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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:17am Addthis Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important. Low-pressure sodium lamps work somewhat like fluorescent lamps. Like high-intensity discharge lighting, low-pressure sodium lamps require up to 10 minutes to start and have to cool before they can restart. Therefore, they are most suitable for applications in which they stay on for hours at a time. They are not suitable for use with motion detectors. The chart below compares low-pressure sodium lamps and high-intensity

2

Sodium sulfide leaching of low-grade jamesonite concentrate in production of sodium pyroantimoniate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sodium sulfide leaching of a low-grade jamesonite concentrate in the production of sodium pyroantimoniate through the air oxidation process and the influencing factors on the leaching rate of antimony were...

Tian-zu Yang PhD; Ming-xi Jiang…

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Low pressure carbonylation of heterocycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heterocycles, e.g., epoxides, are carbonylated at low pressure with high percentage conversion to cyclic, ring expanded products using the catalyst ##STR00001## where L is tetrahydrofuran (THF).

Coates, Geoffrey W. (Lansing, NY); Kramer, John W. (Mt. Pleasant, MI); Schmidt, Joseph A. R. (Sylvania, OH)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

4

Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines alternative strategies for low-pressure end uses as a pathway to reduced compressed air energy costs.

5

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

6

Pressure-induced structural transformations of the Zintl phase sodium silicide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high-pressure behaviour of NaSi has been studied using Raman spectroscopy and angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction to observe the onset of structural phase transformations and potential oligomerisation into anionic Si nanoclusters with extended dimensionality. Our studies reveal a first structural transformation occurring at 8-10 GPa, followed by irreversible amorphisation above 15 GPa, suggesting the formation of Si-Si bonds with oxidation of the Si{sup -} species and reduction of Na{sup +} to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations to assist in the analysis of the structural behaviour of NaSi at high pressure. - Abstract: The high-pressure behaviour of NaSi has been studied using Raman spectroscopy and angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Our studies reveal a first structural transformation occurring at 8-10 GPa, followed by irreversible amorphisation, suggesting the formation of Si-Si bonds with oxidation of the Si{sup -} species and reduction of Na{sup +} to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations to assist in the analysis of the structural behaviour of NaSi at high pressure. Display Omitted

Cabrera, Raul Quesada; Salamat, Ashkan; Barkalov, Oleg I. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Leynaud, Olivier [Department of Crystallography, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Hutchins, Peter; Daisenberger, Dominik [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Machon, Denis [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, France-Univ. Lyon 1, Laboratoire PMCN, CNRS, UMR 5586, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sella, Andrea; Lewis, Dewi W. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); McMillan, Paul F., E-mail: p.f.mcmillan@ucl.ac.u [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

8

Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

9

Partial Pressure of Saturated Sodium Nitrite Vapor over the System NaNO2-NaNO3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The partial pressure of sodium nitrite was measured in the system NaNO2-NaNO3...at temperatures of 798, 823, and 848 K and the logarithm of the NaNO2 pressure was obtained as a function of inverse temperature. Th...

V. I. Glazov; G. P. Dukhanin; M. Kh. Dkhaibe…

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Propagation of light in low pressure gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The criticism by W. E. Lamb, W. Schleich, M. Scully, C. Townes of a simplified quantum electrodynamics which represents the photon as a true particle is illustrated. Collisions being absent in low-pressure gas, exchanges of energy are radiative and coherent. Thin shells of plasma containing atoms in a model introduced by Str\\"omgren are superradiant, seen as circles possibly dotted. Spectral radiance of novae has magnitude of laser radiance, and column densities are large in nebulae: Superradiance, multiphoton effects, etc., work in astrophysics. The superradiant beams induce multiphotonic scatterings of light emitted by the stars, brightening the limbs of plasma bubbles and darkening the stars. In excited atomic hydrogen, impulsive Raman scatterings shift frequencies of light. Microwaves exchanged with the Pioneer probes are blueshifted, simulating anomalous accelerations. Substituting coherence for wrong calculations in astrophysical papers, improves results, avoids "new physics".

Jacques Moret-Bailly

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

11

Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

Marra, John J

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

14

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

Development of the Low-Pressure Hydride/Dehydride Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The low-pressure hydride/dehydride process was developed from the need to recover thin-film coatings of plutonium metal from the inner walls of an isotope separation chamber located at Los Alamos and to improve the safety operation of a hydride recovery process using hydrogen at a pressure of 0.7 atm at Rocky Flats. This process is now the heart of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) project.

Rueben L. Gutierrez

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

NETL: Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007553 Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) is developing a new type of membrane contactor (or mega-module) to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plant flue gas. This module's membrane area is 500 square meters, 20 to 25 times larger than that of current modules used for CO2 capture. A 500-MWe coal power plant requires 0.5 to 1 million square meters of membrane to achieve 90 percent CO2 capture. The new mega-modules can drastically reduce the cost, complexity, and footprint of commercial-scale membrane module integration. Energy savings due to low-pressure drops for gases circulated through the modules, as well as improved countercurrent flow, are additional benefits. The feasibility of using mega-modules in several different hybrid process designs is being evaluated for future development potential.

17

Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of the Zintl Phase Sodium Silicide Ral Quesada Cabreraa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and reduction of Na+ to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations and germanides belong to the family of Zintl phases, in which polyanionic species, formed of the tetrelide atoms counterbalance the electropositive metal cations [1-3]. These compounds are interesting because the Si and Ge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

High-pressure elasticity of sodium majorite garnet, Na2MgSi5O12  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ceperley and Adler 1980; Perdew and Wang 1986; Perdew et al. 1991, 1996...pressure derivatives were reported. a Synchroton X-ray diffraction (Dymshits et...1895-1898. Perdew, J.P. and Wang, Y. (1986) Accurate and simple...

Mainak Mookherjee

20

LOW FLAMMABILITY FOAM-LIKE MATERIALS BASED ON EPOXY, TANNIC ACID, SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE CLAY.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Aerogels based on sodium montmorillonite clay, epoxy polymer, and tannic acid as a flame retardant additive were fabricated through a simple environmentally-friendly freeze drying process… (more)

Lang, Xiaolong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and a conductive polymer, while the solid electrolyte - based on cross-linked polyethylene oxide - forms a stable but ion-conducting barrier separating the liquid sodium...

22

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low-pressure dosing system treats wastewater and then pumps it into the soil several times daily. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of low-pressure dosing systems as well as estimated costs and maintenance requirements....

Lesikar, Bruce J.

1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

23

Manifestation of constrained dynamics in a low pressure spark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some features of neutron emission from dense plasma focus suggest that the participating deuterons have energy in the range of 105 eV and have a directionality of toroidal motion. Theoretical models of these devices assume that the plasma evolves through a purely irrotational flow and thus fail to predict such solenoidal flow on the scale of the plasma dimensions. Predictions of a relaxation theory are consistent with experimental data [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas,18, 032508 (2011)], but the assumptions upon which it is based are not compatible with known features of these devices. There is thus no satisfactory theoretical construct which provides the necessity for solenoidal flow in these devices. This paper proposes such theoretical construct, namely, the principle of constrained dynamics, and describes an experiment which provides support for this idea. The experiment consisted of low inductance, self-breaking spark discharge in helium at a pressure ~100 hPa between two pointed electrodes separated by...

Auluck, S K H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

Levin, Alan Edward

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-jet systems and their application for deposition of thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-jet systems and their application for deposition atmospheric discharge plasma jet. This system works at open air without any vacuum system. This system on polymer substrates. Under certain condition in the atmospheric plasma jet, these films have crystalline

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Low-pressure microwave plasma ultraviolet lamp for water purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-pressure mercury lamps are commonly used for germicidal applications. The germicidal effect is due to the emission of light at 254 nm, which leads to the destruction of the most waterborne bacteria and viruses. The microwave plasma ultraviolet (UV) lamp (MPUVL) is a new technology for generating a high-intensity UV light and that can be also controlled to operate at 185 nm; irradiation is in air at this wavelength produces ozone. The microwave power is injected into a resonant cavity and the surface wave excitation takes place within the cavity through that part of the discharge tube (fused silica) protruding inside it. The MPUVL has many advantages over conventional lamps, which are limited to an output power in the region of 30 W m-1, while MPUVL can deliver any amount of power per unit length and the tube can be of any shape, length or diameter. This paper describes the design of the MPUVL and compares its efficiency with that of conventional lamps through spectral analysis. Other results, which include the effects of temperature and different power inputs, are also discussed.

A I Al-Shamma'a; I Pandithas; J Lucas

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Microwave radiation by a relativistic electron beam propagation through low?pressure air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intense relativistic electron beams fired into air at varying pressures display a wide range of microwave signatures. These experiments held beam current energy and pulse length constant while varying gas pressure. Our observing window is 10 to 40 GHz. At low pressures (generated plasma frequencies. Power falls linearly with pressure above 20 mTorr until electron?Neutral collisions damp the emission at a few Torr. However weak 10 GHz emission appears at full atmospheric pressure.

S. Jordan; A. Ben?Amar Baranga; G. Benford; D. Tzach; K. Kato

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Photomicrography for the measurement of steam wetness fraction in low pressure turbines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The measurement of steam wetness fraction at the exit of a low-pressure (LP) turbine stage is important if the highest turbine performance is to be… (more)

Veeder, Tricia Sue

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Analysis of Low Pressure Steam Turbine Diffuser and Exhaust Hood Systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis concerns the computational modelling of low pressure (LP) steam turbine exhaust hood flows. A test case for LP last stage blades (LSBs) with… (more)

BURTON, ZOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

Not Available

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

THz Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A terahertz quantum cascade laser (QCL) has been successfully grown by low-pressure MOVPE. Very high quality semiconductor interfaces are demonstrated as well as very promising lasing...

Sirigu, Lorenzo; Rudra, Alok; Amanti, Maria I; Scalari, Giacomo; Fischer, Milan; Giovannini, Marcella; Faist, Jerome; Kapon, Eli

32

Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

Mark Leavitt

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Geophysical Prospecting, 2006, 54, 565573 Influence of pore pressure on velocity in low-porosity sandstone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than unity for low-porosity rocks and that it varies with porosity, rock texture and wave type. We Pressure strongly influences the mechanical and transport properties of rocks, such as porosity, velocity, permeability and resistivity. In a fluid-saturated rock, both pore pressure and confining pressure control

34

Low-Pressure, Metastable Growth of Diamond and "Diamondlike" Phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HYDROCARBON PLASMA, THIN SOLID...MICROWAVE PLASMA, JOURNAL...KAWARADA, H, LARGE AREA CHEMICAL...MAGNETOMICROWAVE PLASMA, JAPANESE...CARBON-FILMS BY RF GLOW-DISCHARGE...INDUCTION THERMAL PLASMA...DIAMOND AT ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE...JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE...

JOHN C. ANGUS; CLIFF C. HAYMAN

1988-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

35

Low-Cost Blood Pressure Monitor Device for Developing Countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Taking the Blood Pressure (BP) with a traditional sphygmomanometer requires a trained user. In developed countries, patients who need to monitor their BP at home usually acquire an electronic BP device with an...

Carlos Arteta; João S. Domingos…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A study of boiling water flow regimes at low pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"A comprehensive experimental program to examine flow regimes at pressures below 100 psia for boiling of water in tubes was carried out. An electrical probe, which measures the resistance of the fluid between the centerline ...

Fiori, Mario P.

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

As-deposited low-strain LPCVD (low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition) polysilicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As-deposited polysilicon films with very low residual strain (lower than 5 x 10/sup -5/) are obtained by a low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition (LPCVD) process. Straight polysilicon bridges 300 ..mu..m long, 1.2 ..mu..m thick, and 2 to 20 ..mu..m wide, made using this process. No buckling has been observed in any of the nearly one thousand bridges of this type made in two separate process runs. In addition, no problems of sticking between the bridges and the substrate were encountered with these structures. The polysilicon films from which the beams were fabricated were deposited by pyrolyzing silane at 605/degree/C on a phosphosilicate-glass (PSG) layer (8 wt % P). The PSG layer serves as a sacrificial layer to be subsequently etched away to free the bridge. Our research is aimed at obtaining an understanding of these relationships through consideration of the role of interfacial stresses and the kinetics of initial crystalline nucleation. The technique for producing these low-strain films is significant, however, because no high-temperature annealing steps are required to produce them. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Fan, L.S.; Muller, R.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

High-Current Gas Discharge at Low Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Probe measurements in a mercury-vapour arc tube (diameter 54 mm.) at pressures less than 10-3 mm. show that ... than 10-3 mm. show that at currents greater than 50 amp. the radial_electric field Es is negligible compared to the term w1H except close to the tube walls ...

P. C. THONEMANN; W. T. COWHIG

1950-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

39

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory results of a comprehensive, regulatory performance test program, utilizing an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using a 53 millimeter, Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of type three, air blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, containing about 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium and strontium was utilized. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, forty, fifty and sixty wt % salt. Performance test results include the ninety day ANS 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP Toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented also include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements.

Mattus, A.J.; Kaczmarsky, M.M.

1986-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Near-surface generation of negative ions in low-pressure discharges* E. Stoffelsa)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and negative ion fluxes arriving at the electrodes in an oxygen parallel-plate radio-frequency rf, 13.56 MHz processes of negative ions in low-pressure plasmas are not yet fully understood: as a rule experiments-pressure discharges and can have large impacts on the bulk plasma chemistry. We monitor energy-resolved positive

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

42

Low pressure vinylation of aryl and vinyl halides via HeckMizoroki reactions using ethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low pressure vinylation of aryl and vinyl halides via Heck­Mizoroki reactions using ethylene Craig with ethylene under ambient pressure (15­30 psi) to give the corresponding vinylarenes. The reactions work of ethylene) of functionalized vinylarenes and 1,3-di- enes.4 When fully developed, we hope, many

RajanBabu, T. V. "Babu"

43

The current-voltage characteristic of a hot-cathode electric arc at low pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been shown that in a hot-cathode electric arc operating at low pressures of the working ... drop arises that results in an increase in discharge voltage with current even before the transition of the discharge

C. P. Nikulin

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Characteristics of Low Pressure Systems Associated with Intraseasonal Oscillation of Rainfall over Bangladesh during Boreal Summer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characteristics of low pressure systems (LPSs) responsible for submonthly-scale (7–25 days) intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) in rainfall over Bangladesh and their impact on the amplitude of active peaks are investigated for 29 summer monsoon ...

Daisuke Hatsuzuka; Tetsuzo Yasunari; Hatsuki Fujinami

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Water purification of nitrates by low-pressure reverse osmosis method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper has investigated possibilities and basic regularities of water purification of nitrates by low pressure reverse osmosis. The negative influence of chlorides and sulfates ... made on expediency of using ...

V. V. Goncharuk; V. O. Osipenko…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Behavior of alloy 617 at 650°C in low oxygen pressure environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The behavior of alloy 617 at 650°C in low oxygen partial pressure environments has been studied under static loading. Of particular interest was the crack growth rate in these conditions. For that, tests were conducted at ...

Mas, Fanny (Fanny P.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Failure Analysis of Nozzle Guide Vane of a Low Pressure Turbine in an Aero Gas Turbine Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure of low pressure turbine nozzle guide vane (NGV) in an aero gas turbine engine is analyzed to determine its root ... failure has caused extensive damages in low pressure turbine modules. Remedial measures ...

R. K. Mishra; Johney Thomas; K. Srinivasan…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Minor Actinide Transmutation Physics for Low Conversion Ratio Sodium Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of varying the reprocessing strategy used in the closed cycle of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SNF) prototype are presented in this paper. The isotopic vector from the aqueous separation of transuranic (TRU) elements in Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is assumed to also vary according to the reprocessing strategy of the closed fuel cycle. The decay heat, gamma energy, and neutron emission of the fuel discharge at equilibrium are found to vary depending on the separation strategy. The SFR core used in this study corresponds to a burner configuration with a conversion ratio of ~0.5 based on the Super-PRISM design. The reprocessing strategies stemming from the choice of either metal or oxide fuel for the SFR are found to have a large impact on the equilibrium discharge decay heat, gamma energy, and neutron emission. Specifically, metal fuel SFR with pyroprocessing of the discharge produces the largest amount of TRU consumption (166 kg per Effective Full Power Year or EFPY), but also the highest decay heat, gamma energy, and neutron emission. On the other hand, an oxide fuel SFR with PUREX reprocessing minimizes the decay heat and related parameters of interest to a minimum, even when compared to thermal Mixed Oxide (MOX) or Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) on a per mass basis. On an assembly basis, however, the metal SFR discharge has a lower decay heat than an equivalent oxide SFR assembly for similar minor actinide consumptions (~160 kg/EFPY.) Another disadvantage in the oxide PUREX reprocessing scenario is that there is no consumption of americium and curium, since PUREX reprocessing separates these minor actinides (MA) and requires them to be disposed of externally.

Mehdi Asgari; Samuel E. Bays; Benoit Forget; Rodolfo Ferrer

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Low differential pressure and multiphase flow measurements by means of differential pressure devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The response of slotted plate, Venturi meter and standard orifice to the presence of two phase, three phase and low differential flows was investigated. Two mixtures (air-water and air-oil) were used in the two-phase analysis while a mixture of air...

Justo, Hernandez Ruiz,

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH3COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH3CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH3COOK) or (LiBr + CH3CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H2O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

Antonio de Lucas; Marina Donate; Juan F. Rodríguez

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K. (UAB)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. An "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates an electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer. Furthermore, chambers maintained at different pressures can allow for more optimal operating conditions for an electrospray emitter and an ion guide.

Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S (Kennewick, WA); Kelly, Ryan T (West Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D (Richland, WA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

54

Simulation of an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-dimensional fluid model has been used to investigate the properties of plasma in an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge. We compared the simulation results with the theoretical and experimental results of the other gas discharge in which the magnetic field is considered. Results that obtained using this method are in good agreement with literature. The simulation results show that the positive ammonia ion density follows the positive argon ion density. The Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sup +} density at 100 mTorr. The largest ammonia ion is NH{sub 3}{sup +} ion, followed by NH{sub 2}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and NH{sup +} ions. The contribution of NH{sup +} ions to the density of the positive ammonia ions is marginal. The influence of pressure on the plasma discharge has been studied by simulation, and the mechanisms have been discussed. The average plasma density increases as pressure increased. The plasma density appears to be more inhomogeneous than that at the lower pressure. The ratio of charge particles changed as pressure increased. The Ar{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density as the pressure increased. It makes NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratio increase as pressure increased. It shows that the electron temperature drops with rising pressure by numerical calculation.

Li Zhi [School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Zhen [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [Physiccal Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 × 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 × 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Observations of an Impurity-driven Hysteresis Behavior in Ice Crystal Growth at Low Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanisms for this instability, which can be used to produce clean, faceted ice surfaces. 1 IntroductionObservations of an Impurity-driven Hysteresis Behavior in Ice Crystal Growth at Low Pressure Abstract. We describe observations of a novel hysteresis behavior in the growth of ice crystals under near

Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

58

Performance characteristics of a low pressure cyclone for axial-flow fan exhausts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pneumatically convey lint fiber to the first-stage lint cleaner. typically, covered condenser drums with fine mesh screens are the abatement devices used on a)axial-flow fan exhausts. A new ID2D Low Pressure Cyclone (LPC) was developed that could be used...

Simpson, Shay Lynn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

Simulation of subcooled boiling at low pressure conditions with RELAP5-3D computer program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Experimental data from the subcooled boiling experiment at low pressure conditions of Bartel, and Zeitoun and Shoukri were simulated. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 was executed to determine the axial void faction distribution. The predictions of void fraction distributions...

Reza, S.M. Mohsin

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Low Pressure Separations Using Automated Flow and Sequential Injection Analysis Coupled to Monolithic Columns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......sary. A schematic diagram of such a setup is depicted...cation-SR sorbent material they managed to pre-con...of porous monolithic material (e.g., low-pressure...for on-line sample handling and pre-treatment...gel bonded packing materials for capillary electrochromatogra......

Fotini S. Kika

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

DNA combing on low-pressure oxygen plasma modified polysilsesquioxane substrates for single-molecule studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DNA combing on low-pressure oxygen plasma modified polysilsesquioxane substrates for single-molecule.1063/1.4878635 A highly parallel microfluidic droplet method enabling single-molecule counting for digital enzyme-treatment and molecular diagnosis Biomicrofluidics 6, 034119 (2012); 10.1063/1.4748358 Single molecule analysis

62

Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a high-speed video system. A fast photo detector is used to measure the scaling of the cavitation fluc- tuations by measuring the light scattered from cavitating bubbles in a small region of the flowUsing cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence A

La Porta, Arthur

63

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

64

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

65

Gas-phase reaction study of disilane pyrolysis: Applications to low pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-phase thermal reactions during disilane decomposition at low pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions were studied from 300 to 1,000 K using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI). REMPI of gas-phase Si, mass 28, was detected from 640 to 840 K and 1 to 10 Torr, with a maximum signal intensity between 700 to 720 K. During disilane decomposition, no SiH (427.8 nm), SiH[sub 2] (494-515 nm), or SiH[sub 3] (419.0 nm) was detected. MPI of higher silanes, silenes, and silylenes were detected through mass fragments 2, 32, and 60; these species reached a maximum signal intensity 20 degrees prior to the mass-28 maximum. Modeling studies that included a detailed low pressure gas-phase kinetic scheme predict relative gas-phase partial pressures generated during disilane pyrolysis. The model predicted experimental trends in the Si partial pressure and the higher silane, silene, and silylene partial pressures.

Johannes, J.E.; Ekerdt, J.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 C). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Keven K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Manufacturing and properties of newly developed 9%CrMoVNiNbN high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to obtain the improved strength and toughness for high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging, fundamental studies using laboratory heats were performed on the 9CrMoV base materials, and effects of chemistry on toughness and creep rupture strength were investigated. From the investigation, it is showed that the superclean 9CrMoVNiNbN steel with reduced Si and Mn contents and Ni addition provides a superior strength versus toughness balance. Based on these fundamental studies, a trial high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging with diameter of low-pressure section of 1,750 mm and diameter of high-pressure section of 1,200 mm was successfully manufactured from the diameter of 1,800 mm, and the weight of 65 ton ESR ingot. From the evaluation test results of this trial rotor forging, homogeneous distribution of chemistry was confirmed and low impurity contents was observed in the whole forging. The superior strength and toughness were confirmed with good creep rupture strength. The FATT at the center of low-pressure section was {minus}3 C with the tensile strength level of 870 MPa. From the results of fracture toughness test, low cycle fatigue test, and isothermal aging test, superior mechanical properties were demonstrated. Thus, the superclean 9CrMoVNiNbN steel with reduced Si and Mn contents and Ni addition, is particularly suitable for the high-pressure low-pressure rotor material for advanced combined cycle power plants.

Azuma, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Tohru; Yoshida, Hajime; Ikeda, Yasumi [Japan Steel Works, Muroran (Japan)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Technical Note: Comments on "A Low-cost Device for Chromatographic Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Reduced Pressures"  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Comments on "A Low-cost Device for Chromatographic Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Reduced Pressures...Chornet reported a low-cost device for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis...routine analyses on the production line are performed by the......

John Chih-An Hu

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Pressure-Induced Transformations of the Low-Cristobalite Phase of GaPO4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tsuneyuki et al. predicted a new high pressure phase of silica using a molecular dynamics calculation; this calculation was novel in that it predicted a new crystal structure using only a knowledge of the chemical composition [Nature (London) 339, 209 (1989)]. We report that the low-cristobalite phase of GaPO4 undergoes a pressure-induced transition at 15.9 GPa to this novel phase, which contains tetrahedral and octahedral coordination shells of oxygen atoms around the phosphorus and gallium atoms, respectively. This pressure-induced coordination change in GaPO4 verifies a mechanism proposed for the tetrahedral-to-octahedral coordination change in minerals that occurs in the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle.

Julie L. Robeson; Robert R. Winters; William S. Hammack

1994-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

71

Experimental Rankine cycle engine designed for utilization of low temperature, low pressure heat. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a Rankine cycle engine using Freon 11 as working fluid, for the utilization of low temperature heat sources is described together with the results obtained. The experimental investigations showed that the engine performance is in good agreement with the calculated values; that the mechanical behavior of some components is not yet satisfactory; and that the working fluid (Freon 11) is not completely reliable in the higher temperatures range. An extension of the feasibility study dealing mainly with engine behavior and fluid suitability is envisaged, using either Freon 113 or a fluorine compound of the composition CmF(2m+2).

Cipolla, G.; Margary, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

2110 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 37, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Low-Pressure Helicon-Plasma Discharge Initiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flow rates and pressures (en,iz > Lsystem) and high magnetic fields (above the threshold value. INTRODUCTION INITIATION of low-pressure helicon discharges is important for several areas of low-temperature in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPS.2009

Scharer, John E.

73

Highly efficient oxidation of silicon at low temperatures using atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon oxide ( Si O 2 ) layers were formed with initial oxidation rates in the range of 6.2 – 14.1 nm ? min in the temperature range of 150 – 400 ° C by oxidizing Si(001) wafers. Such a high-rate and low-temperature oxidation was realized by using a stable glow He ? O 2 plasma excited at atmospheric pressure by a 150 MHz very high-frequency power. Increasing the temperature led to both the higher oxidation rate and the better quality of Si O 2 and Si O 2 ? Si interface. The oxidation at 400 ° C showed an interface trap density of 6.2 × 10 10 eV ? 1 cm ? 2 which is considerably lower than that in a radical oxidation process using low-pressure He ? O 2 plasma at the same temperature.

Hiroaki Kakiuchi; Hiromasa Ohmi; Makoto Harada; Heiji Watanabe; Kiyoshi Yasutake

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Highly efficient oxidation of silicon at low temperatures using atmospheric pressure plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers were formed with initial oxidation rates in the range of 6.2-14.1 nm/min in the temperature range of 150-400 deg. C by oxidizing Si(001) wafers. Such a high-rate and low-temperature oxidation was realized by using a stable glow He/O{sub 2} plasma excited at atmospheric pressure by a 150 MHz very high-frequency power. Increasing the temperature led to both the higher oxidation rate and the better quality of SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/Si interface. The oxidation at 400 deg. C showed an interface trap density of 6.2x10{sup 10} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, which is considerably lower than that in a radical oxidation process using low-pressure He/O{sub 2} plasma at the same temperature.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Harada, Makoto; Watanabe, Heiji; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

75

Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method are disclosed that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. A novel "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates the electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer.

Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S. (Kennewick, WA); Kelly, Ryan T. (Wet Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

78

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Energy distribution of electron flux at electrodes in a low pressure capacitively coupled plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) model is used to examine the energy distribution of electron flux at electrodes [labeled g{sub e}({epsilon},t), where {epsilon} is energy and t is time] in a low pressure 60 MHz capacitively coupled Ar discharge. The effect of gas pressure and an auxiliary DC voltage on g{sub e}({epsilon},t) is also investigated. It is found that the electrons only leave the plasma for a short time period during the radio-frequency (RF) cycle when the sheath collapses at the electrode. Furthermore, majority of the exiting electrons have energies below 10 eV with a distribution g{sub e}({epsilon},t) that is narrow in both energy and time. At relatively high pressures ({>=}4.67 Pa for the conditions considered), the relationship between the time-average distribution g{sub e}({epsilon}) and electron temperature in the plasma (T{sub e}) can be easily established. Below 4.67 Pa, kinetic effects become important, making it difficult to interpret g{sub e}({epsilon}) in terms of T{sub e}. At low pressures, g{sub e}({epsilon},t) is found to broaden in both energy and time except for a narrow pressure range around 1.2 Pa where the distribution narrows temporally. These low pressure kinetic phenomena are observed when the electrons can be accelerated by expanding sheaths to speeds that allow them to traverse the inter-electrode distance quickly (<1.5 RF cycles for conditions considered) and when electrons undergo few collisions during this excursion. The mean energy of exiting electrons increases with decreasing gas pressure, especially below 1.0 Pa, due to higher T{sub e} and secondary electrons retaining a larger fraction of the energy they gained during initial sheath acceleration. For the relatively small DC voltages examined ( Double-Vertical-Line V{sub dc} Double-Vertical-Line /V{sub rf} {<=} 0.15), the application of a negative DC voltage on an electrode decreases the electron flux there but has a weak impact on the g{sub e} profile.

Rauf, Shahid; Dorf, Leonid; Kenney, Jason; Collins, Ken [Applied Materials, Inc., 974 E. Arques Ave., Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

80

A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Selective etching of dislocations in GaN grown by low-pressure solution growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents an experimental study on the identification and quantification of different types of dislocations in GaN grown by low-pressure solution growth. A reliable defect selective etching procedure in a NaOH-KOH melt is developed and validated using transmission electron microscopy that permits to define groups of etch pits that belong each to dislocations with a specific Burgers vector. This way a comparably fast method is provided for determining the total, the specific dislocation densities and the type of dislocation in a statistically representative way. The results for the solution grown samples are compared to those obtained for MOCVD GaN.

I.Y. Knoke; P. Berwian; E. Meissner; J. Friedrich; H.P. Strunk; G. Müller

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Electrical studies and plasma characterization of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet operated at low frequency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-temperature high-pressure plasma jets have an extensive use in medical and biological applications. Much work has been devoted to study these applications while comparatively fewer studies appear to be directed to the discharge itself. In this work in order to better understand the kind of electrical discharge and the plasma states existing in those devices a study of the electrical characteristics of a typical plasma jet operated at atmospheric pressure using either air or argon is reported. It is found that the experimentally determined electrical characteristics are consistent with the model of a thermal arc discharge with a highly collisional cathode sheet. The only exception is the case of argon at the smallest electrode separation studied around 1?mm in which case the discharge is better modeled as either a non-thermal arc or a high-pressure glow. Also variations of the electrical behavior at different gas flow rates are interpreted consistently with the arc model in terms of the development of fluid turbulence in the external jet.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Operation of a THGEM-based detector in low-pressure Helium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), the operating properties of THick Gaseous Electron Multipliers (THGEM) in pure low-pressure Helium were investigated. This paper includes the effective gain dependence on pressure for different detector configurations (single-, double-, triple-cascade setup), long-term gain stability and energy resolution from tracks of 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Stable operational conditions and maximum detector gains of 10^4-10^7 have been achieved in pure Helium at pressure ranging from 100 torr up to 760 torr. Energy resolution of 6.65% (FWHM) for 690 keV of energy deposited by 5.5 MeV alpha particles at 350 torr was measured. The expected energy resolution for the full track is around 2.4% (FWHM). These results, together with the robustness of THGEM electrodes against spark damage, make THGEM structures highly competitive compared to other technologies considered for TPC applications in an active targ...

Cortesi, Marco; Stolz, Andreas

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Vertical interference pressure testing across a low-permeability zone with unsteady crossflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing analytical models for interpreting vertical interference pressure tests across the low permeability zone in a three-layered reservoir usually assume transient radial flow in the high permeability layers and pseudo-steady vertical crossflow in the intervening tight zone. The neglect of vertical flow in the high permeability layers, and the neglect of radial flow in the tight layer, requires the permeability contrast between these layers to be large. However, when this assumption is satisfied, it is also very likely that the pressure diffusivity in the tight layer is much smaller than that in the high permeability layers. Thus, to be consistent, the flow across the tight layer must be treated as an unsteady diffusive process driven by the transient pressure changes occurring in the high permeability layers. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis by replacing their pseudo-steady crossflow assumption with unsteady crossflow and interpret the crossflow response in terms of near- and far-boundary flow response functions for the tight zone. The inclusion of unsteady crossflow requires one additional dimensionless parameter and results in a set of governing equations that are different from, but are similar to, the equations of the dual-porosity dual-permeability model with unsteady interporosity flow.

Wijesinghe, A.M.; Kececioglu, I.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

The Heating of Electrons in Magnetic Traps of Low-Pressure Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Microwave-Frequency Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods are analyzed of maintaining plasma in low-pressure electron-cyclotron-resonance reactors in which the ionization is ... The key part played by zones of electron-cyclotron heating of electrons by the elect...

A. B. Petrin

86

Plasma-Assisted Reduction of Graphene Oxide at Low Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure for Flexible Conductor Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma-Assisted Reduction of Graphene Oxide at Low Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure for Flexible Conductor Applications ... The method allows rapid deoxygenation of bulk graphite oxide (GO) in an atmosphere of ... ...

Seung Whan Lee; Cecilia Mattevi; Manish Chhowalla; R. Mohan Sankaran

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

87

Low-pressure fractionation of strongly undersaturated alkaline ultrabasic magma: the olivine-melilite-nephelinite at Moiliili, Oahu, Hawaii  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Moiliili fractionation sequence confirms the low-pressure trend olivine-melilite-nephelinite?melilite-bearing nephelinite, previously defined on the basis of relationships in the synthetic system diopside-akermanite

J. F. G. Wilkinson; A. J. Stolz

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Initiation of a low-pressure glow discharge in a plasma electron source with a ribbon beam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results are presented from an experimental investigation of a low-pressure glow discharge with a wedge-shaped hollow cathode in a plasma electron source, where this discharge is initiated by reflex...

V. Ya. Martens

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

90

Structural integrity assessment of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure vessels using a simplified fracture mechanics procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a simplified fracture analysis procedure which was developed by Pellini to quantify fracture critical-crack sizes and crack-arrest temperatures of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure vessels. Fracture analysis diagrams have been developed using the simplified analysis procedure for various grades of carbon and low-alloy steels used in the construction of ASME, Section VIII, Division 1 pressure vessels. Structural integrity assessments have been conducted from the analysis diagrams.

Rana, M.D. (Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Determination of formation permeability using back-pressure test data from hydraulically-fractured, low-permeability gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF FORMATION PERMEABILITY USING BACX-PRESSURE TEST DATA FROM HYDRAULICALLY-FRACTURED, LOW-PERMEABILITY GAS WELLS A Thesis JOHN PAUL KRAWTZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AsJ4 University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major subject: petroleum Engineering DETERMINATION OF FORMATION PERMEABILITY USING BACK-PRESSURE TEST DATA FROM HYDRAULICALLY-FRACTURED, LOW-PERMEABILITY GAS WELLS A Thesis JOHN PAUL KRAWTZ...

Krawtz, John Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

92

Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The increasing number of open hole horizontal well completions in low-pressure and depleted reservoirs requires the use of non-damaging low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) to avoid formation damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address...

Chen, Guoqiang

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Solutions and Their Effects on Fluid Flow in Unsaturated Media Tianfu Xu and Karsten Pruess Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT. Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of

94

Temporary CO2 Capture Shut Down: Implications on Low Pressure Steam Turbine Design and Efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Natural gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) with post combustion capture using liquid solvents may in some cases be of interest to design with a flexible steam bottoming cycle, so that it can operate both with and without CO2 capture. It is then important that the choice of the low pressure (LP) steam turbine exhaust size is made accordingly. The paper describes why a flexible NGCC requires a LP steam turbine with smaller exhaust than the corresponding NGCC without CO2 capture, and how this will affect the LP turbine exhaust loss and NGCC process efficiency. Handling large variations in LP steam flow is in fact well- known technology in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, and the use of 3D simulation tools can further help making the best LP steam turbine design choice.

Marcus Thern; Kristin Jordal; Magnus Genrup

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Collisionless electron heating by radio frequency bias in low gas pressure inductive discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show experimental observations of collisionless electron heating by the combinations of the capacitive radio frequency (RF) bias power and the inductive power in low argon gas pressure RF biased inductively coupled plasma (ICP). With small RF bias powers in the ICP, the electron energy distribution (EED) evolved from bi-Maxwellian distribution to Maxwellian distribution by enhanced plasma bulk heating and the collisionless sheath heating was weak. In the capacitive RF bias dominant regime, however, high energy electrons by the RF bias were heated on the EEDs in the presence of the ICP. The collisionless heating mechanism of the high energy electrons transited from collisionless inductive heating to capacitive coupled collisionless heating by the electron bounce resonance in the RF biased ICP.

Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

96

DURABILITY OF VERY LOW CAPACITY PRESSURE ATOMIZED FUEL NOZZLES USED WITH LOW FIRING RATE RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNERS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 microns and with large filter capacity (surface area), should be used with all oil burner installations. The other possible failure mode had been attributed to fuel degradation and this became the main focus of the evaluation. The degradation of fuel usually occurs faster under higher temperature conditions. To preclude this as much as possible controls that provided for a post-purge of combustion airflow after burner shut down were selected. This provided a short period of time where the burner's combustion air blower continues to operate after the flame has gone out. This tends to cool the nozzle and in turn the fuel inside the small flow pathways inside the nozzle components. This study concludes that the use of low capacity nozzles is possible but only when the temperature and thermal mass environment of the combustion chamber result in a relatively ''cool'' condition. This was accomplished in one long-term experiment that essentially operated for a full heating season equivalent with no evidence of nozzle plugging or failure. The nozzle body surface temperature was kept at or below 150 F during the duration of the trial. On the other hand, a second system was studied that ended in a partial nozzle blockage and a system failure. In this ''hot environment'' system the nozzle body temperature reached 210 F. This occurred at close to a full heating season equivalent, yet it still would have resulted in a no-heat complaint by the homeowner.

MCDONALD,R.J.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Efficient modification of the surface properties of interconnected porous hydroxyapatite by low-pressure low-frequency plasma treatment to promote its biological performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at low pressure is found to significantly improve the biological performance of artificial bones made of interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). One of the essential parameters associated with their biological performance is hydrophilicity of their exterior surfaces as well as surfaces of inner pores. It is found that plasma treatment at low pressures is highly effective in making the inner pore surfaces more hydrophilic. Preliminary in vivo experiments of plasma-treated IP-CHA artificial bones in rats have shown fast formation of blood vessels in their inner pores, implying the increase in osteoconductivity due to the plasma treatment.

Dae-Sung Lee; Yu Moriguchi; Akira Myoui; Hideki Yoshikawa; Satoshi Hamaguchi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers. Final report, Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal regulations banned the production of CFC-11 on January 1, 1996. HCFC-123, the only commercial alternative, will be limited to service applications after January 1, 2020 and will be eliminated from production on January 1, 2030. HFC-245ca has been identified as a potential replacement for CFC-11 in retrofit applications and for HCFC-123 in new chillers, but the marginal flammability of HFC-245ca is a major obstacle to its commercial use as a refrigerant in the United States. This report assesses the commercial viability of HFC-245ca based on its experimental performance in a direct drive low pressure centrifugal chiller exclusive of its flammability characteristics. Three different impeller diameters were tested in the chiller, with all impellers having identical discharge blade angles. Experimental work included tests in a 200 ton 3 stage direct drive chiller with 3 impeller sets properly sized for each of three refrigerants, CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HFC-245ca. The commercial viability assessment focused on both retrofit and new product performance and cost.

Keuper, E.F. [Trane Co., LaCrosse, WI (United States)] [Trane Co., LaCrosse, WI (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

High-voltage nanosecond pulses in a low-pressure radio-frequency discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An influence of a high-voltage (3–17 kV) 20 ns pulse on a weakly-ionized low-pressure (0.1–10 Pa) capacitively coupled radiofrequency (RF) argon plasma is studied experimentally. The plasma evolution after pulse exhibits two characteristic regimes: a bright flash, occurring within 100 ns after the pulse (when the discharge emission increases by 2–3 orders of magnitude over the steady-state level), and a dark phase, lasting a few hundreds ?s (when the intensity of the discharge emission drops significantly below the steady-state level). The electron density increases during the flash and remains very large at the dark phase. 1D3V particle-in-cell simulations qualitatively reproduce both regimes and allow for detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. It is found that the high-voltage nanosecond pulse is capable of removing a significant fraction of plasma electrons out of the discharge gap, and that the flash is the result of the excitation of gas atoms, triggered by residual electrons accelerated in the electric field of immobile bulk ions. The secondary emission from the electrodes due to vacuum UV radiation plays an important role at this stage. High-density plasma generated during the flash provides efficient screening of the RF field (which sustains the steady-state plasma). This leads to the electron cooling and, hence, onset of the dark phase.

M. Y. Pustylnik; L. Hou; A. V. Ivlev; L. M. Vasilyak; L. Couëdel; H. M. Thomas; G. E. Morfill; V. E. Fortov

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Costly low pressure bearing support cracking problem resolved through additive damping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The component is the low pressure bearing support (LPBS) of the TF?41 jet engine. The LPBS was experiencing high cycle fatigue failures in the four vanes used to supply and scavage oil for the front bearing. High cycle fatigue failure in this vane case assembly is a general problem in currently operating turbine engines. A program was conducted to design and engine test a constrained layer damping wrap to control the problem. This project was conducted as a cost savings alternative to the current high maintenance effort to repair the high cycle fatigue cracks and the redesign of the component and implementation of the new component in the fleet. The requirement for the damping treatment was to significantly reduce the dynamic response (and thus reduce the dynamic stresses) of the oil carrying vanes in their operating temperature range; and the thickness of the application was to be not greater than 0.016 in. so as not to affect engine performance. The laboratory test showed a factor of ten decrease in dynamic response due to the application of the damper wrap while the engine test cell run showed a dynamic stress reduction of eighty to ninety percent. This paper will describe the utilization of modal analysis data for damping treatment planning the process for damping treatment design optimization and proof testing on an operational engine. [This work was supported by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory.

M. L. Drake; R. C. Goodman

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

102

Structural phase transitions in EuFe[subscript 2]As[subscript 2] superconductor at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has been studied up to a pressure of 35 GPa and down to a temperature of 8 K using temperature dependent x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at a synchrotron source. At 4.3 GPa, we have detected a structural phase transition from a high temperature tetragonal phase with I4/mmm space group to a low temperature orthorhombic phase with Fmmm space group around 120 K. With the application of pressure at a low temperature of 10 K, the orthorhombic phase is suppressed and a phase change to a collapsed tetragonal phase with I4/mmm space group is observed at 11 GPa. This collapsed tetragonal phase is similar to the one observed at ambient temperature and pressure above 8.5 GPa. We have shown that the collapsed tetragonal phase of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has the same pressure-volume (P-V) equation of state at ambient temperature and at 10 K, implying that the high pressure phase of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has a negligible thermal expansion coefficient.

Uhoya, Walter O.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; McGuire, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S. (UAB); (ORNL)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

103

MHUG process for production of low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel. [Medium-pressure Hydro UpGrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new hydro-upgrading process operated under medium pressure has been developed to reduce the sulfur and the aromatics content in light cycle oil (LCO). Two catalysts were used in series in this technology. The commercial RN-1 catalyst, which is known as having high activity in hydrodenitrogenation, desulfurization and aromatic saturation, was chosen as the first catalyst. The second one was a nickel-tungsten zeolite catalyst, named RT-5, which was developed by RIPP specially for hydrogenolysis of naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The pilot plant tests showed that high quality diesel oil with aromatics content less than 20 v% and sulfur content less than 0.05 wt% could be produced from various LCO/straight-run-gas-oil (SRGO) blended feedstocks under hydrogen partial pressure of 6.4 MPa. The reaction temperature and overall space velocity (S.V.) varied in the range of 350--380 C and 0.6--1.2 h[sup [minus]1], respectively, depending on the properties of the feedstocks to be processed and the upgrading depth required. Several examples presented also illustrated that this technology could be used to prepare catalytic reforming feedstock as well, which is in urgent need in China. A life test operated in relatively high severity for 3,000 hr. indicated that the catalysts possessed excellent stability. A commercial demonstration unit has been running well since the last Oct 1.

Shi, Yu Lin; Shi, Jian Wen; Zhang, Xin Wei; Shi, Ya Hua; Li, Da Dong (SINOPEC, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Petroleum Processing)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Preparation of high-Tc superconducting thick films and power conducting tubes by a low-pressure plasma spraying  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconducting thick films of YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO systems have been prepared using a low-pressure plasma spraying technique. The chemical composition of the deposits was very close to that of the spraying powders. After the post-annealing, films showed zero resistance temperatures: Tc of -- 90K for YBaCuO and -- 60K for BiSrCaCuO, respectively. The superconducting power tubes were successfully produced by a low-pressure plasma spraying. 100 - 200..mu..m thick YBaCuO superconducting films were deposited on the outer surface of the Ni-plated Cu tubes. After the post- annealing at 930/sup 0/C for 1 hr, the films exhibited Tc of 85 - 90K. An improved film preparation process, where a flux layer is coated on the Y/sub 1/Ba/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ matrix layer by a low-pressure plasma spraying, has been developed. Enhanced critical currents have been achieved through this process.

Tachikawa, K.; Ono, M.; Shinbo, Y.; Suzuk, T.; Kabasawa, M.; Kosuge, S.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

Shook, G. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID); LeRoy, Samuel D. (Houston, TX); Benzing, William M. (Tulsa, OK)

2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

106

Energy cost improvement of the nitrogen oxides synthesis in a low pressure plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of XIXth century, the synthesis of nitrogen oxides by an electric discharge through the air has been a microwave discharge. The total pressure is equal to 50 torr. The optimal value of energy consumption, equal with the industrial process used at present, and by 78 % in comparison with those obtained with a plasmajet arc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Pressure induced high spin-low spin transition in FeSe superconductor studied by x-ray emission spectroscopy and ab initio calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FeSe is a simple binary system in the iron based superconducting family and exhibits a significant pressure induced increase in the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}). In addition to pressure effect, spin fluctuations, magnetic ordering, and crystal structure all play vital roles in altering T{sub c}. Even though various experiments and theoretical simulations explain the connection among them and superconductivity, the interplay between these important parameters is still not clearly understood. Here, we report the pressure effect on the spin state of Fe in FeSe superconductor studied using synchrotron x-ray emission spectroscopy at ambient and low temperatures down to 8 K near T{sub c}. Pressure induced high spin to low spin transition was observed at both ambient and low temperatures with continuous suppression of Fe magnetic moments under increasing pressure. The spin transition is closely related to the pressure induced tetragonal to orthorhombic structural transition.

Kumar, Ravhi S.; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Yuming; Baker, Jason; Cornelius, Andrew; Veeramalai, Sathishkumar; Chow, Paul; Chen, Changfeng; Zhao, Yusheng (UNLV); (CIW)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

108

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

109

Properties of nitrogen doped silicon films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition from disilane and ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrogen doped silicon films have been deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition from disilane Si2H6 and ammonia NH3. Deposition kinetics is investigated, pointing out the influences of the deposition temperature, the total pressure and the gas flow rates. According to the Bruggeman theory, variations of the NH3/Si2H6 gaseous ratio allow for a wide range of the SiNx stoichiometry as well as a good control of the film nitrogen doping. The different behaviours of the nitrogen atom in silicon films are discussed and an overview of the nitrogen doped silicon physical properties (optical, mechanical and electrical) is proposed for the development of boron-doped polysilicon gates.

P Temple-Boyer; L Jalabert; E Couderc; E Scheid; P Fadel; B Rousset

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Experimental investigation of supersonic low pressure air plasma flows obtained with different arc-jet operating conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A stationary arc-jet plasma flow at low pressure is used to simulate some properties of the gas flow surrounding a vehicle during its entry into celestial body's atmospheres. This paper presents an experimental study concerning plasmas simulating a re-entry into our planet. Optical measurements have been carried out for several operating plasma conditions in the free stream, and in the shock layer formed in front of a flat cylindrical plate, placed in the plasma jet. The analysis of the spectral radiation enabled the identification of the emitting species, the determination of the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the free-stream and in the shock layer and the determination of the distance of the shock to the flat plate face. Some plasma fluid parameters like, stagnation pressure, specific enthalpy and heat flux have been determined experimentally along the plasma-jet axis.

Lago, Viviana; Ndiaye, Abdoul-Aziz [Laboratoire ICARE CNRS, 1C Av. de la Recherche Scientifique 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

111

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Low loss hollow optical-waveguide connection from atmospheric pressure to ultra-high vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technique for optically accessing ultra-high vacuum environments, via a photonic-crystal fiber with a long small hollow core, is described. The small core and the long bore enable a pressure ratio of over 10{sup 8} to be maintained between two environments, while permitting efficient and unimpeded delivery of light, including ultrashort optical pulses. This delivery can be either passive or can encompass nonlinear optical processes such as optical pulse compression, deep UV generation, supercontinuum generation, or other useful phenomena.

Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Tani, F.; Hölzer, P.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Russell, P. St. J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

113

Recycling of sodium waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recycling of sodium waste ... Methods for handling and recycling a dangerous and costly chemical. ...

Bettina Hubler-Blank; Michael Witt; Herbert W. Roesky

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Position reconstruction in fission fragment detection using the low pressure MWPC technique for the JLab experiment E02-017  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When a lambda hyperon was embedded in a nucleus, it can form a hypernucleus. The lifetime and its mass dependence of stable hypernuclei provide information about the weak decay of lambda hyperon inside nuclear medium. This work will introduce the Jefferson Lab experiment (E02-017) which aims to study the lifetime of the heavy hypernuclei using a specially developed fission fragment detection technique, a multi-wire proportional chamber operated under low gas pressure (LPMWPC). Presented here are the method and performance of the reconstruction of fission position on the target foil, the separation of target materials at different regions and the comparison and verification with the Mote Carlo simulation.

Xi-Yu, Qiu [Lanzhou U.; Tang, Liguang [JLAB; Margaryan, Amur T. [Yerevan; Jin-Zhang, Xu [Lanzhou; Bi-Tao, Hu [Lanzhou; Xi-Meng, Chen [Lanzhou

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Potential of low pressure agricultural waste briquettes: An alternative energy source for cooking in Nigeria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the variation of steady-state combustion rate (otherwise called normalized burn rate NBR) with the density moisture content and geometry of sawdust palm fibre and rice husk briquettes burned in free air was investigated. The quest for alternative fuel for heating and cooking as a result of depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution associated with its burning has necessitated the need to improve on the use of loose agro-waste as alternative in Nigeria. Cylindrical briquettes were used through out the experiment except for the effect of geometry where cylindrical briquettes with central hole and cylindrical solid briquettes were used. The briquettes were formed by compression of the pulp in the mould with an Instron compression test machine at a pressure range between 1.5 and 7.5?N mm?2 which formed briquettes with densities between 200 and 500?kg m?3. The results show that the NBR for the three selected briquette samples: wood sawdust palm fibre and rice husk respectively was found to decrease as the density and moisture content increases. It was observed that hollow briquette had a higher NBR than that of solid briquette of the same pressure and relaxed diameter with sawdust having the highest variation and rice husk the least. The results show that briquettes could be a viable alternative to fuel wood.

A. Kuhe; F. A. Ibiang; D. I. Igbong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Low refractive index silicon oxide coatings at room temperature using atmospheric-pressure very high-frequency plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low refractive index silicon oxide films were deposited using atmospheric-pressure He/SiH4/CO2 plasma excited by a 150-MHz very high-frequency power. Significant increase in deposition rate at room temperature could prevent the formation of dense SiO2 network, decreasing refractive index of the resulting film effectively. As a result, a silicon oxide film with the lowest refractive index, n = 1.24 at 632.8 nm, was obtained with a very high deposition rate of 235 nm/s. The reflectance and transmittance spectra showed that the low refractive index film functioned as a quarter-wave anti-reflection coating of a glass substrate.

H. Kakiuchi; H. Ohmi; Y. Yamaguchi; K. Nakamura; K. Yasutake

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling for the Measurement of Nitrogen-Containing Compounds in Automotive Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discusses a novel combination of multi-component scanning direct absorption spectroscopy, resonant cavity and low-pressure sampling to systematically improve the performance of a specific gas analyzer.

119

Effect of Plasma Deposition Using Low-Power/Non-thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Promoting Adhesion of Composite Resin to Enamel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...This study investigated the effect of monomer deposition through a low-power, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NT-APP) on adhesion of resin ... stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope. The

Geum-Jun Han; Jae-Hoon Kim; Sung-No Chung…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

CATALYSIS BY PLATINUM SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES: LOW PRESSURE HYDROCARBON REACTIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF INTRODUCING STRONGLY BOUND OXYGEN AT THE SURFACE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

out in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system at low pressure (1o-was an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system centered with an earlychamber; a schematic of this UHV system is shown in Fig.

Smith, Carol Ellen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Pressure-dependent Resonance Frequency for Lipid-coated Microbubbles at Low Acoustic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with diameters ranging from 1-10m, filled with gas of low water solubility (e.g. perfluorocarbon, nitrogen in this device, one for gas inlet flow, two for liquid inlet flow, and the last one for microbubbles outlet flow channel and gas channel were 50 m and 35 m, respectively, while the width of the orifice was 7 m. Figure 1

122

Experimental study on the effects of high/low pressure EGR proportion in a passenger car diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of the proportion between high pressure and low pressure exhaust gas recirculation (HP/LP EGR) on engine operation. The study focused on the characteristics of combustion, emissions, and fuel consumption in a 2.2 L passenger car diesel engine. The experiments were performed under three part-load and steady-state operating conditions. The LP EGR portion was swept from 0 to 1, while the mass flow rate of fresh air and boost pressure were fixed. The results showed that the intake manifold temperature decreased gradually as the LP EGR portion increased due to its greater cooling capability by a longer supply line and an intercooler. However, the required cooling power for the intercooler increased because the LP EGR gas, which has a higher temperature than the fresh air, was induced upstream of the compressor. The lowered intake manifold temperature with the increase of the LP EGR portion led to the prolonged ignition delay of pilot injections, which resulted in a slightly higher peak heat release rate in the main combustion. A higher LP EGR portion showed a lower fuel consumption level than the HP EGR only case because the variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) nozzle opened more widely to maintain the boost pressure, which means a lower pumping loss. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were also decreased as the LP EGR portion increased due to lowered intake charge temperature. Consequently, it was possible to improve the trade-off relationship between \\{NOx\\} emissions and fuel consumption with the increase of the LP EGR portion under steady-state operating conditions.

Youngsoo Park; Choongsik Bae

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

In-Situ Safeguards Verification of Low Burn-up Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel in-situ gross defect verification method for light water reactor spent fuel assemblies was developed and investigated by a Monte Carlo study. This particular method is particularly effective for old pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies that have natural uranium in their upper fuel zones. Currently there is no method or instrument that does verification of this type of spent fuel assemblies without moving the spent fuel assemblies from their storage positions. The proposed method uses a tiny neutron detector and a detector guiding system to collect neutron signals inside PWR spent fuel assemblies through guide tubes present in PWR assemblies. The data obtained in such a manner are used for gross defect verification of spent fuel assemblies. The method uses 'calibration curves' which show the expected neutron counts inside one of the guide tubes of spent fuel assemblies as a function of fuel burn-up. By examining the measured data in the 'calibration curves', the consistency of the operator's declaration is verified.

Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S; Park, I; Kim, J; Ahn, G

2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

124

Beams of fast neutral atoms and molecules in low-pressure gas-discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast neutral atom and molecule beams have been studied, the beams being produced in a vacuum chamber at nitrogen, argon, or helium pressure of 0.1-10 Pa due to charge-exchange collisions of ions accelerated in the sheath between the glow discharge plasma and a negative grid immersed therein. From a flat grid, two broad beams of molecules with continuous distribution of their energy from zero up to e(U + U{sub c}) (where U is voltage between the grid and the vacuum chamber and U{sub c} is cathode fall of the discharge) are propagating in opposite directions. The beam propagating from the concave surface of a 0.2-m-diameter grid is focused within a 10-mm-diameter spot on the target surface. When a 0.2-m-diameter 0.2-m-high cylindrical grid covered by end disks and composed of parallel 1.5-mm-diameter knitting needles spaced by 4.5 mm is immersed in the plasma, the accelerated ions pass through the gaps between the needles, turn inside the grid into fast atoms or molecules, and escape from the grid through the gaps on its opposite side. The Doppler shift of spectral lines allows for measuring the fast atom energy, which corresponds to the potential difference between the plasma inside the chamber and the plasma produced as a result of charge-exchange collisions inside the cylindrical grid.

Metel, A. S., E-mail: ametel@stankin.ru [Moscow State University of Technology 'Stankin,' (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Comparative Study of the Adsorption Equilibrium of CO2 on Microporous Commercial Materials at Low Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The porous materials studied were three zeolites (5A, 13A, and 13X), two metal–organic frameworks (Basolite A100 and Basolite Z1200), an activated carbon, and two pillared clays (Al-PILC and Zr-PILC). ... The isosteric heats of adsorption of CO2 on the materials were calculated using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, and the adsorbent–CO2 affinity was found to increase in the order Z1200 ? 13X ? 13A PILC PILC at low loadings. ... The porous adsorbents used in this work were commercial materials, including three synthetic zeolites (5A, 13A, and 13X), two MOFs (A100 and Z1200), an activated carbon (AC), and two synthetic pillared clays (Al-PILC and Zr-PILC). ...

S. I. Garcés; J. Villarroel-Rocha; K. Sapag; S. A. Korili; A. Gil

2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

The effect of the driving frequency on the confinement of beam electrons and plasma density in low pressure capacitive discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of changing the driving frequency on the plasma density and the electron dynamics in a capacitive radio-frequency argon plasma operated at low pressures of a few Pa is investigated by Particle in Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions simulations and analytical modeling. In contrast to previous assumptions the plasma density does not follow a quadratic dependence on the driving frequency in this non-local collisionless regime. Instead, a step-like increase at a distinct driving frequency is observed. Based on the analytical power balance model, in combination with a detailed analysis of the electron kinetics, the density jump is found to be caused by an electron heating mode transition from the classical $\\alpha$-mode into a low density resonant heating mode characterized by the generation of two energetic electron beams at each electrode per sheath expansion phase. These electron beams propagate through the bulk without collisions and interact with the opposing sheath. In the low density mode, the second bea...

Wilczek, S; Schulze, J; Schuengel, E; Brinkmann, R P; Derzsi, A; Korolov, I; Donkó, Z; Mussenbrock, T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber wall acts as the primary heat exchanger. During removal, gas is pumped through the laser ports by turbo molecular-drag pumps (TM-DP). For the purpose of reducing organic based lubricants and seals, a magnetically levitated TM-DP is being investigated with pump manufacturers. Currently, magnetically levitated turbo molecular pumps are commercially available. The pumps will be exposed to thermal loads and ionizing radiation (tritium, Ar-41, post detonation neutrons). Although the TM-DP's will be subjected to these various radiations, current designs for similar pumping devices have been hardened and have the ability of locating control electronics in remote radiation shielded enclosures4. The radiation hardened TM-DP's will be 5 required to operate with minimal maintenance for periods of up to 18 continuous months. As part of this initial investigation for developing a conceptual engineering strategy for a gas fill solution, commercial suppliers of low pressure gas pumping systems have been contacted and engaged in this evaluation. Current technology in the area of mechanical pumping systems indicates that the development of a robust pumping system to meet the requirements of the FTF gas fill concept is within the limits of COTS equipment3,4.

C.A. Gentile, W.R. Blanchard, T.A. Kozub, M. Aristova, C. McGahan, S. Natta, K. Pagdon, J. Zelenty

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

Plasma diagnostics of low pressure high power impulse magnetron sputtering assisted by electron cyclotron wave resonance plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on an investigation of the hybrid pulsed sputtering source based on the combination of electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) inductively coupled plasma and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of a Ti target. The plasma source, operated in an Ar atmosphere at a very low pressure of 0.03 Pa, provides plasma where the major fraction of sputtered particles is ionized. It was found that ECWR assistance increases the electron temperature during the HiPIMS pulse. The discharge current and electron density can achieve their stable maximum 10 {mu}s after the onset of the HiPIMS pulse. Further, a high concentration of double charged Ti{sup ++} with energies of up to 160 eV was detected. All of these facts were verified experimentally by time-resolved emission spectroscopy, retarding field analyzer measurement, Langmuir probe, and energy-resolved mass spectrometry.

Stranak, Vitezslav [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Institut fuer Physik, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Herrendorf, Ann-Pierra; Drache, Steffen; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Hippler, Rainer [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Institut fuer Physik, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Cada, Martin; Hubicka, Zdenek [Institute of Physics v. v. i., Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Tichy, Milan [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Bis(cyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) amides as possible precursors for low pressure CVD and plasma-enhanced ALD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) of [ZrCp2(NMe2)2] (1), [ZrCp2(?2-MeNCH2CH2NMe)] (2), [ZrCp?2(NMe2)2] (3) and [ZrCp?2(NEt2)2] (4) (Cp = ?5-cyclopentadienyl, Cp? = ?5-monomethylcyclopentadienyl), onto glass substrates at 600 °C, afforded highly reflective and adhesive films of zirconium carbide and amorphous carbon. Powder XRD indicated that the films were largely amorphous, although small, broad peaks accounting for ZrC and ZrO2 were present, suggesting that the remaining carbon was due to amorphous deposits from the cyclopentadienyl ligands. SEM images showed an island-growth mechanism with distinct crevices between the concentric nodules. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of compounds 1 and 2 showed that the precursors were not sufficiently stable or volatile to give a good rate of film growth.

Stephen E. Potts; Claire J. Carmalt; Christopher S. Blackman; Fawzi Abou-Chahine; Noémi Leick; W.M.M. Kessels; Hywel O. Davies; Peter N. Heys

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

High T/sub c/ superconducting films of Y-Ba-Cu oxide prepared by low-pressure plasma spraying  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low-pressure plasma spraying technique for depositing high T/sub c/ Y-Ba-Cu-O thick films has been developed. Films with a thickness range of 20--100 ..mu..m have been prepared by using Y/sub 0.3/Ba/sub 0.7/CuO/sub x/ powders. After post-annealing in oxygen for 1 h at 950 /sup 0/C, the films, which were deposited on a nimonic alloy substrate heated at 650 /sup 0/C during spraying, exhibited a zero resistance temperature of 90.6 K with a transition width (90%--10%) of 2 K and a critical current density (77 K, 0 T) of 690 A/cm/sup 2/.

Tachikawa, K.; Watanabe, I.; Kosuge, S.; Kabasawa, M.; Suzuki, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Shinbo, Y.

1988-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

131

Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode. A method is provided for producing same.

Doeff, Marca M. (Hayward, CA); Ma, Yanping (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Microstructural aspects of low-pressure plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY coating on Hastelloy X  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Co-32Ni-21Cr-8Al-0.5Y alloy coating plasma sprayed on Hastelloy X. The microstructure of the coating layer consist of ..gamma.. phase solid solution, ..gamma..' phase, and Y-rich intermetallic phase. This coating exhibits excellent oxidation and sulfidation resistance after exposure in air and in sodium sulfate at 1,000/sup 0/C for 60 h, due to the formation of ..cap alpha..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ oxide scale. However, the presence of chloride in the sodium sulfate leads to rupture of the aluminium oxide scale, and this results in the precipitation of chlorides and sulfides within the coating layer.

Tjong, S.C.; Shih, G.E.; Ho, N.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Recovery of acids and sodium hydroxide from solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with the use of bipolar membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examined the kinetic laws governing the electrodialysis recovery of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as sodium hydroxide, from 1M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulfate solutions and from a mixture of these salts with the use of the MB-1, MB-2, and MB-3 bipolar membranes. Kinetic plots of the current density and the concentration of the acid and the base in the chambers next to the bipolar membranes during the electrodialysis treatment of 1M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium sulfate, and solutions are presented. It was established that it is better to use the MB-3 membrane for the electrodialysis conversion of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate into acids and sodium hydroxide owing to the high rate and current efficiency and low expenditure of electrical energy and degree of contamination of the products obtained by the salts. It was also established that the resistance of the MB-1 and MB-2 bipolar membranes is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the MB-3 membrane.

Bobrinskaya, G.A.; Pavlova, T.V.; Shatalov, A.Ya.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

The driving frequency effects on the atmospheric pressure corona jet plasmas from low frequency to radio frequency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lately the atmospheric pressure jet type coronaplasma which has been typically driven by dc to low frequency (LF: several tens of kHz) is often generated by using radio frequency of 13.56 MHz. Yet the relationship between the plasma and its driving frequency has seldom been investigated. Hence in this study dependence of the atmospheric pressurecoronaplasmacharacteristics on the driving frequency was explored experimentally from LF to rf (5 kHz–13.56 MHz). The plasmas generated by the driving frequency under 2 MHz were cylindrical shape of several tens of millimeters long while the 13.56 MHz plasma is spherical and a few millimeters long. As the driving frequency was increased the plasma length became shortened. At the lower driving frequencies (below 2 MHz) the plasmas existed as positive streamer and negative glow for each half period of the applied voltage but the discharge was more continuous in time for the 13.56 MHz plasma. It was inferred from the measured I–V curves that the higher driving frequency induced higher discharge currents and the gas temperature was increased as the driving frequency was increased.

Dan Bee Kim; H. Jung; B. Gweon; S. Y. Moon; J. K. Rhee; W. Choe

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Thermodynamic analysis of a low-pressure economizer based waste heat recovery system for a coal-fired power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An LPE (low-pressure economizer) based waste heat recovery system for a CFPP (coal-fired power plant) is investigated thermodynamically. With the installation of LPE in the flue before the FGD (flue gas desulfurizer), the heat contained in the exhaust flue gas can be recovered effectively and the water consumption can be reduced in the FGD resulted from the temperature dropped flue gas. The impacts on the related apparatuses after installing LPE in a CFPP are analyzed and the internal relationships among correlated parameters are presented. The efficiencies of LPE installed in a CFPP evaluated by the first law, the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are also compared and analyzed. A detailed case study based on a 350 MW CFPP unit is presented and the variations of the thermal performance after the installation of LPE are investigated. The results show that the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are increased which can be indicators to evaluate the performance of the LPE system while the first law efficiency is decreased after installing LPE. Results also show that the saving of SCE (standard coal equivalent) is 3.85 g/(kW·h) for this CFPP unit under full load after installing LPE.

Chaojun Wang; Boshu He; Linbo Yan; Xiaohui Pei; Shinan Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to increase from 36 to 70 Pa CO2 before the end of the 21st century. High pCO2 often increases the growth and repro- duction of C3 annuals, whereas low pCO2 decreases growth and may reduce or prevent

Antonovics, Janis

137

The Esso Energy Award Lecture, 1998. Boosting production from low-pressure oil and gas fields: a revolution in hydrocarbon production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Boosting production from low-pressure oil and gas fields: a revolution in hydrocarbon...major part of the future source of oil and gas supply. Full development...Caledonia Ltd (Wood Group Engineering), Marathon Oil UK Ltd, Mobil North Sea Ltd, Oil...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu September 2001 We examine, using (2 1)-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, the roughening behavior roughens logarithmically with time and that the scaling exponents are, for most sets of conditions, close

Wang, Gwo-Ching

139

Two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence imaging of metastable density in low-pressure radio frequency argon plasmas with added O2, Cl2,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

frequency argon plasmas with added O2, Cl2, and CF4 Brian K. McMillina) and M. R. Zachariah Chemical Science, and CF4 on the argon metastable relative density and spatial distribution in low-pressure, radio at the powered electrode. In contrast, the addition of either Cl2 or CF4 was found to significantly modify

Zachariah, Michael R.

140

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Investigation of effect of excitation frequency on electron energy distribution functions in low pressure radio frequency bounded plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle in cell (PIC) simulations are employed to investigate the effect of excitation frequency {omega} on electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in a low pressure radio frequency (rf) discharge. The discharge is maintained over a length of 0.10 m, bounded by two infinite parallel plates, with the coherent heating field localized at the center of the discharge over a distance of 0.05 m and applied perpendicularly along the y and z directions. On varying the excitation frequency f (={omega}/2{pi}) in the range 0.01-50 MHz, it is observed that for f {<=} 5 MHz the EEDF shows a trend toward a convex (Druyvesteyn-like) distribution. For f > 5 MHz, the distribution resembles more like a Maxwellian with the familiar break energy visible in most of the distributions. A prominent ''hot tail'' is observed at f{>=} 20 MHz and the temperature of the tail is seen to decrease with further increase in frequency (e.g., at 30 MHz and 50 MHz). The mechanism for the generation of the ''hot tail'' is considered to be due to preferential transit time heating of energetic electrons as a function of {omega}, in the antenna heating field. There exists an optimum frequency for which high energy electrons are maximally heated. The occurrence of the Druyvesteyn-like distributions at lower {omega} may be explained by a balance between the heating of the electrons in the effective electric field and elastic cooling due to electron neutral collision frequency {nu}{sub en}; the transition being dictated by {omega} {approx} 2{pi}{nu}{sub en}.

Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

A compact bellows-driven diamond anvil cell for high-pressure, low-temperature magnetic measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design of an efficient bellows-controlled diamond anvil cell that is optimized for use inside the bores of high-field superconducting magnets in helium-3 cryostats, dilution refrigerators, and commercial physical property measurement systems. Design of this non-magnetic pressure cell focuses on in situ pressure tuning and measurement by means of a helium-filled bellows actuator and fiber-coupled ruby fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. We demonstrate the utility of this pressure cell with ac susceptibility measurements of superconducting, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic phase transitions to pressures exceeding 8 GPa. This cell provides an opportunity to probe charge and magnetic order continuously and with high resolution in the three-dimensional Magnetic Field–Pressure–Temperature parameter space.

Feng, Yejun [The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Silevitch, D. M.; Rosenbaum, T. F. [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Low-temperature formation of Si O 2 layers using a two-step atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced deposition-oxidation process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon oxide ( Si O 2 ) layers were fabricated at low temperatures ( ? 400 ° C ) by combining the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous Si ( a - Si : H ) with its oxidation using atmospheric pressure plasmas excited by a 150 MHz very high-frequency (VHF) power. The surface excitation by the atmospheric pressure VHF plasma was capable of reducing the temperature for the hydrogen effusion from a - Si : H . As a result a porous a - Si : H film containing a large amount of hydrogen could be transformed into a stoichiometric Si O 2 with an approximately 24% increase in oxidation rate compared with the oxidation of Si(001) at a temperature of 400 ° C .

Hiroaki Kakiuchi; Hiromasa Ohmi; Makoto Harada; Heiji Watanabe; Kiyoshi Yasutake

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Near-surface modification of optical properties of fused silica by low-temperature hydrogenous atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter, we report on the near-surface modification of fused silica by applying a hydrogenous atmospheric pressure plasma jet at ambient temperature. A significant decrease in...

Gerhard, Christoph; Tasche, Daniel; Brückner, Stephan; Wieneke, Stephan; Viöl, Wolfgang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Submersible sodium pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

146

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N. [ed.

1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

149

The effects of damage in and around a fracture upon the analysis of pressure data from low permeability gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, fracture penetration, fracture closure and proppant embedment, non-Darcy flow, and production rate upon these pressure data have been studied. These results have been analyzed using pseudo-radial flow theory, linear flow theory, and dimensionless... damage cases is presented for both infinite and finite reservoirs with varying formation permeability and fracture penetration. These results indicate that only minor effects on cumulative gas production are experienced. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author...

Fox, Thomas Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

150

Thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter, filled with inert gases, at low pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data is presented on the thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter filled with He, Ar, and Xe in the pressure range 40--550 Pa. The need to account for the coefficients of thermal accommodation of the emitter-inert-gas-collector system in this range is shown. The accommodation coefficients for different temperature regimes are measured and expressions are obtained to calculate the heat flux transported by the inert gases in the electrode gap.

Modin, V.A.; Nikolaev, Y.V.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Pulsed CO{sub 2} laser with an X-ray preioniser based on a high-voltage low-pressure glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An X-ray preioniser with an electron beam energy density of 0.1 J cm{sup -2} based on a high-voltage (20 - 40 kV) low-pressure glow discharge is developed for repetitively pulsed gas lasers. The electron concentration in the CO{sub 2} - N{sub 2} - He mixture as a function of the voltage across the preioniser is calculated for titanium and other foils. The preioniser can be operated both in a single-pulse regime and at pulse repetition rates ranging up to hundreds of Hertz. A specific energy yield of 51 J L{sup -1} is achieved in the X-ray preionised pulsed CO{sub 2} atmospheric-pressure laser. This preioniser was shown to be efficient for other active media (CO and excimer lasers), which opens up new opportunities for the development of repetitively pulsed gas lasers. (lasers)

Oreshkin, V F; Seregin, Aleksandr M; Sinaiskii, V V; Shchetinkina, T A ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Sorokin, A R [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Low-temperature formation of SiO{sub 2} layers using a two-step atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced deposition-oxidation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers were fabricated at low temperatures ({<=}400 deg. C) by combining the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) with its oxidation using atmospheric pressure plasmas excited by a 150 MHz very high-frequency (VHF) power. The surface excitation by the atmospheric pressure VHF plasma was capable of reducing the temperature for the hydrogen effusion from a-Si:H. As a result, a porous a-Si:H film containing a large amount of hydrogen could be transformed into a stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} with an approximately 24% increase in oxidation rate compared with the oxidation of Si(001) at a temperature of 400 deg. C.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Harada, Makoto; Watanabe, Heiji; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Characterization of YSZ solid oxide fuel cells electrolyte deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying and low pressure plasma spraying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Yttria doped zirconia has been widely used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Plasma spraying is a cost-effective process to...2O3 stabilized ZrO2...(YSZ) layer was deposited by low press...

C. Zhang; H. L. Liao; W. Y. Li; G. Zhang; C. Coddet…

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Low-temperature rupture behavior of Zircaloy clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture studies on five well-characterized Zircaloy clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods, which were pressurized to a hoop stress of approximately 145 MPa, were conducted for up to 2101 h at 323/sup 0/C. The conditions were chosen for limited annealing of in-reactor irradiation-hardening. No cladding breaches occurred, although significant hydride agglomeration and reorientation took place in rods that cooled under stress. Observations are interpreted in terms of a conservatively modified Larson-Miller curve to provide a lower bound on permissible maximum dry-storage temperatures, assuming creep rupture as the life-limiting mechanism. If hydride reorientation can be ruled out during dry storage, 305/sup 0/C is a conservative lower bound, based on the creep rupture mechanism, for the maximum storage temperature of rods with irradiation hardened cladding to ensure a 100-year cladding lifetime in an inert atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere reduces the lower bound on the maximum permissible storage temperature by approx. 5/sup 0/C. While high-temperature tests based on creep rupture as the limiting mechanism indicate that storage at temperatures between 400/sup 0/C and 440/sup 0/C may be feasible for rods which are annealed, tests to study rod performance in the 305/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C temperature range have not been conducted. 37 references, 10 figures, 7 tables.

Einziger, R.E.; Kohli, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Low-temperature rupture behavior of Zircaloy-clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture studies on five well-characterized Zircaloy-clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods, which were pressurized to a hoop stress of about145 MPa, were conducted for up to 2101 h at 323/sup 0/C. The conditions were chosen for limited annealing of in-reactor irradiation hardening. No cladding breaches occurred, although significant hydride agglomeration and reorientation took place in rods that cooled under stress. Observations are interpreted in terms of a conservatively modified Larson-Miller curve to provide a lower bound on permissible maximum dry-storage temperatures, assuming creep rupture as the life-limiting mechanism. If hydride reorientation can be ruled out during dry storage, 305/sup 0/C is a conservative lower bound, based on the creep-rupture mechanism, for the maximum storage temperature of rods with irradiation-hardened cladding to ensure a 100-yr cladding lifetime in an inert atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere reduced the lower bound on the maximum permissible storage temperature by about5/sup 0/C. While this lower bound is based on whole-rod data, other types of data on spent fuel behavior in dry storage might support a higher limit. This isothermal temperature limit does not take credit for the decreasing rod temperature during dry storage. High-temperature tests based on creep rupture as the limiting mechanism indicate that storage at temperatures between 400 and 440/sup 0/C may be feasible for rods that are annealed.

Einsiger, R.E.; Kohli, R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Application of a low pressure economizer for waste heat recovery from the exhaust flue gas in a 600 MW power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of recovering the waste heat of the exhaust flue gas before entering a flue gas desulphurizer (FGD) in a 600 MW power plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing a low pressure economizer (LPE) to heat the condensed water which can save the steam extracted from the steam turbine for heating the condensed water and then extra work can be obtained. The energy and water savings and the reduction of CO2 emission resulted from the LPE installation are assessed for three cases in a 600 MW coal-fired power plant with wet stack. Serpentine pipes with quadrate finned extensions are selected for the LPE heat exchanger which has an overall coefficient of heat transfer of 37 W/m2·K and the static pressure loss of 781 Pa in the optimized case. Analysis results show that it is feasible to install \\{LPEs\\} in the exhaust flue gas system between the pressurizing fan and the FGD, which has little negative impacts on the unit. The benefits generated include saving of standard coal equivalent (SCE) at 2–4 g/(kW·h) and saving of water at 25–35 t/h under full load operation with corresponding reduction of CO2 emission.

Chaojun Wang; Boshu He; Shaoyang Sun; Ying Wu; Na Yan; Linbo Yan; Xiaohui Pei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Two-phase flow visualization in a transparent, atmospheric pressure, boiling water loop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Simulant Boiling Flow Visualization (SBFV) loop, a transparent, atmospheric pressure test apparatus employing boiling water as a simulant for boiling liquid sodium, has been designed and operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of testing in this loop has been to study two-phase flow behavior that is phenomenologically similar to that observed in sodium boiling experiments, as part of the US Department of Energy Breeder Reactor Safety Program. A detailed description of the design of the SBFV loop is presented, as well as experimental results that show the similarity between low-power boiling behavior in water and liquid sodium. Future tests are planned in a seven-pin flow visualization bundle that will be installed in the SBFV loop. The design of this bundle is also discussed.

Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition In October 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) issued the Final Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0287 (Final EIS)). The Final EIS contains an evaluation of reasonable alternatives for the management of mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW),1 mixed HLW calcine, and associated low-level waste (LLW), as well as disposition alternatives for HLW facilities when their missions are completed. DOE/EIS-0287, Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology, Office of Environmental Management, Idaho, 70 FR 44598 (August

159

Mixed convection and high-pressure low-flow steam cooling data from a 64-rod bundle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat transfer data were obtained from low flow steam cooling experiments in a partially uncovered 64-rod bundle. These tests indicated that free convection effects were superimposed on the laminar and turbulent forced convection heat transfer. This paper describes the influence of buoyancy on laminar and turbulent forced convection heat transfer coefficients. Mechanisms due to buoyancy which alter the local heat transfer are summarized. Criteria indicating the importance of buoyancy on laminar and turbulent upflow in a vertical pipe were developed and compared to other criteria found in the literature. These criteria were used to determine the steam cooling data with significant buoyancy influence. Data with buoyancy influence were compared to mixed convection correlations and to a numerical study for rod bundles.

Sozer, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Pilot scale gasification of spent cooking liquor from sodium sulfite based delignification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a pilot scale high pressure entrained flow gasification experiment with spent cooking liquor from a sodium sulfite based delignification process in the DP-1 black liquor gasifier in Piteå, Sweden. Approximately 92 tons of sulfite ...

Erik Furusjö; Ragnar Stare; Ingvar Landälv; Patrik Löwnertz

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices. Annual technical progress report, 1 May 1984-30 April 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for disilane. Intrinsic layers were deposited at growth rates as high as 50 A/s. A chemical reaction engineering model that quantitatively describes the CVD reactor behavior has been developed. CVD intrinsic material was characterized by measurements of impurities, optical band gap, photoconductivity, activation energy, diffusion length, and density of states. Photovoltaic cells of the p-i-n type with efficiencies of 4% and 3.6% were fabricated using CVD intrinsic layers deposited at 1 A/s and 9 A/s, respectively. A maximum short-circuit current of 11 mA/cm/sup 2/ under 87.5 MW/cm/sup 2/ ELH illumination was obtained with boron-compensated CVD intrinsic material. Efficiency-limiting mechanisms in CVD cells were quantitatively analyzed and related to fundamental properties.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Low-pressure plasma-etching of bulk polymer materials using gas mixture of CF{sub 4} and O{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we have proposed a low-pressure reactive ion etching of bulk polymer materials with a gas mixture of CF{sub 4} and O{sub 2}, and have achieved precise fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) bulk polymer plates with high-aspect-ratio and narrow gap array structures, such as, pillar, frustum, or cone, on a nano/micro scale. The effects of the etching conditions on the shape and size of each pillar were evaluated by changing etching duration and the size/material of etching mask. The fabricated PMMA array structures indicate possibilities of optical waveguide and nanofiber array. PFA cone array structures showed super-hydrophobicity without any chemical treatments. Also, polystyrene-coated silica spheres were used as an etching mask for the pillar array structure formation to control the gap between pillars.

Nabesawa, Hirofumi [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan) [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Central Research Institute, Toyama Industrial Technology Center, Takaoka, 933-0981 (Japan); Hiruma, Takaharu; Seki, Minoru, E-mail: mseki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Hitobo, Takeshi [Tateyama Machine Co. Ltd., Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan)] [Tateyama Machine Co. Ltd., Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Suguru [Tateyama Kagaku Industry Co. Ltd., Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan)] [Tateyama Kagaku Industry Co. Ltd., Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Asaji, Toyohisa [Tateyama Machine Co. Ltd., Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan) [Tateyama Machine Co. Ltd., Toyama, 930-1305 (Japan); Electronic-Mechanical Engineering Department, Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, Suo-Oshima, 742-2193 (Japan); Abe, Takashi [Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

It's Elemental - The Element Sodium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium The Element Sodium [Click for Isotope Data] 11 Na Sodium 22.98976928 Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Weight: 22.98976928 Melting Point: 370.95 K (97.80°C or 208.04°F) Boiling Point: 1156 K (883°C or 1621°F) Density: 0.97 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the English word soda and from the Medieval Latin word sodanum, which means "headache remedy." Sodium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for sodium carbonate, natrium. Say what? Sodium is pronounced as SO-dee-em. History and Uses: Although sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth and comprises

164

Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO.sub.2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO.sub.2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and T1 can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention.

Herrmann, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

Herrmann, S.D.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

167

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

168

Influences of deposition and crystallization kinetics on the properties of silicon films deposited by low-pressure chemical vapour deposition from silane and disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with the properties of silicon films obtained by low-pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD). Two gaseous sources characterized by different deposition temperatures, i.e. disilane Si2H6 (420–520 °C) and silane SiH4 (520–750 °C), was studied in order to understand the influences of deposition and crystallization kinetics on silicon film properties. Thus, the deposition of amorphous, semi-crystallized and polycrystalline silicon films was related to “volume random” and “surface columnar” crystallization phenomena, highlighting a linear relationship between the refractive index and the polysilicon volume fraction and, showing complex residual stress dependency with process conditions. Finally, by introducing the ratio Vd/Vc between the deposition and crystallization rates as a major parameter, different deposition behaviours and related semi-empirical relationships were defined in order to characterize fully the various properties of LPCVD silicon films (microstructure, polysilicon volume fraction, refractive index and residual stress) according to the chosen gaseous source, silane or disilane.

Pierre Temple-Boyer; B. Rousset; E. Scheid

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Microcrystalline Si films grown at low temperatures (90-220 deg. C) with high rates in atmospheric-pressure VHF plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work deals with the structural properties of microcrystalline silicon (muc-Si:H) films grown at low temperatures (90-220 deg. C) with high rates in atmospheric-pressure He/H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} plasma, which is excited by a 150 MHz very high frequency power using a porous carbon electrode. This plasma permits to enhance the chemical reactions both in gas phase and on the film-growing surface, while suppressing ion impingement upon the surface. Raman crystalline volume fractions of the muc-Si:H films are studied in detail as functions of film thickness and substrate temperature (T{sub sub}). The results show that the muc-Si:H film deposited with 50 (SCCM) (SCCM denotes standard cubic centimeters per minute at STP) SiH{sub 4} has no amorphous transition layers at the film/substrate interface in spite of the high deposition rate of 6.4 nm/s, which is verified by the cross sectional observations with a transmission electron microscope. In addition, the T{sub sub} dependence of Raman crystallinity of the muc-Si:H films indicates that a highly crystallized muc-Si:H film grows even when T{sub sub} is reduced to 90 deg. C. Further systematic studies are needed for both device applications and deposition on thermally sensitive plastic materials.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Ouchi, Kentaro; Tabuchi, Keita; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -...

171

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project...

172

High temperature pressure gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In phase I all-beef and soy-added ground beef patties containing sodium lactate, sodium propionate, and sodium diacetate at various levels and combinations were stored for nine months at -10°C. Upon cooking, the addition of sodium lactate increased...

Grones, Kelly Leann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

174

Sodium removal process development for LMFBR fuel subassemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two 37-pin scale models of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant fuel subassemblies were designed, fabricated and used at Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division in the development and proof-testing of a rapid water-based sodium removal process for the ORNL Hot Experimental Facility, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Cycle. Through a series of development tests on one of the models, including five (5) sodium wettings and three (3) high temperature sodium removal operations, optimum process parameters for a rapid water vapor-argon-water rinse process were identified and successfully proof-tested on a second model containing argon-pressurized, sodium-corroded model fuel pins simulating the gas plenum and cladding conditions expected for spent fuel pins in full scale subassemblies. Based on extrapolations of model proof test data, preliminary process parameters for a water vapor-nitrogen-water rinse process were calculated and recommended for use in processing full scale fuel subassemblies in the Sodium Removal Facility of the Fuel Receiving Cell, ORNL HEF.

Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

detonation pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation pressure ? Detonationsdruck m [Er ist dem Quadrat der Detonationsgeschwindigkeit und der Sprengstoffdichte proportional

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

California at Santa Cruz, University of

177

Improving the equilibrium performance of active carbons for separation processes by co-adsorption with low pressure solvent: application to carbon capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The equilibrium performance of a novel gas separation process described quite recently (Sweatman in Chem. Eng. Sci. 65:3907, 2010...) called ‘pressure-swing wetting layer absorption’ here is investigated by means...

Martin B. Sweatman

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Efficiency of operation of a T-250/300–240 turbine without moving blades of last stages of the low-pressure cylinder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of detailed computations performed for actual electric and heat loads, pressure in the condenser, and other operating parameters are used to consider the changes in the efficiency of operation of a T-...

L. L. Simoyu; G. D. Barinberg; V. F. Gutorov

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Low-temperature atmospheric pressure argon plasma treatment and hybrid laser-plasma ablation of barite crown and heavy flint glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on atmospheric pressure argon plasma-based surface treatment and hybrid laser-plasma ablation of barite crown glass N-BaK4 and heavy flint glass SF5. By pure plasma...

Gerhard, Christoph; Roux, Sophie; Brückner, Stephan; Wieneke, Stephan; Viöl, Wolfgang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Single-site, noninvasive, blood pressure measurements at the ear using ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG), and a low-power, reflectance-mode PPG SoC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work presents a wearable congestive heart failure (CHF) monitor at the ear that uses the ballistocardiogram (BCG), electrocardiogram (ECG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to extract mean blood pressure up the Carotid ...

Winokur, Eric S., 1984-

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Sodium-Restricted Diet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The value of salt has long been known. Feuds and wars were waged for the possession of salt during man's early development. The common expressions "salt of the earth" and "worth his weight in salt" all show the high value placed on salt. Taxes were... collected for possession of salt. Even the word "salary" is connected with salt. Salt remains valuable to us as a source of sodium, an essential nutrient needed by our body to function properly. The body needs sodium to form tissue - to aid a child...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Abstract: Sodium ion (Na+) batteries...

184

Unsteady aspects of sodium–water–air reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One important issue for the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) concept is the reactivity of metallic sodium and its exothermal reaction with water. In particular during equipments washing operations, sodium needs to be firstly converted (‘destroyed’) into non reactive species via a chemical reaction with water. Today, such operations are performed in tanks that confine the system and mitigate the consequences of any possible abnormal condition. Some data were obtained from experiments run by the French Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) and were used as a basis for modelling. Among the principal phenomena identified so far are rapid water vaporization, hydrogen emission and explosion in air. High explosive-like pressure waves are generated from which sodium fragmentation and dispersion in water may ensue increasing the overall reactivity. It is extremely important to clarify the phenomenology to allow realistic extrapolation to full scale plants. A state of the art is proposed in this paper, starting from available experimental data and present perception of the physics. A comparison with present modelling strategy is also performed, underlining the necessity to improve a different and more physical approach aimed to well represent dynamic aspects of reaction.

Sofia Carnevali; Christophe Proust; Michel Soucille

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Experimental investigations of two-phase mixture level swell and axial void fraction distribution under high pressure, low heat flux conditions in rod bundle geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data is reported from a series of quasi-steady-state two-phase mixture level swell and void fraction distribution tests. Testing was performed at ORNL in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility - a large electrically heated test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those expected in a small break loss of coolant accident. Pressure was varied from 2.7 to 8.2 MPa and linear power ranged from 0.33 to 1.95 kW/m. Mixture swell was observed to vary linearly with the total volumetric vapor generation rate over the power range of primary interest in small break analysis. Void fraction data was fit by a drift-flux model and both the drift-velocity and concentration parameter were observed to decrease with increasing pressure.

Anklam, T.M.; White, M.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Osmotic Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Whetham in which he attempts to consign actual experimental work on osmotic pressure to the humble rôle of showing how far the assumptions made in so-called thermodynamical proofs can be ... actual osmotic processes, and that the experimental work on osmotic pressure does not play that humble rôle to which Mr. Whetham would consign it. ...

LOUIS KAHLENBERG

1906-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

187

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

2002-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 °C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. 2. Results and Recommendations for Scaling Up  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 °C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. ... Once the existence of segregation in the bed of the gasifier with the particles' sizes used for coal and for the CaO in the preliminary tests are confirmed and analyzed, the particle size of the coal was increased to 0.4?2.0 ... In general small differences in d. readily lead to segregation while quite differently sized particles are fairly easily mixed. ...

Jose Corella; Jose M. Toledo; Gregorio Molina

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Dynamic stability experiments in sodium-heated steam generators. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seventy-two dynamic stability tests were performed in the sodium-heated boiling-water test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. A full-scale LMFBR steam generator tube was employed as the test section operating over the water parameter ranges of 6.9 to 15.9 MPa pressure and 170 to 800 kg/m/sup 2/.s mass flux. The stability thresholds from the test compared well to the predictions of a modified version of a correlation equation recently published by other investigators. Typical experimental data and the modified correlation equation are presented.

France, D.M.; Roy, R.; Carlson, R.D.; Chiang, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Physical and functional links between anion exchanger-1 and sodium pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressure cooker containing 0.1 M sodium citrate buffer, pH 6.0 for 2 min. Following blocking with 10% FBS in PBST-1 (Blocking buffer), primary antibodies at 1:50 dilution in blocking buffer were applied and sections incubated at 4(C overnight. Fluorochrome...

Su, Ya; Al-Lamki, Rafia S.; Blake-Palmer, Katherine G.; Best, Alison; Golder, Zoe J.; Zhou, Aiwu; Karet Frankl, Fiona E.

2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Esso Energy Award Lecture, 1998. Boosting production from low-pressure oil and gas fields: a revolution in hydrocarbon production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...have developed a simple cost-effective system which...moving parts; low capital cost, with the payback achieved...14% coal oil gas hydro nuclear Figure 2. World primary...such as ASME, API, BS, Dnv stoomwezen (Dutch...The WELLCOM system is a cost-effective way to boost...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project This...

194

Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 November 1936 research-article Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium Y. S. Chiong The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend...

1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Surface loss probability of atomic hydrogen for different electrode cover materials investigated in H{sub 2}-Ar low-pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an inductively coupled H{sub 2}-Ar plasma at a total pressure of 1.5?Pa, the influence of the electrode cover material on selected line intensities of H, H{sub 2}, and Ar are determined by optical emission spectroscopy and actinometry for the electrode cover materials stainless steel, copper, tungsten, Macor{sup ®}, and aluminum. Hydrogen dissociation degrees for the considered conditions are determined experimentally from the measured emission intensity ratios. The surface loss probability ?{sub H} of atomic hydrogen is correlated with the measured line intensities, and ?{sub H} values are determined for the considered materials. Without the knowledge of the atomic hydrogen temperature, ?{sub H} cannot be determined exactly. However, ratios of ?{sub H} values for different surface materials are in first order approximation independent of the atomic hydrogen temperature. Our results show that ?{sub H} of copper is equal to the value of stainless steel, ?{sub H} of Macor{sup ®} and tungsten is about 2 times smaller and ?{sub H} of aluminum about 5 times smaller compared with stainless steel. The latter ratio is in reasonable agreement with literature. The influence of the atomic hydrogen temperature T{sub H} on the absolute value is thoroughly discussed. For our assumption of T{sub H}?=?600?K, we determine a ?{sub H} for stainless steel of 0.39?±?0.13.

Sode, M., E-mail: maik.sode@ipp.mpg.de; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kersten, H. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11-19, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

196

Design and fabrication of pressure-compensating compliant tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Different fabrication methods are evaluated for producing pressure-compensating tubes for use in low-pressure drip irrigation systems. Such devices would allow drip irrigation systems to operate at driving pressures much ...

Martin, Ian (Ian P.)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Slowing Down Near the Glass Transition New Light on Improving Engine Efficiencies The Crystal Structure of a Meta-stable Intermediate Particle in Virus Assembly Increasing Magnetic Response of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors under High Pressure Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure APRIL 20, 2009 Bookmark and Share Sodium clamped in a metallic rhenium gasket between diamond anvils. The photographs were taken through a diamond anvil under combined transmitted and reflected illumination. Sodium, a white metal at pressures below 1.1 Mbar (1 Mbar = 1 million atm), turns black at 1.3 Mbar and becomes

198

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System (Syrris) June 2013 #12;Introduction to the system · The Atlas Sodium system consists of an Atlas base equipped with a 400ºC hotplate, a stacking dry bath systemL) for automated addition and/or removal of solution. · The system is computer controlled by the Atlas software

Subramanian, Venkat

199

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

200

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L. [RSE - Nuclear and Industrial Plant Safety Team, Power Generation System Dept., via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Dept., via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N. [Universita di Pisa-Facolta d'Ingegneria DIMNP-Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Dep., Largo L. Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Steam gasification of coal at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) temperature with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture in fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure: The effect of inorganic species. 1. Literature review and comments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the H{sub 2} production with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture by steam gasification of coal in a fluidized bed, at low/medium temperatures (600-800{sup o}C) and atmospheric pressure. This work is mainly aimed at reviewing the effects of the inorganic species present in the matrix of the coal or added to the gasifier bed. The most promising species seems to be the calcined limestone (CaO), which intervenes in the overall gasification reaction network in at least five different types of reactions. The effectiveness of the CaO for CO{sub 2} capture in the coal gasifier is, therefore, affected/influenced by the other four simultaneous or competitive types of reactions in the gasifier. The effects of the temperature in the gasifier and of the (CaO/coal) ratio fed to the gasifier are finally reviewed and discussed in detail.

Corella, J.; Toledo, J.M.; Molina, G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

203

Experimental investigations of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and two-phase mixture-level swell under high-pressure low heat-flux conditions. [PWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are reported from a series of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and mixture-level swell tests. Experimental testing was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). The THTF is an electrically heated bundle test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those in a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. The objective of heat transfer testing was to acquire heat transfer coefficients and fluid conditions in a partially uncovered bundle. Testing was performed in a quasi-steady-state mode with the heated core 30 to 40% uncovered. Linear heat rates varied from 0.32 to 2.22 kW/m.rod (0.1 to 0.68 kW/ft.rod). Under these conditions peak clad temperatures in excess of 1050 K (1430/sup 0/F) were observed, and total heat transfer coefficients ranged from 0.0045 to 0.037 W/cm/sup 2/.K (8 to 65 Btu/h.ft/sup 2/./sup 0/F). Spacer grids were observed to enhance heat transfer at, and downstream of, the grid. Radiation heat transfer was calculated to account for as much as 65% of total heat transfer in low-flow tests.

Anklam, T. M.; Miller, R. J.; White, M. D.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Pressure transducer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output.

Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Gunchin, Elmer R. (Lockport, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

SciTech Connect: Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed...

207

High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. Abstract: A substantial effort worldwide has been...

208

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Low temperature synthesis of {tau}-zirconium hydrogenophosphate [{tau}-Zr(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}] and a new sodic form obtained by ion exchange  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for the synthesis of 3-D {tau}-zirconium hydrogenophosphate (TZP) was developed using solid-state reactions at low temperature and atmospheric pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere in a two-hour reaction time. The characterization of the compound was performed using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric, thermochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sodic form of the compound obtained by the immersion of TZP in a sodium hydroxide solution was characterized using the same techniques along with neutron activation analysis. The XPS spectra confirm the binding energy value for sodium-oxygen, and the XRD diffraction reveals the formation of a new sodium compound. - Graphical abstract: DRX, XPS and MEB of {tau}-zirconium hydrogenophosphate and its sodic form on the surface of TZP. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New method for the syntheses of 3-D {tau}-zirconium hydrogenophosphate (TZP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sodic form of the TZP was obtained by the immersion of TZP in a sodium hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sodium compound is only formed on the TZP surface.

Fernandez-Valverde, Suilma M., E-mail: suilma.fernandez@inin.gob.mx [Depto. de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Contreras-Ramirez, Aida [Depto. de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico) [Depto. de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Depto. de Tecnologia de Materiales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Piedras Blancas El Cerrillo, Tlachaloya Estado de Mexico, CP.5000 (Mexico); Ordonez-Regil, Eduardo [Depto. de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico)] [Depto. de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Fernandez-Garcia, M. Eufemia [Depto. de Tecnologia de Materiales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico)] [Depto. de Tecnologia de Materiales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Perez-Alvarez, Mario [Depto. de Ambientales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico)] [Depto. de Ambientales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Sodium boiling dryout correlation for LMFBR fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain postulated accident conditions for a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), such as the failure of the shutdown heat removal system (SHRS), sodium boiling and clad dryout might occur in the fuel assemblies. It is important to predict the time from boiling inception to dryout, since sustained clad dryout will result in core damage. In this paper a dryout correlation is presented. This correlation is based on 21 boiling tests which resulted in dryout from the THORS BUNDLE 6A, a 19-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly and from the THORS Bundle 9, a 61-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly. All these tests were performed as follows: for each specified bundle power, an initial steady-state high sodium flow was established, for which sodium boiling did not occur in the bundle. The temperature at the outlet of the test section was approx. 700/sup 0/C. Then, using a programmable pump control system, the flow was reduced to a low value and boiling occurred.

Carbajo, J.J.; Rose, S.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Preparation and characterization of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) based hydrogen storage materials are described in this book. The effect of the NaAlH4 particle size, particularly in… (more)

Baldé, C.P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Saltstone Osmotic Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

215

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

216

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage - David Ofer, Tiax  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sodium Intercalation Battery for Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) Peer Review and Update Meeting 2012 David Ofer Ofer.david@tiaxllc.com Washington DC, September 27, 2012 Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage Background and Purpose 2 Large-scale stationary energy storage for integration with renewables and for off-peak energy capture is a new application requiring new rechargeable batteries. * New combination of requirements - Long cycle life under deep cycling use profile - High cycling efficiency - Moderate rate capability - Very low cost - No requirement for particularly high specific energy or energy density * TIAX is developing a novel Na-ion battery - Leverages teachings of Li-ion technology - Targets novel low-cost chemistry and cell design

217

Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled metal fuel 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature pressure drop linear heat rate and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CADLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Low pressure combustor for generating steam downhole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact catalytic combustor for generating steam downhole in an oil reservoir has steam generating tubes that are attached to a metal catalyst support. The metal support comprises sheets of metal that are spaced apart and transverse to the tubes. Heat from combustion is generated on the metal sheets and is conducted to the steam generating tubes. The steam is injected into the oil reservoir. The combustion gas is vented to ground level.

Retallick, W.B.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

219

Low pressure noncryogenic processing for ethylene recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon gas feed stream containing components selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, at least 5 mol % of ethylene, ethane, heavier saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and mixtures. It comprises: countercurrently contacting the hydrocarbon gas feed stream with a lean physical solvent. It comprises paraffinic solvents; naphthenic solvents; benzene, toluene, C{sub 8}--C{sub 10} aromatic compounds; dialkyl ethers of polyalkylene glycol; regenerating the ethylene rich solvent in a distillation column equipped with at least one reflux condenser and at least one reboiler to produce ethylene plus hydrocarbon product as an overhead stream and the lean physical solvent as a bottom stream, the ethylene plus hydrocarbon product being suitable for bypassing a downstream demethanizer.

Mehrta, Y.R.

1991-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

220

Emergency Filter for Low Pressure EGR  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This project uses CFD simulation and laboratory tests to design single- and multi-layer mesh as an EGR emergency filter to prevent combustion particles from passing back to the engine.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Variable pressure operation: An assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the benefits, drawbacks, and technical issues of variable pressure operation (VPO) retrofit. Under VPO, turbine throttle pressure is reduced at low loads. This operating mode offers several significant advantages for units that cycle or operate at low loads for extended periods. Information used in the report was assembled from published sources, from major equipment manufacturers, and from utilities operating units under VPO in the US, Europe and Japan. The report also contains statistics of VPO use in this country and abroad. Design features of new units using VPO in Europe and Japan are presented to identify potential directions for future US designs incorporating VPO.

Kimel, E.; Kemeny, P.; Bierman, E.; Lagomarsino, J.; Clarke, D. (Burns and Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

High-resolution numerical simulation and analysis of Mach reflection structures in detonation waves in low-pressure H2 - O2 - Ar mixtures: a summary of results obtained with the adaptive mesh refinement framework AMROC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multi-dimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the non-equilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniques in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, i.e. under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Comparison of PM emissions from a gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injected (PFI) vehicle measured by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) with two fuels: Gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two Euro 4 gasoline passenger vehicles (one gasoline direct injected vehicle and one port fuel injected vehicle) were tested over the cold start New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Each vehicle was respectively fueled with gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline. Particle number concentrations were measured by the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particle masses were measured by gravimetric method and estimated from the number distributions using two density distributions (one is constant with the particle size and one is power law related with the size). The first 7 stages of ELPI were used for estimation. The results show that for each vehicle, PM masses measured by gravimetric method, the total PM numbers measured by ELPI and estimated PM masses for M15 are lower than those for gasoline. For each kind of fuel, PM masses by two methods and total PM numbers from the GDI vehicle are higher than those from the PFI one. PM number distribution curves of the four vehicle/fuel combinations are similar. All decline gradually and the maximum number of each curve occurs in the first stage. More than 99.9% numbers locate in the first 8 stages of which diameters are less than 1 ?m. PM number emissions correlate well with the acceleration of the two vehicles. The estimated particle masses were much lower than the gravimetric measurements.

Bin Liang; Yunshan Ge; Jianwei Tan; Xiukun Han; Liping Gao; Lijun Hao; Wentao Ye; Peipei Dai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Reaction of Sodium Borohydride with Wool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... It has recently been found that sodium borohydride in alkaline solution rapidly dissolves wool under conditions of temperature and pH milder than many in current use. The reaction ... in current use. The reaction has been studied as follows: 1 gm. of solvent-scoured Merino ...

J. M. GILLESPIE

1959-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F. [CEA, DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marchand, B. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saillant, J. F. [AREVA/NDE Solutions, 4 rue Thomas Dumorey, 71109 Chalon sur Saone Cedex (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

228

NACOM code for analysis of postulated sodium spray fires in LMFBRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis of potential sodium spills and fires in liquid metal fast breeder reactors has been made to assess the maximum equipment cell loading conditions. A computer code called NACOM (sodium combustion) has been developed at Brookhaven National Laobratory (BNL) to analyze sodium spray fires. This report contains a detailed description of physical models used in this code as well as programming aspects. The single droplet combustion model and the model describing the droplets' motion are verified. Comparisons between NACOM predictions and SPRAY-3A predictions of the Atomics International (AI) LTV Jet Tests are made. Good agreement is found between the NACOM predictions and the experimental data. NACOM predictions of the pressure rise are more accurate than SPRAY-3A predictions for most of the cases studied. The code has been verified for oxygen concentrations ranging from 0 to 21%. NACOM utilizes more realistic single droplet and spray combustion models than SPRAY-3A. Moreover, NACOM does not utilize adjustable parameters for the burning rate equations, contrary to the approach taken with SPRAY-3A. Thus, the NACOM code is a more reliable code for use in the analysis of large-scale sodium spray fires in LMFBR containment cells. 24 refs., 32 figs.

Tsai, S.S.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

Gardiner, Duane

230

System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

Kasper, Stanley (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

232

Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Nanoprobe measurements of materials at megabar pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Photon Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill...Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA...low-pressure, if not a near-vacuum, environment, which is incompatible...Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration...

Lin Wang; Yang Ding; Wenge Yang; Wenjun Liu; Zhonghou Cai; Jennifer Kung; Jinfu Shu; Russell J. Hemley; Wendy L. Mao; Ho-kwang Mao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Pressure gradient passivation of carbonaceous material normally susceptible to spontaneous combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a process for the passivation or deactivation with respect to oxygen of a carbonaceous material by the exposure of the carbonaceous material to an oxygenated gas in which the oxygenated gas pressure is increased from a first pressure to a second pressure and then the pressure is changed to a third pressure. Preferably a cyclic process which comprises exposing the carbonaceous material to the gas at low pressure and increasing the pressure to a second higher pressure and then returning the pressure to a lower pressure is used. The cycle is repeated at least twice wherein the higher pressure may be increased after a selected number of cycles.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Sands, William D.; Schroeder, Karl; Summers, Cathy A.; Utz, Bruce R.

2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

235

Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal.

Poirier, M.R.

2000-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

236

Sodium Plugging Test Loop - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sodium Plugging Test Loop Sodium Plugging Test Loop Sodium Plugging Test Loop Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Sodium Plugging Test Loop This experimental setup is part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Fuel Cycle R&D work carried out at Argonne on advanced sodium component technology. Bookmark and Share For long range sodium technology research and development, employing supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion technology as an advanced balance of plant technology is being considered. The component that provides the interface between the sodium and supercritical CO2 is a compact heat exchanger known as a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE). This heat exchanger has very small coolant flow passages that may foul or

237

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley (seated) developed a treatment to safely dissolve a bicarbonate crust and treat and remove the sodium in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at the Idaho site. CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley (seated) developed a treatment to safely dissolve a bicarbonate crust and treat and remove the sodium in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at the Idaho site. Piping in the east boiler basement of the sodium processing building was color coded for easy identification. Orange indicates sodium and green identifies cooling water.

238

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley (seated) developed a treatment to safely dissolve a bicarbonate crust and treat and remove the sodium in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at the Idaho site. CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley (seated) developed a treatment to safely dissolve a bicarbonate crust and treat and remove the sodium in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at the Idaho site. Piping in the east boiler basement of the sodium processing building was color coded for easy identification. Orange indicates sodium and green identifies cooling water.

239

Aluminium alloy based hydrogen storage tank operated with sodium aluminium hexahydride Na3AlH6  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Here we present the development of an aluminium alloy based hydrogen storage tank, charged with Ti-doped sodium aluminium hexahydride Na3AlH6. This hydride has a theoretical hydrogen storage capacity of 3 mass-% and can be operated at lower pressure compared to sodium alanate NaAlH4. The tank was made of aluminium alloy EN AW 6082 T6. The heat transfer was realised through an oil flow in a bayonet heat exchanger, manufactured by extrusion moulding from aluminium alloy EN AW 6060 T6. Na3AlH6 is prepared from 4 mol-% TiCl3 doped sodium aluminium tetrahydride NaAlH4 by addition of two moles of sodium hydride NaH in ball milling process. The hydrogen storage tank was filled with 213 g of doped Na3AlH6 in dehydrogenated state. Maximum of 3.6 g (1.7 mass-% of the hydride mass) of hydrogen was released from the hydride at approximately 450 K and the same hydrogen mass was consumed at 2.5 MPa hydrogenation pressure. 45 cycle tests (rehydrogenation and dehydrogenation) were carried out without any failure of the tank or its components. Operation of the tank under real conditions indicated the possibility for applications with stationary HT-PEM fuel cell systems.

R. Urbanczyk; K. Peinecke; M. Felderhoff; K. Hauschild; W. Kersten; S. Peil; D. Bathen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered.

Rodriguez, G.; Gastaldi, O.; Baque, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fact Sheet: Sodium-Ion Batteries for Grid-Level Applications (October 2012)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Aquion Energy, Inc. Aquion Energy, Inc. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Sodium-Ion Batteries for Grid-Level Applications Demonstrating low-cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium-ion batteries In June 2012, Aquion Energy, Inc. completed the testing and demonstration requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's program with its low-cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI) energy storage device. During the three-year project, Aquion manufactured hundreds of batteries and assemble them into high-voltage, grid-scale systems. This project helped them move their aqueous electrochemical energy storage device from bench-scale testing to pilot-scale manufacturing. The testing successfully demonstrated a grid-connected, high voltage (>1,000 V), 13.5 kWh system with a 4-hour discharge.

242

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

243

Pressure Differential Analysis of a Laboratory Animal Room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

differential can prevent air flow from a low pressure region to a high pressure region. We tested whether the differential pressure is reasonable to regulate the code between the indoors and outdoors, and among laboratory animal rooms, so as to provide a...

Jiang, X.; Liu, Z.; Yoshida, H.; Tang, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat Transfer Losses  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This research discusses how reducing heat-transfer losses from pressure oscillation can increase low-temperature combustion engine efficiency.

245

Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sodium-Beta Batteries Sodium-Beta Batteries Improving the performance and reducing the cost of sodium-beta batteries for large-scale energy storage Sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) use a solid beta-alumina (ß˝-Al 2 O 3 ) electrolyte membrane that selectively allows sodium ion transport between a positive electrode (e.g., a metal halide) and a negative sodium electrode. NBBs typically operate at temperatures near 350˚C. They are increasingly used in renewable storage and utility applications due to their high round-trip efficiency, high energy densities, and energy storage capacities ranging from a few kilowatt-hours to multiple megawatt-hours. In fact, U.S. utilities

246

Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells II. Phase Equilibria  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

II. Phase Equilibria II. Phase Equilibria Title Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells II. Phase Equilibria Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1996 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Frank R. McLarnon, and John S. Newman Journal Journal of the Electrochemistry Society Volume 143 Issue 2 Pagination 412-417 Keywords 25 ENERGY STORAGE, 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE, ALUMINIUM OXIDES, equilibrium, performance, PHASE DIAGRAMS, PHOSPHIDES, PHOSPHORUS ADDITIONS, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, SODIUM SULFIDES, SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES Abstract Equilibrium open-circuit cell voltage data from a sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina/phosphorus-sulfur cell utilizing P/S ratios of 0, 0.143, and 0.332 and a sodium atom fraction ranging from 0 to 0.4 were interpreted to construct ternary phase diagrams of the Na-P-S ternary system at 350 and 400 C.

247

Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc. Prepared by Ying Wu Michael T. Kelly Jeffrey V. Ortega Under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14008 August 2004 Table of Contents Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1 Section 1: Commercially Practiced Sodium Borohydride Synthesis Process ............................... 2 The Brown-Schlesinger Process ................................................................................................. 2 The Bayer Process.......................................................................................................................

248

Internal temperatures of neutral sodium clusters: a “PIE-thermometer”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distinct temperature effects could be observed in the threshold regions of photoionisation efficiency (PIE) measurements of sodium clusters. Simulations of the PIE thresholds at various temperatures were carried ...

U. Röthlisberger; M. Schär; E. Schumacher

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

250

Pressure Temperature Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Pressure Temperature Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Pressure Temperature Log Details Activities (13) Areas (13) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Perturbations in temperature or pressure can be indicative of faults or other structural features Hydrological: fluid cirulation, over-pressured zones, and under-pressured zones. Thermal: Temperature profile with depth Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 0.6060 centUSD 6.0e-4 kUSD

251

Function and Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ENA Sodium ATPase System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sodium when sodium is present in excess in the external medium relies...of sensitivity to sodium and lithium cations (31, 36, 70, 77...confer distinct sodium and lithium tolerances, with the former...The accumulation of sodium or lithium cations in calcineurin-deficient...

Amparo Ruiz; Joaquín Ariño

2007-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

252

Pipeline gas pressure reduction with refrigeration generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high pressure of pipeline gas is reduced to the low pressure of a distribution system with simultaneous generation of refrigeration by passing the gas through two successive centrifugal compressors driven by two turbo-expanders in which the compressed gas is expanded to successively lower pressures. Refrigeration is recovered from the gas as it leaves each turbo-expander. Methanol is injected into the pipeline gas before it is expanded to prevent ice formation. Aqueous methanol condensate separated from the expanded gas is distilled for the recovery and reuse of methanol.

Markbreiter, S. J.; Schorr, H. P.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

253

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Sodium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium Isotopes of the Element Sodium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 23 100% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 18 1.3×10-21 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% 19 < 40 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 20 447.9 milliseconds Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay 20.05% Electron Capture 100.00% 21 22.49 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 22 2.6027 years Electron Capture 100.00% 23 STABLE - - 24 14.997 hours Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

254

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component Francois Leblanc a,*, R 2010 Accepted 27 April 2010 Available online 5 May 2010 Keywords: Mercury, Atmosphere Aeronomy a b s t r a c t Our understanding of Mercury's sodium exosphere has improved considerably in the last 5

Johnson, Robert E.

255

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac by 1 ml/kg/h continuous infusion for 24 hours. The control group received only a 3 ml/kg bolus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

256

Sol–gel synthesis of sodium and lithium based materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sodium and lithium cobaltates are important materials for thermoelectric and ... the sol–gel synthesis of sodium- and lithium-based materials by using acetate precursors. The produced Na2/3CoO2, Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/...

Sandra Hildebrandt; Andreas Eva…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.

Takacs, T.J.; Johnson, M.E.

1993-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

258

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Contractor Operational Readiness Review This report documents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (SBWTP-IWTU) contractor Operational Readiness Review (C-ORR). The review was conducted at the Idaho Site from February 27 to March 6, 2012. This report discusses the background, scope, results, and conclusions of the review, as well as

259

Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an independent assessment of nuclear safety culture at the DOE Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project (SBWTP). The primary objective of the evaluation was to provide information regarding the status of the safety culture at SBWTP. The data collection phase of the assessment occurred in April and May 2012. SBWTP is one of DOE's largest nuclear

260

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review This report documents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (SBWTP-IWTU) DOE (Federal) Operational Readiness Review (D-ORR). The review was performed by the HSS Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations and was intended to assess the effectiveness of the CORR process as implemented for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na{sub 2}O in dry air condition and liquid Na{sub 2}O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling.

Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira [O-arai Engineering Center (Japan)

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al was 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.

Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ferreira, Jose M.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

High-pressure crystallography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

Katrusiak, A.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

265

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate sodium lactate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sodium-high lactate infusion'. Of course, it is easy to demonstrate that high lactate infusion... . Also, sodium-lactate infusion in humans ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

266

High-resolution lidar observations of mesospheric sodium and implications for adaptive optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of sodium density variability in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere, obtained using a high-resolution lidar system, show rapid fluctuations in the sodium centroid...

Pfrommer, Thomas; Hickson, Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

Michael A. Romano

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A {gamma}-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250 C at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region there between. A jet of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

Selwyn, G.S.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet: Effect of electrode configuration, discharge behavior, and its formation mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet: Effect of electrode configuration, discharge behavior, and its 2008; accepted 8 June 2009; published online 10 July 2009 Atmospheric pressure plasma jet APPJ can The atmospheric pressure plasma is much advantageous over low pressure plasmas in various aspects. It can be dis

Zexian, Cao

270

A Reliable Steam Generator That Will Allow the Elimination of the Secondary Sodium Circuit in an LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A particular weakness of the commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactor is the design of the steam generator (SG). Any small leak in the SG allows the hot sodium (Na) to come into contact with the water/steam, and this results in a violent reaction and SG damage. A secondary circuit is normally used to prevent such reactions causing damage to the reactor core and primary vessel.NNC Ltd. has developed a copper (Cu)-bonded SG system, the objective of which is to provide three separate solid boundaries (two steel and one Cu) between the primary sodium coolant and the water/steam and hence eliminate the possibility of contact between Na and water/steam. The design uses a hot isostatic pressure method of construction to bond all three barriers to aid heat transfer. This highly reliable system allows the elimination of the secondary circuit, greatly reducing the cost of the reactor system and increasing availability.

Sherwood, D.V.; Chikazawa, Y

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Pulse radiolysis of solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulse radiolysis of solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh/sub 4/) indicates that the absorption observed in organic amides with lambda/sub max/ in the range 650-724 nm is not due to Na/sup -/, an electron adduct to BPh/sub 4//sup -/, a triplet excited state, or a proton-donating solvent cation. Experiments in aqueous solution are described in which the reactions of selected radicals with NaBPh/sub 4/ are studied. One-electron oxidation of NaBPh/sub 4/ by N/sub 3//sup .-/ radicals yields a species, assumed to be NaBPh/sub 4//sup ./, with absorption maxima at 335 and 800 nm. A similar spectrum is observed on pulse radiolysis of solutions of NaBPh/sub 4/ in tetramethylurea (TMU), but the long-wavelength absorption is shifted to 725 nm. The formation of an oxidizing radical in irradiated TMU was confirmed by the observation of I/sub 2//sup .-/ on pulse radiolysis of solutions of KI in this solvent. Pulse radiolysis of solution of NaBPh/sub 4/ and KI in TMU demonstrated that these solutes compete for the oxidizing intermediate.

Liu, K.J.; Langan, J.R.; Salmon, G.A.; Holton, D.M.; Edwards, P.P.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

273

Alternative and Emerging Technologies for an Energy-Efficient, Water-Efficient, and Low-Pollution Textile Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigation stage, atmospheric pressure plasma treatmentApparatus for atmospheric low-temperature plasma treatment (

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Master external pressure charts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to develop master external pressure charts from which individual external pressure charts for each material specification may be derived. The master external charts can represent a grouping of materials with similar chemical composition, similar stress-strain curves but produced to different strength levels. External pressure charts are used by various Sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes to design various components such as cylinders, sphered, formed heads, tubes, piping, rings and other components, subjected to external pressure or axial compression loads. These charts are pseudo stress-strain curves for groups of materials with similar stress-strain shapes. The traditional approach was originally developed in the 1940`s and is a graphical approach where slopes to the strain curves are drawn graphically from which pseudo-strain levels are calculated. The new method presented in this paper develops mathematical relationships for the material stress-strain curves and the external pressure charts. The method has the ability to calculate stress-strain curves from existing external pressure charts. The relationships are a function of temperature, the modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and two empirical material constants. In this approach, conservative assumptions used to assign materials to lower bound external pressure charts can be removed. This increases the buckling strength capability of many materials in the Code, providing economic benefits while maintaining the margin of safety specified by the Code criteria. The method can also reduce the number of material charts needed in the Code and provides for the capability to extend the existing pressure charts to higher design temperatures. The new method is shown to contain a number of improvements over the traditional approach and is presently under consideration by appropriate ASME Code committees.

Michalopoulos, E. [Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., CT (United States). Codes and Standards Dept.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Chapter 9 - Vacuum and High-Pressure Distillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In industrial practice, multistage distillation operations are carried out over a wide range of operating pressures, from about 0.1 to 40 bar (10,000 to 40·105 Pa). Major factors in choosing the operating pressure are the temperatures of the available cooling and heating media, with water and low-pressure steam being the most convenient ones. Volatile materials require high pressure to raise their condensation temperature to the desired level. Relative volatility tends to decrease with increasing pressure, and, thermodynamically, the upper limit is the critical temperature of the components in the feed. In such cases, a lower operating pressure is chosen and refrigeration must be employed for condensation of overhead vapor instead of cooling water or air. When dealing with high-boiling material, the upper limit for setting the operating pressure depends on the heat sensitivity of the bottom product components. This often requires distilling under an appropriate vacuum in conjunction with a low enough pressure drop to reduce the column bottom temperature accordingly. From the column design point of view, the operating pressure dictates to a great extent the choice and design of internals, and it influences significantly their functionality and overall performance. The main objective of the present chapter is to address and discuss operating pressure selection criteria as well as pressure effects on stage and reflux requirement, vapor and liquid properties, distillation process in general, and trayed and packed-column hydraulics and efficiency in particular.

Žarko Oluji?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Internal structure, hygroscopic and Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles Print Friday, 13 May 2011 00:00 Scientists recently combined experimental approaches and molecular dynamics modeling to gain new insights into the internal structure of sea salt particles and relate it to their fundamental chemical reactivity in the atmosphere. This research shows that surface enhancement or depletion of chemical components in marine particles can occur because of the difference in the chemical nature of the species. Because the atmospheric chemistry of the salt particles takes place at the gas-particle interface, understanding their complex surfaces provides new insights about their effect on the environment and climate change. Article Link.

277

Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Neutron Activation Analysis of Manganese and Sodium in Bacterial Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Metabolism and Products Neutron Activation Analysis of Manganese and Sodium...Columbus, Ohio 43210. The application of neutron activation analysis for mineral determinations...two elements. The results indicate that neutron activation analysis is readily applicable...

Woodrow B. Krueger; Walter E. Carey; Bruno J. Kolodzeij

1970-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Measurement of Conduction-Electron-Spin Relaxation in Sodium, 14-20 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conduction-electron-spin relaxation in sodium has been measured in the liquid-hydrogen-temperature range 14-20 K. We believe we have successfully separated the contributions to the measured relaxation rate from the impurity, surface, and electron-phonon (intrinsic) mechanisms by working with samples of controlled geometry at low rf frequency (10 MHz). The temperature dependence of the intrinsic relaxation time agrees reasonably well with the Debye-model calculations of Yafet. In our samples the probability of relaxation per surface collision for an electron spin is on the order of 10-3.

S. -K. Wang and R. T. Schumacher

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

282

High pressure counterflow CHF.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

Walkush, Joseph Patrick

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Nonlinear optomechanical pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A transparent material exhibits ultra-fast optical nonlinearity and is subject to optical pressure if irradiated by a laser beam. However, the effect of nonlinearity on optical pressure is often overlooked, even if a nonlinear optical pressure may be potentially employed in many applications, as optical manipulation, biophysics, cavity optomechanics, quantum optics, optical tractors, and is relevant in fundamental problems as the Abraham-Minkoswky dilemma, or the Casimir effect. Here we show that an ultra-fast nonlinear polarization gives indeed a contribution to the optical pressure that also is negative in certain spectral ranges; the theoretical analysis is confirmed by first-principles simulations. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effect can be observable by measuring the deflection of a membrane made by graphene.

Claudio Conti; Robert Boyd

2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

284

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology A. Kostival, C. Rivkin, W. Buttner, and R. Burgess National Renewable Energy...

285

Laves phase hydrogen storage alloys for super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ti-Cr- and Ti-Mn-based alloys were prepared to be low- and high-pressure stage metals for a double-stage super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressor. Their crystallographic characteristics and hydrogen

Xiumei Guo; Shumao Wang; Xiaopeng Liu; Zhinian Li; Fang Lü; Jing Mi; Lei Hao…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Pressure dependent diffraction and spectroscopy of a dimerized antiferromagnet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present pressure dependent neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the dimerized antiferromagnet Ba$_3$Mn$_2$O$_8$. The room temperature diffraction measurements reveal a linear decrease in lattice constant as a function of applied pressure. No structural transitions are observed. The low-temperature neutron spectroscopy measurements indicate a small change in magnetic scattering intensity in the vicinity of the spin gap for pressures up to $P=0.6$~kbar.

Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Tulk, Christopher A [ORNL; dos Santos, Antonio M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Molaison, Jamie J [ORNL; Chang, S. [Ames Laboratory; Leo, J B [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Samulon, Eric C [Stanford University; Shapiro, Max C [Stanford University; Fisher, Ian R [Stanford University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Experimental Investigation on Density Wave Instability of Sodium Boiling Two-Phase Flow in an Annulus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments of density wave instability in a liquid sodium boiling two-phase flow experiments in an annulus were carried out in the following parameters range: heat flux from 80 kW/m{sup 2} to 976 kW/m{sup 2}, inlet subcooling from 25.6 deg. C to 226.8 deg. C, mass flow rate from 7.92 kg/h to 68.9 kg/h, system pressure from 2600 Pa to 0.12 Mpa. Not only the mechanism of the instability, critical conditions and oscillation period, but also the effects of pressure, mass flow rate and inlet subcooling on the density wave instability were explored experimentally and theoretically. From the experimental data, it was found that the lower the inlet temperature was, the higher the system pressure and the mass flow rate that could result in a more stable boiling two-phase flow were. A correlation for the density wave instability was obtained on from the dimensional analysis for the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy. (authors)

Suizheng Qiu; Dounan Jia [Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710049 (China); Minoru Takahashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

Analysis of long-term flows resulting from large-scale sodium-water reactions in an LMFBR secondary system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leaks in LMFBR steam generators cannot entirely be prevented; thus the steam generators and the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) of an LMFBR must be designed to withstand the effects of the leaks. A large-scale leak which might result from a sudden break of a steam generator tube, and the resulting sodium-water reaction (SWR) can generate large pressure pulses that propagate through the IHTS and exert large forces on the piping supports. This paper discusses computer programs for analyzing long-term flow and thermal effects in an LMFBR secondary system resulting from large-scale steam generator leaks, and the status of the development of the codes.

Shin, Y.W.; Chung, H.; Choi, U.S.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Dental Applications of Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents a summary of selected recent research efforts devoted to the use of low-temperature (or non-thermal) atmospheric-pressure plasmas in various dental applications. Areas of application ... fun...

WeiDong Zhu; Kurt Becker; Jie Pan; Jue Zhang; Jing Fang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly...

Ling, Kegang

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

HIGH-PRESSURE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METHANE FROM GEOPRESSURED...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

to be about 100 based on CH4 solubility in brine at 50-125C from O'Sullivan and Smith (11), tnd low pressure CH solubility in hexadecane at 25-2002 from Cukor and Prausni...

294

Tetrodotoxin binding sites in human heart and human brain sodium channels. Final report, 28 June 1991-27 June 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) are potent and lethal threats to exposed soldiers. The development of an antidote or site-specific antibodies for low affinity TTX/STX cardiac sodium channels and high affinity TTX/STX brain and peripheral nerve sodium channels requires a data base not only of the primary structure of the toxin receptor site(s) but also insight into the secondary structures of these site(s). Five goals or tasks were attempted and the first three were completed. Full-length human cardiac and brain sodium channel cDNAs have been cloned and expressed as functional proteins in Xenopus oocytes. Silent restriction sites have been introduced around the pore or P-region of the Na+ channel repeats. Site-directed mutagenesis has identified critical residues in the pore from the primary structure involved in sensitivity to TTX and STX and other pore properties. Chemical modification of cysteine mutants of these initial residues by methanethiosulfonate compounds produces an expanded data base of the secondary structure of the toxins` receptors. Specific peptides which mimic these receptors will be made to compete with the natural receptor for the toxins. We have successfully cloned the cDNAs for both human heart and brain sodium channels and expressed functional proteins. The initial chemical modification data suggests file receptor sites for TTX/STX are not interchangeable and are not the same site.

Brown, A.M.; Hartmann, H.A.

1994-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

Gautam, Siddharth, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Liu, Tingting, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Welch, Susan; Cole, David [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, 275 Mendenhall Laboratory, 125 S Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rother, Gernot [Geochemistry and Interfacial Science Group, Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jalarvo, Niina [Jülich Center for Neutron Sciences (JCNS-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich Outstation at Spallation Neutron Source(SNS), Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

296

Ultrahigh?Frequency Discharge in Atmospheric?Pressure Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 2469 MHz discharge was generated at an open end of a coaxial waveguide through which atmospheric?pressure gas flowed. Argon served as a plasma?forming gas hydrogen and calcium as probe elements for the measurement of electron density and gas temperature respectively and sodium as a seed for increasing electron density. The density of excited hydrogen atoms the excitation temperature the electron density the ionizationtemperature and the gas temperature were measured at operating powers of 50 200 and 400 W. The plasma in the close vicinity of the electrode (0 to 0.5 mm from the terminus of the inner conductor) was not in the local thermal equilibrium at any power level investigated independently of the sodium seeding. At a distance between 1 and 3 mm from the electrode on the contrary the nonseeded plasma approached the local thermal equilibrium when the power was increased while the seeded plasma exhibited a deviation from the local thermal equilibrium. The deviation from the local thermal equilibrium in the nonseeded plasma can be interpreted to be due to inhomogeneity of the plasma. In the outer zone of the seeded plasma the excitation temperature was equal to the gas temperature but not to the ionizationtemperature. A separation of plasma components occurred which was depressed by the sodium seeding.

Seiichi Murayama

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

High-pressure microhydraulic actuator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

298

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane® bus. Awarded patent for integrated module including in-tank regulator * Developed high efficiency H 2 fuel storage systems for DOE Future Truck programs Developed H 2 storage and metering system for Toyota's FCEV platform. First to certify 10,000 psi systems in Japan

299

Development of under sodium inspection techniques for FBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactor vessel of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) is filled with opaque liquid sodium and ultrasonic inspection techniques are effective and useful for observing the in-vessel structures under sodium. Firstly, in the development of the under sodium visual inspection technique, the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and cross-correlation processing have been applied to realize ultrasonic 3-dimensional cross-correlation image processing with high resolution. Cross-correlation processing improves the S/N ratio of the ultrasonic echoes which are deteriorated by sodium wetting, and realizes high-density integration of the matrix arrayed transducer. Matrix arrayed transducer, in which 100 piezoelectric elements are arranged as a 10 x 10 matrix array, has been manufactured for the in-water visualizing test. Secondly, in the development of the under sodium volumetric inspection technique, a prototype electric scanning UT sensor has been developed for the volumetric test of the core support structures in the reactor vessel. The UT sensor consists of 60 arrayed piezoelectric elements, non-organic materials such as ceramic backing. Ultrasonic echoes transmitted from the elements is scanned electronically and real-time B-scope images of the structures can be realized. A prototype UT sensor has been tested to evaluate the acoustic characteristics in water and confirm the heat-proof performance under high temperature silicon oil. The performance of the UT sensor satisfied the requirements.

Karasawa, H.; Suzuki, T.; Nagai, S.; Izumi, M.; Kobayashi, T. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Sasaki, S.; Ota, S.; Kai, M. [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Poisson's Ratio and the Densification of Glass under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of a relatively low atomic packing density, (C{sub g}) glasses experience significant densification under high hydrostatic pressure. Poisson's ratio ({nu}) is correlated to C{sub g} and typically varies from 0.15 for glasses with low C{sub g} such as amorphous silica to 0.38 for close-packed atomic networks such as in bulk metallic glasses. Pressure experiments were conducted up to 25 GPa at 293 K on silica, soda-lime-silica, chalcogenide, and bulk metallic glasses. We show from these high-pressure data that there is a direct correlation between {nu} and the maximum post-decompression density change.

Rouxel, T.; Ji, H. [Applied Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Rennes 1, LARMAUR, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Hammouda, T. [Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, CNRS-OPG , Universite Blaise Pascal, 5 rue Kessler, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand cedex (France); Moreac, A. [IPR, CNRS-Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Reference Handbook: Pressure detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand pressure detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: Define pressure in terms of force and area. Describe the basic operating principles of the U-Tube Manometer. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading Manometers. Describe the basic operating principles of the three types of Bourdon Tubes. Explain the difference between diaphragm. and bellows-type pressure measurement devices. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Pressure Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operations of Rocky Flats Plant.

Not Available

1990-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

302

E-Print Network 3.0 - ankle brachial pressure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the ankle to brachial systolic pressure and can be measured easily using a sphygmomanometer and Doppler... and Israel43 found that 14% and 5% respectively had low ......

303

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Sodium-based Battery Development - Dave Ingersoll, SNL  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sodium-based Battery Development Sodium-based Battery Development A Family of Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage D. Ingersoll, C. Apblett, E. Spoerke, K. Zavadil, R. Cygan, J. Ihlefeld, F. Delnick, & T. Anderson Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM Prof. E. Wachsman University of Maryland, College Park, MD Profs. R. Kee & J. Porter, Dr. H. Zhu Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO S. Bhavaraju & M. Robins Ceramatec, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT D. Beeaff CoorsTek, Inc, Golden, CO J. Martin Boulder Ionics, Golden CO US DOE Energy Storage Systems Research Program Peer Review, Washington, DC, Sept. 26-28, 2012 Sodium-based batteries  Purpose  Demonstrate a family of sodium-based battery chemistries  sodium-iodine, sodium-bromine, sodium-air, sodium insertion, sodium-metal, etc

304

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Contractor - June 2012 Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Contractor Operational Readiness Review This report documents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (SBWTP-IWTU) contractor Operational Readiness Review (C-ORR). The review was conducted at the Idaho Site from February 27 to March 6, 2012. This report discusses the background, scope, results, and conclusions of the review, as well as opportunities for improvement (OFIs) and items identified for further

305

Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors February 17, 2006 - 11:58am Addthis FUKUI , JAPAN - The Department of Energy today announced that the United States signed a sodium-cooled fast reactor systems arrangement with France and Japan, providing the framework for collaboration among these countries on the research and development of these advanced nuclear reactors. The signing of the agreement took place on February 16, 2006. This arrangement will support the development of technologies associated with the U.S.-led Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), announced earlier this month by Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman. GNEP is a

306

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Federal - June 2012 Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review This report documents the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), independent review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project-Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (SBWTP-IWTU) DOE (Federal) Operational Readiness Review (D-ORR). The review was performed by the HSS Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations and was intended to assess the effectiveness of the CORR process as implemented for the SBWTP-IWTU. This review also provides additional data regarding

307

Numerical Methodology to Evaluate Fast Reactor Sodium Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, a numerical methodology for sodium combustion has been developed for the safety evaluation of a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor. The methodology includes a fast-running zone model computer program for safety evaluation, a field model program for multidimensional thermal hydraulics, and a chemical reaction analysis program based on chemical equilibrium theory. Two recently performed experiments have been analyzed using the computer programs, and the numerical results are in good agreement with the experiments. Although sodium combustion is a complex phenomenon, use of these computer programs gives better understanding of the coupled thermal hydraulics and chemical reaction.

Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi; Okano, Yasushi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan)

2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

The magnesium nutrition of cotton as influenced by sodium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1964 Major Subject. Plant Physic logy THE MAGNESIUM NUTRITION OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM A Thesis By MERVYN M. THENABADU Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi. e Nun Head of Department Member Mem, er Member Member... REVIEW OF LITERATURE (a) Sodium as a plant nutrient (b) I'he role of magnesium in plant nutrition MATERIALS AND METHODS RESUL:S DISCUSSION 13 21 24 (a) The effect of treatments on grcwth and reproduction (b) The effect of treatments on the ccr...

Thenabadu, Mervyn Wellesly

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

309

Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

Pressure balance at the magnetopause: Experimental studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The pressure balance at the magnetopause is formed by magnetic field and plasma in the magnetosheath, on one side, and inside the magnetosphere, on the other side. In the approach of dipole earth's magnetic field configuration and gas-dynamics solar wind flowing around the magnetosphere, the pressure balance predicts that the magnetopause distance R depends on solar wind dynamic pressure Pd as a power low R ~ Pd^alpha, where the exponent alpha=-1/6. In the real magnetosphere the magnetic filed is contributed by additional sources: Chapman-Ferraro current system, field-aligned currents, tail current, and storm-time ring current. Net contribution of those sources depends on particular magnetospheric region and varies with solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activity. As a result, the parameters of pressure balance, including power index alpha, depend on both the local position at the magnetopause and geomagnetic activity. In addition, the pressure balance can be affected by a non-linear transfer of the solar ...

Suvorova, A V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

313

Evaluation of lithium as a toxicant and the modifying effect of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Routine compliance tests conducted for a groundwater treatment facility at the Y-12 Plant on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, showed that the effluent was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. An evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that increased toxicity coincided with increased concentrations of lithium. Lithium is a light, strong metal that is used in DOE operations, including fusion weapons and fission reactors. Little has been published about lithium toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia using lithium chloride and lithium tetraborate. Dilute mineral water (DMW) or the receiving stream water (East Fork Poplar Creek) was used as the dilution water in the toxicity evaluation. A concentration of 1 mg Li/L in DMW reduced the survival of both test species; 0.5 mg Li/L in DMW reduced C. dubia reproduction and minnow growth. Sodium appears to influence the toxicity of Li; the metal was six times more toxic in the low-sodium DMW than in stream water containing 30 mg Na/L. Tests with LiCl in combination with NaCl and NA{sub 2}SO{sub 4} demonstrated that the presence of sodium reduced the toxicity of Li to C. dubia. In laboratory tests with a snail (Elimia clavaeformis) common on the ORR, the feeding rate declined in 0.15 mg Li/L. Because Li has also been demonstrated to be toxic to several plant species, tests with LiCi were also conducted using buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca saliva). The EC{sub 50} for seed growth after 8 d incubation was 37.5 mg Li/L. These findings are significant because of widespread industrial use and potential accumulation of Li in soils.

Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; O`Reilly, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

315

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

316

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

318

pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description This raw data reflects readings from instruments mounted on or near a 82 meter meteorological tower located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), approximately 5 miles south of Boulder, CO (specifically: 39.9107 N, 105.2348 W, datum WGS84). The base elevation at the site is 1,855 meters AMSL. Source NREL Date Released Unknown Date Updated March 10th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords DOE humidity irrandiance NREL NWTC pressure temperature turbulence wind wind direction wind speed Data text/plain icon Raw data (8/24/2001 - 3/10/2011) (txt, 681 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Field IDs for above .txt file (xls, 69.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Scientists and Technicians are notified real-time via email of instruments outside the above min/max or delta comparisons (http://www.nrel.gov/midc/nwtc_m2/) Data have not been reviewed for accuracy or completeness; disclaimer available (http://www.nrel.gov/disclaimer.html).

319

Pressure-transient test design in tight gas formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper outlines a procedure for pre- and postfracture pressure-transient test design in low-permeability (tight) gas formations. The procedures proposed are based on many years' experience in evaluating low-permeability formations, and particularly on recent experience with Gas Research Inst. (GRI) programs in eastern Devonian gas shales and in western tight-gas formations.

Lee, W.J.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Development of Low-Cost, High Strength Commercial Textile Precursor...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

High cost of carbon fiber CF largest cost component of high pressure storage tanks. Inadequate supply base for low cost carbon fibers Timeline Barriers * ORNL:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

soot emissions - Cylinder pressure and rise rate limits - Low load combustion stabilityignition Robust combustion control - Cylinder-to-cylinder variability - Ambient...

322

Multiple reheat helium Brayton cycles for sodium fast reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium fast reactors (SFR) traditionally adopt the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The resulting potential for water-sodium reaction remains a continuing concern which at least partly delays the SFR technology commercialization and is a contributor to higher capital cost. Supercritical CO2 provides an alternative, but is also capable of sustaining energetic chemical reactions with sodium. Recent development on advanced inert-gas Brayton cycles could potentially solve this compatibility issue, increase thermal efficiency, and bring down the capital cost close to light water reactors. In this paper, helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling states are presented for SFRs with reactor outlet temperatures in the range of 510°C to 650°C. The resulting thermal efficiencies range from 39% and 47%, which is comparable with supercritical recompression CO2 cycles (SCO2 cycle). A systematic comparison between multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle and the SCO2 cycle is given, considering compatibility issues, plant site cooling temperature effect on plant efficiency, full plant cost optimization, and other important factors. The study indicates that the multiple reheat helium cycle is the preferred choice over SCO2 cycle for sodium fast reactors.

Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 100 calcium while rations 3 and4contained 3.85 p. 100 calcium. Sodium bicarbonate was added at a level. The duodenum was entered at the top of the loop and the electrode tip immersed its full length down the posterior side of the loop. The #12;mid-intestinal reading was taken with the incision at approximately

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

326

Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

327

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Engine 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerbaumgard.pdf More Documents & Publications Full Useful Life (120,000 miles)...

329

Low-Pressure, Metastable Growth of Diamond and "Diamondlike" Phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A STUDY OF OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES...SAVVIDES, N, OPTICAL-CONSTANTS AND...CARBON-FILMS AND THEIR APPLICATION AS OVERCOATS ON THIN-FILM MEDIA FOR MAGNETIC...WAGNER, J, OPTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROGENATED...ABSTRACT - HARD COATINGS OF CARBON, BORON-NITRIDE...

JOHN C. ANGUS; CLIFF C. HAYMAN

1988-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

330

Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine Project Director- Kirby Baumgard John Deere Power Systems DOE Project Officer- Steve Cooke Subcontract with Michigan Tech August 21...

331

Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an rf induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the rf heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

Seliskar, C.J.; Warner, D.K.

1984-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

332

An EGS Stimulation Experiment Under Low Wellhead Pressures |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

maximum dissolution of silica and calcite was calculated based upon injection-fluid chemistry and injection flow rate into 34A-9 between 1999 and 2003. Authors Peter Rose, Jess...

333

Low-pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

Prono, D.S.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

335

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF-355. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR

Weston, Ken

336

Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Relationships between the crystal structures of two polymorphs of sodium naproxen dihydrate and its monohydrate and anhydrate phases provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.

Bond, A.D.

2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

337

SnSb@carbon nanocable anchored on graphene sheets for sodium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of materials with unique nanostructures is an effective strategy for the improvement of sodium storage in sodium ion batteries to achieve stable cycling performance and good ... , SnSbcore/carbon-...

Li Li; Kuok Hau Seng; Dan Li; Yongyao Xia; Hua Kun Liu; Zaiping Guo

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Discovery of Sodium and Potassium Vapor in the Atmosphere of the Moon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lunar atmosphere: Solar-wind implantation and subsequent release of sodium, solar wind-driven sputtering of sodium...internal release. Solar-wind implantation can only supply...near the south pole at large local solar zenith angles suggests...

A. E. Potter; T. H. Morgan

1988-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

339

Go No-Go Recommendation for Sodium Borohydride for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Independent review panel recommendation for go/no go decision on use of hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen storage.

340

Resumming the pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The convergence properties of the resummed thermal perturbation series for the thermodynamic pressure are investigated by comparison with the exact results obtained in large-N phi^4 theory and possibilities for improvements are discussed. By going beyond conventional resummed perturbation theory, renormalization has to be carried out nonperturbatively yet consistently. This is exemplified in large-N phi^4_4 and in a special large-N \\phi^3_6 model that mimics QED in the limit of large flavour number.

Anton Rebhan

1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Effect of sodium montmorillonite nanoclay on the water absorbency and cationic dye removal of carrageenan-based nanocomposite superabsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanocomposite superabsorbents were synthesized by simultaneously solution copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) and sodium acrylate (Na-AA) in the presence of carrageenan biopolymer and sodium montmorillonite (Na-...

Gholam Reza Mahdavinia; Bakhshali Massoumi; Karim Jalili…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Combustor oscillation pressure stabilizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In accordance with the objective of the present invention, the active control of unsteady combustion induced oscillations in a combustion chamber fired by a suitable fuel and oxidizer mixture, such as a hydrocarbon fuel and air mixture, is provided by restructuring and moving the position of the main flame front and thereby increasing the transport time and displacing the pressure wave further away from the in-phase relationship with the periodic heat release. The restructuring and repositioning of the main flame are achieved by utilizing a pilot flame which is pulsed at a predetermined frequency corresponding to less than about one-half the frequency of the combustion oscillation frequency with the duration of each pulse being sufficient to produce adequate secondary thermal energy to restructure the main flame and thereby decouple the heat release from the acoustic coupling so as to lead to a reduction in the dynamic pressure amplitude. The pulsating pilot flame produces a relatively small and intermittently existing flame front in the combustion zone that is separate from the oscillating main flame front but which provides the thermal energy necessary to effectively reposition the location of the oscillating main flame front out of the region in the combustion zone where the acoustic coupling can occur with the main flame and thereby effectively altering the oscillation-causing phase relationship with the heat of combustion.

Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

Corey, John A. (Melrose, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Stabilizing System Pressure | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

System Pressure This tip sheet summarizes three methods used to stabilize compressed air system pressure: adequate primary and secondary storage, PressureFlow Controllers (P...

345

Microsoft Word - EC Sodium coolant removal.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 SECTION A. Project Title: MFC - EBR-II Sodium Removal/RCRA Closure Activities SECTION B . Project Description The proposed action will remove the sodium from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-II piping system and tanks to achieve clean-closure for eventual decommissioning, deactivation and demolition (DD&D). The clean-closure will be completed in compliance with the EBR-II Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) Storage and Treatment Permit PER-120, which includes the closure plan. EBR-II is located at the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory. The EBR-II DD&D actions will be addressed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act, specifically, the Engineering Evaluation/Cost

346

Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Cradle and pressure grippers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gripper that is designed to incorporate the functions of gripping, supporting and pressure tongs into one device. The gripper has two opposing finger sections with interlocking fingers that incline and taper to form a wedge. The interlocking fingers are vertically off-set so that the opposing finger sections may close together allowing the inclined, tapered tips of the fingers to extend beyond the plane defined by the opposing finger section's engagement surface. The range of motion defined by the interlocking relationship of the finger sections allows the gripper to grab, lift and support objects of varying size and shape. The gripper has one stationary and one moveable finger section. Power is provided to the moveable finger section by an actuating device enabling the gripper to close around an object to be lifted. A lifting bail is attached to the gripper and is supported by a crane that provides vertical lift.

Muniak, John E. (New York, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Pressure [bar] ABBGroup-1-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;©ABBGroup-4- 18-Jun-08 Where does one use circuit breakers? High voltage (HV) circuit breakers are keyA DISTRIBUTION MEDIUM AND LOW VOLTAGE HV circuit breakers #12;©ABBGroup-5- 18-Jun-08 When a breaker fails to interrupt the current... Fault arc at a disconnector Fault arc in a substation #12;©ABBGroup-6- 18-Jun-08

Basse, Nils Plesner

349

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Boron determinations in pressure vessel steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several studies have suggested that low-energy neutrons contribute to reactor pressure vessel (PV) embrittlement through interactions with boron impurities in the steel. Until now, the available information on boron contents in pressure vessel steels has been based on nominal concentrations or estimates provided by the materials manufacturers. To help resolve the question of boron contribution to PV steel embrittlement, samples of 38 different PV steels were analyzed by high-sensitivity gas mass spectrometry for their helium and boron contents. The boron contents were determined by measuring the increase in helium content in each material as a result of additional thermal neutron exposure. The results of these analyses showed natural boron contents that ranged from 0.23 to 5.11 wt. ppm in the various alloys.

Oliver, B.M. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; McElroy, W.N. [Consultants and Technology Services, Richland, WA (United States); Kellogg, L.S. [Battelle-Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farrar, H. IV

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

351

EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear 306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Summary This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the proposed electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download September 19, 2000 EIS-0306: Record of Decision Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel July 1, 2000 EIS-0306: Final Environmental Impact Statement Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel July 1, 1999 EIS-0306: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Treatment of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

352

Unloading using auger tool and foam and experimental identification of liquid loading of low rate natural gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-pressure, low-producing natural gas wells commonly encounter liquid loading during production. Because of the decline in the reservoir pressure and the flow capacity, wells can fall below terminal velocity. Identifying and predicting the onset...

Bose, Rana

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

354

Steam Oxidation at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Low Cost Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Cost Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Low Cost Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Materials Background To obtain significant increases in the efficiency of coal fired power plants, steam pressure and temperature must be increased beyond current technology to advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) conditions -temperatures and pressures up to 760 degrees Celsius (°C) and 35 megapascals (MPa). The upper bounds of operating pressure and temperature are limited by the properties of the current set

358

Neutron scattering at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron scattering spectra at pressures up to 30 kilobar in the temperature range 300–4 K have been obtained with a compact clamped type apparatus. The pressure cell geometry by allowing the detection of neutronsscattered in a plane makes it compatible with operation on crystal spectrometers both for elastic and inelastic scattering. The instrument is light (4.5 kg) and easy to move. An external diameter of 68 mm makes the pressure cell adaptable to standard cryostats or furnaces.

D. Bloch; J. Paureau; J. Voiron; G. Parisot

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building...

360

Pressure testing of torispherical heads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.

Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Development of one-dimensional computer code DESOPT for thermal hydraulic design of sodium-heated once through steam generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Once-through Steam Generator (SG) is a critical component of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plant. It is a counter current heat exchanger, in which heat is transferred from the hot sodium flowing on the shell side to water/steam in tube side. High pressure subcooled water enters the SG tube from bottom, gets heated up to saturation, goes through nucleate boiling, dry out and post dry out heat transfer, getting converted to saturated steam and finally gets superheated. For this the process design needs to be carried out accurately. A computer code DESOPT has been developed for the process design of straight vertical, serpentine and helical geometries and validated against reported designs in literature. Recently a test facility to test a 5.5 MWt sodium heated steam generator has been commissioned. The predictions of the code have been compared with the measurements and found satisfactory. This paper brings out different heat transfer mechanisms in SG and describes the one-dimensional code, its validation based on literature and in-house tests and presents the results of comparison between predicted and actual operation at different part loads.

G. Vaidyanathan; A.L. Kothandaraman; L.S. Siva Kumar; V. Vinod; I.B. Noushad; K.K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Pressure Vessel Burst Program: Automated hazard analysis for pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design, development, and use of a Windows based software tool, PVHAZARD, for pressure vessel hazard analysis is presented. The program draws on previous efforts in pressure vessel research and results of a Pressure Vessel Burst Test Study. Prior papers on the Pressure Vessel Burst Test Study have been presented to the ASME, AIAA, JANNAF, NASA Pressure Systems Seminar, and to a DOD Explosives Safety Board subcommittee meeting. Development and validation is described for simplified blast (overpressure/impulse) and fragment (velocity and travel distance) hazard models. The use of PVHAZARD in making structural damage and personnel injury estimates is discussed. Efforts in-progress are reviewed including the addition of two-dimensional and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) hydrodynamic code analyses to supplement the simplified models, and the ability to assess barrier designs for protection from fragmentation.

Langley, D.R. [Aerospace Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Chrostowski, J.D. [ACTA Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Goldstein, S. [Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States); Cain, M. [General Physics Corp., Titusville, FL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

364

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRI has completed the NBFZ test program, made modification to the experimental furnace for the HPBO test. The NBFZ datasets provide the information NEA needs to simulate the combustion and fuel-N conversion with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. BU has determined a linear swell of 1.55 corresponding to a volumetric increase of a factor of 3.7 and a decrease in char density by the same factor. These results are highly significant, and indicate significantly faster burnout at elevated pressure due to the low char density and large diameter.

Chris Guenther, Ph.D.

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

365

The case for endurance testing of sodium-heated steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is generally believed that a nuclear power comeback before the end of the century will be through the vehicle of the light water reactor (LWR). The newer designs, with their important technical and economic advances, should attract wide interest and result in commercial success for the manufacturers and their utility customers. To develop the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), approximately $30 billion has been spent worldwide, a third of which has been spent in the US. As a result of this considerable investment, most of the technical obstacles to deployment of the LMFBR have been removed with a few exceptions, one of which is the long-term performance of sodium-heated steam generators. Of the difficulties that have beset the current vintage of nuclear power plants, the performance of steam generators in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was the most egregious. There was very little development testing and no model testing of PWR steam generators. Development occurred in the plants themselves resulting in many outages and more than $5 billion in lost revenue and replacement power costs. As a result, the electric utility industry is certain to exercise caution regarding acquisition of the LMFBR and will demand strong objective evidence of steam generator reliability. Only long-term endurance testing of prototypic models under prototypic conditions will satisfy this demand.

Onesto, A.T.; Zweig, H.R.; Gibbs, D.C. (Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The mechanism of coking pressure generation II: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and contraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and limit the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure can lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Following on from a previous paper on plastic layer permeability we have studied the effect of contraction of semi-coke on coking pressure and the effect of organic additives on contraction. A link between contraction (or simulated contraction) outside the plastic layer and coking pressure was demonstrated. The interaction between this contraction, local bulk density around the plastic layer and the dependence of the permeability of the plastic layer on bulk density was discussed as possible mechanisms for the generation of coking pressure. The effect of blending either a high volatile matter coal or one of two semi-anthracites with low volatile matter, high coking pressure coals on the coking pressure of the binary blends has been explained using this mechanism.

Merrick Mahoney; Seiji Nomura; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; David R. Jenkins; Sid McGuire

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

371

Combined technologies enable high-pressure slickline work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operators conducting wireline operations can combine the attributes of the slickline grease head and conventional stuffing box to enable work in gas wells at wellhead pressures above 15,000 psi. Wireline/slickline work in high-pressure wells requires meeting the dual challenges of well control and freedom of movement (up and down) for the lines. In a notable application of the combined-technology technique, an operator offshore Louisiana attempted to conduct wireline operations in an 18,000-ft gas and condensate well with 15,600 psi wellhead pressure, using a standard slickline stuffing box to contain the pressure. The standard equipment could not perform the needed function, which involved several trips to depths of 5,000 ft and 18,000 ft. Using a combined-technology, flow-tube stuffing box, the operator was able to conduct the wireline operation without incident; the control arrangement resulted in use of only 3 gal of lubricating oil throughout the job. Post-job analysis of the packing showed only the minimal wear normally associated with low-pressure wireline operations. Although slickline work can be performed in low-pressure gas wells without using the flow-tube stuffing box, the device and the oil used with it isolate the stuffing-box packing from the dry gases, reducing friction swell. This isolation speeds up the operation and reduces packing wear.

Davis, G. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); West, T. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Houma, LA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Single pressure steam bottoming cycle for gas turbines combined cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recapturing waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine to drive a high pressure-high temperature steam turbine and a low pressure steam turbine. It comprises: delivering the exhaust of the gas turbine to the hot side of an economizer-reheater apparatus; delivering a heated stream of feedwater and recycled condensate through the cold side of the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus to elevate the temperature below the pinch point of the boiler; delivering the discharge from the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine through the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus; driving the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine with the discharge stream of feedwater and recycled condensate which is heated to a temperature below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus; and driving the low pressure steam turbine with the discharged stream of the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine reheated below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus.

Zervos, N.

1990-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Effects of the mycotoxin penicillic acid on electrogenic sodium transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Maximal 1nh1- bition of sodium transport (89. 7%) by PA was achieved after 40 minutes reaction time. The addition of d1thiothreitol to the test med1a prevented short-c1rc1ut current inhibition 1ndicating that the mode of PA action on sod1um flux may..., and 45 minutes . 47 15 C-PA binding to 1ntact toad urigry bladder with and without addit1on of DTT to the C-PA before bladder app1 i cati on. . . 48 Relationship of radiotoxin binding to intact bladder with respect to inhibition of the sod1um pump...

Wilczynski, Teresa Anne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

374

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes February 1, 2008 - 11:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) today expanded cooperation to coordinate Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototype development through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by DOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Dennis R. Spurgeon, CEA Chairman Alain Bugat and JAEA President Toshio Okazaki. The MOU establishes a collaborative framework with the ultimate goal of deploying sodium-cooled fast reactor prototypes. A sodium-cooled fast reactor uses liquid sodium

375

Radiation effects on reactor pressure vessel supports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present the findings from the work done in accordance with the Task Action Plan developed to resolve the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Safety Issue No. 15, (GSI-15). GSI-15 was established to evaluate the potential for low-temperature, low-flux-level neutron irradiation to embrittle reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports to the point of compromising plant safety. An evaluation of surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had suggested that some materials used for RPV supports in pressurized-water reactors could exhibit higher than expected embrittlement rates. However, further tests designed to evaluate the applicability of the HFIR data to reactor RPV supports under operating conditions led to the conclusion that RPV supports could be evaluated using traditional method. It was found that the unique HFIR radiation environment allowed the gamma radiation to contribute significantly to the embrittlement. The shielding provided by the thick steel RPV shell ensures that degradation of RPV supports from gamma irradiation is improbable or minimal. The findings reported herein were used, in part, as the basis for technical resolution of the issue.

Johnson, R.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology; Lipinski, R.E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rockville, MD (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

On the Criticality Safety of Transuranic Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Transport Casks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work addresses the neutronic performance and criticality safety issues of transport casks for fuel pertaining to low conversion ratio sodium cooled fast reactors, conventionally known as Advanced Burner Reactors. The criticality of a one, three, seven and 19-assembly cask capacity is presented. Both dry “helium” and flooded “water” filled casks are considered. No credit for fuel burnup or fission products was assumed. As many as possible of the conservatisms used in licensing light water reactor universal transport casks were incorporated into this SFR cask criticality design and analysis. It was found that at 7-assemblies or more, adding moderator to the SFR cask increases criticality margin. Also, removal of MAs from the fuel increases criticality margin of dry casks and takes a slight amount of margin away for wet casks. Assuming credit for borated fuel tube liners, this design analysis suggests that as many as 19 assemblies can be loaded in a cask if limited purely by criticality safety. If no credit for boron is assumed, the cask could possibly hold seven assemblies if low conversion ratio fast reactor grade fuel and not breeder reactor grade fuel is assumed. The analysis showed that there is a need for new cask designs for fast reactors spent fuel transportation. There is a potential of modifying existing transportation cask design as the starting point for fast reactor spent fuel transportation.

Samuel Bays; Ayodeji Alajo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sodium chloride Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cholate... by the addition of sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate salt and then resuspension of the SWNTs... peroxidase (HRP) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using...

378

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sodium sulfate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: by the addition of sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate salt and then resuspension of the SWNTs... peroxidase (HRP) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using...

379

ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS: SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE AND ORGANOTIN HYDRIDES.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane… (more)

McLafferty, Jason

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

A study of phase transitions in sodium stearate by means of nuclear magnetic resonance.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The mesomorphic phase transitions of sodium stearate occurring between 23°C. and 200°C. were investigated by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of the hydrogen nuclei… (more)

Grant, Rowland Frederick

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Coherent population trapping on the sodium D1 line in high magnetic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the coherent-population-trapping (CPT) phenomenon in a sodium atomic vapor. The experiment leading to the first observation of CPT is revisited with an improved...

Höller, R; Renzoni, F; Windholz, L; Xu, J H

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting sodium hypochlorite Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Summary: equipment, vehicles Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) 200-500 ppm Nets, boots, clothing. Surfaces must be clean... hypochlorite solution.Note: Bleach is 5.25%...

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline sodium borohydride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aardahl, PNNL) The most critical hurdle for the use of sodium ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure...

384

E-Print Network 3.0 - aged sodium borophosphate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is a pool-type, sodium- cooled fast reactor that uses a large core of depleted uranium and a "sparkplug Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Division,...

385

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum sodium chloride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

agents Water Acetyl chloride, alkaline and alkaline... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium ... Source: Hall, Sharon J. - School of Life Sciences, Arizona...

386

TRUEX partitioning studies applied to ICPP sodium-bearing waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located in southeast Idaho at the USDOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, formerly reprocessed highly enriched spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The HLW raffinates from the combined PUREX/REDOX type uranium recovery process were converted to solid oxides (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. Liquid effluents from the calcination process were combined with liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW) generated primarily in conjunction with decontamination activities. Due to the high sodium content in the SBW, this secondary waste stream is not directly amenable to solidification via calcination. Currently, approximately 1.5 millon gallons of liquid SBW are stored at the ICPP in large tanks. Several treatment options for the SBW are currently being considered, including the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process developed by Horwitz and co-workers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in preparation for the final disposition of SBW. Herein described are experimental results of radionuclide tracer studies with simulated SBW using the TRUEX process solvent.

Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Law, J.D.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Traceable low and ultra-low temperatures in The Netherlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basis for worldwide uniformity of low and ultra-low temperature measurements is provided by two international temperature scales, the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) for temperatures above 0.65 K and the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000 (PLTS-2000) for temperatures in the range 0.9 mK to 1 K. Over the past 10 years, the thermometry research in the Netherlands provided substantial contributions to the definition, realization and dissemination of these scales. We first give an overview of the Dutch contributions to the ITS-90 realization: a) 3He and 4He vapour pressure thermometer range of the ITS-90, 0.65 K to 4 K (1997), b) 4He interpolating constant volume gas thermometry for the ITS-90 range 3 K to 24.5 K (2007) and c) cryogenic fixed points for the ITS-90 range 13.8 K to 273.16 K (2005). Then we highlight our work on 3He melting pressure thermometry from 10 mK to 1 K (2003) to support the dissemination of the PLTS-2000. Finally we present the current status of the Dutch calibration facilities and dissemination devices providing for traceable low and ultra-low temperatures for use in science and industry: a) the NMi-VSL cryogenic calibration facility for the range 0.65 K to 273.16 K and b) the SRD1000 superconductive reference devices for the range 10 mK to 1 K.

A Peruzzi; W A Bosch

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cycles Fuel Lines * 10,000 psi nominal working pressure * O-ring face seal connections * CNC bent to CAD data * 316 Stainless Steel (Other materials available) * Welded end form or...

389

Pressure compensated flow control valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an air flow control valve which is capable of maintaining a constant flow at the outlet despite changes in the inlet or outlet pressure. The device consists of a shell assembly with an inlet chamber and outlet chamber separated by a separation plate. The chambers are connected by an orifice. Also located within the inlet chamber is a port controller assembly. The port controller assembly consists of a differential pressure plate and port cap affixed thereon. The cap is able to slide in and out of the orifice separating the inlet and outlet chambers. When the pressure differential is sufficient, the differential pressure plate rises or falls to maintain a constant air flow. Movement of the port controller assembly does not require the use of seals, diaphragms, tight tolerances, bushings, bearings, hinges, guides, or lubricants.

Minteer, Daniel J. (West Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

BIOMACROMOLECULES UNDER HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of water into the protein rather than the transfer of hydrophobic residues into water. To investigate water. Gil Toombes for teaching me SAXS analysis and help with the pressure pump motor control, Buz Barstow

Gruner, Sol M.

391

Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure Coupling undulator radiation from Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamlines 3-ID and 13-ID to nuclear resonant inelastic scattering techniques, researchers have determined the phonon density of states for iron under pressures up to 153 gigapascals, equivalent to those found at the Earth's core. Image of the Earth's core. Although indirect measurements and theory have, since the early 1950s, produced an informed picture of the structure and composition of the materials that make up the core of the Earth, direct proof and the answers to some intriguing questions remain unanswered. Previously, ultrahigh-pressure experiments using nuclear resonant inelastic scattering have been difficult to carry out due the tiny samples required.

392

Measuring the pressure in ultrahigh-pressure mercury arcs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) mercury lamps are important as high-brightness light sources for digital projection. Hg pressures are usually above 20 MPa and difficult to measure. We have built special UHP lamps with a liquid Hg condensate in a temperature-controlled reservoir, allowing us to tune the Hg vapor pressure p between 14 and 30 MPa. As a simple measure for p, we recorded the width DELTAlambda of the 546 nm Hg line while varying p and also the lamp current I and voltage U. The data define a function p(DELTAlambda,I,U) that will deliver p to better than 3% from simple measurements of DELTAlambda, I, and U for most UHP lamps in the important 100-200 W power range. The method is applied to sample lamps, yielding pressures up to 26 MPa and demonstrating how filled Hg amount, burning position, arc gap, and lamp power affect the pressure. The effective temperature of typical UHP lamps is found to be 2400 K. We also derive an improved characteristic U(d,p,I) for the dependence of the arc voltage on arc gap, pressure, and current for electrode-stabilized Hg discharges in the UHP regime. Some aspects of the experiment are of general interest in the field of discharge lamps, such as a model for the heat balance of the Hg condensate under conductive, radiative, and evaporative cooling/heating, a short discussion of high-temperature vapor-pressure data for Hg, and an improved Hg equation of state for UHP conditions.

Hechtfischer, U.; Engelbrecht, B.; Carpaij, M.; Fischer, E.; Koerber, A. [Philips Research Laboratories, Weisshausstrasse 2, 52066 Aachen (Germany)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

On the Use of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for the Bio-Decontamination of Polymers and Its Impact on Their Chemical and Morphological Surface Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma processes can be applied to inactivate micro-...2 plasma of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet leads to an inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus...spores with a maximum r...

K. Fricke; H. Tresp; R. Bussiahn; K. Schröder…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Observation of Metal-insulator and Metal-Metal Transitions in Hydrogen Iodide under Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen iodide has been studied up to pressures of 70 GPa at low temperatures in a diamondanvil cell. Electrical-conductivity and optical measurements have been used to observe pressure-induced phase transitions which are interpreted as follows: First a metal-insulator transition takes place in the molecular solid; with increased pressure a metal-metal molecular-to-atomic transition occurs. An additional transition due to intrinsic impurities has been observed. Implications for metallic hydrogen are discussed.

J. van Straaten and Isaac F. Silvera

1986-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

395

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Endografts, Pressure, and the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surveillance protocols [28]. The relationship between peripheral arterial pressure and aortic pulse pressure was shown to be an underestimation of the pulse pressure within the abdominal aorta by a mean of 10% with a sphygmomanometer which was similar to a...

Meyer, Clark A.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

397

Optimization of Pressurized Oxy4Combustion with Flameless Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressurized OxyECombustion is one of the most promising technologies for utilityEscale power generation plants. Benefits include the ability to burn low rank coal and capture C02. By increasing the flue gas pressure during this process, greater efficiencies are derived from increased quantity and quality of thermal energy recovery. UPA with modeling support from MIT and testing and data verification by Georgia Tech’s Research Center designed and built a 100kW system capable of demonstrating pressurized oxyEcombustion using a flameless combustor. Wyoming PRB coal was run at 15 and 32 bar. Additional tests were not completed but sampled data demonstrated the viability of the technology over a broader range of operating pressures, Modeling results illustrated a flat efficiency curve over 20 bar, with optimum efficiency achieved at 29 bar. This resulted in a 33% (HHV) efficiency, a 5 points increase in efficiency versus atmospheric oxyEcombustion, and a competitive cost of electricity plus greater C02 avoidance costs then prior study’s presented. UPA’s operation of the benchEscale system provided evidence that key performance targets were achieved: flue gas sampled at the combustor outlet had nonE detectable residual fly ashes, and low levels of SO3 and heavyEmetal. These results correspond to prior pressurized oxyEcombustion testing completed by IteaEEnel.

Malavasi, Massimo; Landegger, Gregory

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

Coal-CO2 Slurry Feeding System for Pressurized Gasifiers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Coal-CO2 Slurry Feeding System for Pressurized Gasifiers Massachusetts Institute of Technology Project Number: FE0012500 Project Description This project will develop and assess a slurry feeding system based on a suspension of coal in liquid CO2 that can be pumped into a high-pressure gasifier. The advantages of this solution are that CO2 has a low heat capacity, a low heat of vaporization and low viscosity. Thus, the liquid CO2 imposes a much smaller thermal load on the gasifier relative to a water slurry, and has the potential to improve the efficiency and economics of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with carbon capture and dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal fired power plants. Project Details

399

Remedial Action Certification Docket - Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE)  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

c~-?i-- c~-?i-- I ,3-l Remedial Action Certification Docket - Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) .Complex and the Hot Cave Facility (Bldg. 003), Santa Susana ,Fie!d Laboratory, Chatsworth, California ..:'..~::Yerlette Gatl in, MA-232 I am attaching for entry into the Public Document Room, one copy of the N -23 subject documentat ion. These documents are the backup data for the certification that the facilfties are radiologically acceptable for b- unrestricted use as noted in the certification statement published in the &aney Federal Register. Inasmuch as the certification for unrestricted use is 9/2(/85 being published in the Federal Register, it is prudent that the attached documentation also be available to the public. These documents should be retained In accordance with DOE Order 1324.2--disposal schedule 25.

400

Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

Laing, D.; Reusch, M. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Flexible Pressure Sensors: Modeling and Experimental Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flexible capacitive pressure sensors fabricated with nanocomposites were experimentally characterized and results compared with simulations from analytical modeling. Unlike traditional diaphragm silicon pressure sensors, ...

Viana, J.C.

404

Screening Evaluation of Sodium Nonatitanate for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of a sodium titanate material developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. Sodium nonatitanate may exhibit improved actinide removal kinetics and filtration characteristics compared to MST and thus merit testing.

Hobbs, D.T.

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

405

Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric Titration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications, including graphene-metal oxide nano- composites for Li-ion battery electrodes,4,5 grapheneAdsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric States ABSTRACT: We report on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto functionalized graphene

Aksay, Ilhan A.

406

Research on the Hydraulic Characteristics of a 600MW Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water wall design is a key technology of supercritical pressure CFB boiler. On account of the low heat ... be applied in the water wall of supercritical CFB boilers. An experimental research on the flow ... Harbi...

D. Yang; J. Pan; Q. C. Bi; Y. J. Zhang…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Deposition of Plasma Polymer Films by an Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is a proven ... . The application of non-thermal low pressure plasmas containing organic compounds for thin film deposition by plasma polymerization is well known1.... Th...

Rüdiger Foest; Florian Sigeneger; Martin Schmidt

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 3: High pressure profiles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. 1jungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

Jones, G. [Constellation Energy Group, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, Ontario, NY (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Corrosion mechanisms of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil M.I. Ojovan1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion mechanisms of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil M.I. Ojovan1 , W-sodium content radioactive waste borosilicate glass buried in a loamy soil (glass K-26) and in an open testing. INTRODUCTION Vitrification of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) is attracting great interest

Sheffield, University of

413

High pressure water pyrolysis of coal to evaluate the role of pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities under geological conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigates the effect of water pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities for a perhydrous Tertiary Arctic coal, Svalbard. Using a 25 ml Hastalloy vessel, the coal was pyrolysed under low water pressure (230–300 bar) and high water pressure (500, 700 and 900 bar) conditions between 380 °C and 420 °C for 24 h. At 380 °C and 420 °C, gas yields were not affected by pressure up to 700 bar, but were reduced slightly at 900 bar. At 380 °C, the expelled oil yield was highest at 230 bar, but reduced significantly at 900 bar. At 420 °C cracking of expelled oil to gas was retarded at 700 and 900 bar. As well as direct cracking of the coal, the main source of gas generation at high pressure at both 380 °C and 420 °C is from bitumen trapped in the coal, indicating that this is a key mechanism in high pressure geological basins. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) was reduced by 0.16 %Ro at 380 °C and by 0.27 %Ro at 420 °C at 900 bar compared to the low pressure runs, indicating that source rock maturation will be more retarded at higher maturities in high pressure geological basins.

Clement N. Uguna; Andrew D. Carr; Colin E. Snape; Will Meredith

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS/IPSL, Verrie`res-Le-Buisson, France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling F. Leblanc Service d'Ae´ronomie du CNRS December 2003. [1] A three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere was used in the surface concentration of sodium along Mercury's motion around the Sun [Leblanc and Johnson, 2003]. Four

Johnson, Robert E.

415

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

Corey, John A. (Melrose, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

Riba Sagarra, Jaume

419

Recent high pressure photoluminescence studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss two studies involving the effect of pressure on luminescence properties of organic molecules in polymeric media. (1) The efficiency of energy transfer from Coumarine 138 to Rhodamine B in polyacrylic acid (PAA) is measured by both steady state and time dependent methods. The Forster efficiency'' obtained by these two methods is consistent and shows the same pressure dependence as efficiencies derived from relative peak intensities. The non-monotonic pressure dependence of the efficiency is accounted for in terms of the properties of the molecules and the media. (2) The effect of pressure on the luminescent efficiency of molecules with two or more possible excited state geometries has been measured. The efficiency is described in terms of the non-radiative dissipation of energy from a planar excited state and the rates of crossing to and from the possible twisted states as well as non-radiative decay from these states. The processes involved in these two studies are pertinent to a number of technologically and biologically important processes. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

Drickamer, H.G.; Lang, J.M.; Dreger, Z.A. (Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois, 1209 W. California Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))

1994-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

420

Analysis and methodology for measuring oxygen concentration in liquid sodium with a plugging meter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen concentration in liquid sodium is a critical measurement in assessing the potential for corrosion damage in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). There has been little recent work on sodium reactors and oxygen detection. Thus, the technical expertise dealing with oxygen measurements within sodium is no longer readily available in the U.S. Two methods of oxygen detection that have been investigated are the plugging meter and the galvanic cell. One of the overall goals of the Univ. of Wisconsin's sodium research program is to develop an affordable, reliable galvanic cell oxygen sensor. Accordingly, attention must first be dedicated to a well-known standard known as a plugging meter. Therefore, a sodium loop has been constructed on campus in effort to develop the plugging meter technique and gain experience working with liquid metal. The loop contains both a galvanic cell test section and a plugging meter test section. Consistent plugging results have been achieved below 20 [wppm], and a detailed process for achieving effective plugging has been developed. This paper will focus both on an accurate methodology to obtain oxygen concentrations from a plugging meter, and on how to easily control the oxygen concentration of sodium in a test loop. Details of the design, materials, manufacturing, and operation will be presented. Data interpretation will also be discussed, since a modern discussion of plugging data interpretation does not currently exist. (authors)

Nollet, B. K.; Hvasta, M.; Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Influence of the permeability of the coal plastic layer on coking pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ten coals of different rank and coking pressure characteristics were chosen in order to study the time of occurrence of the phenomena that take place during the coking of a coal and the way they affect the generation of dangerous coking pressures. Parameters derived from thermoplastic, thermogravimetric and permeability tests were studied together with semicoke contraction and the coking pressure generated by the coals in a movable wall oven. It was found that for safe coals, the maximum evolution of volatile matter occurs near the temperature of maximum fluidity. The position of the maximum rate of volatile matter evolution with respect to the zone of low permeability varies depending on the coking pressure characteristics of the coals. In addition, the relationship between the period of low permeability to the resolidification temperature may serve to indicate the degree of dangerousness of a coal. The fissure pattern of the semicoke was found to be related to the coking pressure and semicoke contraction.

M.D. Casal; E. Díaz-Faes; R. Alvarez; M.A. Díez; C. Barriocanal

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research conducted under the auspices of the USDOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 10,000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Quite simply, if the radioactive matter and bulk inorganic chemicals could be separated into separate streams, large cost savings would accrue, because the latter stream is much cheaper to dispose of. In principle, one could remove the radionuclides from the waste, leaving behind the bulk of the waste; or one could remove certain bulk chemicals from the waste, leaving behind the radionuclides. The preponderance of effort over the past two decades has focused on the former approach, which produces a high-level stream for vitrification and a low-activity stream for either vitrification (Hanford) or grout (Savannah River). At Hanford, a particular concern arises in that vitrification of a large volume of low-activity waste will be unacceptably expensive. To make matters worse, a projected future deficit of tank space may necessitate construction of expensive new tanks. These problems have raised questions as to whether a solution could be devised based on separation of sodium from the waste, resulting in the reduction of the total volume of waste that must be vitrified.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Marchand, Alan P.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research conducted under the auspices of the USDOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid- liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Disposal of high- level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 10,000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals.1 Quite simply, if the radioactive matter and bulk inorganic chemicals could be separated into separate streams, large cost savings would accrue, because the latter stream is much cheaper to dispose of. In principle, one could remove the radionuclides from the waste, leaving behind the bulk of the waste; or one could remove certain bulk chemicals from the waste, leaving behind a mixture of radionuclides and minor inorganic salts. The preponderance of effort over the past two decades has focused on the former approach, which produces a high- level stream for vitrification and a low-activity stream for either vitrification (Hanford) or grout (Savannah River). At Hanford, a particular concern arises in that vitrification of a large volume of low-activity waste will be unacceptably expensive. To make matters worse, a projected future deficit of tank space may necessitate construction of expensive new tanks. These problems have raised questions as to whether a solution could be devised based on separation of sodium from the waste, resulting in the reduction of the total volume of waste that must be vitrified.

Moyer, Bruce A; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Marchand, Alan P.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Fiber optic sensors for monitoring sodium circuits and power grid cables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At Kalpakkam, India, a programme on development of Raman Distributed Temperature sensor (RDTS) for Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) application is undertaken. Leak detection in sodium circuits of FBR is critical for the safety and performance of the reactors. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. A second application demonstrates the suitability of using RDTS to monitor this transmission cable for any defect. (authors)

Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Pandian, C.; Vijayakumar, V.; Chandramouli, S.; Nashine, B. K.; Rao, C. B.; Murali, N.; Rajan, K. K.; Jayakumar, T. [IGCAR, Kalpakkam (India)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

EXAFS studies of sodium silicate glasses containing dissolved actinides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium silicate glasses containing dissolved Th, U, Np, and Pu have been studied using the EXAFS technique. Th/sup 4 +/, U/sup 4 +/, Np/sup 4 +/, and Pu/sup 4 +/ ions in the silicate glasses are 8-fold coordinated to oxygen neighbors. The higher valent U/sup 6 +/ and Np/sup 5 +/ ions have complex local symmetries. The U/sup 6 +/ ions appear in a uranyl configuration with 2 oxygen atoms at 1.85A and 4 at 2.25A from the U ion. The Np/sup 5 +/ local symmetry is more complex and difficult to determine uniquely. The U/sup 6 +/ glasses show substantial clustering of the uranium atoms. A structural model, with nearly planar uranyl sheets sandwiched between alkali and silica layers, is used to explain the U/sup 6 +/ EXAFS data. This model allows us to understand why U/sup 6 +/ ions are much more soluble in the glasses than the actinide 4/sup +/ ions. 4 references, 2 figures.

Knapp, G.S.; Veal, B.W.; Paulikas, A.P.; Mitchell, A.W.; Lam, D.J.; Klippert, T.E.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Development of high performance sodium/metal chloride cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium/metal chloride (MCl{sub 2}) cells and batteries are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for stationary energy storage and transportation applications. The work is being directed toward (1) development of thin, high-capacity density electrodes and inexpensive {beta}{double prime}-alumina-glass composite electrolyte materials to replace {beta}{double prime}-alumina and (2) the development of models to project MCl{sub 2} system performances. In our NiCl{sub 2} electrode work, the effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on electrode performance were determined using annular electrodes fabricated in the uncharged state. Of all electrode design parameters mentioned, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and on the area-specific impedance. The {beta}{double prime}-alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive (3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}S/cm at 250{degree}C) composite material. Preliminary modeling studies indicate that the performance of the MCl{sub 2} electrodes can be fitted by a mathematic model very successfully and that cell electrolyte configurations of either multiple tubes joined at a header or compartmented flat structures of either {beta}{double prime}-alumina or of the composite material would result in high-performance batteries with power-to-energy ratios of about 5. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Vissers, D.R.; Bloom, I.D.; Hash, M.C.; Redey, L.; Hammer, C.L.; Dees, D.W.; Nelson, P.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Low temperature synthesis of methyl formate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas reaction process for the preferential production of methyl formate over the co-production of methanol wherein the reactant ratio of CO/H.sub.2 is upgraded and this reaction takes place at low temperatures of 50.degree.-150.degree. C. and moderate pressures of .gtoreq.100 psi.

Mahajan, Devinder (Selden, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Fast Magnetic Reconnection Due to Anisotropic Electron Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new regime of fast magnetic reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field is reported in which the key role is played by an electron pressure anisotropy described by the Chew-Goldberger-Low gyrotropic equations of state in the generalized Ohm's law, which even dominates the Hall term. A description of the physical cause of this behavior is provided and two-dimensional fluid simulations are used to confirm the results. The electron pressure anisotropy causes the out-of-plane magnetic field to develop a quadrupole structure of opposite polarity to the Hall magnetic field and gives rise to dispersive waves. In addition to being important for understanding what causes reconnection to be fast, this mechanism should dominate in plasmas with low plasma beta and a high in-plane plasma beta with electron temperature comparable to or larger than ion temperature, so it could be relevant in the solar wind and some tokamaks.

Cassak, P A; Fermo, R L; Beidler, M T; Shay, M A; Swisdak, M; Drake, J F; Karimabadi, H

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Lightweight pressure vessels and unitized regenerative fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy storage systems have been designed using lightweight pressure vessels with unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). The vessels provide a means of storing reactant gases required for URFCs; they use lightweight bladder liners that act as inflatable mandrels for composite overwrap and provide a permeation barrier. URFC systems have been designed for zero emission vehicles (ZEVs); they are cost competitive with primary FC powered vehicles that operate on H/air with capacitors or batteries for power peaking and regenerative braking. URFCs are capable of regenerative braking via electrolysis and power peaking using low volume/low pressure accumulated oxygen for supercharging the power stack. URFC ZEVs can be safely and rapidly (<5 min.) refueled using home electrolysis units. Reversible operation of cell membrane catalyst is feasible without significant degradation. Such systems would have a rechargeable specific energy > 400 Wh/kg.

Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H.

1996-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

432

High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

433

Pressure dependence of phonons and excitons in InSe films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pressure dependence of the Raman spectra of phase-pure InSe thin films prepared by the low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique has been studied using a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell. Enhancement in the intensities of the Raman modes has been observed as a result of pressure-induced “tuning” of the energy of the M1-type hyperbolic exciton in InSe at ?2.54 eV through discrete incident laser photon energies. The pressure coefficients of the phonon modes and of the hyperbolic exciton in InSe have been determined.

In-Hwan Choi and Peter Y. Yu

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

434

Small-angle neutron scattering study of poly(methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate) and poly(sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate) triblock copolymers in aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Small-angle neutron scattering experiments were made on poly(methyl methacrylate-block-sodium acrylate-block-methyl methacrylate) [p(MMA-b-NaA-b-MMA)] and p(NaA-b-MMA-b...-NaA) solutions by varying the compositi...

Szabolcs Vass; Kristina Haimer; Gerhard Meier…

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Plasma pressure compaction of nanodiamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detonation synthesized nanodiamond (ND) was sintered using a Plasma Pressure Compaction (P2C) technique. Sintering was performed for 1 min at temperatures between 700 and 1200 °C, and for 1–10 min at 900 °C under 65 MPa pressure. Structure and composition of the sintered samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. The selected sintering conditions prevent excessive graphitization of diamond and allow formation of porous pellets having the density of 1.3–1.6 g/cm3, hardness > 0.1 GPa and Young's modulus > 3 GPa. The sintered ND pellets with porosity of about 50% have mechanical properties sufficient for handling and can be infiltrated to produce ND composites.

Sebastian Osswald; Adrian Gurga; Franklyn Kellogg; Kyu Cho; Gleb Yushin; Yury Gogotsi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Ambient pressure fuel cell system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

440

Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells I. Cell Performance Paul L. Ridgway,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells I. Cell Performance Paul L. Ridgway, Frank R. McLarnon, and Elton J. Cairns* Energy and Environment Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ABSTRACT Sodium/°-alumina/phosphorus-sulfur cells utilizing P/S ratios of 0, 0.143, 0.332, and 1.17 at temperatures from 350 to 500°C were studied by measurement of the equilibrium cell voltages at open circuit, and the steady-state cell voltages at current densities up to 70 mA/cm2. States of charge, represented by sodium atom fraction in the P-S electrode, ranged from 0 to 0.4. Open-circuit voltages up to 2.65 V were measured. Theoretical specific energies up to 825 Wh/kg were cal-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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441

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of innovative fuel configurations for the sodium fast reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The sodium fast reactor (SFR) is currently being reconsidered as an instrument for actinide management throughout the world, thanks in part to international programs such as the Generation-IV and especially the Global ...

Memmott, Matthew J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the sublimation of H2O to bulk ice. A 1-dimensional model of sodium chemistry was then employed to show and particles; cloud physics and chemistry; middle atmosphere ± composition and chemistry) Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

443

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROCARBON STANDARDS Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled from sodium/benzophenone under argon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROCARBON STANDARDS Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled from sodium Synthesis (Pelham, NH, USA). Other phosphonium salts were synthesized as follows. A solution, USA). Synthesis of Straight-chain Z-alkenes. Aldehydes needed for Wittig reactions that were

Hanks, Lawrence M.

444

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260 deg. C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260 deg. C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

445

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fast sodium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in HaleBopp M. E. Brown and A. H. Bouchez Summary: Sodium Velocities and Sources in Hale-Bopp M. E. Brown and A. H. Bouchez Division of Geological... resolved high-resolution...

446

Population strategies to decrease sodium intake : a global cost-effectiveness analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excessive sodium consumption is both prevalent and very costly in many countries around the world. Recent research has found that more than 90% of the world's adult population live in countries with mean intakes exceeding ...

Webb, Michael William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Comparison of Nanocomposites Prepared from Sodium, Zinc, and Lithium Ionomers of Ethylene/Methacrylic Acid Copolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Morphology and mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared by melt mixing a montmorillonite-based organoclay with lithium, sodium, and zinc ionomers of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) are presented here. The effect of the type of neutralizing ...

Rhutesh K. Shah; D. R. Paul

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

Development of an improved sodium exposure test cell experiment for characterization of AMTEC electrode performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation into sources of inconsistencies in sodium exposure test cell (SETC) measurements, used to characterize AMTEC electrode performance, was conducted. Development of modifications to the SETC setup and operation was also accomplished...

Fiebig, Bradley Nelson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

449

Development of Novel Nanomaterials for Lithium-Air and Sodium-Air Batteries.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lithium-air and sodium-air batteries are promising energy storage systems for future smart grids and electric vehicles due to their extremely high theoretical energy densities. However,… (more)

Li, Yongliang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report here a narrowband high-spectral resolution sodium temperature/wind lidar recently developed at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, China...

Li, Tao; Fang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Dou, Xiankang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Brain Tolerance in Dogs to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy with Borocaptate Sodium (BSH) or Boronophenylalanine (BPA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Research programs investigating the potential use of BNCT for brain tumors have been initiated in Europe and in the U.S. using epithermal neutron beams and either borocaptate sodium (BSH) or boronophenylalanine (

R. Huiskamp; P. R. Gavin; J. A. Coderre; K. H. I. Philipp…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Safe Use of Sodium Hydride on Scale: The Process Development of a Chloropyrimidine Displacement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Safe Use of Sodium Hydride on Scale: The Process Development of a Chloropyrimidine Displacement ... Global Pharmaceutical Commercialization, Merck Manufacturing Division, Rahway, New Jersey, 07065 ... This article is part of the Safety of Chemical Processes 11 special issue. ...

Jamie M. McCabe Dunn; Alicia Duran-Capece; Brendan Meehan; James Ulis; Tetsuo Iwama; Guy Gloor; George Wong; Evan Bekos

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF INTRAVENOUS NICARDIPINE VERSUS SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE FOR POSTOPERATIVE HYPERTENSION AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Postoperative hypertension after cardiac surgery is common and associated with substantial morbidity. Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nicardipine (NIC) are effective in its management. SNP is inexpensive, but associated ...

Barnes, Brian Joseph

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

454

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

Sparks, Donald L.

455

Anaesthetic machine pipeline inlet pressure gauges do not always measure pipeline pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some anaesthetic gas machines have pipeline inlet pressure gauges which indicate the higher of either pipeline pressure, or machine circuit pressure (the ... specific circumstances lead to a delayed appreciation ...

Douglas B. Craig; John Longmuir

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Evaporation of water from sodium chloride solutions under controlled climatic conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM SODIUM CELORIDE SOLUTIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CLIMATIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by Jaroy Moore Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1967 Haj or Subject: Soil Physics EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CLIMATIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by Jaroy Moore Approved as to style and content by: (Ch+jman of Committee) (Member) (, j. (Head...

Moore, Jaroy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

457

Transport parameter determination and modeling of sodium and strontium plumes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. , 1974] . . 7. Generalized plume with centerline 8. Strontium-90 distribution, 1970 [after Robertson et aL, 1974]. . . . 20 . 22 9. The sodium plume transverse dispersivity-Rnite source size in y iteration diagram. 10. The calculat. ed sodium plume.... There is flow there which picks up the contaminant ions dispersing them through the complex network of fractures and interconnected pore space of the saturated porous medium, the aquifer. Being able to model this spread of contaminant in the subsurface...

Londergan, John Thomas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

458

Evolution of Sodium Technology R and D Actions Supporting French Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the evolution of sodium technology research and development in parallel to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) developments in France and provides information concerning operating plants and existing projects. This paper also discusses how supporting research has adapted to the decline in FBR activities since the decommissioning of Superphenix, while capitalizing on knowledge acquired over more than four decades to be passed down to future generations.

Rodriguez, G.; Baque, F.; Astegiano, J.C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE BROUSSARD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the reguirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1988 OC o Z m Z IJ III s Z Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE...

Broussard, Suzanne Rene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

460

The electrochemical analysis of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate in solutions containing oilfield impurities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONATE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING OILFIELD IMPURITIES A Thesis by MICHAEL CARL BECKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONATE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING OILFIELD IMPURITIES A Thesis by MICHAEL CARL BECKER Approved as to style...

Becker, Michael Carl

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Sodium and potassium levels in the serum of acutely irradiated and non-irradiated rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Zoology SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

Shepherd, David Preston

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

462

Growth and bone development in weanling quarter horses fed diets supplemented with sodium zeolite-A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT IN WEANLING QUARTER HORSES FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM ZEOLITE-A A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUZANNE FREY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... in Weanling Quarter Horses Fed Diets Supplemented with Sodium Zeolite-A. (December 1991) Kimberly Suzanne Frey, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gary D. Potter Sixty Quarter Horse weanlings were used in a study to determine...

Frey, Kimberly Suzanne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

463

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

464

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

465

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

466

Managed pressure drilling techniques and tools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

these problems, the economics of drilling the wells will improve, thus enabling the industry to drill wells that were previously uneconomical. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) is a new technology that enables a driller to more precisely control annular pressures...

Martin, Matthew Daniel

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

467

International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Tsinghua University in Beijing co-hosted the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27–29, 2010 in Beijing, China. High pressure...

468

Air separation with temperature and pressure swing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Pressure Data: BOP Summary 28 May 2010  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is a schematic of the BOP stack with the static pressure data recoded on the 28th of May and shows pressures before and after the attempted top kill and junk shots.

470

Nanocomposite Flexible Pressure Sensor for Biomedical Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new approach for the fabrication of flexible pressure sensors based on aligned carbon nanotubes (A-CNTs) is described in this paper. The technology is suitable for blood pressure sensors that can be attached to a stent-graft ...

Fachin, F.

471

Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

472

High pressure fiber optic sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

473

Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Neutron scattering studies of materials under pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A review of experimental techniques used in the study of materials under applied pressure by neutron scattering is given along with a discussion of the amount of information that can be obtained from various pressure conditions. Some experimental results are presented to illustrate both the feasibility and the interest of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements of materials under pressure.

C. Vettier

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing.

Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

Moreira, B. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Passador, F. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Pessan, L. A., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

480

Synthesis and single crystal structure refinement of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sodium brittle mica with the ideal composition [Na{sub 4}]{sup inter}[Mg{sub 6}]{sup oct}[Si{sub 4}Al{sub 4}]{sup tet}O{sub 20}F{sub 4} was synthesized via melt synthesis in a gas tight crucible. This mica is unusual inasmuch as the known mica structure holds only room for two interlayer cations per unit cell and inasmuch as it readily hydrates despite the high layer charge while ordinary micas and brittle micas are non-swelling. The crystal structure of one-layer hydrate sodium brittle mica was determined and refined from single crystal X-ray data. Interlayer cations reside at the center of the distorted hexagonal cavities and are coordinated by the three inner basal oxygen atoms. The coordination of the interlayer cation is completed by three interlayer water molecules residing at the center of the interlayer region. The relative position of adjacent 2:1-layers thus is fixed by these octahedrally coordinated interlayer cations. Pseudo-symmetry leads to extensive twinning. In total five twin operations generate the same environment for the interlayer species and are energetically degenerate. - Graphical abstract: The sodium brittle mica has been successfully synthesized by melt synthesis and the crystal structure of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt synthesis yielded coarse grained sodium brittle mica which showed little disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium brittle mica hydrated completely to the state of one-layer hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica could therefore be determined and refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrangement of upper and lower tetrahedral sheet encompassing interlayer cation were clarified.

Kalo, Hussein; Milius, Wolfgang [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Braeu, Michael [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany)] [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany); Breu, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Breu@uni-bayreuth.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "low pressure sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.