning sludge incorporation into bituminous concrete mixes using today`s asphalts. Hot mix and cold mix designs were studied.

Smith, R.C. [Jones and Henry Engineers, Ltd., Toledo, OH (United States); Angelbeck, D.I. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Incinerator residue in bituminous base construction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for use of the material in a bituminous base. Preliminary investigation on the optimum mix design included Hveem stability, Marshall stability and Durability tests, A test section consisting of the experimental hot-mixed pavement, littercrete, and a... for flexural fatigue tests, Hveem and Marshall stabilities, thermal expansion, direct tension, splitting tensile and Schmidt tests. Four in. (10. 2 cm. ) diameter cores were taken after compaction (before traffic) and after six months in service. Samples...

Haynes, Joseph Anthony

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New EnergyofDEVELOPMENTEnergy Low Sulfur diesel Update

15

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Processing and utilizing high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from urban solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The history of technologies in the US that recover energy from urban solid waste is relatively short. Most of the technology as we know it evolved over the past 25 years. This evolution led to the development of about 100 modern mass burn and RDF type waste-to-energy plants and numerous small modular combustion systems, which collectively are handling about 20%, or about 40 million tons per year, of the nations municipal solid waste. Technologies also evolved during this period to co-fire urban waste materials with other fuels or selectively burn specific waste streams as primary fuels. A growing number of second or third generation urban waste fuels projects are being developed. This presentation discusses new direction in the power generating industry aimed at recovery and utilization of clean, high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from municipal and industrial solid waste. It reviews a spectrum of alternative fuels for feasible recovery and reuse, with new opportunities emerging for urban fuels processors providing fuels in the 6,000--15,000 BTU/LB range for off premises use.

Smith, M.L. [M.L. Smith Environmental and Associates, Tinley Park, IL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

18

Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Petrography and chemistry of sized fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December, 1994, from two units representing high- and low-sulfur feed coals at a Kentucky power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh. The dried ({approximately}40 C) fractions were then weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, mounted in epoxy and prepared as polished pellets, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The November ashes had a similar size distribution in the +325 mesh fractions. The low-sulfur hot side and cool side ashes had a similar size distribution in the November ashes. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the typical trend, the cool-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh fraction) than the hot-side ash. Carbon tends to be relatively concentrated in the coarse fractions. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes is an important consideration in the utilization potential of the fly ash.

Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Trimble, A.S. [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to invert the conventional scale of values for products of coal utilization processes by making coal chars (carbons) that, because of their unique properties, are the most valuable materials in the product slate. A unique type of coal-derived carbon studied in this project is oxidized activated coal char having both adsorptive and catalyst properties. Major program elements were (a) preparation and characterization of materials (b) characterization of carbons and catalyst testing (c) completion of diesel engine testing of low-ash coal and (d) initiation of a two-year adsorption study. Materials prepared were (a) two low-ash coal samples one via ChemCoal processing of IBC-109 and the other by acid dissolution of IBC-109`s mineral matter, (b) coal char (MG char), (c) activated low-ash carbon (AC), (d) oxidized activated carbon (OAC). Amoco continued its support with state-of-the art analytical capabilities and development of catalyst testing procedures. Diesel engine tests were made with low ash coal dispersed in diesel fuel at solid loadings of 20% and 35%. The slurry was successfully burned in cylinder 2 of a two-cylinder diesel engine, after modifications of the engine`s fuel injection system. The higher speed proved to be more favorable but the slurry burned with a slightly improved thermal and combustion efficiency at both speeds with respect to diesel fuel alone. Adsorption studies included preparation of seven base-line carbon samples and their characterization, including their N{sub 2} BET surface areas and apparent densities. Paranitrophenol (PNP) adsorption isotherms were determined for the six controls. Oxidation of carbon with nitric acid decreases activated carbon`s PNP adsorption capacity while air oxidation increases adsorption capacity.

Kruse, C.W.; Carlson, S.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Snoeyink, V.L.; Feizoulof, C.; Assanis; Syrimis, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana (United States); Fatemi, S.M. [Amoco, Naperville, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - australian bituminous coal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

extractable material from perhydrous vitrinites Summary: an important role in their coking ability 19. The development of a mobile phase during the bituminous coal... to...

22

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indicate that coal-derived asphaltenes exhibit an acid-baseanyone functional group is asphaltenes is amphoteric. Theseto oil, and 31.6% to asphaltenes) of a bituminous coal when

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light fluxes does result in a progressive and significant increase in the amount of near-surface oxygen concentration at about the same level regardless of bituminous coal rank. These incremental changes in oxygen concentration appear to lower the hydrophobicity as shown by contact angle measurements on polished surfaces. Although this influence diminished as coal rank increased, the level of oxygen uptake was about the same, suggesting that the type of oxygen functionality formed during oxidation may be of great importance in modifying surface hydrophobicity. Changes in functional-group chemistry, measured by a variety of near-surface techniques, showed a general increase in the concentration of carbonyl-containing groups while those of CH{sub 2} groups decreased. All of these observations follow the trends observed in previous investigations of naturally weathered coals. The photo-oxidation technique also resulted in the development of phenolic, ester and anhydride moieties instead of the expected emplacement of carboxylic acid groups which are normally associated with naturally weathered coals. The importance of this observation is that esters and anhydrides would result in a more hydrophobic surface in comparison to the more hydrophilic surface resulting from acid functionality. This observation is consistent with the results of film flotation of UV-irradiated powdered vitrain in which floatability was generally observed to increase with increasing photo- oxidation.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 {micro}m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur heavy side and light side ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh [{minus}25 {micro}m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh ({minus}42 {micro}m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash.

Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research]|[Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

None

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

31

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

Dennis Laudal

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

None

1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

Tom Campbell

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

MARATHON PETROLEUM COMPANY LLC PARENT-MARATHON OIL COMPANY FIFTH LARGEST US REFINERY (OVER 1 MILLION BBLS OF CRUDE CAPACITY) MAJOR MARKETS IN MIDWEST AND SOUTHEAST ...

42

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0) concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH{sub 3} addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH{sub 3} reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Coal in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA): framework geology and resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The North Slope of Alaska contains huge resources of coal, much of which lies within NPRA. The main coal-bearing units, the Corwin and Chandler Formations of the Nanushuk Group (Lower and Upper Cretaceous), underlie about 20,000 mi/sup 2/ (51,800 km/sup 2/) of NPRA. They contain low-sulfur, low-ash, and probable coking-quality coal in gently dipping beds as thick as 20 ft (6.1 m) within stratigraphic intervals as thick as 4500 ft (1370 m). Lesser coal potential occurs in other Upper Cretaceous units and in Lower Mississippian and Tertiary strata. The river-dominated Corwin and Umiat deltas controlled the distribution of Nanushuk Group coal-forming environments. Most organic deposits formed on delta plains; fewer formed in alluvial plain or delta-front environments. Most NPRA coal beds are expected to be lenticular and irregular, as they probably accumulated in interdistributary basins, infilled bays, or inland flood basins, whereas some blanket beds may have formed on broad, slowly sinking, delta lobes. The major controls of coal rank and degree of deformation were depth of burial and subsequent tectonism. Nanushuk Group coal resources in NPRA are estimated to be as much as 2.75 trillion short tons. This value is the sum of 1.42 trillion short tons of near-surface (< 500 ft or 150 m of overburden) bituminous coal, 1.25 trillion short tons of near-surface subbituminous coal, and 0.08 trillion shorts tons of more deeply buried subbituminous coal. These estimates indicate that the North Slope may contain as much as one-third of the United States coal potential.

Sable, E.G.; Stricker, G.D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Gasification of Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass with Enriched Air Mixture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

might result in land and water pollution if left untreated. Different methods are employed to extract the available energy from the cattle biomass (CB) which includes co-firing and gasification. There are two types of CB: Feedlot biomass (FB), animal...

Thanapal, Siva Sankar

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

48

Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash,  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate EarthEnergy Contractor

49

Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

Erdemir, Ali

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

50

Iron distribution among phases in high- and low-sulfur coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Moessbauer spectroscopy, reflected-light optical microscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, wet chemical, and X-ray diffraction studies were conducted on six fly ash samples. The fly ashes, representing the combustion by-products of coals with total sulfur contents of less than 2% to greater than 4%, ranged from 17.6 to 32.0% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by XRF analysis. Wet chemical analysis was used to determine the Fe{sup 3+}/{summation}Fe content of the ashes, which ranged from 72% to 83%. Optical analysis of the ashes indicated that the spinel, encompassing iron oxides of various compositions, ranges from 4.0 to 12.6% (vol.). Moessbauer analyses confirmed the presence of three Fe-bearing phases: magnetite, hematite (possibly of two different compositions), and glass. The variation in the Fe-oxidation state follows the variation in the sulfur, consequently pyrite, content of the feed coal.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Dyar, M.D.; Taylor, M.E. [West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Astronomy

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-18 2.415 - - - - 1994-2014 East3

52

No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn CyberNeutronsNewNewsNickNiriConnecticut - - - -

53

DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Deliciouscritical_materials_workshop_presentations.pdf MoreProgramofContract at itsSelections forValuesDOE

54

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Petrographic and geochemical anatomy of lithotypes from the Blue Gem coal bed, Southeastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nature of the association of major, minor, and trace elements with coal has been the subject of intensive research by coal scientists (Swaine; and references cited therein). Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) offers a technique with which ultrafine coal particles can be partitioned into a density spectrum, portions of which represent nearly pure monomaceral concentrates. DGC has been typically conducted on demineralized coals assuring, particularly at lower specific gravities, that the resulting DGC fractions would have very low ash contents. In order to determine trends in elemental composition, particularly with a view towards maceral vs. mineral association, it is necessary to avoid demineralization. To this end the low-ash, low-sulfur Blue Gem coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) from Knox County, Kentucky, was selected for study. The objective of this study was to determine the petrography and chemistry, with particular emphasis on the ash geochemistry, of DGC separates of lithotypes of the Blue Gem coal bed.

Hower, J.C.; Taulbee, D.N.; Morrell, L.G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

MHUG process for production of low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel. [Medium-pressure Hydro UpGrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new hydro-upgrading process operated under medium pressure has been developed to reduce the sulfur and the aromatics content in light cycle oil (LCO). Two catalysts were used in series in this technology. The commercial RN-1 catalyst, which is known as having high activity in hydrodenitrogenation, desulfurization and aromatic saturation, was chosen as the first catalyst. The second one was a nickel-tungsten zeolite catalyst, named RT-5, which was developed by RIPP specially for hydrogenolysis of naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The pilot plant tests showed that high quality diesel oil with aromatics content less than 20 v% and sulfur content less than 0.05 wt% could be produced from various LCO/straight-run-gas-oil (SRGO) blended feedstocks under hydrogen partial pressure of 6.4 MPa. The reaction temperature and overall space velocity (S.V.) varied in the range of 350--380 C and 0.6--1.2 h[sup [minus]1], respectively, depending on the properties of the feedstocks to be processed and the upgrading depth required. Several examples presented also illustrated that this technology could be used to prepare catalytic reforming feedstock as well, which is in urgent need in China. A life test operated in relatively high severity for 3,000 hr. indicated that the catalysts possessed excellent stability. A commercial demonstration unit has been running well since the last Oct 1.

Shi, Yu Lin; Shi, Jian Wen; Zhang, Xin Wei; Shi, Ya Hua; Li, Da Dong (SINOPEC, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Petroleum Processing)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1990--October 1, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Evaluation of an alternative bituminous material as a soil stabilizer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

granular base materials, the PRB material coated soil or aggregate particles and decreased the volume of voids, which can be thought as potential water flow channels. Consequently, the PRB material is expected to reduce permeability....

Kim, Yong-Rak

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group of 40 hvb coals, mostly from western Kentucky fields, has been examined with regard to ASTM Gieseler plastometric properties. Twenty-nine of these coals have also been studied over a range of temperatures by isothermal Gieseler plastometry. Raw Gieseler data provide melting and coking slopes and readily calculable fluidity spans. Maximum fluidity by slope intersection is a more consistent measure than observed maximum fluidity. Isothermal slopes and maximum fluidities follow Arrhenius temperature dependencies, with activation energies related systematically to fluid properties. These freshly sampled coals are also characterized by chemical, physical and petrographic criteria, by quantitative solvent extractions, by pyrolysis gas chromatography, by Fourier Transform infrared analysis of coals and extraction residues, by the HPLC analysis of coal extracts, and by optical microscopy of coals and Gieseler semi-coke residues. Multiple linear regression analysis yields three-term expressions which estimate maximum fluidities (both ASTM and isothermal) with R values of .90 to .92. Slopes and critical temperatures are similarly predictable. Plastometer experiments with selected coals under superatmospheric pressures show both melting slopes and maximum fluidities to be sharply increased, the latter by one to three orders of magnitude. Some suggestions are offered to accommodate this new information into the general body of knowledge concerning the phenomenon of plasticity in mid-ranked coals. 81 references, 28 figures, 40 tables.

Lloyd, W. G.; Reasoner, J. W.; Hower, J. C.; Yates, L. P.; Clark, C. P.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Irefin, A.; Jiminez, A.; Jones, T. M.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 - GEE IGCC without CO 2 capture * Case 2 - GEE IGCC with CO 2 capture * Case 9 - Subcritical PC without CO 2 capture * Case 10 - Subcritical PC with CO 2 capture * Case 11 -...

62

Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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63

NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus Area EnergyMohawkaccrediationNASA-SurfaceNEPA Home

64

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ÂşF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Investigation Of Synergistic NOx Reduction From Cofiring And Air Staged Combustion Of Coal And Low Ash Dairy Biomass In A 30 Kilowatt Low NOx Furnace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alternate, cost effective disposal methods must be developed for reducing phosphorous and nitrogen loading from land application of animal waste. Cofiring coal with animal waste, termed dairy biomass (DB), is the proposed thermo-chemical method...

Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Characterization of the chemical variation of feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low sulfur Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, in collaboration with an Indiana utility, are studying a coal-fired power plant burning Powder River Basin coal. This investigation involves a systematic study of the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a 1,300-megawatt (MW) power unit. The main goal of this study is to characterize the temporal chemical variability of the feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash by looking at the major-, minor-, and trace-element compositions and their associations with the feed coal mineralogy. Emphasis is also placed on the abundance and modes of occurrence of elements of potential environmental concern that may affect the utilization of these CCPs and coals.

Affolter, R.H.; Brownfield, M.E.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Hardgrove grindability study of Powder River Basin and Appalachian coal components in the blend to a midwestern power station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five coals representing four distinct coal sources blended at a midwestern power station were subjected to detailed analysis of their Hardgrove grindability. The coals are: a low-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal (Pike County, KY); a medium-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous Pittsburgh coal (southwestern PA); a low-sulfur, subbituminous Wyodak coal from two mines in the eastern Powder River Basin (Campbell County, WY). The feed and all samples processed in the Hardgrove grindability test procedure were analyzed for their maceral and microlithotype content. The high-vitrinite Pittsburgh coal and the relatively more petrographically complex Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal exhibit differing behavior in grindability. The Pittsburgh raw feed, 16x30 mesh fraction (HGI test fraction), and the {minus}30 mesh fraction (HGI reject) are relatively similar petrographically, suggesting that the HGI test fraction is reasonably representative of the whole feed. The eastern Kentucky coal is not as representative of the whole feed, the HGI test fraction having lower vitrinite than the rejected {minus}30 mesh fraction. The Powder River Basin coals are high vitrinite and show behavior similar to the Pittsburgh coal.

Padgett, P.L.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed Phase II testing was to determine longer term ESP performance and mercury capture improvements with the above enhancements for a range of low-sulfur coals currently fired by utilities. Unanticipated cost growth in readying the Pilot Plant for shipment and during slipstream construction at the utility host site resulted in the issuance of a preemptive stop work order from ABB until a detailed technical and budgetary review of the project could be completed. Four program recovery scenarios were developed and presented to the DOE. After careful review of these options, it was decided to terminate the program and although the Pilot Plant installation was essentially completed, no testing was performed. The Pilot Plant was subsequently decommissioned and the host site returned to its preprogram condition.

David K. Anderson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coal. Final report. Part III. Petrographic characterization of the Upper Elkhorn No. 2 coal zone of eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the study of the Upper Elkhorn No. 2 coal zone in the Big Sandy Reserve District and the surrounding area of eastern Kentucky. The seams were analyzed using megascopic and microscopic petrography and chemical methods. The Upper Elkhorn No. 2 consists predominantly of clarain. A fair degree of correlation of fusain bands and clay partings between data sites is apparent. Microscopically, the vitrinite group of macerals are dominant. A rank increase from high volatile B to high volatile A bituminous to the southwest was noted. Pseudovitrinite is associated negatively with vitrinite and has a higher reflectance and microhardness than vitrinite. Both factors may indicate source material and/or environmental differences in the respective origins of the maceral. High inertinite and lipinite areas, low ash and sulfur contents, and the distribution of thin coals may be indicative of paleotopographic highs. 62 references, 26 figures, 8 tables.

Raione, R.P.; Hower, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Evaluation of reclaimed rubber in bituminous pavements. Final report, July 1993-April 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 1038 of the 1991 Intermodel Surface Transportation efficiency Act (ISTEA) mandated use of crumb rubber from scrap tires in asphalt pavement starting in FY 94. To gain some experience, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed five demonstration projects in 1993 and one in 1994. All used the `dry process` to introduce crumb rubber into the mix. With the dry process, crumb rubber is added to the heated aggregate prior to addition of asphalt cement (AC). Three projects used very low addition rates. Each was divided into five equal segments. One segment, the control, used no crumb rubber. The other segments used 1/2, 1, 1 1/2 and 2 pounds of crumb rubber per ton of hot mix. The other three projects each used 20 pounds of crumb rubber per ton of hot mix. Both batch plants and drier-drum plants were used, and the crumb rubber was supplied in pre-measured batch-size packets, 50-pound paper bags and 2000-pound super sacks.

Trepanier, J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptation and use of bituminous materials...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) Experiment Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ;...

75

Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Eastern gas shales bibliography selected annotations: gas, oil, uranium, etc. Citations in bituminous shales worldwide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains 2702 citations, most of which are annotated. They are arranged by author in numerical order with a geographical index following the listing. The work is international in scope and covers the early geological literature, continuing through 1979 with a few 1980 citations in Addendum II. Addendum I contains a listing of the reports, well logs and symposiums of the Unconventional Gas Recovery Program (UGR) through August 1979. There is an author-subject index for these publications following the listing. The second part of Addendum I is a listing of the UGR maps which also has a subject-author index following the map listing. Addendum II includes several important new titles on the Devonian shale as well as a few older citations which were not found until after the bibliography had been numbered and essentially completed. A geographic index for these citations follows this listing.

Hall, V.S. (comp.)

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

THE EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS ON SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL BELOW ITS PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

48. Table 1. Roland seam coal analyses Proximate analysis: (some ext'racts of Roland seam coal - 4 hours extraction at5. Extraction of Roland seam coal with solvent mixtures for

Grens III., Edward A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkali con- alkali-soluble Seam coal over the temperaturefor the Pittsburgh Seam coal. Another important conclusionVI, Composition of Roland seam coal--ultimate analysis~ wt%,

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

variations in coal from rank to rank, mine to mine, seam tocoal was supplied by the Wyodak t. Resources Development Corporation from the Roland top seam

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Liquefaction and Gasification of Western Coals", in5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthest

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: characterization of diaromatic products in liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many studies of the pyrolytic degradation of coal-derived and petroleum-derived aviation fuels have demonstrated that the coal-derived fuels show better thermal stability, both with respect to deposition of carbonaceous solids and cracking to gases. Much previous work at our institute has focused on the use of refined chemical oil (RCO), a distillate from the refining of coal tar, blended with light cycle oil (LCO) from catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. Hydroprocessing of this blend forms high concentrations of tetralin and decalin derivatives that confer particularly good thermal stability on the fuel. However, possible supply constraints for RCO make it important to consider alternative ways to produce an 'RCO-like' product from coal in an inexpensive process. This study shows the results of coal extraction using LCO as a solvent. At 350{sup o}C at a solvent-to-coal ratio of 10:1, the conversions were 30-50 wt % and extract yields 28-40 wt % when testing five different coals. When using lower LCO/coal ratios, conversions and extract yields were much smaller; lower LCO/coal ratios also caused mechanical issues. LCO is thought to behave similarly to a nonpolar, non-hydrogen donor solvent, which would facilitate heat-induced structural relaxation of the coal followed by solubilization. The main components contributed from the coal to the extract when using Pittsburgh coal are di- and triaromatic compounds. 41 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Josefa M. Griffith; Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). EMS Energy Institute

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Evaluation of methods of mixing lime in bituminous paving mixtures in batch and drum plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prepared mixtures, field mixtures obtained at the plant and pavement cores. Laboratory tests included Hveem and Marshall stability, resilient modulus and indirect tension. Mixture conditioning to evaluate resistance to moisture damage included vacuum... Mixed and Compacted Specimens Tensile Strength Ratio for Laboratory Mixed and Compacted Specimens 14 Marshall Stability Before and After 7-days Soaking in Water for Lab Mixed and Compacted Specimens 36 FIGURE Page 15 16 Hveem Stability Before...

Button, Joseph Wade

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 7  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 40-coal database for the prediction of the plastic properties of hvb coals has been completed. Statistical analysis has been commenced. Most of the 37 ostensibly independent experimental variables and the 22 derived variables are shown to have little or no predictive power. Approximately a dozen independent variables appear to be systematically related to plasticity. Maximum fluidity can be determined in several ways from Gieseler plastometer data. Under both ASTM and isothermal conditions, maximum fluidity can be predicted using just two independent variables with a standard linear regression model of the form ln(maximum fluidity) = ..beta../sub 0/ + ..beta../sub 1/*V/sub 1/ + ..beta../sub 2/*V/sub 2/ with correlation coefficients greater than .85. The use of three or four independent variables permits predictions with R greater than .90. Pyrolysis gas chromatography has emerged as a powerful and relatively inexpensive new tool for the characterization of coals. In conjunction with studies of extraction, extract characteristics, and residue swelling, pyrolysis/GC affords insights into the basic factors determining the plastic behavior of coals.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Clark, C.P.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Reagles, C.L.; Whitt, J.M.

1983-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

84

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 2, March 1, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The approach of this study is to secure three dozen (or more) coals of varying rank, composition and plasticity, and to analyze these coals carefully by standard chemical and petrographic techniques. The bitumen fractions will be determined, both by THF (asphaltenes but not preasphaltenes) and DMF (everything). Pyrolysis gas chromatography on both whole coals and extracted residues will compare capacities to generate metaplast. Extracts from coals with plasticities differing by at least four orders of magnitude will be examined for identifiable differences; extraction residues will be subjected to differential FTIR analysis. All of the data will be combined and subjected to systematic statistical analysis with the objective of identifying predictors of coal plasticity. This report describes the work in the first six months of the study. During this period equipment and instrumentation has been obtained, 24 coal samples have been obtained, the nonclassical methods have been developed and checked out, and an appreciable amount of experimentl data has been obtained.

Lloyd, W. G.; Reasoner, J. W.; Hower, J. C.; Yates, L. P.; Clark, C. P.; Jones, T. M.; Sturgeon, L. P.; Whitt, J. M.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 5. [Gieseler plastometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The forty fresh coal samples have been obtained, and the proximate, ultimate and petrographic characterization on all samples is now completed. ASTM Gieseler plastometry analyses have been completed on all 40 coals, in quadruplicate, and the melting and coking slopes and intersection maximum fluidities have been estimated. Significant progress has been made in completing the nonstandard analyses which will provide an important part of the project database. Fifteen coals have been subjected to the 20-run sets of isothermal Gieseler analyses; the balance of this group is expected to be completed by mid-1983. Pyrolysis gas chromatogrpahy has been completed for 36 of the 40 coals. Quantitative extractions have now been completed for 32 of the 40 coals, both with tegrahydrofuran and with dimethylformamide. FTIR spectra have been obtained in sets of three (whole coal, residue from THF extraction, residue from DMF extraction) for 31 of the 40 coals. This report also includes a descriptive study by optical microscopy of selected coals and semi-cokes derived from these coals. Future work will include correlation analysis of the completed datasets, and an intensive study of the characteristics of six or seven coals selected from the present set.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Bowling, C.C.; Davis, E.; Whitt, J.M.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 3, June 1, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An additional 13 coals have been obtained, bringing the total to 37. Classical chemical and petrographic characterizations have been completed for most of the coals now in hand. The database for analytical pyrolysis/gas chromatography and for quantitative extraction (THF and DMF) has been more than doubled. The procedures for Fourier Transform infrared analysis have been further modified, making use of a new micropulverizer and drying system, and a procedure for the production of uniform and reproducible KBr pellets has been developed and is now in use. The first analytical isothermal plastometry (AIP) data have been obtained, on two highly plastic coals, and additional data are now being generated. Additional work will be carried out with the pyrolysis/GC system and the THF and DMF extraction work. With the progress made in FTIR spectra acquisition, it is expected to complete acquisition and storage of raw coal spectra and to commence application of techniques to provide differential spectrometric information. HPLC analysis of extracts now appears ready for standardization of procedure. Finally, with the data available, statistical analytical work will be initiated.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Bowling, C.C.; Jones, T.M.; Sturgeon, L.P.; Whitt, J.M.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 4, Part I of II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have substantially enlarged the analytical database developed from the first 37 coals obtained for this study. Pyrolysis/GC has now been completed for 30 coals, and THF and DMF quantitative extractions for 23 coals. FT-IR spectra have been obtained and disc-stored for all coals; differential analysis of these data is now commencing. The first statistical trial runs have been made. ASTM maximum fluidity can be predicted by a simple two-variable regression equation with R = 0.95. This initial success encourages us to undertake a more sophisticated examination of the interdependencies which are becoming evident as the database is built. Under the original work plan we are to enter an intensive Phase 2 study of six selected coals by January 1983.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Bowling, C.C.; Davis, E.; Jones, T.M.; Whitt, J.M.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first dozen coals - high volatile B and C from western Kentucky - have been identified and samples obtained. Classical analyses are nearly completed on this first group. Method development work has been undertaken and is substantially completed for pyrolysis gas chromatography, quantitative extraction of bitumen fraction, and isothermal plastometry. The principal item of new equipment, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, has been purchased and has been delivered. It is planned to acquire and to commence classical (ASTM and petrographic) characterization of the second dozen coals to be used, and to commence the systematic acquisition of isothermal plastometric data, GC pyrograms, and quantitative extractions. Development work will be initiated on the statistical analytical approaches to be used, with the expectation of commencing the first statistical analysis in May 1982.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Jiminez, A.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Jones, T.M.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The greater part of the present study on predictors of coal fluidity has now been completed, with most of the developed database presented in the preceding Technical Progress Report. The one critical area in which we have fallen behind schedule is that of isothermal fluidity measurements at superatmospheric pressures. During the past quarter we have made several modifications to the experimental high-pressure Gieseler plastometer, and have been able to complete over 60 superatmospheric runs. This work will be completed and analyzed within the period of the 90-day no-cost extension which has been granted. The extra time has permitted completion of additional experiments in solvent extraction. During this period we have also completed characterization of THF extracts by HPLC, and characterization of coals, coal extraction residues and selected extracts by FTIR. 13 references, 25 tables.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Clark, C.P.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Reagles, C.L.; Whitt, J.M.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have completed the pyrolysis/gas chromatographic analysis of all 40 coals in the present study, at two temperatures, 450/sup 0/ and 650/sup 0/C. We have also completed triplicate quantitative extraction analyses of all 40 coals, using tetrahydrofuran as the extractant solvent, and have completed a parallel set of extractions using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant solvent. In addition, we have completed analysis of over 100 additional isothermal Gieseler plastometer runs, and have made the first series of quantitative estimates of H(aromatic)/H(aliphatic) ratios from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy data. Exploratory work has begun on the petrographic characterization of the semi-coke residues from Gieseler plastometer runs, and also in characterizing THF extracts by thin layer chromatography and by column chromatography (quantitative group separations). Proximate, ultimate and petrographic characterization of the 40 coals has been completed previously. We are now prepared to start a study, using freshly re-sampled coals, of the effects of varying pressure upon the several parameters of fluidity.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Bowling, C.C.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Whitt, J.M.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Thermo-Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic-Viscodamage-Healing Modeling of Bituminous Materials: Theory and Computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

……………… ……… 341 9.6. Extrapolation of the Rutting in 3D.……....………… 348 9.7. Comparison with Experimental Results.….………… 351 9.8. Conclusions………………………………………… 354 xviii CHAPTER Page X CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..…………… 356 10... prediction using viscoelastic- viscoplastic model and experimental data for the cyclic stress control test at 19oC when the stress amplitude is 750kPa. (a) Loading cycles 1-30; (b) Loading cycles 970-980……………….. 268 7.36 Comparison of the VE...

Darabi Konartakhteh, Masoud

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

92

THE EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS ON SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL BELOW ITS PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not hexane-solubles ("asphaltenes"), and pyridine- but notfractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and preasphaltenes, alltE;! nded to be largely asphaltenes and preasphaltenes, and

Grens III., Edward A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

molecular-weight ranges of asphaltenes and preasphaltenes.consecutive reactions: coal asphaltenes oil Since the firstfirst being con- verted to asphaltenes. Recently, Sternberg,

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Intra- and inter-unit variation in fly ash petrography: Examples from a western Kentucky power station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash was collected from eight mechanical and ten baghouse hoppers at each of twin 150-MW wall-fired units in a western Kentucky power station. The fuel burned at that time was a blend of low-sulfur, high volatile bituminous Central Appalachian coals. The baghouse ash showed less variation between units than the mechanical units. The coarser mechanical fly ash showed significant differences in the amount of total carbon and in the ratio of isotropic coke to both total carbons and total coke; the latter excluding inertinite and other unburned, uncoked coal. There was no significant variation in ratios of inorganic fly ash constituents. The inter-unit differences in the amount and forms of mechanical fly ash carbon appear to be related to differences in pulverizer efficiency, leading to greater amounts of coarse coal, therefore unburned carbon, in one of the units.

Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Goodman, J. [Prestonburg High School, KY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

96

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

Market assessment of PFBC ash use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is undergoing demonstration in the United States, as well as throughout the world. American Electric Power`s (AEP`s) bubbling PFBC 70 MWe Tidd demonstration program in Ohio and pilot-scale development at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MWth circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, have demonstrated the advantages of PFBC technology. Further technology development in the US is planned with the deployment of the technology at the MacIntosh Clean Coal project in Lakeland, Florida. Development of uses for solid wastes from PFBC coal-fired power systems is being actively pursued as part of the demonstration of PFBC technologies. Ashes collected from Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low sulfur subbituminous and (2) high sulfur bituminous coal; and ash from the AEP`s high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at Western Research Institute (WRI).

Bland, A. E.; Brown, T. H., Western Research Institute

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Upgrading low rank coal using the Koppelman Series C process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of the K-Fuel technology began after the energy shortage of the early 1970s in the United States led energy producers to develop the huge deposits of low-sulfur coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. PRB coal is a subbituminous C coal containing about 30 wt % moisture and having heating values of about 18.6 megajoules/kg (8150 Btu/lb). PRB coal contains from 0.3 to 0.5 wt % sulfur, which is nearly all combined with the organic matrix in the coal. It is in much demand for boiler fuel because of the low-sulfur content and the low price. However, the low-heating value limits the markets for PRB coal to boilers specially designed for the high- moisture coal. Thus, the advantages of the low-sulfur content are not available to many potential customers having boilers that were designed for bituminous coal. This year about 250 million tons of coal is shipped from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The high- moisture content and, consequently, the low-heating value of this coal causes the transportation and combustion of the coal to be inefficient. When the moisture is removed and the heating value increased the same bundle of energy can be shipped using one- third less train loads. Also, the dried product can be burned much more efficiently in boiler systems. This increase in efficiency reduces the carbon dioxide emissions caused by use of the low-heating value coal. Also, the processing used to remove water and restructure the coal removes sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and chlorides from the coal. This precombustion cleaning is much less costly than stack scrubbing. PRB coal, and other low-rank coals, tend to be highly reactive when freshly mined. These reactive coals must be mixed regularly (every week or two) when fresh, but become somewhat more stable after they have aged for several weeks. PRB coal is relatively dusty and subject to self-ignition compared to bituminous coals. When dried using conventional technology, PRB coal is even more dusty and more susceptible to spontaneous combustion than the raw coal. Also, PRB coal, if dried at low temperature, typically readsorbs about two- thirds of the moisture removed by drying. This readsorption of moisture releases the heat of adsorption of the water which is a major cause of self- heating of low-rank coals at low temperature.

Merriam, N.W., Western Research Institute

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

factor of bituminous coal, coking coal, and coke consumed inprice of Bituminous coal, coking coal, and coke consumed in

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved management and reporting. The other four tasks involved field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. These four tasks included: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal was completed in 2006; only the TMT-15 additive was tested in these efforts. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1 were completed in 2007, and both the TMT-15 and Nalco 8034 additives were tested.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Pelletization of fine coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

Sastry, K.V.S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Process performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB pilot plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ahlstrom Pyropower has designed and built a 10 MW{sub th} (34 MMBtu) pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) pilot plant in Karhula, Finland. The unit is now operating. Data from this unit supports the design of a nominal 80 MW, Des Moines Energy Center 1 (DMEC-1) PCFB Repowering Project. The pilot plant PCFB combustor is of square cross-section. It is housed in a 3.6 m (11.8 ft) diameter pressure vessel. A high pressure high temperature gas cleaning unit downstream of the PCFB exhaust is installed in a separate 2.6 m (8.5 ft) diameter pressure vessel. The maximum plant operating pressure is 16 bar (232 psia). The fuel is fed in slurry form; sorbent is also fed along with the fuel. The net heat input per unit cross section of the combustor is the highest of any known combustion mode. The heat release can go up to 40 MW/m{sup 2} (12.6 MMBtu/ft{sup 2} hr). Many types of coals including high sulfur, bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and Western sub bituminous, low sulfur Powder River Basin coal were tested. Combustion efficiencies in the range of 99.5 to 99.9% have been consistently observed. Emissions of various gases such as NO{sub x} SO{sub 2} and CO at different operating pressures and loads were monitored. The gas emissions have been lower than expected based on atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler experience. The sulfur retention is over 95 % with a Ca/S molar ratio of 1 to 2 for high sulfur Illinois No.6 coal. A GAVS molar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 was observed to retain 95 % of sulfur with low sulfur Powder River Basin coal. All gaseous emissions during testing with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are well within the projected limits for the DMEC1 project. Emission data from tests with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are presented in the paper.

Sellakumar, K.M. [R& D Center, Ahlstrom Pyropower, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Isaksson, J.; Tiensuu, J. [Ahlstroem Pyropower, Inc., Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstroem Lab.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Process performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB pilot plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ahlstrom Pyropower has designed and built a 10 MW[sub th] (34 MMBtu) pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) pilot plant in Karhula, Finland. The unit is now operating. Data from this unit supports the design of a nominal 80 MW, Des Moines Energy Center 1 (DMEC-1) PCFB Repowering Project. The pilot plant PCFB combustor is of square cross-section. It is housed in a 3.6 m (11.8 ft) diameter pressure vessel. A high pressure high temperature gas cleaning unit downstream of the PCFB exhaust is installed in a separate 2.6 m (8.5 ft) diameter pressure vessel. The maximum plant operating pressure is 16 bar (232 psia). The fuel is fed in slurry form; sorbent is also fed along with the fuel. The net heat input per unit cross section of the combustor is the highest of any known combustion mode. The heat release can go up to 40 MW/m[sup 2] (12.6 MMBtu/ft[sup 2] hr). Many types of coals including high sulfur, bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and Western sub bituminous, low sulfur Powder River Basin coal were tested. Combustion efficiencies in the range of 99.5 to 99.9% have been consistently observed. Emissions of various gases such as NO[sub x] SO[sub 2] and CO at different operating pressures and loads were monitored. The gas emissions have been lower than expected based on atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler experience. The sulfur retention is over 95 % with a Ca/S molar ratio of 1 to 2 for high sulfur Illinois No.6 coal. A GAVS molar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 was observed to retain 95 % of sulfur with low sulfur Powder River Basin coal. All gaseous emissions during testing with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are well within the projected limits for the DMEC1 project. Emission data from tests with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are presented in the paper.

Sellakumar, K.M. (R D Center, Ahlstrom Pyropower, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)); Isaksson, J.; Tiensuu, J. (Ahlstroem Pyropower, Inc., Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstroem Lab.)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Geochemistry of coal from Cretaceous Corwin and Chandler formations, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ninety coal samples from these formations within NPRA were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate coal quality and elemental distribution. Their apparent rank ranges from lignite A in the northern part of NPRA to high-volatile AS bituminous coal in the southern part. Mean vitrinite reflectance values range from 0.65 to 0.74%. Some Corwin Formation coal samples west of NPRA have coking potential with free-swelling indexes between 3.0 and 5.0. Compared to other western United States Cretaceous coal, NPRA coal is significantly lower in ash, volatile matter, O, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, F, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, and Zn. Statistical comparisons of element concentrations indicate that the mean content of Si, Al, K, Li, Sc, Y, and Yb increases as the mean ash content increases (correlation coefficient at least 0.7). Sulfur values are extremely low (0.1%), and elements that normally show positive correlation with sulfur, such as Fe, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn, are also low. Therefore, coal from NPRA can be characterized by low ash and sulfur contents and low contents of elements of environmental concern, such as As, Be, Hg, Mo, Sb, and Se. The elements found to have positive correlations with ash content are probably present as aluminosilicate or stable oxide minerals. Variations in element content and quality of NPRA coal were probably influenced by the geochemical conditions that existed in the Corwin and Umiat delta systems.

Affolter, R.H.; Stricker, G.D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Research and development of CWM technology toward clean coal use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this chapter, three subjects were presented from among our technical efforts to develop clean coal applications to improve environmental quality. The three subjects are briefly summarized as follows: development of technology aimed at producing and utilizing exclusively low ash CWM; development of technology to produce CWM from various pond coals; development of technology to upgrade LRC and utilize CWM for both a boiler fuel and a gasification feedstock. We are fully convinced that the first and second of the above technologies have reached the level of practical use through demonstration tests. As to the third, we have almost finished a 10 kg/h coal slurry bench-scale test and have a plan to construct an upgrading pilot plant of 350 kg/h which will be completed in the fall 1994. We will hopefully establish upgrading technology through pilot-scale demonstration testing in 1995. With this technology, not just utilization of LRCs will be expanded, but also highly efficient use of coal will be accelerated. Thus, C0{sub 2} emission will also be strongly reduced. In ending, we would like to stress our efforts on research and development of environmentally friendly technologies as well as COM and CWM technologies based on bituminous and steaming coals.

Shibata, Kazuhiro

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Sulfur and ash in Paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short toms of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plans region. This is more than 30% of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more F or Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5% sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6% ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short toms of >26% of the total US coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Powder River Basin coalbed methane: The USGS role in investigating this ultimate clean coal by-product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past few decades, the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin has supplied the Nation with comparatively clean low ash and low sulfur coal. However, within the past few years, coalbed methane from the same Fort Union coal has become an important energy by-product. The recently completed US Geological Survey coal resource assessment of the Fort Union coal beds and zones in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999) has added useful information to coalbed methane exploration and development in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Coalbed methane exploration and development in the Powder River Basin has rapidly accelerated in the past three years. During this time more than 800 wells have been drilled and recent operator forecasts projected more than 5,000 additional wells to be drilled over the next few years. Development of shallow (less than 1,000 ft. deep) Fort Union coal-bed methane is confined to Campbell and Sheridan Counties, Wyoming, and Big Horn County, Montana. The purpose of this paper is to report on the US Geological Survey's role on a cooperative coalbed methane project with the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Wyoming Reservoir Management Group and several gas operators. This paper will also discuss the methodology that the USGS and the BLM will be utilizing for analysis and evaluation of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. The USGS and BLM need additional information of coalbed methane reservoirs to accomplish their respective resource evaluation and management missions.

Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stanton, R.W.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Sulfur and ash in paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short tons of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This is more than 30 percent of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more Fort Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5 percent sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6 percent ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short tons or >26 percent of the total U.S. coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill our future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with less carbon and energy density than coal, is highlyfossil energy plants, volume 1: Bituminous coal and naturalfossil energy power plants, Volume 1: Bituminous coal and

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. and China is for other bituminous coal and clean coal.U.S. and China is for other bituminous coal and clean coal.

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Study of mercury oxidation by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst in a pilot-scale slipstream reactor at a utility boiler burning bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the cost-effective mercury control technologies in coal-fired power plants is the enhanced oxidation of elemental mercury in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) followed by the capture of the oxidized mercury in the wet scrubber. This paper is the first in a series of two in which the validation of the SCR slipstream test and Hg speciation variation in runs with or without SCR catalysts inside the SCR slipstream reactor under special gas additions (HCl, Cl{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 3}) are presented. Tests indicate that the use of a catalyst in a SCR slipstream reactor can achieve greater than 90% NO reduction efficiency with a NH{sub 3}/NO ratio of about 1. There is no evidence to show that the reactor material affects mercury speciation. Both SCR catalysts used in this study exhibited a catalytic effect on the elemental mercury oxidation but had no apparent adsorption effect. SCR catalyst 2 seemed more sensitive to the operational temperature. The spike gas tests indicated that HCl can promote Hg{sup 0} oxidation but not Cl{sub 2}. The effect of Cl{sub 2} on mercury oxidation may be inhibited by higher concentrations of SO{sub 2}, NO, or H{sub 2}O in real flue-gas atmospheres within the typical SCR temperature range (300-350{sup o}C). SO{sub 2} seemed to inhibit mercury oxidation; however, SO{sub 3} may have some effect on the promotion of mercury oxidation in runs with or without SCR catalysts. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Yan Cao; Bobby Chen; Jiang Wu; Hong Cui; John Smith; Chi-Kuan Chen; Paul Chu; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged… (more)

Nyathi, Mhlwazi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

In order to account for ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) regulations related to Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90), ultra- low-sulfur diesel is differentiated from other...

118

Optimal Deployment Plan of Emission Reduction Technologies for TxDOT's Construction Equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas ....................................................................... 24 Biodiesel ............................................................................ 24 Hydrogen... Repower and Rebuild Exhaust Gas Recirculation Crankcase Emission Control Fuel Technologies Low-Sulfur and Ultra Low-Sulfur Diesel Natural Gas Biodiesel Hydrogen Fuel Additive Hydrogen Enrichment 17 Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Technologies...

Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

119

MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in making PFBC ash a suitable soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and mine spoils. In conclusion, PFBC ash represents a viable material for use in currently established applications for conventional coal combustion ashes. As such, PFBC ash should be viewed as a valuable resource, and commercial opportunities for these materials should be explored for planned PFBC installations.

A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 12), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Galatia coal and injected through the single-register burner. Liquid ammonia was intermittently added to the primary air stream to increase fuel-bound nitrogen and simulate cofiring with chicken litter. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur ({approx} 1.2% S), high chlorine ({approx}0.5%) Illinois Basin coal. In the second test (Test 13), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx} 0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The Configurable Fireside Simulator has been delivered from REI, Inc. and is being tested with exiting CFD solutions. Preparations are under way for a final pilot-scale combustion experiment using the single-register burner fired with comilled mixtures of Jim Walters No.7 low-volatility bituminous coal and switchgrass. Because of the delayed delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator, it is planned to ask for a no-cost time extension for the project until the end of this calendar year. Finally, a paper describing this project that included preliminary results from the first four cofiring tests was presented at the 12th European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in June, 2002.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

SILICON--1997 68.1 By Thomas S. Jones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or quartzite) and costs of energy, reductant coke or low ash coal, iron in the form of steel scrap (if required

122

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Prime coats materials and methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A prime coat is the application of a suitable bituminous binder applied to a nonbituminous granular base as a preliminary treatment before the application of a bituminous surfacing. The purpose of this research is to establish practical applications...

Mantilla, Christian Augusto

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueled with Diesel or Compressed Natural Gas. EnvironmentalFueled with Diesel or Compressed Natural Gas. EnvironmentalToxic pollutants from Compressed Natural Gas and Low Sulfur

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY HONEYWELL, INC., FOR AN...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

addressed in the contract are said to be outside the scope of the waiver, namely, refinery based extension into ultra low sulfur; sulfur resistant NOx absorber technology; and,...

127

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 Emissions from Production and Refining Crude Oil into Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel and Naphtha Crude Oil Production/ Transportation Refining Refining – Non- Combustion

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Report: An Updated Annual Enrgy Outlook 2009 Reference Case...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Prices (nominal dollars per unit)" " dollars per barrel" " Low Sulfur Light Price 13",66.04425049,72.33104706,101.2538528,41.82230377,54.13137817,68.26350403,7...

129

Report: An Updated Annual Enrgy Outlook 2009 Reference Case...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Prices (nominal dollars per unit)" " dollars per barrel" " Low Sulfur Light Price 13",66.04425049,72.33104706,101.2538528,41.80298615,54.00071335,68.15581512,7...

130

Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance: Milestone Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research results on the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a diesel particle filter (DPF).

Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R.; Ireland, J.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Development of a pilot-scale kinetic extruder feeder system and test program. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the work done under Phase I, the moisture tolerance testing of the Kinetic Extruder. The following coals were used in the test program: Western Bituminous (Utah), Eastern Bituminous (Pennsylvania), North Dakota Lignite, Sub-Bituminous (Montana), and Eastern Bituminous coal mixed with 20-percent Limestone. The coals were initially tested at the as-received moisture level and subsequently tested after surface moisture was added by water spray. Test results and recommendations for future research and development work are presented.

None

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Supporting Information for Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2104002XXX Bituminous/ Subbituminous Coal Distillate oil 2104004XXX Distillate Oil SO2, PM Natural gas Bituminous/ Subbituminous Coal 101003XX Lignite 2101002XXX Electric Utility Bituminous/ Subbituminous Coal Residual oil 101004XX External Combustion Boilers Residual Oil NOx, SO2, PM 2101005XXX Electric Utility

Meskhidze, Nicholas

134

Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18%. The performance goal of 70/40 reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18%.

None

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

136

Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Arc Steelmaking - Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current trend in the steel industry is a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces, and an increasing number of alternative processes using metallic scrap iron, pig iron and metallized iron ore products. Currently, iron ores from Minnesota and Michigan are pelletized and shipped to the lower Great Lakes ports as blast furnace feed. The existing transportation system and infrastructure is geared to handling these bulk materials. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the needs of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling. A recent commercial installation employing Kobe Steel’s ITmk3 process, was installed in Northeastern Minnesota. The basic process uses a moving hearth furnace to directly reduce iron oxides to metallic iron from a mixture of iron ore, coals and additives. The resulting products can be shipped using the existing infrastructure for use in various steelmaking processes. The technology reportedly saves energy by 30% over the current integrated steelmaking process and reduces emissions by more than 40%. A similar large-scale pilot plant campaign is also currently in progress using JFE Steel’s Hi-QIP process in Japan. The objective of this proposal is to build upon and improve the technology demonstrated by Kobe Steel and JFE, by further reducing cost, improving quality and creating added incentive for commercial development. This project expands previous research conducted at the University of Minnesota Duluth’s Natural Resources Research Institute and that reported by Kobe and JFE Steel. Three major issues have been identified and are addressed in this project for producing high-quality nodular reduced iron (NRI) at low cost: (1) reduce the processing temperature, (2) control the furnace gas atmosphere over the NRI, and (3) effectively use sub-bituminous coal as a reductant. From over 4000 laboratory tube and box furnace tests, it was established that the correct combination of additives, fluxes, and reductant while controlling the concentration of CO and CO2 in the furnace atmosphere (a) lowers the operating temperature, (b) decreases the use of reductant coal (c) generates less micro nodules of iron, and (d) promotes desulphurization. The laboratory scale work was subsequently verified on 12.2 m (40 ft) long pilot scale furnace. High quality NRI could be produced on a routine basis using the pilot furnace facility with energy provided from oxy-gas or oxy-coal burner technologies. Specific strategies were developed to allow the use of sub-bituminous coals both as a hearth material and as part of the reaction mixture. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to study the overall carbothermic reduction and smelting process. The movement of the furnace gas on a pilot hearth furnace and larger simulated furnaces and various means of controlling the gas atmosphere were evaluated. Various atmosphere control methods were identified and tested during the course of the investigation. Based on the results, the appropriate modifications to the furnace were made and tested at the pilot scale. A series of reduction and smelting tests were conducted to verify the utility of the processing conditions. During this phase, the overall energy use characteristics, raw materials, alternative fuels, and the overall economics predicted for full scale implementation were analyzed. The results indicate that it should be possible to lower reaction temperatures while simultaneously producing low sulfur, high carbon NRI if the right mix chemistry and atmosphere are employed. Recommendations for moving the technology to the next stage of commercialization are presented.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Iwao Iwasaki; Richard F. Kiesel; David J. Englund; David W. Hendrickson; Rodney L. Bleifuss

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

137

Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Swedish National Energy Administration ton coal equivalenttCO 2 ) Energy Electricity * bituminous coal Costs areare needed, such as energy price reform (coal, electricity,

Levine, Mark D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In addition, the coking coal market began to deteriorateits permeability. Bituminous, or coking coal, is blended andmerchant coke plants, coking coal is heated in a low-oxygen,

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas petroleum waxes coking coal t C/TJ other bituminous coalprocesses of coal washing, coking, petroleum refineries, gaslosses include coal washing, coking, petroleum refining, gas

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthracite coal gasification Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

quickly became popular as a household... like Pittsburgh later became principal markets for bituminous coal, which was cheaper than anthracite... : anthracite,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

historical trends in coal seam thickness and depth andanthracite and bituminous coal seams exceeding 28 inches indepths in ever thinner coal seams. The goal of Part I of

Croft, Gregory Donald

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

ZINC CHLORIDE-CATALYZED REACTIONS OF OXYGEN- AND SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WITH MODEL STRUCTURES IN COAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. H. , ed. , "Chemistry of Coal Utilization", Suppl. Vol. ,H. H. , ed. , "Chemistry of Coal Utilization", Suppl. Vol. ,Internat. Conf. Bituminous Coal, 3d ConŁ. , 2, 35 (1932);

Mobley, David Paul

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Background I. II. III. IV. II. Coal Liquefaction . •Coal Structure • • . Lewis Acid Catalysts. Scope andOrganic Structure of Bituminous Coal", Proceedings, Stanford

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Evaluation of Basic Parameters for Packaging, Storage and Transportation of Biomass Material from Field to Biorefinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for biofuels primarily because it is a renewable _________________ This thesis follows the style of Biomass and Bioenergy. 2 and sustainable resource. Secondly, it has a low sulfur content and a positive impact on the environment[1]. Biomass energy...

Paliwal, Richa

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

145

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

On-Road and In-Laboratory Testing to Demonstrate Effects of ULSD, B20 and B99 on a Retrofit Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions changes for a 2005 International tractor operating on low-sulfur diesel and biodiesel in Santa Monica were measured to demonstrate performance and impacts of selective catalytic reduction.

Walkowicz, K.; Na, K.; Robertson, W.; Sahay, K.; Bogdanoff, M.; Weaver, C.; Carlson, R.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Study of physical and chemical properties of vitrinites. Inferences on depositional and coalification controls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, textural and coking properties was carried out on vitrains from the Puertollano, Blanzy­Montçeau, Asturias (subbituminous/high volatile C bituminous coals). The characteristics of the Puertollano vitrains described here can also be attributed to the telocollinite (>80% vol.) for the high volatile C bituminous coal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Determination of Mercury in Coal by Isotope Dilution Cold-Vapor Generation Inductively  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Articles Determination of Mercury in Coal by Isotope Dilution Cold-Vapor Generation Inductively. Approximately 93% of U.S. coal consumption is used to generate electricity, and the U.S. EPA has estimated2 developed for high-accuracy determinations of mer- cury in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. A closed

149

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preparations for conducting large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal continued during the start of this quarter. Major project accomplishments related to bituminous coal testing included: a CFD preheat model and evaluation, an update of the process flow diagram and a detailed preheat burner mechanical design (suitable for construction) for firing bituminous coal. Installation and testing of the 85 MMBtu/h bituminous coal preheating system was planned to take place before the end of December. Based on the inability to conduct testing in Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) during freezing weather, a schedule review indicated required site work for testing bituminous coal at the CBTF could not be completed before freezing weather set in at the site. Further bituminous preheat modification work was put on hold and efforts turned to securing the test facility over the winter season. Bituminous coal tests are therefore delayed; April-May 2005 is earliest estimate of when testing can resume. A request for a time extension was submitted to DOE to extend the project through September 2005 to allow time to secure additional funding and complete the bituminous coal testing. Removal of the PRB PC Preheater from the CBTF burner deck was completed. Decommissioning of the CBTF for the winter was also completed.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock and a valuable economic resource. During the Pennsylvanian Period  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock and a valuable economic resource. During the Pennsylvanian of years produced the bituminous coals currently found in southwestern Indiana. Bituminous coals in Indiana currently ranks as the seventh-largest coal-producing state in the nation and has an estimated 17.57 billion

Polly, David

151

Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42726 was established in January 2006, and is current through Amendment 2, April 2006. The current reporting period, April 1, 2008 through June 30, 2008, is the eighth progress-reporting period for the project. However, this report will be the final report (instead of a quarterly report) because this project is being terminated. Efforts to bring this project to a close over the past several months focused on internal project discussions, and subsequent communications with NETL, regarding the inherent difficulty with completing this project as originally scoped, and the option of performing an engineering study to accomplish some of the chief project objectives. However, NETL decided that the engineering study did indeed constitute a significant scope deviation from the original concepts, and that pursuit of this option was not recommended. These discussions are summarized in the Results and Discussion, and the Conclusion sections. The objective of this project by a team lead by URS Group was to demonstrate the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption in wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intended to demonstrate that regenerative heat exchange to cool flue gas upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and reheat flue gas downstream of the FGD system would result in the following benefits to air pollution control (APC) systems on coal-fired power plants: (1) Improve ESP performance due to reduced gas volume and improved ash resistivity characteristics, (2) Control SO3 emissions through condensation on the fly ash, and (3) Avoid the need to install wet stacks or to provide flue gas reheat. Finally, operation at cooler flue gas temperatures offered the potential benefit of increasing mercury (Hg) removal across the ESP and FGD systems. This project planned to conduct pilot-scale tests of regenerative heat exchange to determine the reduction in FGD water consumption that can be achieved and assess the resulting impact on APC systems. An analysis of the improvement in the performance of the APC systems and the resulting reduction in capital and operating costs were going to be conducted. The tests were intended to determine the impact of operation of cooling flue gas temperatures on FGD water consumption, ESP particulate removal, SO{sub 3} removal, and Hg removal, and to assess the potential negative impact of excessive corrosion rates in the regenerative heat exchanger. Testing was going to be conducted on Columbian coal (with properties similar to low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal) and SO{sub 3} will be spiked onto the flue gas to simulate operation with higher SO{sub 3} concentrations resulting from firing a higher sulfur coal, or operating with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit. The project was also going to include associate planning, laboratory analytical support, reporting, and management activities. The URS project team finalized a conceptual alternative approach to demonstrate, via an engineering study, the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption. This idea was presented in summary format to NETL for consideration. NETL determined that this alternative approach deviated from the original project objectives, and that it would be in the best interest of all parties involved to cancel the project.

David Rencher

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, especially NOX. The project involved operating gas reburning technology combined with low NO, burner technology (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired utility boiler. Low NOX burners are designed to create less NOX than conventional burners. However, the NO, control achieved is in the range of 30-60-40, and typically 50%. At the higher NO, reduction levels, CO emissions tend to be higher than acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce the level of NO. in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. When combined, GR and LNBs work in harmony to both minimize NOX emissions and maintain an acceptable level of CO emissions. The demonstration was performed at Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit 3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW. wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal and had a pre GR-LNB baseline NOX emission of 0.73 lb/1 Oe Btu. The target for the project was a reduction of 70 percent in NOX emissions. Project sponsors included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). EER conducted a comprehensive test demonstration program over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved. Intensive measurements were taken to quantify the reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability, and all factors influencing costs. The results showed that GR-LNB technology achieved excellent emission reductions. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was somewhat less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 180A. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at higher gas heat inputs. The impact on boiler equipment was determined to be very minimal. Toward the end of the testing, the flue gas recirculation (used to enhance gas penetration into the furnace) system was removed and new high pressure gas injectors were installed. Further, the low NOX burners were modified and gave better NO. reduction performance. These modifications resulted in a similar NO, reduction performance (64%) at a reduced level of gas heat input (-13Yo). In addition, the OFA injectors were re-designed to provide for better control of CO emissions. Although not a part of this project, the use of natural gas as the primary fuel with gas reburning was also tested. The gas/gas reburning tests demonstrated a reduction in NOX emissions of 43% (0.30 lb/1 OG Btu reduced to 0.17 lb/1 OG Btu) using 7% gas heat input. Economics are a key issue affecting technology development. Application of GR-LNB requires modifications to existing power plant equipment and as a result, the capital and operating costs depend largely on site-specific factors such as: gas availability at the site, gas to coal delivered price differential, sulfur dioxide removal requirements, windbox pressure, existing burner throat diameters, and reburn zone residence time available. Based on the results of this CCT project, EER expects that most GR-LNB installations will achieve at least 60% NOX control when firing 10-15% gas. The capital cost estimate for installing a GR-LNB system on a 300 MW, unit is approximately $25/kW. plus the cost of a gas pipeline (if required). Operating costs are almost entirely related to the differential cost of the natural gas compared to coal.

None

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. Toward the end of the program, a Second Generation gas injection system was installed. Higher injector gas pressures were used that eliminated the need for flue gas recirculation as used in the first generation design. The Second Generation GR resulted in similar NOX reduction performance as that for the First Generation. With an improvement in the LNB performance in combination with the new gas injection system , the reburn gas could be reduced to 12.5% of the total boiler heat input to achieve al 64?40 reduction in NO, emissions. In addition, the OFA injectors were modified to provide for better mixing to lower CO emissions.

None

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance Akio Enders a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: Biomass Black carbon Charcoal Proximate analysis Pyrolysis a b s t r a c t Biochars (n = 94) were, 1982) depend on the conditions during pyrolysis as well as the composition of the feedstock biomass from 0% to 77.4% (w/w). Greater pyrolysis temperature for low-ash biochars increased fixed carbon

Lehmann, Johannes

158

Gasification of low-grade fuels in a spouted bed for power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data on the autothermal gasification of wastes from the flotation of Kuzbass coal of grade Zh and low-ash coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin in a spouted bed of an inert material at atmospheric pressure are presented. Capabilities for the development and use of this process for power generation based on closed-cycle gas turbine plants are analyzed.

A.A. Belyaev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

other bituminous coal and coking coal. Small differences incoal (used as fuel) Coking coal Coke oven coke Natural gasrange for typical NCVs of coking coal of 26.6 to 29.8Mj/kg.

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

COAL LIQUEFACTION STUDIES USING PHOSPHORIC ACID AT MODERATE TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analys of Wyodak Roland Seam Coal Froximate Analysis C,T. &THF-extractabilities of a seam coal increased from 12% MAFused Wyodak Roland seam sub-bituminous coal. Consistent with

McLean, J.B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process: Laboratory scale studies modelling and technical assessment. Final report, [October 1, 1988--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous and bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. AC22-88PCB8818 during the period October 1, 1988 to June 30, 1993. The work described in this report is primarily concerned with tests on a Laboratory Scale primarily using microautoclaves. Experiments were conducted evaluating coal, solvents, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatments, C0{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects. Other microautoclave tests are included in the companion topical reports for this contract, DE-88818-TOP-01 & 02 on Sub-Bituminous and Bituminous Bench-Scale and PDU activities. In addition to the Laboratory Scale Studies, kinetic data and modelling results from Bench-Scale and Microautoclave tests are interpreted and presented along with some economic updates and sensitivity studies.

Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.O.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5. Power generation via IGCC from bituminous coal. It shouldElectricity Generation (KWh/gallon FT Liquid) Coal-to-PowerElectricity Generation (KWh/gallon FT Liquid) Coal-to-Power

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

FRAGMENTATION OF COAL AND IMPROVED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFACTION CATALYSTS USING IONIC LIQUIDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal has been utilized for coal-to-liquid fuels and coal-to-chemical industries both historically in South Africa and recently in China. Abundant bituminous and low-rank coal reserves… (more)

Cetiner, Ruveyda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

asian villages asia: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

GCLS AND BITUMINOUS GEOMEMBRANES H. Bannour1 regarding the behavior of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as part of a composite liner, focused Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 68...

165

asian regional conference: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

GCLS AND BITUMINOUS GEOMEMBRANES H. Bannour1 regarding the behavior of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as part of a composite liner, focused Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 15...

166

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

other bituminous coal and clean coal. The NCV used in theadded to the rest of the clean coal used in the industry andand added to the reported clean coal used as a fuel in the

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

SAS Output  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Bituminous Coal BIT Source: 1 205.30000 Distillate Fuel Oil DFO Source: 1 161.38600 Geothermal GEO Estimate from EIA, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting 16.59983 Jet...

168

Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the following: Bibliography; Petroleum Market Model abstract; Data quality; Estimation methodologies (includes refinery investment recovery thresholds, gas plant models, chemical industry demand for methanol, estimation of refinery fixed costs, estimation of distribution costs, estimation of taxes gasoline specifications, estimation of gasoline market shares, estimation of low-sulfur diesel market shares, low-sulfur diesel specifications, estimation of regional conversion coefficients, estimation of SO{sub 2} allowance equations, unfinished oil imports methodology, product pipeline capacities and tariffs, cogeneration methodology, natural gas plant fuel consumption, and Alaskan crude oil exports); Matrix generator documentation; Historical data processing; and Biofuels supply submodule.

NONE

1997-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

169

Regional Transit Plan for the Central Texas State Planning Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The areas HCTD serves are not non-attainment areas, and HCTD wants to be a part of the solution to keep the area as pollution free as possible. HCTD's efforts include: 1. Use of propane or Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel powered buses in its STS service 2. Use... of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel fuel powered buses in its FRS service 3. Use of ULSD in all the service fleet that uses diesel fuel 4. Coordination of trips to use the Connector service route to minimize the number of vehicles needed for service to medical...

Central Texas Regional Transportation Advisory Group

170

Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE RESULTED FROM THE TREATMENT OF LIQUID WASTE FROM THE ROMANIAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the conditioning of spent resins contaminated with radionuclides, such as: 137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co, 58Co, 57Co, 54Mn, etc., techniques of direct immobilization in cement, bitumen and organic polymers have been tested. The selected process was the bituminization using industrial bitumen, I 60-70, made in Romania, which had very good characteristics. The paper presents stages of the research project, technical conditions for the process and advantages of the bituminization of spent resins.

ARSENE, CARMEN; ANDREI, VERONICA; NEGOIU, DUMITRU

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

172

The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the needed quality control of concrete . Another source of concern results from the recent development of lignite and sub-bituminous coal as fuel sources. The ash produced from these coals is of a different chemical composition than traditional bituminous... 50 percent to greater than 200 percent of a control test. An exhaustive literature review has revealed neglig1ble information concerning the PAI of sub- b1tuminous and lignite ashes. Research is greatly needed to determine the ash properties...

McKerall, William Carlton

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as ?3? cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

Romanov, V [NETL

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

174

THE FINAL SERIES OF OILS TESTED AS A POTENTIAL SOLUTION TO THE GALVESTON FERRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

two other diesel engines that are used for auxiliary power generation, and none of those dieselDOT) began using an ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel, Texas Low Emission Diesel (TxLED), in all of its diesel manufacturer, ElectroMotive Diesels (EMD), with one exception. This unapproved oil contained zinc

Texas at Austin, University of

175

DERAILMENT IN WYOMING (2005) http://www.bigcountry.coop/coal.html  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Administration said. With tight supplies and high demand, spot market prices for Powder River Basin coal jumped 41 DERAILMENT IN WYOMING (2005) http://www.bigcountry.coop/coal.html [Johnson, 2005] Steven Johnson bottleneck in shipments from the nation's most important vein of low-sulfur coal has cut into coal supplies

Tesfatsion, Leigh

176

Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

... 71.1 77.5 78.8 79.6 75.7 66.7 a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories shown,...

177

World Oil Prices in AEO2007 (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Over the long term, the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 (AEO) projection for world oil prices -- defined as the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners -- is similar to the AEO2006 projection. In the near term, however, AEO2007 projects prices that are $8 to $10 higher than those in AEO2006.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Accelerating From vehicles on the road to the energy that powers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accelerating Solutions From vehicles on the road to the energy that powers them, Oak Ridge National the deployment of a new generation of energy efficient vehicles powered by domestic, renewable, clean energy. EPA-2 emis- sions levels with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Power electronics and electric propulsion

Pennycook, Steve

179

Growing Together Columbia University's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In addition, all construction equipment use air pollution control devices and Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD will revitalize the four former industrial blocks from 125th/129th to 133rd Street between Broadway and 12th. What to Expect Although contractors carefully stage construction activities to minimize disruption

Yang, Junfeng

180

Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

58.8 64.9 67.0 67.7 63.6 54.6 Dash (-) No data reported. a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories shown,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

... 60.5 64.5 68.5 69.4 65.4 55.2 a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories shown,...

182

Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 51.6 56.2 59.3 60.4 56.2 45.4 a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories shown,...

183

Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Outlook 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prices (no minal do llars per un it) Petro leum (dollars per ba rrel) Imported Low Sulfur Light Crude Oil Price 13 . . 99.57 61.66 103.38 130.77 155.58 178.49 199.90 4.6% Imported...

184

Annual Energy Outlook 2011: With Projections to 2035  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Prices (nominal dollars per unit) Petroleum (dollars per barrel) Imported Low Sulfur Light Crude Oil Price 13 61.66 104.03 103.24 101.79 165.41 155.46 144.96 220.15 199.37...

185

EIS-0086: Conversion to Coal, New England Power Company, Salem Harbor Generating Station Units 1, 2, and 3, Salem, Essex County, Massachusetts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Units I, 2, and 3 of the Salem Harbor Generating Station from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

186

EIS-0092: Conversion to Coal, Holyoke Water Power Company, Mt. Tom Generating Station Unit 1 Holyoke, Hampden County, Massachusetts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Unit 1 of the Mt. Tom Generation Station Unit 1 from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

187

FEATURE FOCUS: Fuels & Combustion a new dawn for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

way to boost fuel economy in light- duty vehicles and stem the rise in fuel consumption in the United economy, proponents say. Ultra-low sulfur fuel, set to become available in the United States in 2006 in the last decade or so. Engine manufacturers have succeeded in producing refined engines, to the extent

188

Process for increasing the bitumen content of oil sands froth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for the removal of solids and water from a feed bituminous froth containing bitumen, solids and water in a gravity settling vessel have an existing bituminous froth layer floating on a quiescent body of water defining a bitumen-water interface therebetween comprising the steps of heating the feed bituminous froth to a temperature in the range of 85 to 100 C, feeding the heated froth into the body of water at a level below the bitumen-water interface whereby water and solids contained in the feed froth separate from the froth and the bitumen rises to accumulate in the existing bituminous froth layer, discharging solids-containing under flow from the vessel, monitoring the level of the bitumen-water interface and controlling the discharge of solids-containing under flow responsive to the monitoring of the bitumen-water interface at a rate such that the said interface is maintained at an effective level above the level at which the feed bituminous froth is fed into the body of water, and recovering a bitumen-enriched layer as an overflow.

Tipman, R.N.; Rajan, V.S.V.; Wallace, D.

1993-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

189

Methane de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal was on hold this quarter mainly due to Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) not having adequate weatherproofing to support operation under freezing conditions. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned for the winter season. CBTF bituminous coal tests shall continue to remain on hold now as a result of project funding limitations, however. No further modifications at the CBTF are planned until needed support is obtained. Activities this quarter have concentrated on finding additional support for the project. Currently, GTI has been granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005 and efforts to secure more support will continue in hopes that large-scale preheat caking bituminous combustion tests will be carried out as planned.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept. Progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activities this quarter were conducted under Tasks 2, 3, and 5. Task 2 work concentrated on evaluating the effects of low-severity, first-stage reaction conditions on coal conversions of lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous coals. The impact of artificially weathering bituminous coal was investigated. Large quantities of first-stage product were made using the one-liter reactor for subsequent filtration and catalytic upgrading tests. Test conditions and coal conversions for all microautoclave and one-liter tests made this quarter are presented. Filtration tests examined lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous coal products. The effects on resid conversion of second-stage reaction conditions and catalyst recycle were studied. Task 3 work included the successful transfer of first-stage reactor products to a receiver and the design of an interstage filter. Task 5 work included an ongoing review of the technical and patent literature and expansion of the annotated bibliography. Mass and elemental balances were obtained for selected tests.

Burke, F.P.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

1996-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

191

New coal technology to flourish at Kentucky plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within four years a 76 MW (net) advanced supercritical coal unit, TC2, will go into service at the Trimble County power plant on the Ohio River near Louiseville, KY, USA. The unit is designed to burn a blend of eastern bituminous and western sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coals. TC2 is one of four US power plants to receive a $125 m tax credit under the 2005 EPACT Qualifying Advanced Coal Program for high efficiency and low emission generating units. Trimble County is owned and operated by E.ON US subsidiaries Kentucky Utilities and Louiseville Gas & Electric. It was originally designed to accommodate four 500 MW coal-fired units fired by bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin. 1 photo.

Blankinship, S.

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Resource characterization series (final)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coals from the Princess Reserve District in northeastern Kentucky were obtained from the R-series cores and from Kentucky Geological Survey collections. The coals span the stratigraphic section from the Bruin coal near the base of the Breathitt Formation to a coal near the top of the Conemaugh Formation. The Princess District coals are high volatile C and B bituminous. High volatile A bituminous coals occur in southern Lawrence County. Reflectance highs and reactive maceral lows were noted in the Princess 3 and Princess 7 coals in along a north-south trend which may be parallel to the Waverly Arch.

Hower, J.C.; Wild, G.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Petrography and chemistry of high-carbon fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Shawnee power station in western Kentucky consists of ten 150-MW units, eight of which burn low-sulfur (< 1 wt %) eastern Kentucky and central West Virginia coal. The other units burn medium- and high-sulfur (> 1 wt %) coal in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion unit and in a research unit. The eight low-sulfur coal units were sampled in a 1992 survey of Kentucky utilities. Little between-unit variation is seen in the ash-basis major oxide and minor element chemistry. The carbon content of the fly ashes varies from 5 to 25 wt %. Similarly, the isotropic and anisotropic coke in the fly ash varies from 6% to 42% (volume basis). Much of the anisotropic coke is a thin-walled macroporous variety, but there is a portion that is a thick-walled variety similar to a petroleum coke.

Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Petrography and chemistry of fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Shawnee Power Station in western Kentucky consists of ten 150 MW units, eight of which burn low-sulfur eastern Kentucky and central West Virginia coal. The other units bum medium and high-sulfur coal in an AFBC unit and in a research unit. The eight low-sulfur coal units were sampled in a 1992 survey of Kentucky utilities. Little between-unit variation is seen in the ash-basis major oxide and minor element chemistry. The carbon content of the fly ashes varies from 5 to 25%. Similarly, the isotropic and anisotropic coke in the fly ash varies from 6 to 42% (volume basis). Much of the anisotropic coke is a thin-walled macroporous variety but there is a portion which is a thick-walled variety similar to a petroleum coke.

Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Wild, G.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Hydrocarbon desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for converting a sour hydrocarbon feedstock having a relatively high sulfur content to a hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content comprising the steps of: (a) hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock having a relatively high sulfur contact with hydrogen to produce the hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content and hydrogen sulfide gas; (b) contacting the hydrogen sulfide gas with an anthraquinone dissolved in a polar organic solvent having a polarity greater than about 3 Debye units to produce sulfur and an anthrahydroquinone in the solvent; (c) regenerating the anthraquinone from the anthrahydroquinone upon contact with air to produce the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide; (d) recycling the anthraquinone to step (b); (e) reducing the hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; (f) partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon fuel with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (g) recycling the hydrogen to step (a).

Plummer, M.A.; Zimmerman, C.C. Jr.

1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

196

Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Factors Affecting the Relationship between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Over the 1995-2005 period, crude oil prices and U.S. natural gas prices tended to move together, which supported the conclusion that the markets for the two commodities were connected. Figure 26 illustrates the fairly stable ratio over that period between the price of low-sulfur light crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, and the price of natural gas at the Henry Hub on an energy-equivalent basis.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Role of coal in the world and Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning.

Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

204

PREVENTTVE FACILITIES AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS IN CASE OFFIRES IN CdF COAL MINES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The upper group consists of a bituminous soft coal, the lower coke coal. The field is sharply folded alongPREVENTTVE FACILITIES AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS IN CASE OFFIRES IN CdF COAL MINES J.P. AMARTIN HJSJL a stricl methodology. It has been possjble then to resume coal winning, which has cor.tmued until

Boyer, Edmond

205

Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

REMEDIAT1NG AT MANUFACTURED GAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, comhusti- hle gas manufactured Pfrom coke, coal, and oil 1 served as the major gas- eous fuel for urban for the three primary gas production meth- ods: coal carbonization, carbureted water gas production, and oil gas, and metals. Tar resid- uals were produced from the vola- tiIe component of bituminous coals in coal

Peters, Catherine A.

207

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale PRB testing during the current quarter was cut short due to the inability of the coal mill to meet the 85 MMBtu/h design firing rate. The project was therefore redirected toward design, installation and testing of the 85-million Btu/h preheater for bituminous coal. Based on extensive pilot-scale testing completed earlier in the project, 2-D modeling and preliminary design activities were started based on the use of staged, annular protective air films to control temperature and prevent deposition on the preheater walls. A total of 14 2-D modeling cases were completed for the modified preheater for bituminous coal. The preheater concept modeled was based on an expanding preheater chamber where the diameter of the chamber is increased in steps along its length and annular cooling/protective air is introduced at each step. A process flow diagram for the bituminous coal preheating system and a preliminary preheater design drawing were developed based on the modeling results. A project schedule to complete design, installation and testing of the 85 MMBtu/h bituminous coal preheating system before the end of December was also developed.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

Modelling of NO{sub x} reduction strategies applied to 350 MW(e) utility boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational fluid dynamics model has been combined with a NO{sub x} chemistry post-processor to predict the formation and destruction of nitric oxide in three-dimensional furnaces burning pulverized fuel. The model considers the complex interaction of turbulent flow, heat transfer, combustion, and NO{sub x} reaction chemistry. Lagrangian particle dynamics are used to track burning pulverized coal particles through the computational cells. Fuel nitrogen is released in proportion to the burnout of the particle. A range of combustion NO{sub x} reduction strategies has been applied to two 350 MW(e) utility boilers burning different coals. A medium volatile bituminous coal is fired using low NO{sub x} burners in one furnace and a sub-bituminous coal is burnt using conventional swirl burners in a different furnace. The strategies include: burner out of service, overfire air, reduction in excess air, change in particle size, and fuel reburn. In general NO{sub x} predictions are better for the sub-bituminous coal than for the medium volatile bituminous coal. Typical NO{sub x} prediction errors are {+-} 10 percent.

Visona, S.P.; Singh, B. [AUSTA Electric, Brisbane (Australia); Stanmore, B.R. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Brisbane (Australia)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Michael Murray, Ph.D. National Wildlife Federation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Michael Murray, Ph.D. National Wildlife Federation Great Lakes Natural Resource Center Ann Arbor context #12;2 Source: Cassedy and Grossman, Introduction to Energy, 1998 #12;3 Coal Ranks · Anthracite ­ highest rank, high energy content · Bituminous ­ second highest rank, high energy content; typically

O'Donnell, Tom

210

Recent technologies and processes for enhanced safety in bitumen or cement solidification of Li/ml radwaste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SGN has more than 20 years of experience in the treatment of low and medium level radioactive wastes. SGN industrialized two major types of radwaste processes: bituminization and cement solidification. The R&D work on these two processes is discussed.

Tchemitcheff, F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

Adhesion in bitumen-aggregate systems and quantification of the effect of water on the adhesive bond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research is intended to contribute toward the understanding, development, and implementation of a more fundamental design process for bituminous pavement materials, utilizing thermodynamic properties of the materials involved.... The theory developed by van Oss, Chaudhury and Good forms the basis of this research. Optimization of techniques to characterize surface energy, as well as consideration and evaluation of additional factors that influence adhesion...

Hefer, Arno Wilhelm

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

212

Fluid substitution in rocks saturated with viscoelastic fluids Dina Makarynska1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- terest in production from bituminous and heavy-oil reservoirs. Heavy-oil reserves account for more than 6 trillion barrels-in-place worldwide -- triple the world's reserves of conventional oil and gas Batzle et al , Jyoti Behura3 , and Mike Batzle4 ABSTRACT Heavy oils have high densities and extremely high viscosities

213

FLY ASH GENERATION AND UTILIZATION -AN OVERVIEW* Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The Class F fly ashes are normally generated due to combustion of anthracite or bituminous coal. The Class CFLY ASH GENERATION AND UTILIZATION - AN OVERVIEW* By Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E. Director, Center GENERATION AND UTILIZATION - AN OVERVIEW By Tarun R. Naik, and Shiw S. Singh ABSTRACT This chapter describes

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

214

Equations for predicting the layer stiffness moduli in pavement systems containing lime-flyash stabilized materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in site 2. Site 2 resurfaced with 2 in. NIAC jn Dctober 1980. originally constructed of one-course bituminous surface treatment. All ten sections of the test site were re-surfaced in October, 1980, with a 2-inch hot mix concrete overlay. Varying...

Alam, Shah Manzoor

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Construction Package No. 2. Final Earthwork and Roadwork (RADL Item 7-28)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final earthwork, aggregate surfacing, roadwork and paving for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. The work consisted of applying weed killer to surfaces to be paved, constructing bituminous pavements, restoring existing compacted aggregate base roadways, and stripping and removing existing grade from the core area for compacted aggregate surfacing.

Not Available

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Rencontres Gosynthtiques -9-11 avril 2013, Dijon DBITS DANS UNE TANCHIT COMPOSITE GOMEMBRANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

years regarding the behaviour of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as part of a composite liner composed, geosynthetic clay liner, bituminous geomembrane, flow rate 1. Introduction Les géomembranes bitumineuses (GM to an alternative design for a canal projected in France at the moment. Keywords: Geosynthetics, composite liners

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metalized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metalized iron nodules at low cost.

218

Erroneous coal maturity assessment caused by low temperature oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Erroneous coal maturity assessment caused by low temperature oxidation Y. Copard J. R. Disnar, J. F on different outcrop coals from the French Massif Central revealed abnormally high Tmax values, which initially observed for medium to low volatile bituminous coals (Rr1.5%), was accompanied by a very clear exponential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

1990-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Conditioning of carbonaceous material prior to physical beneficiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carbonaceous material such as coal is conditioned by contact with a supercritical fluid prior to physical beneficiation. The solid feed material is contacted with an organic supercritical fluid such as cyclohexane or methanol at temperatures slightly above the critical temperature and pressures of 1 to 4 times the critical pressure. A minor solute fraction is extracted into critical phase and separated from the solid residuum. The residuum is then processed by physical separation such as by froth flotation or specific gravity separation to recover a substantial fraction thereof with reduced ash content. The solute in supercritical phase can be released by pressure reduction and recombined with the low-ash, carbonaceous material.

Warzinski, Robert P. (Venetia, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Pelletizing lignite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

Goksel, Mehmet A. (Houghton, MI)

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Photochemical oxidation of coals and some selected model compounds by using copper(II) chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The H-donor ability of different rank coals was examined by using a copper(II)chloride-acetonitrile system as the dehydrogenator. A bituminous coal and two lignites were irradiated in the UV in the presence of copper(II)chloride in acetonitrile. The coal was dehydrogenated while the Cu(II) was reduced to CU(I). Considerable amounts of aliphatic or alicyclic hydrogen were removed from the coals. In the process, while the oxygen contents of coals do not increase, more condensed aromatic products occur. It was concluded that lignites are better reducing agents than bituminous coals. A photooxidation mechanism is proposed on the basis of the model compound reaction. Photooxidation of alcohols (ethanol, 2-propanol, benzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, and diphenyl carbinol), a hydroaromatic compound (tetrahydronaphthalene), and an aromatic ether (dibenzyl ether) was performed under similar reaction conditions.

Yilmaz, M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

EA-1616: National Carbon Research Center Project at Southern Company Services' Power Systems Development Facility near Wilsonville, Alabama  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates and updates the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed continued operations of the NCCC Project at the PSDF plant. The NCCC is designed to test and evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) control technologies for power generation facilities, including CO2 capture solvents and sorbents, mass-transfer devices, lower cost water-gas shift reactors, and scaled-up membrane technologies. Additionally, the NCCC evaluates methods to integrate CO2 capture technologies with other coal-based power plant systems by testing both pre-combustion and post-combustion technologies. The NCCC provides the capability to test these systems under a wide range of fuels, including bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, lignites and biomass/coal mixtures. The goal of the NCCC project is to accelerate the development, optimization, and commercialization of viable CO2 control technologies.

228

In-situ coal gasification: a new technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the technology for underground gasification of Western US subbituminous coals is advancing through efforts at the Hanna and Hoe Creek test sites, the development of an Eastern bituminous coal technology has only begun. The Pricetown 1 field test proved the feasibility of gasifying the thin-seam, swelling bituminous coal resources. Key issues remaining to be demonstrated include an effective linkage method, means of controlling gas production and composition, and scale-up. A major field-test program could entail three phases: (1) resolving the linkage and process control problems in the Appalachian basin, (2) assessing the technology in the untested Illinois basin, and (3) testing a multimodule commercial-scale prototype.

Agarwal, A.K.; Zielinski, R.E.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Liberatore, A.J.; Martin, J.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Coal metamorphism in the upper portion of the Pennsylvanian Sturgis Formation in Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coals from the Pennsylvanian upper Sturgis Formation (Mississippian and Virginian) were sampled from a borehole in Union County, western Kentucky. The coals exhibited two discrete levels of metamorphism. The lower rank coals of high-volatile C bituminous rank were assumed to represent the normal level of metamorphism. A second set of coals of high-volatile A bituminous rank was found to be associated with sphalerite, chlorite, and twinned calcite. The latter mineral assemblages indicate that hydrothermal metamorphism was responsible for the anomalous high rank. Consideration of the sphalerite fluid-inclusion temperatures from nearby ores and coals and the time - temperature aspects of the coal metamorphism suggests that the hydrothermal metamorphic event was in the 150 to 200 C range for a brief time (10/sup 5/-10/sup 5/and yr), as opposed to the longer term (25-50m yr) 60 to 75 C ambient metamorphism.

Hower, J.C.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Petrography of the Herrin (No. 11) coal in western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Herrin (No.11) coal in western Kentucky is in the upper part of the Pennsylvanian (Des Moinesian) Carbondale Formation. Samples were obtained from 13 mines in Kentucky and one mine in Illinois in three equal benches from two to three channels for a total of 93 samples. The rank of the coal (as vitrinite reflectance) is high volatile C bituminous in the Moorman Syncline and high volatile A bituminous in the Webster Syncline. Reflectance does not vary between mines in the Moorman Syncline. The percentage of total vitrinite macerals for each mine is over 85% and the percentage of total vitrinite plus liptinite macerals is over 89% (average over 90%) (both on dry, mineral-free basis). 37 refs.

Hower, J.C.; Wild, G.D.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

World Oil Prices in AEO2006 (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

World oil prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO) reference case are substantially higher than those in the AEO2005 reference case. In the AEO2006 reference case, world crude oil prices, in terms of the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners, decline from current levels to about $47 per barrel (2004 dollars) in 2014, then rise to $54 per barrel in 2025 and $57 per barrel in 2030. The price in 2025 is approximately $21 per barrel higher than the corresponding price projection in the AEO2005 reference case.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Coal quality and estimated coal resources in the proposed Colville Mining District, central North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Colville Mining District (CMD) encompasses 27,340 mi{sup 2} (70,800 km{sup 2}) in the central part of the North Slope. Known coal deposits within the proposed district range from Mississippian to Tertiary in age. Available information indicates that neither Mississippian and Tertiary coals in the CMD constitute a significant resource because they are excessively deep, thin, or high in ash content; however, considerable amount of low-sulfur Cretaceous coal is present. The paper briefly describes the geology and quality of these coal reserves. Difficult conditions will restrict mining of these coals in the near future.

Stricker, G.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Clough, J.G. [Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Providing solutions to energy and environmental programs. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of WRI`s jointly sponsored research program are to: (1) increase the production of US and western energy resources--low-sulfur coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) enhance the competitiveness of US and western energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) reduce the nation`s dependence upon foreign energy supplies and strengthen the US and regional economies; and (4) minimize the impact of energy production and utilization on the environment. A summary of appropriations, obligations and expenditures is given, then a summary of objectives and accomplishments for the 21 tasks being supported is presented.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Florida CFB demo plant yields low emissions on variety of coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has reported results of tests conducted at Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA)'s Northside power plant using mid-to-low-sulfur coal, which indicate the facility is one of the cleanest burning coal-fired power plants in the world. A part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, the JEA project is a repowering demonstration of the operating and environmental performance of Foster Wheeler's utility-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) technology on a range of high-sulfur coals and blends of coal and high-sulfur petroleum coke. The 300 MW demonstration unit has a non-demonstration 300 MW twin unit.

NONE

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New EnergyofDEVELOPMENTEnergy Low Sulfur diesel

238

Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New EnergyofDEVELOPMENTEnergy Low Sulfur

239

Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New EnergyofDEVELOPMENTEnergy Low SulfurProcess and

240

Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New EnergyofDEVELOPMENTEnergy Low SulfurProcess

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

May 23, 2013 ABC and Innovative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-girders with CIP deck ­ Span length, 90-150 ft. ­ 2012 Average Cost, $125/SF · 3-span CIP slab bridge ­ Span length have bituminous overlay and one has 5" composite CIP overlay ­ Details can be modified for higher ADT in one week (vs. 4-5 weeks for CIP slab, 2-3 weeks for precast beam/CIP deck) ­ No falsework required

Minnesota, University of

242

The H-Coal pilot plant and the Breckinridge Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large coal-liquefaction pilot plant is in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, expanding on the H-Coal technology. The pilot plant operated very successfully during 1981, confirming research yield data on eastern bituminous coal, demonstrating operability of the process, and resulting in a significant accumulation of engineering data. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Bechtel Petroleum, Inc., are developing the Breckinridge Project, a commercial coal-liquefaction plant proposed for Breckinridge County, Kentucky, based on the H-Coal technology.

Wigglesworth, T.H.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

College Of Wooster 2012 Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Coal and Natural Gas Combustion Default Values From EPA Greenhouse Gas Rule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

56410 CO2 = 1 X 10 -3 X Fuel X HHV X EF Where CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions for the specific fuel type high heat value. EF =Fuel default CO2 Emission Factor from Table C-1Page 56410 CO2 Coal CO2 = 1 X 10 -3 Default CO2 Emission Factor For Bituminous Coal = 93.40 kg/mmbtu Default CH4 Emission Factor

Wilson, Mark A.

244

Sustainable development with clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

NONE

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Computer simulation as a NOx reduction design tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nalco Mobotec engineers were charged with reducing emissions on a utility boiler converted from burning oil to eastern bituminous coal using the company's Rotamix selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) system which injects urea into the furnace. A CFD simulation of the existing boiler was first conducted and then the furnace was simulated with the SNCR system added and the design was optimised. Operating and capital costs were minimised by optimal placement of 50 injector ports. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Liu, G.; Higgins, B.S. [Nalco Mobotec (United States)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

(c) 2008-2011. Minh Ha-Duong. Rodica Loisel. CIRED Reproduction allowed. share alike. attribution. Blue cells: Numerical assumptions defining the scenario  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,00 Gt CO2 generated G = g B 4,50 Gt CO2 stored S = s B Carbon dioxide emissions and coal types 2,38 t CO2 generated by t of coal (bituminous grade) Coal Types CO2 emissions 2050 2,101 Gt of coal consumed « Expected fatalities for one wedge of CCS in 2050 » Defines the « wedge of CCS at baseload coal power plants

248

Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Measurement of Sorption-Induced Strain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A. and high-volatile bituminous coal from east-central Utah, U.S.A. using an apparatus developed jointly at the Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A.) and Colorado School of Mines (Golden, Colorado, U.S.A.). The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain instead of the more common usage of strain gauges, which require larger samples and longer equilibration times. With this apparatus, we showed that the swelling and shrinkage processes were reversible and that accurate strain data could be obtained in a shortened amount of time. A suite of strain curves was generated for these coals using gases that included carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and various mixtures of these gases. A Langmuir-type equation was applied to satisfactorily model the strain data obtained for pure gases. The sorption-induced strain measured in the subbituminous coal was larger than the high-volatile bituminous coal for all gases tested over the range of pressures used in the experimentation, with the CO2-induced strain for the subbituminous coal over twice as great at the bituminous coal.

Eric P. Robertson; Richard L. Christiansen

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Study of catalytic diffusion in coal. Final report for 1983/1984 SOMED Project. [Determination of pore (hole) size and pore shape distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of our studies is to determine the pore (hole) size and pore shape distribution in standard bituminous coal samples from various Alabama coal seams such as that of the Mary Lee, Black Creek and Pratt during and after swelling of the coal with different solvents at various temperatures. These samples come from the Penn State Coal Sample Bank at Pennsylvania State University Coal Research Section and from Alabama's Mineral Industries. Methods have been developed in the laboratory whereby free radical probes of varying sizes can be diffused into the coal under various conditions. These probes can be detected and the environment surrounding the probes can be deduced by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. To date, we have found that not only can the shape and size of the pores be determined, but that the size distribution varies from one bituminous coal seam to another, even for coal of the same rank, suggesting a different optimal catalyst should be used for each seam. The effect of oxygen on the coal samples during grinding has been studied; however, the free radical technique appears to be insensitive to the presence of oxygen effects. It is our goal to determine the structural differences between various bituminous coals. 9 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

Kispert, L.D.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Study of catalytic diffusion in coal. Final report, 1983-1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of these studies is to determine the pore (hole) size and pore shape distribution in standard bituminous coal samples from various Alabama coal seams such as that of the Mary Lee, Black Creek and Pratt during and after swelling of the coal with different solvents at various temperatures. These samples come from the Penn State Coal Sample Bank at Pennsylvania State University Coal Research Section and from Alabama's Mineral Industries. Methods were developed in the laboratory whereby free-radical probes of varying sizes can be diffused into the coal under various conditions. These probes can be detected and the environment surrounding the probes can be deduced by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. To date, it has been found that not only can the shape and size of the pores be determined, but that the size distribution varies from one bituminous coal seam to another, even for coal of the same rank, suggesting a different optimal catalyst should be used for each seam. The effect of oxygen on the coal samples during grinding has been studied; however, the free radical technique appears to be insensitive to the presence of oxygen effects. The goal is to determine the structural differences between various bituminous coals.

Kispert, L.D.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Mineral matter transformations in a pressurized drop-tube furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To meet the objectives of the program, a pressurized combustion vessel was built to allow the operating parameters of a direct-fired gas turbine combustor to be simulated. One goal in building this equipment was to design the gas turbine simulator as small as possible to reduce the quantity of test fuel needed, while not undersizing the combustor such that wall effects had a significant effect on the measured combustion performance. Based on computer modeling, a rich-lean, two-stage, nonslagging combustor was constructed to simulate a direct-fired gas turbine. This design was selected to maximize the information that could be obtained on the impact of low-rank coal`s unique properties on the gas turbine combustor, its turbomachinery, and the required hot-gas cleanup devices (such as high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) cyclones). Seventeen successful combustion tests using coal-water fuels were completed. These tests included seven tests with a commercially available Otisca Industries-produced, Taggart seam bituminous fuel and five tests each with physically and chemically cleaned Beulah-Zap lignite and a chemically cleaned Kemmerer subbituminous fuel. LRC-fueled heat engine testing conducted at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has indicated that LRC fuels perform very well in short residence time heat engine combustion systems. Analyses of the emission and fly ash samples highlighted the superior burnout experienced by the LRC fuels as compared to the bituminous fuel even under a longer residence time profile for the bituminous fuel.

Swanson, M.L.; Tibbetts, J.E.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Mineral matter transformations in a pressurized drop-tube furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To meet the objectives of the program, a pressurized combustion vessel was built to allow the operating parameters of a direct-fired gas turbine combustor to be simulated. One goal in building this equipment was to design the gas turbine simulator as small as possible to reduce the quantity of test fuel needed, while not undersizing the combustor such that wall effects had a significant effect on the measured combustion performance. Based on computer modeling, a rich-lean, two-stage, nonslagging combustor was constructed to simulate a direct-fired gas turbine. This design was selected to maximize the information that could be obtained on the impact of low-rank coal's unique properties on the gas turbine combustor, its turbomachinery, and the required hot-gas cleanup devices (such as high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) cyclones). Seventeen successful combustion tests using coal-water fuels were completed. These tests included seven tests with a commercially available Otisca Industries-produced, Taggart seam bituminous fuel and five tests each with physically and chemically cleaned Beulah-Zap lignite and a chemically cleaned Kemmerer subbituminous fuel. LRC-fueled heat engine testing conducted at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has indicated that LRC fuels perform very well in short residence time heat engine combustion systems. Analyses of the emission and fly ash samples highlighted the superior burnout experienced by the LRC fuels as compared to the bituminous fuel even under a longer residence time profile for the bituminous fuel.

Swanson, M.L.; Tibbetts, J.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Analysis of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Conventional Diesel and Fischer--Tropsch Diesel Fuel Emissions Using Electron Monochromator-Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel fuel emissions has been studied for a number of years predominantly because of their contribution to the overall health and environmental risks associated with these emissions. Electron monochromator-mass spectrometry (EM-MS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for detection of NPAHs in complex matrixes, such as diesel emissions. Here, EM-MS was used to compare the levels of NPAHs in fuel emissions from conventional (petroleum) diesel, ultra-low sulfur/low-aromatic content diesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel/synthetic diesel blend. The largest quantities of NPAHs were detected in the conventional diesel fuel emissions, while the ultra-low sulfur diesel and synthetic diesel fuel demonstrated a more than 50% reduction of NPAH quantities when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. The emissions from the blend of conventional diesel with 30% synthetic diesel fuel also demonstrated a more than 30% reduction of the NPAH content when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. In addition, a correlation was made between the aromatic content of the different fuel types and NPAH quantities and between the nitrogen oxides emissions from the different fuel types and NPAH quantities. The EM-MS system demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of the NPAHs in the emissions with minimal sample cleanup required.

Havey, C. D.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Dane, A. J.; Voorhees, K. J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency, nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. To mitigate the concerns associated with CO2 emission, geological sequestration holds promise. Among the potential geological storage sites, unmineable coal seams and shale formations in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. However. the success of large-scale sequestration of CO2 in coal and shale would hinge on a thorough understanding of CO2's interactions with host reservoirs. An important parameter for successful storage of CO2 reservoirs would be whether the pressurized CO2 would remain invariant in coal and shale formations under reasonable internal and/or external perturbations. Recent research has brought to the fore the potential of induced seismicity, which may result in caprock compromise. Therefore, to evaluate the potential risks involved in sequestering CO2 in Illinois bituminous coal seams and shale, we studied: (i) the mechanical behavior of Murphysboro (Illinois) and Houchin Creek (Illinois) coals, (ii) thermodynamic behavior of Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ? T ? 300oC, (iii) how high pressure CO2 (up to 20.7 MPa) modifies the viscosity of the host, (iv) the rate of emission of CO2 from Illinois bituminous coal and shale cores if the cores, which were pressurized with high pressure (? 20.7 MPa) CO2, were exposed to an atmospheric pressure, simulating the development of leakage pathways, (v) whether there are any fractions of CO2 stored in these hosts which are resistance to emission by simply exposing the cores to atmospheric pressure, and (vi) how compressive shockwaves applied to the coal and shale cores, which were pressurized with high pressure CO2, determine the fate of sequestered CO2 in these cores. Our results suggested that Illinois bituminous coal in its unperturbed state, i.e., when not pressurized with CO2, showed large variations in the mechanical properties. Modulus varied from 0.7 GPa to 3.4 GPa even though samples were extracted from a single large chunk of coal. We did not observe any glass transition for Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ? T ? 300oC, however, when the coal was pressurized with CO2 at ambient ? P ? 20.7 MPa, the viscosity of the coal decreased and inversely scaled with the CO2 pressure. The decrease in viscosity as a function of pressure could pose CO2 injection problems for coal as lower viscosity would allow the solid coal to flow to plug the fractures, fissures, and cleats. Our experiments also showed a very small fraction of CO2 was absorbed in coal; and when CO2 pressurized coals were exposed to atmospheric conditions, the loss of CO2 from coals was massive. Half of the sequestered gas from the coal cores was lost in less than 20 minutes. Our shockwave experiments on Illinois bituminous coal, New Albany shale (Illinois), Devonian shale (Ohio), and Utica shale (Ohio) presented clear evidence that the significant emission of the sequestered CO2 from these formations cannot be discounted during seismic activity, especially if caprock is compromised. It is argued that additional shockwave studies, both compressive and transverse, would be required for successfully mapping the risks associated with sequestering high pressure CO2 in coal and shale formations.

Malhotra, Vivak

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Demonstration. Quarterly report No. 12, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power & Light`s 100 MWe Nelson Dewey Unit {number_sign}2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO{sub x} emission levels. Based upon the data collected and evaluated f or reburn No{sub x} reduction performance with the Lamar Indiana bituminous coal f or boiler loads of 110 MW, 82 MW, and 60 MW, average NO{sub x} reductions of 52.4%, 50.1% and 35.8%, respectively were achieved. Average emissions of NO{sub x}with reburn in operation were 290 ppm (.39 lb/million Btu) , 265 ppm (.36 lb/million Btu) and 325 ppm (.44 lb/million Btu) respectively, all corrected to 3% 02 content. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were 0.1% at 110 NW, .25% at 83 MW and 1.5% at 60 MW. Reburn performance results with western sub-bituminous coal at 110 MW, 82 MW and 60 MW boiler loads indicated NO{sub x} reductions of 55.4%, 52.1% and 52.6% respectively. Under optimal conditions, NO{sub x} reductions approaching 63% were achieved with the more reactive western sub-bituminous coal. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were unchanged at full load, a loss of 0.2% at 83 MW and a loss of .3% at low load, much improved over results with the Lamar coal.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO[sub x] Control Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power Light's 100 MWe Nelson Dewey Unit [number sign]2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO[sub x] emission levels. Based upon the data collected and evaluated f or reburn No[sub x] reduction performance with the Lamar Indiana bituminous coal f or boiler loads of 110 MW, 82 MW, and 60 MW, average NO[sub x] reductions of 52.4%, 50.1% and 35.8%, respectively were achieved. Average emissions of NO[sub x]with reburn in operation were 290 ppm (.39 lb/million Btu) , 265 ppm (.36 lb/million Btu) and 325 ppm (.44 lb/million Btu) respectively, all corrected to 3% 02 content. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were 0.1% at 110 NW, .25% at 83 MW and 1.5% at 60 MW. Reburn performance results with western sub-bituminous coal at 110 MW, 82 MW and 60 MW boiler loads indicated NO[sub x] reductions of 55.4%, 52.1% and 52.6% respectively. Under optimal conditions, NO[sub x] reductions approaching 63% were achieved with the more reactive western sub-bituminous coal. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were unchanged at full load, a loss of 0.2% at 83 MW and a loss of .3% at low load, much improved over results with the Lamar coal.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Investigate the effectivness of calcium-treated coals in the capture of sulfur gases generated in staged fired combustors. Third quarterly technical progress report, May 1-July 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this quarter's work, a new procedure was developed to add calcium to pulverized coal. The method has been found to increase the calcium content of bituminous coal to 12% calcium by weight, which corresponds to a Ca/S ratio of greater than 2. Progress was also made on the combustion test facility this quarter. A new modification of the low-flow coal feeder has made that system steady and reliable. With the furnace wired and plumbed, and the other subsystems complete, the facility is almost ready to burn the treated coals.

Porter, J. H.; Manning, M. P.; Benedek, K. R.; Sharma, P. K.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter has focused on disposition of PC Preheat experimental equipment at the CBTF as well as methods for disposal of about 100 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; a final report is due in December 2005.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

264

Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

None

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

System studies guiding fossil energy RD & D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the following recently completed studies, all of which may be accessed on NETL's website: http://netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html: Cost and performance baseline for fossil energy power plants - volume 1: bituminous coal and natural gas to electricity (May 2007); Increasing security and reducing carbon emissions of the US transportation sector: a transformational role for coal with biomass (August 2007); Industrial size gasification for syngas, substitute natural gas, and power production (April 2007); and Carbon dioxide capture from existing coal-fired power plants (December 2006). 2 figs.

NONE

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

267

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Assessment of solid-waste characteristics and control technology for oil-shale retorting. Final report for September 1983-February 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents information on oil-shale deposits in the eastern and western parts of the United States, their geological subdivisions, locations, tonnage, and physical and chemical characteristics. Characteristics of solid and liquid wastes produced from various oil-shale-processing technologies and control methods are presented. Also included are results from an experimental study to construct liners and covers for disposal of spent shale. A compilation of available data on the auto-ignition potential of raw and spent shales indicates a similarity between raw-shale fines and bituminous coals.

Agarwal, A.K.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan [JAVYS, PLc. - Nuclear and Decommisioning Company, PLc. (Slovakia)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Nebraska city station emdash hot to cold esp conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Omaha Public Power District's Nebraska City Unit 1, is a 585 MW net coal fueled power plant which burns low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal. The unit was originally designed and constructed with a fully enclosed hot-side rigid frame electrostatic precipitator. However, the original precipitator was unable to reliably and continuously maintain stack opacity and particulate emissions levels while operating at high loads. Therefore the hot-side precipitator was modified internally and converted to cold-side operation. The unit's four regenerative air heaters were relocated to an area underneath the boiler backpass and the ductwork was modified extensively. In addition, significant internal precipitator modifications were made. This paper describes the conversion design, construction, and resulting performance improvements.

Duncan, B.L.; Ferguson, A.W.; Wicina, R.C. (Black and Veatch Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Campbell, D.B.; Kotan, R.M.; Roth, K.A. (Omaha Public Power District, NE (United States))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Cost-effective particulate control options at Potomac Electric Power Company's Dickerson Station: An integrated approach to current and future particulate limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Dickerson Generating Station evaluated several particulate control options to identify the most cost-effective option. The study's goals were to: eliminate the particulate scrubber and its high maintenance costs, and incorporate flexibility for low-sulfur coal and possible stricter emission limits. Each of the three Dickerson 190 MW units has a small 37-year-old electrostatic precipitator and a wet particulate scrubber. The study evaluated alternatives to replace the scrubber and enhance ESP performance: Existing ESP alternatives--Extend height of existing ESP; Flue gas conditioning. Scrubber stream alternatives--Partial-flow ESP or pulse jet baghouse. Full-flow alternatives--Supplemental ESP; COHPAC baghouse; replacement ESP or baghouse. A technical and economic prescreening eliminated some of the options. Capital, operating, and life cycle costs were estimated for the remaining options to determine the most cost-effective alternative. This paper will present the technical and economic evaluations done for this study, including performance and costs.

Christoffersen, S.W.; Rouse, G.T.; Krasnopoler, M.J.; Chapowski, J.A.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

McHenry, E.R.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1993, through June 30, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through May 31, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulfur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader, now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional products, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems: the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

Chrones, J.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

Gunther Dieckmann

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

Greene, D.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

Greene, D.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Pond Creek coal seam in eastern Kentucky - new look at an old resource  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Middle Pennsylvania/Westphalian B Pond Creek Coal is an important low-sulfur resource in Pike and Martin Counties, Kentucky. The Breathitt Formation seam, also known as the lower Elkhorn coal, accounted for nearly 40% of Pike County's 1983 production of 22 million tons. Although the coal is nearly mined out through central Pike County, substantial reserves still exist in the northern part of the county. Past studies of the seam by the US Bureau of Mines concentrated on the utility of the seam as a coking blend, with additional consideration of the megascopic and microscopic coal petrology. The authors research has focused on the regional variations in the Pond Creek seam, with emphasis on the petrographic variations.

Hower, J.C.; Pollock, J.D.; Klapheke, J.G.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Crude oil from the Zaburun'e field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to work up recommendations for the directions to be taken in processing oil from the new Zaburun'e field in the Ural-Volga interfluvial district, a complete, unified program was used to investigate oil samples taken from depths of 905-913 and 895-903 meters from the Lower Cretaceous deposits. Density, viscosity, medium-resin content, flash point, and other processing-relevant properties were derived. The hydrocarbon group composition was assessed. Fractions distilling below 350/sup 0/C consisted mainly of high-energy isoparaffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons. Characteristics of the diesel fuel cuts were derived. All cuts had low-temperature properties and cloud points below minus 60/sup 0/C. Lube stocks were analyzed and showed high viscosity indices, low solid points, and low sulfur contents. Straight-run resids were also evaluated.

Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Varshaver, V.P.; Khabibulina, R.K.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Important Norwegian crude assays updated  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New assays on two important Norwegian North Sea crude oils, Statfjord and Gullfaks, are presented. Both are high-quality, low-sulfur crudes that will yield a full range of good-quality products. All assay data came from industry-standard test procedures. The Statfjord field is the largest in the North Sea. Production started in 1979. Statfjord is a typical North Sea crude, produced from three separate platforms and three separate loading buoys with interconnecting lines. Current production is about 700,000 b/d. Gullfaks is produced from a large field in Block 34/10 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea production area. Gullfaks crude oil is more biodegraded than other crudes from the region. Biodegradation has removed most of the waxy normal paraffins, resulting in a heavier, more naphthenic and aromatic crude.

Corbett, R.A

1990-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

295

The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

None

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Petrology of the Devonian gas-bearing shale along Lake Erie helps explain gas shows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Comprehensive petrologic study of 136 thin sections of the Ohio Shale along Lake Erie, when combined with detailed stratigraphic study, helps explain the occurrence of its gas shows, most of which occur in the silty, greenish-gray, organic poor Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed. Both have thicker siltstone laminae and more siltstone beds than other members of the Ohio Shale and both units also contain more clayshales. The source of the gas in the Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed of the Ohio Shale is believed to be the bituminous-rich shales of the middle and lower parts of the underlying Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Eleven petrographic types were recognized and extended descriptions are provided of the major ones - claystones, clayshales, mudshales, and bituminous shales plus laminated and unlaminated siltstones and very minor marlstones and sandstones. In addition three major types of lamination were identified and studied. Thirty-two shale samples were analyzed for organic carbon, whole rock hydrogen and whole rock nitrogen with a Perkin-Elmer 240 Elemental Analyzer and provided the data base for source rock evaluation of the Ohio Shale.

Broadhead, R.F.; Potter, P.E.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The Self-Ignition Temperatures of Bitumen Mixtures Containing Transition Metal Nitrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is provided on the self-ignition temperature (SIT) of blown bitumen asphalt mixed with sodium nitrate and some chemicals that are added in the bituminization process to adjust pH and to immobilize the radioactive isotopes of Cs, Sr, and I. In each ignition temperature test, the prepared bitumen sample was heated at a constant rate of temperature increase, and the ignition point was measured. Among the tested chemicals added to the bitumen, Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} shows a relatively large SIT decrease, and furthermore, the mixture of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and AgNO{sub 3} has been shown to greatly lower the SIT of blown bitumen. It is suggested that, in general, segregation of these nitrates should be avoided in bituminization, and care should be taken in handling Ag in a Purex reprocessing plant from the viewpoint of waste treatment. Furthermore, the oxidation effects of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} were tested by measuring torque of the bitumen sample. It was confirmed that the addition of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} to bitumen rapidly oxidizes the bitumen and increases the viscosity of the bitumen mixture.

Okada, Ken; Nomura, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces, Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines. Alaskan coals have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States and are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Another untapped potential resource is coalbed methane estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters).

Romeo M. Flores; Gary D. Stricker; Scott A. Kinney

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO[sub x] Control Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power Light's 100 MWe Nelson Dewey unit No. 2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO[sub x] emission levels. The final set of performance tests on Lamar coal were carried out from September 27 through October 9, 1992. Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) testing was performed on Lamar coal from November 2 through November 9, 1992. Also, parametric optimization testing on western sub-bituminous coal was performed from November 16 through December 11, 1992. Both the HAP and western fuel testing were additions to the original project testing scope of Phase III. As of the end of this quarterly report period, project Phase III testing is complete. Preliminary results with western sub-bituminous coal indicate NO[sub 4] reductions in excess of 50% down to the 50% load range. In general, similar reductions are experienced but at a less aggressive stoichiometry in the reburn zone. Accordingly, an additional few percent of NO[sub 4] reduction at the same stoichiometry are noted with the western fuel compared to Lamar results.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Demonstration. Quarterly report No. 11, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power & Light`s 100 MWe Nelson Dewey unit No. 2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO{sub x} emission levels. The final set of performance tests on Lamar coal were carried out from September 27 through October 9, 1992. Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) testing was performed on Lamar coal from November 2 through November 9, 1992. Also, parametric optimization testing on western sub-bituminous coal was performed from November 16 through December 11, 1992. Both the HAP and western fuel testing were additions to the original project testing scope of Phase III. As of the end of this quarterly report period, project Phase III testing is complete. Preliminary results with western sub-bituminous coal indicate NO{sub 4} reductions in excess of 50% down to the 50% load range. In general, similar reductions are experienced but at a less aggressive stoichiometry in the reburn zone. Accordingly, an additional few percent of NO{sub 4} reduction at the same stoichiometry are noted with the western fuel compared to Lamar results.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is essential to the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization. These same properties are also needed to refine existing devolatilization sub-models utilized in large-scale modeling of coal combustion systems. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. The coal ranks to be investigated will include a high volatile A bituminous (PSOC 1451 D) and a low volatile bituminous (PSOC 1516D). An anthracite (PSOC 1468) will be used as a non-volatile coal reference. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars.

Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Pilot plant assessment of blend properties and their impact on critical power plant components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of blending eastern bituminous coals with western subbituminous coals on utility boiler operation. Relative to the baseline bituminous coal, the testing reported here indicated that there were significant impacts to boiler performance due to the blending of the eastern and western coals. Results indicated that fuel blending can be used to adequately control flue gas emissions of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} at the expense of reduced milling efficiency, increased sootblowing in the high-temperature and low-temperature regions of the boiler and, to a lesser extent, decreased collection efficiency for an electrostatic precipitator. The higher reactivity of the subbituminous coal increased the overall combustion efficiency, which may tend to decrease the impact of milling efficiency losses. The extent of these impacts was directly related to the percentage of subbituminous coal in the blends. At the lowest blend ratios of subbituminous coal, the impacts were greatly reduced.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Coal rank trends in western Kentucky coal field and relationship to hydrocarbon occurrence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive oil and gas development has occurred in the high volatile C bituminous region north of the Rough Creek fault zone, but few pools are known within the Webster syncline south of the fault zone. The rank of the Middle Pennsylvanian coals can be used to estimate the level of maturation of the Devonian New Albany Shale, a likely source rock for much of the oil and gas in the coal field. Based on relatively few data points, previous studies on the maturation of the New Albany Shale, which lies about 1 km below the Springfield coal, indicate an equivalent medium volatile bituminous (1.0-1.2% R{sub max}) rank in the Fluorspar district. New Albany rank decreases to an equivalent high volatile B/C (0.6% R{sub max}) north of the Rough Creek fault zone. Whereas the shale in the latter region is situated within the oil generation window, the higher rank region is past the peak of the level of maturation of the New Albany Shale. The significance of the New Albany reflectancy is dependent on the suppression of vitrinite reflectance in organic-rich shales. The possibility of reflectance suppression would imply that the shales could be more mature than studies have indicated.

Hower, J.C.; Rimmer, S.M.; Williams, D.A.; Beard, J.G. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group, Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

Richard Troiano

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

312

The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage Transmission Line Route, and Natural Gas Pipeline Route Permits for a Large Electric Power Generating Plant to be located in Taconite, Minnesota. In addition, major pre-construction permit applications have been filed requesting authorization for the Project to i) appropriate water sufficient to accommodate its worst case needs, ii) operate a major stationary source in compliance with regulations established to protect public health and welfare, and iii) physically alter the geographical setting to accommodate its construction. As of the current date, the Water Appropriation Permits have been obtained.

Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was contracted by MET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the potential of a wet ESP for reducing SO{sub 3} emissions. The work consisted of pilot-scale tests using the EERC's slagging furnace system (SFS) to determine the effectiveness of a wet ESP to control SO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol emissions in conjunction with a dry ESP and MET's NH{sub 3}-based FGD. Because these compounds are in the form of fine particles, it is speculated that a relatively small, highly efficient wet ESP following the MET scrubber would remove these fine aerosol particles. The performance target for the wet ESP was a particulate mass collection efficiency of >90%; this level of performance would likely ensure a stack opacity of <10%.

Dennis L. Laudal

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Thermocatalytic conversion of food processing wastes: Topical report, FY 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient utilization of waste produced during food processing operations is a topic of growing importance to the industry. While incineration is an attractive option for wastes with relatively low ash and moisture contents (i.e., under about 50 wt % moisture), it is not suitable for wastes with high moisture contents. Cheese whey, brewer's spent grain, and fruit pomace are examples of food processing wastes that are generally too wet to burn efficiently and cleanly. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a thermocatalytic conversion process that can convert high-moisture wastes (up to 98 wt % moisture) to a medium-Btu fuel gas consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. At the same time, the COD of these waste streams is reduced by 90% to 99%, Organic wastes are converted by thermocatalytic treatment at 350/degree/C to 400/degree/C and 3000 to 4000 psig. The process offers a relatively simple solution to waste treatment while providing net energy production from wastes containing as little as 2 wt % organic solids (this is equivalent to a COD of approximately 25,000 mg/L). This report describes continuous reactor system (CRS) experiments that have been conducted with food processing wastes. The purpose of the CRS experiments was to provide kinetic and catalyst lifetime data, which could not be obtained with the batch reactor tests. These data are needed for commercial scaleup of the process.

Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Immobilization of Cesium Traps from the BN-350 Fast Reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During BN-350 reactor operations and also during the initial stages of decommissioning, cesium traps were used to decontaminate the reactor’s primary sodium coolant. Two different types of carbon-based trap were used – the MAVR series, low ash granulated graphite adsorber (LAG) contained in a carrier designed to be inserted into the reactor core during shutdown; and a series of ex-reactor trap accumulators(TAs) which used reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) to reduce Cs-137 levels in the sodium after final reactor shutdown. In total four MAVRs and seven TAs were used at BN-350 to remove an estimated cumulative 755 TBq of cesium. The traps, which also contain residual sodium, need to be immobilized in an appropriate way to allow them to be consigned as waste packages for long term storage and, ultimately, disposal. The present paper reports on the current status of the implementation phase, with particular reference to the work done to date on the trap accumulators, which have the most similarity with the cesium traps used at other reactors.

J. A. Michelbacher; C. Knight; O. G. Romanenko; I. L. Tazhibaeva; I. L. Yakovlev; A. V. Rovneyko; V. I. Maev; D. Wells; A. Herrick

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

An advanced control system for fine coal flotation. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as reagent dosage, pulp density and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the fourth quarter of this project, a final attempt was made to calibrate a video-based ash analyzer for use in this application. It was concluded that the low ash content and the coarse particle size of the flotation tailings slurry at the Maple Meadow plant site made the video-based system unsuitable for this application. Plans are now underway to lease a nuclear-based analyzer as the primary sensor for this project.

Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

1997-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

318

Biomass Feedstocks for Renewable Fuel Production: A review of the impacts of feedstock and pretreatment on the yield and product distribution of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vapors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Renewable transportation fuels from biomass have the potential to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and diversify global fuel supplies. Thermal conversion by fast pyrolysis converts up to 75% of the starting plant material (and its energy content) to a bio-oil intermediate suitable for upgrading to motor fuel. Woody biomass, by far the most widely-used and researched material, is generally preferred in thermochemical processes due to its low ash content and high quality bio-oil produced. However, the availability and cost of biomass resources, e.g. forest residues, agricultural residues, or dedicated energy crops, vary greatly by region and will be key determinates in the overall economic feasibility of a pyrolysis-to-fuel process. Formulation or blending of various feedstocks, combined with thermal and/or chemical pretreatment, could facilitate a consistent, high-volume, lower-cost biomass supply to an emerging biofuels industry. However, the impact of biomass type and pretreatment conditions on bio-oil yield and quality, and the potential process implications, are not well understood. This literature review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the effect of feedstock and pretreatments on the yield, product distribution, and upgradability of bio-oil.

Daniel Carpenter; Stefan Czernik; Whitney Jablonski; Tyler L. Westover

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

Scurlock, J.M.O.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

1992-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Catalyst-free carbon nanotubes from coal-based material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DC-Arc Discharge technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal samples instead of graphite electrodes filled with metal catalysts. The adverse effect of the mineral matter present in coal may be, thus, avoided. The cathode deposits showed the presence of single walled carbon nanotubes as well, which are generally known to be formed only in presence of transition metal catalysts and lanthanides. The process also avoids the tedious purification treatments of carbon nanotubes by strong acids to get rid of metal catalysts produced as impurities along with nanotubes. Thus, coal may be refined and demineralized by an organorefining technique to obtain super clean coal, an ultra low ash coal which may be used for the production of carbon nanotubes. The residual coal obtained after the organorefining may be used as an energy source for raising steam for power generation. Thus, coal may afford its use as an inexpensive feedstock for the production of carbon nanotubes besides its conventional role as a fuel for power generation.

Mathur, R.B.; Lal, C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley Power's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter work completed the securing the proper disposition of all PC Preheat experimental equipment at the PSCF and CBTF and completing negotiations with AES Westover (a power plant in Johnson City, New York) to accept 130 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. The coal transport to Westover occurred at the end of August. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; immediate efforts are focused on completing a draft final report, which is due in October 31, 2005 and the final report in December.

Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

325

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Evaluation and demonstration of the chemically active fluid bed. Final report May 75-Jul 81  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report gives results of the operation of a 17-MW Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) demonstration unit, retrofitted to a natural gas boiler. The CAFB process gasifies high-sulfur, high-metals-content liquid and solid fuels. Residual oil, lignite, and bituminous coal were gasified separately or together between November 1979 and June 1981. Design and operational areas where upgrading would be beneficial were identified. Continuous monitors were used to measure boiler flue gas emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, oxygen, CO2, and opacity. Periodic manual emission tests were conducted for particulate, SO2, and NOx, using EPA reference methods. Emissions of these three criteria pollutants were generally lower than New Source Performance Standards for utility boilers, although occasionally excessive particulate and SO2 emissions were observed. NOx emissions were consistently lower than those from natural gas combustion. Results of detailed chemical analyses and biological assays are reported.

Sommer, R.E.; Werner, A.S.; Kowszun, Z.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

On the natural radionuclides distribution in Romanian coals of different type and rank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents the natural radionuclides distribution in the Romanian coals of different type and rank, from peats to bituminous coals, in comparison with their concentrations in the sedimentary metamorphic rocks. Discussions are carried out on the following principal elements that include the natural radioactive isotopes: K, La, Sm, Lu, Re and the natural radioactive families of U, Ra, and Th. The stable microelements ppm in the coals were investigated by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), carried out at the VVRS 2 Reactor of the Atomic Physics Institute of Bucharest (Romania), as well as by UV spectral analysis. They have indicated a maximum concentration of these elements in the lignites. It must be outlined that the peats have the lowest concentration of these elements, taking into account the ionic exchange possibility into the peat beds. The concentration of the macro- and microelements included in the metamorphic rocks and in the terrestrial crust as a whole is compared with obtained results.

Georgescu, I.I.; Barca, F.; Panaitescu, C. [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

NONE

1995-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

329

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Recycled brake linings as partial aggregate substitute in asphalt paving. Construction and final report. Report for July 1992-August 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the performance of asphalt containing various percentages of brake lining as an aggregate, and compare its performance to that of normal asphalt containing natural aggregate. This project is an effort to explore alternate ways to use waste product. Four test section of FB-2 Modified mix containing brake lining materials were placed in July 1992 along with one control section on SR 3022 in Mercer county. To date all sections are performing satisfactory, and Brake linings should be recommended as a viable partial replacement of aggregate in bituminous materials. This study only considered the performance of only off-spec brake linings, therefore, any performance data or enviromental effects of placement of used brake material should be addressed.

Miller, P.A.; Sukley, R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Exploratory study of some potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production, using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). A high volatile bituminous coal, Pittsburgh No. 8, was reacted with synthetic produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40°C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilisation of toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction and chemical analysis of the synthetic produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilising toxic trace elements from coal beds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Y.; Jones, R.J.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; White, C.M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

CONSOL Energy invests in West Virginia CTL plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Working with Synthesis Energy Systems (SES), America's leading bituminous coal producer assists with the engineering design package for a coal gasification and liquefaction plant to be located near Benwood in West Virginia. Coal will be converted to syngas using SES's proprietary U-GAS technology. The syngas is expected to be used to produce about 720,000 metric tons per year of methanol. The U-GAS technology is licensed from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The article explains how the GTI gasification process works. It is based on a surge-stage fluidised bed for production of low-to-medium calorific value synthesis gas from a variety of feedstocks, including coal. 2 figs.

NONE

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute`s decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

Keith, Raymond E.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension. Quarterly report no. 8, February, March, and April, 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

Not Available

1989-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

Not Available

1989-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

339

Increase of unit efficiency by improved waste heat recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For coal-fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization by wet scrubbing and desulfurized exhaust gas discharge via cooling tower, a further improvement of new power plant efficiency is possible by exhaust gas heat recovery. The waste heat of exhaust gas is extracted in a flue gas cooler before the wet scrubber and recovered for combustion air and/or feedwater heating by either direct or indirect coupling of heat transfer. Different process configurations for heat recovery system are described and evaluated with regard to net unit improvement. For unite firing bituminous coal an increase of net unit efficiency of 0.25 to 0.7 percentage points and for lignite 0.7 to 1.6 percentage points can be realized depending on the process configurations of the heat recovery systems.

Bauer, G.; Lankes, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimentally based, conceptual model of the devolatilization of a HV bituminous coal is outlined in this report. This model contends that the relative dominance of a process type-chemical kinetic, heat transport, mass transport -- varies with the extent of reaction for a given set of heating conditions and coal type and with experimental conditions for a given coal type and extent of reaction. The rate of devolatilization mass loss process is dominated initially by heat transfer processes, then coupled mass transfer and chemical kinetics, and finally by chemical processes alone. However, the chemical composition of the initial tars are determined primarily by the chemical characteristics of the parent coal. Chemically controlled gas phase reactions of the initial tars and coupled mass transfer and chemically controlled reactions of heavy tars determine the bulk of the light gas yields. For a HV bituminous coal this conceptual model serves to quantify the Two-Component Hypothesis'' of volatiles evolution. The model postulates that the overall rates of coal devolatilization should vary with coal type insofar as the characteristics of the parent coal determine the potential tar yield and the chemical characteristics of the initial tars. Experimental evidence indicates chemical characteristics and yields of primary'' tars vary significantly with coal type. Consequently, the conceptual model would indicate a shift from transport to chemical dominance of rate processes with variation in coal type. Using the conceptual model, United Technologies Research Center has been able to correlate initial mass loss with a heat transfer index for a wide range of conditions for high tar yielding coals. 33 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Occupational and traning requirements for expanded coal production (as of October 1980). [Forecasting to 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was initiated because of the anticipated rapid growth in trained personnel requirements in bituminous coal mining, and because the industry had already experienced significant problems in recruiting skilled manpower in the course of its employment expansion during the 1970's. Employment in bituminous coal mining is projected to nearly double, from 234,000 in 1977 to 456,000 in 1995, as the net result of a projected threefold increase in coal output to nearly 2.0 billion in 1995 and of an expected significant improvement in overall productivity. A large proportion of current coal mining employees are in occupations which require significant amounts of training for effective work performance. Employment growth to 1955 will be most rapid in those occupations requiring the greatest training or educational preparation. The new training infrastructure which has emerged to meet these needs includes both internal, company-operated training programs and those offered by various external providers. Among the latter are: Vocational schools, community colleges, and university extension departments; public agencies, such as MSHA and state mining departments; coal industry trade associations; and vendors or training consultant groups. The Conference Board survey of coal industry training programs, conducted in late 1979, was designed to provide comprehensive data on the scope of the coal industry's own training activities and on related training issues, based on a mail questionnaire survey addressed to all companies producing 300,000 or more tons per year. The training programs are described with emphasis on time changes, regional effects and implications for a coordinated plan.

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors' designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550[degree]F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100[degree]F lower.

Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results. Topical report, Task 7.30  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors` designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550{degree}F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100{degree}F lower.

Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Effect of coal type, residence time, and combustion configuration on the submicron aerosol composition and size distribution from pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulverized samples of Utah bituminous, Beulah (North Dakota) low Na lignite, Deulah high Na lignite and Texas (San Miguel) lignite coals were burned at a rate of 2.5 kg/hr in a laboratory furnace under various (overall fuel lean) combustion conditions. Particle size distributions (PSD) and size segregated particle filter samples were taken at various positions within the convection section. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured throughout. The evolution of the submicron PSD within the convection section for the four coals was similar, although the location of the initial particle mode at the convection section inlet varied with coal type. While stage combustion of the Utah bituminous coal had a variable effect on the volume of submicron aerosol produced, staged combustion of two of the three lignites (Beulah low Na and Texas) caused a definite increase in the submicron aerosol volume. Chemical analysis of the size segregated particle samples show the trace elements, As, Pb, Zn, and the major elements, Na and K to be enriched in the submicron aerosol. Auger depth profiles show these small particles to be comprised of a core enriched in Fe, Si, Ca and Mg and surface layers enriched in Na and K. These results point to a mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of low vapor pressure species followed by successive layering of progressively more volatile species. Volatile species are enriched in the submicron aerosol due to the large surface areas provided. Modeling efforts show that while coagulation may be the dominant mechanism to describe the aerosol evolving within the convection section, it cannot be used solely to predict the PSD. Another mechanism, presumably surface area dependent growth (condensation) must be included.

Linak, W.P.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

Southern Company Services

2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

349

The John Deere E diesel Test & Research Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three non-road Tier II emissions compliant diesel engines manufactured by John Deere were placed on a durability test plan of 2000 hours each at full load, rated speed (FLRS). The fuel was a blend of 10% fuel ethanol and 90% low sulfur #2 diesel fuel. Seven operational failures involving twenty seven fuel system components occurred prior to completion of the intended test plan. Regulated emissions measured prior to component failure indicated compliance to Tier II certification goals for the observed test experience. The program plan included operating three non-road Tier II diesel engines for 2000 hours each monitoring the regulated emissions at 500 hour intervals for changes/deterioration. The program was stopped prematurely due to number and frequency of injection system failures. The failures and weaknesses observed involved injector seat and valve wear, control solenoid material incompatibility, injector valve deposits and injector high pressure seal cavitation erosion. Future work should target an E diesel fuel standard that emphasizes minimum water content, stability, lubricity, cetane neutrality and oxidation resistance. Standards for fuel ethanol need to require water content no greater than the base diesel fuel standard. Lubricity bench test standards may need new development for E diesel.

Fields, Nathan; Mitchell, William E.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

350

PEAT: an energy alternative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

Schora, F.C.; Punwani, D.V.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Plume opacity investigation at a stoker-fired power generating station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A public utility contacted the Conoco Coal Research Division through Consolidation Coal Company and requested technical assistance in determining the cause of a high plume opacity at one of their stoker-fired power generating stations. The sporadic occurrence of a high opacity plume (>20%) had been reported for several years. Although the utility was burning low sulfur coal, sulfuric acid mist had been suspected as the cause of the plume opacity; therefore, anhydrous ammonia had been injected into the flue gas at the ESP inlet plenums to control the plume opacity with some degree of success. However, for the last two years, the high plume opacity has occurred more frequently. The possible causes of the high plume opacity investigated were: 1) organic species emissions, 2) particulate mass loading, 3) particle size distribution, and 4) sulfuric acid emissions. The investigation included detailed sampling inside the boiler, stack, and plume areas. It was determined that the major cause of the high plume opacity was submicron particle growth at the stack exit due to sulfuric acid/water condensation. The larger particles more efficiently scattered light which resulted in the visible plume at the stack exit. The organic emissions and particulate mass loading in the stack flue gas had minimal effect on the high plume opacity. The fly ash size distribution would also have had minimal effect if the sulfuric acid had not been present.

Lewis, G.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Small-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) system for heat and power in remote areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand for heating and electric power has steadily increased in remote areas. The use of locally available fuel to achieve self sufficiency has become an important objective. Energy demands may require steam generation for district heating, power generation and process consumption. In addition, the steam generation unit can also be required to burn waste that includes MSW and sewage sludge. To meet these demands, new systems must be installed that use local fuel. This paper describes a lower cost CFBC for use in remote areas. With the support of DOE METC, in late summer 1994, DONLEE performed a test burn at its 10 MM btu/hr pilot CFBC using subbituminous coal from Wyoming. The Wyoming coal`s sulfur dioxide emissions were very low due to the low sulfur content of the Wyoming coal and the excellent efficiency at temperatures as low as 1,500 F thereby indicating no limestone addition was needed for sulfur capture. The CFBC testing indicated emissions met all of the environmental requirements, both Federal and state. These requirements include: particulates, SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, opacity, chlorinated dioxins/furans, etc. The unit can be fabricated in modules, making the installation easier and less expensive for use in remote areas. The design is highly reliable and can be fully automated thereby requiring limited staffing.

Stuart, J.M.; Korenberg, J. [DONLEE Technologies Inc., York, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2008 (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) defines the world oil price as the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil delivered in Cushing, Oklahoma. Since 2003, both "above ground" and "below ground" factors have contributed to a sustained rise in nominal world oil prices, from $31 per barrel in 2003 to $69 per barrel in 2007. The AEO2008 reference case outlook for world oil prices is higher than in the AEO2007 reference case. The main reasons for the adoption of a higher reference case price outlook include continued significant expansion of world demand for liquids, particularly in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, which include China and India; the rising costs of conventional non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) supply and unconventional liquids production; limited growth in non-OPEC supplies despite higher oil prices; and the inability or unwillingness of OPEC member countries to increase conventional crude oil production to levels that would be required for maintaining price stability. The Energy Information Administration will continue to monitor world oil price trends and may need to make further adjustments in future AEOs.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Natural Gas and Crude Oil Prices in AEO (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

If oil and natural gas were perfect substitutes in all markets where they are used, market forces would be expected to drive their delivered prices to near equality on an energy-equivalent basis. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil generally is denominated in terms of barrels, where 1 barrel has an energy content of approximately 5.8 million Btu. The price of natural gas (at the Henry Hub), in contrast, generally is denominated in million Btu. Thus, if the market prices of the two fuels were equal on the basis of their energy contents, the ratio of the crude oil price (the spot price for WTI, or low-sulfur light, crude oil) to the natural gas price (the Henry Hub spot price) would be approximately 6.0. From 1990 through 2007, however, the ratio of natural gas prices to crude oil prices averaged 8.6; and in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 projections from 2008 through 2030, it averages 7.7 in the low oil price case, 14.6 in the reference case, and 20.2 in the high oil price case.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of acid rain electronic data reports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily of natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company under acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NO{sub x}Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.

Schott, J. [Entergy Corp., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Lots of data, how do we use it? Strengths and inaccuracies of utility acid rain electronic data reports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NOx, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company tinder acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NOx are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NOx Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.

Schott, J. [Entergy Corporation, Beaumont, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

NONE

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this quarterly technical Progress report, UTSI reports on continued technical progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam combined cycle Power plant. No testing was conducted during the quarter. Major activities were in preparation for the beginning of the 2000 hour POC testing on wester, low sulfur coal scheduled to start in April 1992. The report contains analyses of data from the previous tests in this series that were designed to prepare for the POC test series. Modifications to the flow train that are reported include the rearrangement of the lower temperature heat exchangers in the superheater test module (SHTM) to move the air heater upstream to a higher gas temperature, installation of a gas by-pass to keep the ash seed hopper tap open and installation of the new tubes to be tested in the steam cooled test sections. The major facility modification discussed is the installation of the wet electrostatic precipitator, to replace the venturi scrubber that has been used in previous testing, to take any flow that is not desired through the dry electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. Plans for future testing that are summarized include improvements in test operations, the details of arrangement of high temperature air heater materials for testing and the plans for advanced instrumentation by both UTSI and Mississippi State University.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this quarterly technical Progress report, UTSI reports on continued technical progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam combined cycle Power plant. No testing was conducted during the quarter. Major activities were in preparation for the beginning of the 2000 hour POC testing on wester, low sulfur coal scheduled to start in April 1992. The report contains analyses of data from the previous tests in this series that were designed to prepare for the POC test series. Modifications to the flow train that are reported include the rearrangement of the lower temperature heat exchangers in the superheater test module (SHTM) to move the air heater upstream to a higher gas temperature, installation of a gas by-pass to keep the ash seed hopper tap open and installation of the new tubes to be tested in the steam cooled test sections. The major facility modification discussed is the installation of the wet electrostatic precipitator, to replace the venturi scrubber that has been used in previous testing, to take any flow that is not desired through the dry electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. Plans for future testing that are summarized include improvements in test operations, the details of arrangement of high temperature air heater materials for testing and the plans for advanced instrumentation by both UTSI and Mississippi State University.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on a continuing proof-of-concept (POC) test program for the steam bottoming plant of an MHD/steam combined cycle power plant. In this report, the first POC test on western, low sulfur coal is reported. Analyses of tube materials from the previously completed 2004 hour POC tests on eastern, high sulfur coal are also included. The first test results with the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which was installed to replace the wet venturi scrubber are reported. Detailed results of testing ceramic tubes and test components under a variety of high temperature conditions, for application to a high temperature air heater are included. Progress in application of advanced diagnostics equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) is summarized. In addition, the laboratory effort to measure the transmissivity and absorption coefficient of the gas in the temperature range of condensing slag and potassium compounds is described. The current status of the CFFF environmental program is summarized.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on a continuing proof-of-concept (POC) test program for the steam bottoming plant of an MHD/steam combined cycle power plant. In this report, the first POC test on western, low sulfur coal is reported. Analyses of tube materials from the previously completed 2004 hour POC tests on eastern, high sulfur coal are also included. The first test results with the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which was installed to replace the wet venturi scrubber are reported. Detailed results of testing ceramic tubes and test components under a variety of high temperature conditions, for application to a high temperature air heater are included. Progress in application of advanced diagnostics equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) is summarized. In addition, the laboratory effort to measure the transmissivity and absorption coefficient of the gas in the temperature range of condensing slag and potassium compounds is described. The current status of the CFFF environmental program is summarized.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadrupole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic-particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin. 5 figs.

Doctor, R.D.

1986-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

365

Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadrupole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin. 5 figs.

Doctor, R.D.

1988-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

366

Emissions from Trucks using Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California B- diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. overview of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel production and engine emissions testing is presented. Previous engine laboratory tests indicate that F-T diesel is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and substantial exhaust emissions reductions can be realized. The authors have performed preliminary tests to assess the real-world performance of F-T diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks. Seven White-GMC Class 8 trucks equipped with Caterpillar 10.3 liter engines were tested using F-T diesel fuel. Vehicle emissions tests were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The trucks were found to perform adequately on neat F-T diesel fuel. Compared to a California diesel fuel baseline, neat F-T diesel fuel emitted about 12% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 24% lower particulate matter over a five-mile driving cycle.

Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Brent Bailey; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1998-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

367

Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim [Abishev Chemicometallurgical Institute, Abishev (Kazakhstan)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 5.1, Stability issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coals have high moisture content and, consequently, low heating value, leading to boiler derating in US midwestern and eastern utilities as well as switching and/or blending coals to achieve SO{sub 2} compliance. In the drive to develop cost-effective coal-drying processes, coal developers have focused on heat content of the products and generally neglected the critical stability issues of friability and dusting, moisture reabsorption, and spontaneous heating. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in an effort to establish new standards for dried products, has used established methods and has developed new ones to evaluate the propensity of lump western coals, raw and dried, to produce dust and absorb water. Three drying methods--air, hydrothermal, and saturated steam--were used to generate low-moisture upgraded products. New indices for dust generation and friability were determined to assess the effects of moisture removal and upgrading methodology on coal stability. Analysis of the dried coals using various strength tests indicated that the reduction in moisture made the lump coal unstable, yielding substantially higher dust and friability indices relative to those of the raw coals.

Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Dewall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

Brown, L.F.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

John D. Jones

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadropole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin.

Doctor, Richard D. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

DIRECT DECOMPOSITION OF METHANE TO HYDROGEN ON METAL LOADED ZEOLITE CATALYST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacture of hydrogen from natural gas is essential for the production of ultra clean transportation fuels. Not only is hydrogen necessary to upgrade low quality crude oils to high-quality, low sulfur ultra clean transportation fuels, hydrogen could eventually replace gasoline and diesel as the ultra clean transportation fuel of the future. Currently, refinery hydrogen is produced through the steam reforming of natural gas. Although efficient, the process is responsible for a significant portion of refinery CO2 emissions. This project is examining the direct catalytic decomposition of methane as an alternative to steam reforming. The energy required to produce one mole of hydrogen is slightly lower and the process does not require water-gas-shift or pressure-swing adsorption units. The decomposition process does not produce CO2 emissions and the product is not contaminated with CO -- a poison for PEM fuel cells. In this work we examined the direct catalytic decomposition of methane over a metal modified zeolite catalyst and the recovery of catalyst activity by calcination. A favorable production of hydrogen was obtained, when compared with previously reported nickel-zeolite supported catalysts. Reaction temperature had a strong influence on catalyst activity and on the type of carbon deposits. The catalyst utilized at 873 and 973 K could be regenerated without any significant loss of activity, however the catalyst utilized at 1073 K showed some loss of activity after regeneration.

Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch; Harry W. Rollins

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Assessment of capital requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure under the PNGV program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an assessment of the capital requirements of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a new Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels include two petroleum-based fuels (reformulated gasoline and low-sulfur diesel) and four alternative fuels (methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen). This study develops estimates of cumulative capital needs for establishing fuels production and distribution infrastructure to accommodate 3X vehicle fuel needs. Two levels of fuel volume-70,000 barrels per day and 1.6 million barrels per day-were established for meeting 3X-vehicle fuel demand. As expected, infrastructure capital needs for the high fuel demand level are much higher than for the low fuel demand level. Between fuel production infrastructure and distribution infrastructure, capital needs for the former far exceed those for the latter. Among the four alternative fuels, hydrogen bears the largest capital needs for production and distribution infrastructure.

Stork, K.; Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Pulsed electron beam precharger. Final report, September 1, 1989--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifth in a series of contracts and grants exploring the advanced particulate pollution control technology of electron beam precipitation. The project currently under contract with the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, US DOE, addresses the pressing problem of more efficiently controlling the emission of fine, high resistivity fly ash from low sulfur coal-burning power plants. As such, the project is an integral part of the DOE mission to advance technologies which provide for the safe and economically viable utilization of the nation`s large but potentially polluting coal resources. Within the University Coal Research Program of the DOE, the objective of the project is also consistent with the goal of improving the performance of electrostatic precipitators and possibly fabric filters through the use of a first-stage electron beam particle precharger. Reducing the emission of particulate matter from coal fired boilers is in the national interest from a respiratory health standpoint, while improved power efficiency of the removal process serves the goals of lowered energy consumption. In addition, an earlier spinoff of the ongoing program at FSU was the invention of a new technology using pulsed streamer corona for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal, the pulse energized electron reactor (PEER) process.

Finney, W.C. [ed.; Shelton, W.N.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

379

[98e]-Catalytic reforming of gasoline and diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a fuel processor for converting liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen-rich product suitable for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack. The processor uses an autothermal reformer to convert the feed to a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water with trace quantities of other components. The carbon monoxide in the product gas is then converted to carbon dioxide in water-gas shift and preferential oxidation reactors. Fuels that have been tested include standard and low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Iso-octane and n-hexadecane were also examined as surrogates for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Complete conversion of gasoline was achieved at 750 C in a microreactor over a novel catalyst developed at Argonne. Diesel fuel was completely converted at 850 C over this same catalyst. Product streams contained greater than 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis with iso-octane, gasoline, and n-hexadecane. For a diesel fuel, product streams contained >50% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis. The catalyst activity did not significantly decrease over >16 hours operation with the diesel fuel feed. Coke formation was not observed. The carbon monoxide fraction of the product gas could be reduced to as low as 1% on a dry, nitrogen-free basis when the water-gas shift reactors were used in tandem with the reformer.

Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

380

Determining chemical cleaning requirements for Detroit Edison Belle River Unit No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detroit Edison's Belle river Power Plant is a two unit coal-fired installation. The drum type boilers are Carolina type and burn pulverized low sulfur western coal. Both units have a normal boiler operating pressure of 2700 psi, are rated at 650 MW net, with a boiler operating volume of 125,000 gallons. The boilers were pre-operationally chemically cleaned during start up in 1984 (Unit 1) and 1985 (Unit 2), to remove millscale and the preservative coatings. Following the vendor recommendation to chemically clean when the tube deposit weight reaches 25 g/ft{sup 2} (as determined by the solvent removal method). However, a review of tube deposit test results form Belle River Unit 1 indicated that the type of deposit found was markedly different in appearance and physical nature than deposits typically found in other Company boilers. This paper reports that based on this difference, and the conservatism of the published limit, a comprehensive evaluation of the need to chemically clean the Belle River boilers was undertaken.

Sonntag, D.J.; Palmer, R.E. (Technical and Engineering Services, Detroit Edison Co. (US))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

2000-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

382

Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high?fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high?fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high?fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Effect of Unburned Methyl Esters on the NOx Conversion of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engine and flow reactor experiments were conducted to determine the impact of biodiesel relative to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) on inhibition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction over an Fe-zeolite catalyst. Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts have the ability to adsorb and store unburned hydrocarbons (HC) at temperatures below 300 C. These stored HCs inhibit or block NO{sub x}-ammonia reaction sites at low temperatures. Although biodiesel is not a hydrocarbon, similar effects are anticipated for unburned biodiesel and its organic combustion products. Flow reactor experiments indicate that in the absence of exposure to HC or B100, NO{sub x} conversion begins at between 100 and 200 C. When exposure to unburned fuel occurs at higher temperatures (250-400 C), the catalyst is able to adsorb a greater mass of biodiesel than of ULSD. Experiments show that when the catalyst is masked with ULSD, NO{sub x} conversion is inhibited until it is heated to 400 C. However, when masked with biodiesel, NO{sub x} conversion is observed to begin at temperatures as low as 200 C. Engine test results also show low-temperature recovery from HC storage. Engine tests indicate that, overall, the SCR system has a faster recovery from HC masking with biodiesel. This is at least partially due to a reduction in exhaust HCs, and thus total HC exposure with biodiesel.

Williams, A.; Ratcliff, M.; Pedersen, D.; McCormick, R.; Cavataio, G.; Ura, J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Materials testing at the Hanna-IV and Hoe Creek-III in situ coal-gasification sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Candidate structural alloys were exposed to the direct product gas stream during three different in situ coal gasification experiments at two sites. Physical appearance and chemical analysis indicate that the coating on the specimens following exposure is typical of condensed hydrocarbons, coal char, coal ash, and mineral particles from the overburden. Deposits on specimens from one test had a fairly high concentration of sulfur (about 8 w/o) while the others had very low sulfur concentrations (0.313 w/o and 0.014 w/o, respectively). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectra indicate that corrosion occurred principally by oxidation, with some sulfidation. Mean penetration rates expressed in millimetres/year were calculated from weight loss data. No material evaluated showed a truly unacceptable degradation. There was no consistent difference in the amount of material removed from specimens with or without welds. Specimens from one test experienced no consistent difference in material removal between different exposure angles; a consistent difference in material loss and dents from particle impact indicated that erosion may have occurred in the other two tests. There was no indication of carburization, decarburization, or severe localized attack in the form of pitting or intergranular corrosion on any of the specimens examined. Results obtained for the flame-sprayed 316 SS specimens and one of the Alonized specimens indicated that use of these processes may be questionable in this environment.

Loop, R.B.; LaRue, D.M.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop 2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PowerTrap{trademark} is a non-exhaust temperature dependent system that cannot become blocked and features a controlled regeneration process independent of the vehicle's drive cycle. The system has a low direct-current power source requirement available in both 12-volt and 24-volt configurations. The system is fully programmable, fully automated and includes Euro IV requirements of operation verification. The system has gained European component-type approval and has been tested with both on- road and off-road diesel fuel up to 2000 parts per million. The device is fail-safe: in the event of a device malfunction, it cannot affect the engine's performance. Accumulated mileage testing is in excess of 640,000 miles to date. Vehicles include London-type taxicabs (Euro 1 and 2), emergency service fire engines (Euro 1, 2, and 3), inner city buses, and light-duty locomotives. Independent test results by Shell Global Solutions have consistently demonstrated 85-99 percent reduction of ultrafines across the 7-35 nanometer size range using a scanning mobility particle sizer with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and off-road high-sulfur fuel.

Kukla, P; Wright, J; Harris, G; Ball, A; Gu, F

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

386

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of exhaust gas particle size distributions and chemical composition were made for the various oil consumption configurations for a range of engine loads and speeds. The particulate mass was measured with TEOM and traditional gravimetric filter methods. Filter data for EC/OC, sulfates and trace metals have been taken and analyzed. The trace metals in the particulate mass serve as the basis for assessing oil consumption at the different operating conditions. The data indicate that the oil consumption for the steady state testing done here was approximately an order of magnitude below oil consumption values cited in the literature. We did measure changes in the details of the chemical composition of the particulate for the different engine operating conditions, but it did not correlate with changes in the oil consumption. Furthermore, the data indicate that the particle size distribution is not strongly impacted by low level oil consumption variations observed in this work.

Stetter, J; Forster, N; Ghandhi, J; Foster, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

388

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part IV. A petrographic and chemical model for the evolution of the Tradewater Formation coals in Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A depositional model for the coals of the Tradewater Formation and associated rock units was constructed as a predictive device for the occurrence of economically important low sulfur coal. Twenty-one cores were examined and ninety-eight coal samples were analyzed for maceral, ash, and sulfur contents. These data were then analyzed to determine regional variation as well as vertical variation in single coal columns. Core data indicate that the majority of the Tradewater rocks consist of irregularly distributed, coarsening-upward, fine-grained detrital material which was deposited in shallow bodies of water. Minor fossiliferous shales and limestones suggest a marine influence. Less common coarse-grained, fining-upward sequences appear to be deposits of meandering channels. Like the detrital rocks, the coal seams are also irregularly distributed and exhibit variable petrographic and chemical properties reflecting changes in the Eh and pH of the coal swamp waters as well as detrital influx into the swamps. These swamps were relatively limited in extent and probably occupied the upper reaches of the tidal zone. The lack of significant stratigraphic and geographic trends in the regional data suggests that this mode of deposition was widespread and continued for a long period of time. 42 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

Graese, A.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74{mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultrafine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt. % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450.degree. to 700.degree. C. over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C.sub.1 -C.sub.8 hydrocarbons and a reduction in H.sub.2 S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing cola without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance-of-plant impacts of the mercury control process, including those associated with ESP performance and fly ash reuse properties. Upon analysis of the project results, the project team identified several areas of interest for further study. Follow-on testing was conducted on Unit 2 in 2009 with the entire unit treated with injected sorbent so that mercury removal across the FGD could be measured and so that other low-ash impact technologies could be evaluated. Three approaches to minimizing ash impacts were tested: (1) injection of 'low ash impact' sorbents, (2) alterations to the injection configuration, and (3) injection of calcium bromide in conjunction with sorbent. These conditions were tested with the goal of identifying the conditions that result in the highest mercury removal while maintaining the sorbent injection at a rate that preserves the beneficial use of ash.

Katherine Dombrowski

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical characteristics capable of maintaining optimal joule heating and glass forming properties during the conversion process.

Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

396

Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a roller conveyor. After the drums cool, they are capped and removed from the conveyor and placed in a storage hall. Drums with bitumen product are loaded into Fiber Reinforced Concrete containers (FRC) and grouted with cement. Cement grout is prepared from mixture of cement, additive and radioactive concentrates. By formulating the cement grout with evaporator concentrates the maximum radioactivity is fixed in cement matrix and volume of final waste product is minimized. A batch mixer with rotating blades is used produce the cement grout. FRCs loaded with bitumen drums are placed on roller conveyor and moved along the cementation line. Grouted FRCs are stored in the expedition hall for 28 days of curing and then transported to final disposal. After placed in operation the FTC provides treatment for all liquid and wet LLW produced from the operation of the Mochovce NPP. The final product of the FTC is a FRC loaded with 7 drums of waste fixed in bitumen and the space between the drums is grouted with cement. This container meets all limits for final disposal in the National Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce. (authors)

Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z. [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Slezak, M. [SE - VYZ, 919 31 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was purchased used and all of the equipment has nearly reached the end of its useful service.

Ronald Landreth

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

399

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

SAMPLING, ANALYSIS, AND PROPERTIES OF PRIMARY PM-2.5: APPLICATION TO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dilution sampler was used to examine the effects of dilution ratio and residence time on the particulate emissions from a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor. Measurements include the particle size distribution from 0.003 to 2.5 {micro}m, PM{sub 2.5} mass emission rate and PM2.5 composition (OC/EC, major ions, and elemental). Hot filter samples were also collected simultaneously in order to compare the dilution sampler measurement with standard stack sampling methodologies such as EPA Method 5. Measurements were made both before and after the bag-house, the particle control device used on the coal combustor. Measurements were made with three different coal types and a coal-biomass blend. The residence time and dilution ratio do not influence the PM{sub 2.5} mass emission rate, but have a significant effect on the size distribution and total number emissions. Measurements made before the bag-house showed increasing the residence time dramatically decreases the total particle number concentration, and shifts the particle mass to larger sizes. The effects of residence time can be explained quantitatively by the coagulation of the emitted particles. Measurements made after the bag-house were not affected by coagulation due to the lower concentration of particles. Nucleation of sulfuric acid vapor within the dilution was an important source of ultrafine particles. This nucleation is strongly a function of dilution ratio because of the competition between condensation and nucleation. At low dilution ratios condensation dominates and little nucleation is observed; increasing the dilution ratio promotes nucleation because of the corresponding decrease in available surface area per unit volume for condensation. No nucleation was observed after the bag house where conditions greatly favor nucleation over condensation; we suspect that the bag house removed the SO{sub 3} in the flue gas. Exhaust SO{sub 3} levels were not measured during these experiments. Dilution caused the enrichment of selenium, ammonium and sulfate in the PM{sub 2.5} emissions compared to the hot filter samples. The enrichment of selenium was independent of dilution ratio or residence time. The enrichment of ammonium and sulfate increased with increasing dilution ratio. PM{sub 2.5} emission profiles for four different fuels (two eastern bituminous coals, a western sub-bituminous coal, and coal-wood blend) were developed. These profiles compared well with profiles from similar coal sources, while showing unique characteristics due to differences in fuel composition.

Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Eric Lipsky; Charles Stainer; Natalie Anderson; Satoshi Takahama; Sarah Rees

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The role of combustion diagnostics in coal quality impact and NO{sub x} emissions field test programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many utilities are examining low sulfur coal or coal blending options to comply with the Clean Air Act Amendment SO{sub 2} emission limits. Test burns have been conducted with the more promising candidate coals to characterize the potential impact of a change in coal quality on boiler operation and performance. Utilities are also under considerable pressure to evaluate NO{sub x} control options and develop a compliance plan to meet strict NO{sub x} regulations, particularly in high population density metropolitan areas on the Eastern seaboard. Field test programs have been conducted to characterize baseline NO{sub x} emissions, evaluate the NO{sub x} reduction potential of combustion modifications, and assess the potential of combustion tuning as an alternative to burner replacement. Coal quality impacts (slagging, fouling, heat absorption, ash removal) and NO{sub x} emissions are both strongly dependent upon the coal combustion process and site-specific boiler firing practices. Non-uniform combustion in the burner region can result in adverse ash deposition characteristics, carbon carryover problems, high furnace exit gas temperatures, and NO{sub x}emission characteristics that are not representative of the coal or the combustion equipment. Advanced combustion diagnostic test procedures have been developed to evaluate and improve burner zone combustion uniformity, even in cases where the coal flow to the individual burners may be non-uniform. The paper outlines a very practical solving approach to identifying combustion related problems that affect ash deposition and NO{sub x} emissions. The benefits of using advanced diagnostic instrumentation to identify problems and tune combustion conditions is illustrated using test data from recent quality field test programs.

Thompson, R.E. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Dyas, B. [New England Power Company, Westborough, MA (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a description of the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and has been operating in an extended startup mode since that time. As with any new developing technology, a number of unforeseen obstacles have been encountered; however, Rosebud SynCoal Partnership has instituted an aggressive program to overcome these obstacles.

NONE

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: An analytical characterization case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deactivation of the second-stage supported catalyst dominated most of the properties over the course of the run. Consequences of increased catalyst age were increases in aromaticity and phenolic -OH concentration and decreases in hydrogen donor content and paraffinic hydrogen content in most process streams, including product distillates. Donor solvent quality of the whole PFL increased through the early part of the run until Period 8 when it apparently stabilized. The properties of the net product oil and its distillate fractions, as determined by NIPER, show that the coal-derived material has some desirable qualities. The whole crude has a low sulfur content and boils below the maximum temperature allowed for the production of transportation fuels. The naphtha fraction (IBP-380{degrees}F) is highly naphthenic and has a low benzene content. The naphtha fraction appears to be amenable to mild hydrotreating to produce a good gasoline blendstock. The kerosene (380--510{degrees}F) fraction is much too cyclic for use as aviation fuel and it is recommended that this fraction be distributed into the two cuts on either end of it (diesel and gasoline feedstocks). The 510--680{degrees}F fraction met most specifications as a heating fuel and diesel fuel. It appears that this material, after moderate hydroprocessing, could make a good diesel blendstock. Both the FIMS and CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR methods, currently being used to analyze the suite of twelve samples from HRI Run CC-15, are expected to provide chemical/molecular information to augment and extend the information provided by the base analyses. Preliminary information is encouraging.

Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

404

Technical and economic assessment of the IGT peat-gasification process. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI Coal Gasification Research Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kellogg has completed a moderately detailed design and cost estimate of a 250 billion Btu/Day grass-roots SNG plant using the Peatgas process. Results indicate that the cost of SNG would be $4.40/MM Btu, using a cost of $1.50/MM Btu for peat feedstock at 50% moisture. The SNG cost is reasonably competitive with that currently estimated for SNG from coal, and Kellogg would anticipate that capital cost reductions, via design optimization, could reduce the NSG cost to a level which is quite competitive. The cost of peat feedstock is a critical area of concern in evaluating economics of the Peatgas process. The value chosen for the base-case economics ($1.50/MM Btu) is in the higher portion of the price range considered typical by most investigators; the price of $1.50/MM Btu was chosen arbitrarily to represent a 50% increase over the cost of coal ($1.00/MM Btu) used by Kellogg in parallel studies, to reflect higher costs for land use and reclamation and for harvesting and dewatering of peat. In a study concurrent with that reported here, Kellogg found that one method of wet harvesting and mechanical/thermal dewatering yields a peat (50% moisture) cost which is unfavorably high and was therefore rejected for use as a base-case cost since much cheaper feedstock is apparently available by other harvesting/dewatering methods. The base-case cost of SNG is moderate somewhat by the values placed on the benzene and oil coproducts (i.e., $1.10 and $0.75 per gallon, respectively). The total of such credits amounts to about 39% of the gross operating cost; a reduction in value of the coproducts would adversely affect the cost of SNG. Certain technical factors are discussed: materials handling problems, high reactivity, low sulfur content, and limited gasification data.

Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Laramore, R.W.; Senules, E.A.; Shah, K.V.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Integrated Dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 Emissions Control System baseline test report, November 11--December 15, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology Ill demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and S0{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) urea injection for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high sulfur coal will also be tested. This report documents the first baseline test results conducted during the program. The baseline tests were conducted with the original burners and auxiliary equipment and represent the unmodified boiler emissions. The burner design of Arapahoe Unit 4 results in relatively high NO{sub x} levels ranging from 740 to 850 ppM (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, dry) over the load range. Excess air level was the primary factor influencing NO{sub x} emissions. During normal boiler operations, there was a wide range in NO{sub x} emissions, due to the variations of excess air, boiler load and other, secondary parameters. SO{sub 2} emissions ranged from 350 to 600 ppM (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, dry) and reflected variations in the coal sulfur content.

Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Influence of Romanian steam coal quality on power plants environmental impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal provides about 25% of primary energy resources for electricity generation in Romania. Coal is burned in pulverized coal (PC) boilers without flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The coal demands are 90% covered by country`s reserves out of which 80% is lignite. The lignite from Oltenia basin represents about 90% of the domestic lignite quantity used in Romanian power plants. The characteristics defining the typical Romanian lignite are: moisture 40--43%; ash dry basis 37--48%; low heat value 6.0--7.5 MJ/kg; sulfur 0.8--1.2%; volatile matter 17--23%. There are some sorts of lignite which have a higher content of sulfur, but these are used in smaller quantities. RENEL`s strategy includes the preferential utilization of domestic fuels (lignite, hard coal) with imported fuels priority in order natural gas, low sulfur content heavy oil and steam hard coal. Low grade quality of Romanian lignites creates many problems, and due to its high ash and water contents, large quantities of raw coal are required in order to generate energy. The high content of sulfur in coal produces high SO{sub 2} emissions. On the other hand, the very low power values of Romanian lignite generate a low flame temperature, so that, even using fuel oil or gas support for lignite combustion, the NOx emissions are low. Environmental laws have been in force in Romania since December 30, 1995. The Waters Forests and Environment Protection Ministry regulated the pollutant concentration for both new and existing coal fired boilers, beginning in January 1998. Comparing the measured values of SO{sub 2}, NOx and CO contents measured in flue gas from some boilers running on different coal types with the pollutants` emissions limits it is obvious that clean coal technologies (CCT) implementation is necessary, especially for SO{sub 2} reduction.

Matei, M. [Romanian Electricity Authority, Bucharest (Romania). Study, Research and Engineering Group

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Examination of utility Phase 1 compliance choices and state reactions to Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is imposing new limitations on the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (N{sub x}) from electric power plants. The act requires utilities to develop compliance plans to reduce these emissions, and indications are that these plans will dramatically alter traditional operating procedures. A key provision of the SO{sub 2} control program deaned in Title IV is the creation of a system of emission allowances, with utilities having the option of complying by adjusting system emissions and allowance holdings. A compilation of SO{sub 2} compliance activities by the 110 utility plants affected by Phase I is summarized in this report. These compliance plans are presented in a tabular form, correlated with age, capacity, and power pool data. A large number of the Phase I units (46%) have chosen to blend or switch to lower sulfur coals. This choice primarily is in response to (1) prices of low-sulfur coal and (2) the need to maintain SO{sub 2} control flexibility because of uncertain future environmental regulations (e.g., air toxics, carbon dioxide) and compliance prices. The report also discusses the responses of state legislatures and public utility commissions to the compliance requirements in Title IV. Most states have taken negligible action regarding the regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance activities. To protect mine employment, states producing high-sulfur coal have enacted regulations encouraging continued use of that coal, but for the most part, this response has had little effect on utility compliance choices.

Bailey, K.A.; Elliott, T.J.; Carlson, L.J.; South, D.W.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine - SAE World Congress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The effect of E85 on the Ad-hoc federal test procedure (FTP) modal points is explored along with the effect of load expansion through the light-duty diesel speed operating range. The Ad-hoc FTP modal points of 1500 rpm, 1.0bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP); 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP; 2000rpm, 2.0bar BMEP; 2300rpm, 4.2bar BMEP; and 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP were explored. Previous results with 96 RON unleaded test gasoline (UTG-96) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) showed that with stock hardware, the 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP modal point was not obtainable due to excessive cylinder pressure rise rate and unstable combustion both with and without the use of EGR. Brake thermal efficiency and emissions performance of RCCI operation with E85 and ULSD is explored and compared against conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI operation with UTG 96 and ULSD.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Combustion of Biodiesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel HCCI Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of biodiesel content on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine performance has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. Combustion experiments were performed in a single cylinder HCCI engine using blends of soy biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 vol% and equivalence ratios ( ) from 0.38 to 0.48. Data from the engine tests included combustion analysis and exhaust composition analysis with standard gaseous emissions equipment. The engine utilized a custom port fuel injection strategy to provide highly premixed charges of fuel and air, making it possible to compare the results with single zone chemical kinetics simulations that were performed using CHEMKIN III, with a reaction set including 670 species and over 3000 reactions. The reaction mechanism incorporated equations for the combustion of a paraffinic fuel, n-heptane, and an oxygenated component, methyl butanoate, as well as reactions for the formation of NOx. The zero-dimensional model did a reasonably good job of predicting the HCCI combustion event, correctly predicting intake temperature effects on the phasing of both low temperature heat release (LTHR) and the main combustion event. It also did a good job of predicting the magnitude of LTHR. Differences between the simulation and experimental data included the dependence on biodiesel concentration and the duration of both LTHR and the main combustion event. The probable reasons for these differences are the changing derived cetane number (DCN) of the model fuel blend with biodiesel concentration, and the inability of the model to account for stratification of temperature and . The simulation also showed that concentrations of intermediate species produced during LTHR are dependent on the magnitude of LTHR, but otherwise the addition of biodiesel has no discernable effect.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

Not Available

1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

413

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

414

Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

Dr. Steven D. Dietz

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

415

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

[Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report: April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals into a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/Ib), by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Base program on energy related research. Quarterly report, May, 1996--July 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Base Research Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) is planned to develop technologies to a level that will attract industrial sponsors for continued development under the Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program. In many instances, a potential JSR cosponsor has been identified but additional laboratory or bench-scale data are necessary to assess the utility of the technology prior to cosponsor investment. Both peer and management review are employed prior to proposing Base projects to the US DOE. The goals of the Base Research Program are in support of those of the JSR program, which are designed to: increase the production of United States and western energy resources, particularly low-sulfur coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; enhance the competitiveness of US and western energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; reduce the nations`s dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the US and regional economies; minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. The goals of the JSR and Base Programs are accomplished by focusing research, development, demonstration, and commercialization in three major technology areas: Energy Programs emphasize the increased production and utilization of domestic energy resources and include enhanced oil recovery, coal bonification and upgrading, coalbed methane recovery, and renewable energy resources; Environmental Programs minimize the impact of energy production and utilization by providing technology to clean underground oily wastes, mitigate acid mine drainage, and demonstrate uses for Clean Coal Technology and pressurized fluidized bed combustion waste solids; Technology Enhancement activities encompass resource characterization studies, the development of improved environmental monitors and sensors, and improved techniques and models for predicting the dispersion of hazardous gas releases.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

Daniel T. Hennessy

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Winters fuels report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

NONE

1995-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

420

Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the state-of-the-art techniques of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two well-characterized, ultra-low-sulfur No.2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found.

Mueller, C. J.; Cannella, W. J.; Bruno, T. J.; Bunting, B.; Dettman, H. D.; Franz, J. A.; Huber, M. L.; Natarajan, M.; Pitz, W. J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Wright, K.

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low-ash low-sulfur bituminous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control systems: Advanced retractable injection lance SNCR test report. NOELL ARIL test period: April 20, 1995--December 21, 1995; DPSC test period: August 16--26, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emission through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the third phase of SNCR tests, where an additional injection location was installed to increase the low-load NOx removal performance. The new injectors consist of a pair of retractable in-furnace lances which were designed to provide a high degree of load following flexibility through on-line adjustments of the injection angle. With the new lances, NOx removals in excess of 35% are achievable at the same load and HN{sub 3} slip limit. At loads of 43 to 60 MWe, NOx removals with the lances range from 37--52%. At loads greater than 60 MWe, the wall-injection location is more efficient, and at loads of 70 to 100 MWe, NOx removals range from 37--41%. The coal mill-in-service pattern was found to have a large effect on both NOx removal and NH{sub 3} slip for injection at the new lance location. At 60 MWe, the NOx removal at the 10 ppm NH{sub 3} slip limit ranges from 28--52% depending on the mill-in-service pattern. Biasing the coal mills to provide uniform combustion conditions ahead of the injection location was found to be the best option for improving SNCR system performance under these conditions.

Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R.A. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)] [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Phase 1 final report, October 1995--July 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) system is a new concept whereby a Teflon{reg_sign} covered condensing heat exchanger is adapted to remove certain flue gas constitutents, both particulate and gaseous, while recovering low level heat. Phase 1 includes two experimental tasks. One task dealt principally with the pollutant removal capabilities of the IFGT at a scale of about 1.2MW{sub t}. The other task studied the durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covering to withstand the rigors of abrasive wear by fly ash emitted as a result of coal combustion. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The coals tested included high, medium and low-sulfur coals. The flue gas pollutants studied included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was investigated. These test results demonstrated that the IFGT system is an effective device for both acid gas absorption and fine particulate collection. The durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covered heat exchanger tubes was studied on a pilot-scale single-stage condensing heat exchanger (CHX{reg_sign}). Data from the test indicate that virtually no decrease in Teflon{reg_sign} thickness was observed for the coating on the first two rows of heat exchanger tubes, even at high inlet particulate loadings. Evidence of wear was present only at the microscopic level, and even then was very minor in severity.

Bailey, R.T.; Jankura, B.J.; Kudlac, G.A.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

An analysis of SO sub 2 emission compliance under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effectiveness of SO{sub 2} emission allowance trading under Title 4 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) is of great interest due to the innovative nature of this market incentive approach. However, it may be a mistake to frame the compliance problem for a utility as a decision to trade or not. Trading of allowances should be the consequence, not the decision. The two meaningful decision variables for a utility are the control approaches chosen for its units and the amount of allowances to hold in its portfolio of assets for the future. The number allowances to be bought or sold (i.e. traded) is determined by the emission reduction and banking decisions. Our preferred approach is to think of the problem in terms of ABC's of the 1990 CAA Amendments: abatement strategy, banking, and cost competitiveness. The implications of the general principles presented in this paper on least cost emission reductions and emissions banking to hedge against risk are being simulated with version 2 of the ARGUS model representing the electric utility sector and regional coal supplies and transportation rates. A rational expectations forecast for allowances prices is being computed. The computed allowance price path has the property that demand for allowances by electric utilities for current use or for banking must equal the supply of allowances issued by the federal government or provided as forward market contracts in private market transactions involving non-utility speculators. From this rational expectations equilibrium forecast, uncertainties are being explored using sensitivity tests. Some of the key issues are the amount of scrubbing and when it is economical to install it, the amount of coal switching and how much low sulfur coal premiums will be bid up; and the amount of emission trading within utilities and among different utilities.

Hanson, D.A.; Cilek, C.M.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

An analysis of SO{sub 2} emission compliance under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effectiveness of SO{sub 2} emission allowance trading under Title 4 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) is of great interest due to the innovative nature of this market incentive approach. However, it may be a mistake to frame the compliance problem for a utility as a decision to trade or not. Trading of allowances should be the consequence, not the decision. The two meaningful decision variables for a utility are the control approaches chosen for its units and the amount of allowances to hold in its portfolio of assets for the future. The number allowances to be bought or sold (i.e. traded) is determined by the emission reduction and banking decisions. Our preferred approach is to think of the problem in terms of ABC`s of the 1990 CAA Amendments: abatement strategy, banking, and cost competitiveness. The implications of the general principles presented in this paper on least cost emission reductions and emissions banking to hedge against risk are being simulated with version 2 of the ARGUS model representing the electric utility sector and regional coal supplies and transportation rates. A rational expectations forecast for allowances prices is being computed. The computed allowance price path has the property that demand for allowances by electric utilities for current use or for banking must equal the supply of allowances issued by the federal government or provided as forward market contracts in private market transactions involving non-utility speculators. From this rational expectations equilibrium forecast, uncertainties are being explored using sensitivity tests. Some of the key issues are the amount of scrubbing and when it is economical to install it, the amount of coal switching and how much low sulfur coal premiums will be bid up; and the amount of emission trading within utilities and among different utilities.

Hanson, D.A.; Cilek, C.M.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

426

UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Palynologic and petrographic cycles in the McLeansboro Group, Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The McLeansboro Group in the Western Kentucky coal field spans the upper Desmoinesian and the Missourian and Virgilian series. Extensive drilling has demonstrated the lateral continuity of major and minor beds in the group, making it possible to study vertical and lateral changes in palynology and petrology. The Desmoinesian (Westphalian D) Baker (No. 13) and Wheatcroft (No. 13a) coal beds were included in the study but the primary emphasis is on the Missourian and Virgilian (Stephanian) coals. Patoka fm (lower Missourian) coals are dominated by tree fern spores with lesser sphenopsids, ferns, and cordaites. This is in marked contrast to the arborescent lycopod-dominated Desmoinesian coals. Only the No. 15 coal bed exceeds 80% vitrinite with the No. 16 coal bed vitrinite content of < 72% being the lowest of any Western Kentucky humic coal. The Bond Fm. (upper Missourian) represents a distinct floristic cycle with a greater diversity of plant groups including herbaceous lycopods, relatively minor contributors to the Patoka coals. The coals generally exceed 80% vitrinite. The Mattoon Fm. (Virgilian) coals have a variety of polynomorph assemblages. The low-sulfur Geiger Lake coal bed is dominated by tree ferns with important contributions from ferns and sphenopsids. Similar to the underlying tree fern interval, vitrinite contents are <80%. The uppermost Mattoon coals are dominated by ferns and are notable in being the only >1 m thick coals in the Stephanian portion of the section, with the top coal being 4.3 m thick. The uppermost coals are generally > 80% vitrinite. The palynologic/petrographic cycles appear to represent fluctuating dry (low vitrinite) and wet intervals within the Missourian/Virgilian which itself was drier than the Desmoinesian.

Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research); Helfrich, C.T. (Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY (United States)); Williams, D.A. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Henderson, KY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Development of fireside performance indices - task 8. Topical report, March 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of the Fireside Performance Indices (FPI) research project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was to develop a series of indices to reliably predict the fireside performance of subbituminous coals in utility boilers. Individual utilities must respond quickly and effectively to changing fuel markets because of competition within the U.S. coal-fired power industry. Spot-market purchases of coal have become commonplace. The economics associated with sulfur emissions control have caused many utilities to use Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coals. The PRB coals usually provide a lower-cost, medium-heating-value, low-sulfur fuel option. Although these coals possess similar overall or bulk compositional properties, their fireside performance characteristics vary considerably within a given boiler. Consequently, bulk compositional parameters and, hence, conventional indices such as the base-to-acid ratio, stagging factor, and fouling factor are inappropriate for predicting the fireside performance of PRB coals. The development of the computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) and chemical fractionation methods, however, has enabled a more thorough characterization of the inorganic constituents of PRB, coals that contribute to the following adverse operational effects: stagging, fouling, opacity, erosion and poor grindability, slag tapping, and sootblower performance. Eight predictive indices have been developed based primarily on CCSEM and chemical fractionation analysis parameters to predict the propensity of a given coal or coal blend to cause operational problems. The indices were formulated using bench-, pilot-, and full-scale combustion testing data from previous research projects combined with bench-scale data from this project to identify the primary coal inorganic properties that cause ash-related problems in utility boilers.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captur