Sample records for low pressure sodium

  1. Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important.

  2. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  3. Practical features of illumination with high pressure sodium lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corth, R.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of concerns raised about the health effects of high pressure sodium lamps (HPS) are discussed. The notion of a ''natural'' human photic environment based on sunlight is disputed. Humans are better adapted to the ''greenish'' spectral composition of forest light than to direct sunlight. It is ironic that the artificial light source which has received the most disapproval, cool white flourescent lamp, has a spectral composition similar to that of forest light. HPS is also available in a full range of colors. Some successful examples of HPS--from North Division High School, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to museum exhibits at National Geographic in Washington--are listed.

  4. Ultra-short nacelles for low fan pressure ratio propulsors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Andreas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the uncharted inlet and nacelle design space for low pressure ratio fans for advanced aeroengines. A key feature in low fan pressure ratio (FPR) propulsors with short inlets and nacelles is the increased ...

  5. Dynamics of Low-Pressure and High-Pressure Fuel Cell Air Supply System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    comparing the low pressure system with the high- pressure system equipped with a high-speed compressor pressure of the FC that is defined as the pressure at which the reactant hydrogen and oxygen (air) are delivered to the FC stack flow fields. In the case of stored compressed hydrogen the pressure of the cathode

  6. SMC Lite -- An innovative new low pressure, low density SMC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, W. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two fundamental driving forces in the automotive composites industry are the need to reduce cost and reduce weight. Through a combination of resin chemistry, unique thickening technology and Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) formulation, a method has been developed which yields the reduced sheet viscosity required for low pressure molding (<3.5 MPa versus 9.5 MPa for standard SMC), yet yields a handleable, tack-free sheet. A variation of this new resin technology permits the molding of true Class A panels at 1.6 specific gravity versus 1.9 specific gravity panels molded with traditional SMC.

  7. Propagation of light in low pressure gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacques Moret-Bailly

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The criticism by W. E. Lamb, W. Schleich, M. Scully, C. Townes of a simplified quantum electrodynamics which represents the photon as a true particle is illustrated. Collisions being absent in low-pressure gas, exchanges of energy are radiative and coherent. Thin shells of plasma containing atoms in a model introduced by Str\\"omgren are superradiant, seen as circles possibly dotted. Spectral radiance of novae has magnitude of laser radiance, and column densities are large in nebulae: Superradiance, multiphoton effects, etc., work in astrophysics. The superradiant beams induce multiphotonic scatterings of light emitted by the stars, brightening the limbs of plasma bubbles and darkening the stars. In excited atomic hydrogen, impulsive Raman scatterings shift frequencies of light. Microwaves exchanged with the Pioneer probes are blueshifted, simulating anomalous accelerations. Substituting coherence for wrong calculations in astrophysical papers, improves results, avoids "new physics".

  8. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  9. Energy savings with solid-state ballasted high-pressure sodium lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verderber, R.R.; Morse, O.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of three types of solid-state ballasts used to operate high-pressure sodium lamps is discussed. Each type of solid-state ballast has been designed to operate an HPS lamp of a different wattage (150, 200, and 400 watts). The performance of these ballasts compared to standard core-coil ballasts operating the same HPS lamps shows that system efficiency improves as much as 17%. The solid-state ballasted HPS system also demonstrates excellent regulation with respect to input voltage and output power. These new ballasts can dim the HPS lamps and reduce flicker from more than 60% to less than 3%. Refitting street lighting with these new HPS systims provides an attractive return on initial capital investment.

  10. Fiber-optic, anti-cycling, high pressure sodium street light control. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Technical Progress Report on a project to develop and market a Fiber-Optic Anti-Cycling High Pressure Sodium Street Light Control. The field test units are now being made with a single vertical PC board design and contains a computer-on-a-chip or PROM IC to take the place of the majority of the components previously contained on the upper logic board. This will reduce the final costs of the unit when it is in production and increase the control`s flexibility. The authors have finished the soft tooling and have made the 400 plastic cases for the field test units. The new configuration of the cases entails a simplified design of the control shell which will have the lenses cast in place. The shell and base plastics are now finished and in final assembly awaiting the completion of the PC boards.

  11. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  12. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  13. Low-temperature Sodium-Beta Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9November 6, 2014 PNGC,Low-TemperatureBiomass

  14. Low-energy dc ion source for low operating pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim, E-mail: oks@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademichesky ave. 2/3, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Shandrikov, Maxim [Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademichesky ave. 2/3, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Salvadori, Cecilia [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, C.P. 66318, CEP 05315-970 São Paulo S.P. (Brazil); Brown, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on an experimental study of an ion source based on a Penning discharge with a cold hollow cathode in crossed electric and magnetic fields. The minimum vacuum chamber operating pressure was 3 × 10{sup ?5} Torr for argon and 5 × 10{sup ?5} Torr for hydrogen. The use of a hollow cathode allowed decreasing the discharge operating voltage down to 350 V at a discharge current of ?100 mA. At a discharge current of 100 mA and beam accelerating voltage of 2 kV, the ion current was 2.5 mA for argon and 8 mA for hydrogen, and the ion beam on-axis current density 170 and 450 ?A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the discharge and the radial ion beam current density distribution were measured. The influence of pressure on the discharge parameters and their time stability was investigated.

  15. Method of gettering hydrogen under conditions of low pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary intermetallic compound having the formula Zr(V.sub.1-x Cr.sub.x).sub.2 where x is in the range of 0.01 to 0.90 is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200.degree. C., at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  16. Stable levitation and dynamics of ice particles at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Kowalski; Bernard Xie; Colin V. Parker; Cheng Chin

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate stable levitation and trapping of ice particles of 30~200 micon at low background gas pressures in the presence of a temperature gradient. The thermophoretic force levitates the particles, which have long lifetimes of over an hour. The equilibrium position depends on the background pressure and temperature gradient, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, we investigate interesting launching and merging dynamics of the levitated particles, as well as the development of instability at high background pressures. Our system provides a robust platform to investigate the aggregation of floating ice particles in air, and potentially chemical and biological processes in a microgravity environment.

  17. THE ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, G.; Korinko, P.

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For this study, hydrogen getter materials (Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium) that have a high affinity for hydrogen (and low overpressure) have been investigated to determine the hydrogen equilibrium pressure on Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium. These materials, as with most getter materials, offered significant challenges to overcome given the low hydrogen equilibrium pressure for the temperature range of interest. Hydrogen-zirconium data exists for pure zirconium at 500 C and the corresponding hydrogen overpressure is roughly 0.01 torr. This manuscript presents the results of the equilibrium pressures for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen on zirconium materials at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The equilibrium pressures in this temperature region range from 150 mtorr at 600 C to less than 0.1 mtorr at 400 C. It has been shown that the Zircaloy-4 and zirconium samples are extremely prone to surface oxidation prior to and during heating. This oxidation precludes the hydrogen uptake, and therefore samples must be heated under a minimum vacuum of 5 x 10{sup -6} torr. In addition, the Zircaloy-4 samples should be heated at a sufficiently low rate to maintain the system pressure below 0.5 mtorr since an increase in pressure above 0.5 mtorr could possibly hinder the H{sub 2} absorption kinetics due to surface contamination. The results of this study and the details of the testing protocol will be discussed.

  18. Features of plasma glow in low pressure terahertz gas discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratman, V. L.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Koldanov, V. A.; Razin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Litvak, A. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of the low pressure (1–100 Torr) gas discharge in the powerful (1 kW) quasi-optical terahertz (0.55 THz) wave beams were made. An intense afterglow was observed after the end of gyrotron terahertz radiation pulse. Afterglow duration significantly exceeded radiation pulse length (8 ?s). This phenomenon could be explained by the strong dependence of the collisional-radiative recombination rate (that is supposed to be the most likely mechanism of electron losses from the low pressure terahertz gas discharge) on electron temperature.

  19. Ion optical effects in a low pressure rf plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechsner, Hans; Paulus, Hubert [Institute for Surface and Thin Film Analysis IFOS and Department of Physics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)] [Institute for Surface and Thin Film Analysis IFOS and Department of Physics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion optical effects in low pressure gas discharges are introduced as a novel input into low pressure plasma technology. They are based on appropriate geometrical plasma confinements which enable a control of the shape of internal density and potential distributions and, hence, the ion motion in the plasma bulk. Such effects are exemplified for an electron cyclotron wave resonance plasma in Ar at 1–5 × 10{sup ?3} millibars. The geometry of the plasma chamber is modified by a conical and a cylindrical insert. Computer simulations display spherical plasma density contours to be formed around the conical confinement. This effects an increase of the ratio of the ion currents into the conical and the cylindrical inserts which depends on the fourth power of the plasma electron temperature. A quantitative understanding of this behavior is presented. As another essential result, the shape of the internal plasma contours is found to be independent of the pressure controlled plasma parameters.

  20. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  1. Low-pressure debris dispersal from scaled reactor cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.T.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During a severe nuclear reactor accident, degradation of the core may result in debris accumulating in the lower head. Upon failure of the head, the melt may be ejected under pressure through the cavity and into the containment building. Under low system pressure conditions, understanding the mechanisms of debris dispersal is instrumental in assessing the response of the containment to pressurized melt ejection. Current analytical approaches rely on empirical correlations for debris entrainment criteria and very simple gas flow patterns in the cavity. The work reported here is directed toward performing scaled experiments that will develop a data base for refined scaling analyses. Subsequently, extrapolations from the analyses to reactor scale may be performed to provide insight for accident predictions. Mechanistic models for gas flow through the cavity and entrainment of the debris are also being developed from the results presented here. The objective of the test matrix is to vary key parameters to assess the effect on the physical processes of dispersal of the melt from the reactor cavity at low system pressures.

  2. Low Pressure Hugoniot for U-Nb (6 wt.%)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koller, D. D.; Rigg, P. A.; Gray, G. T. III; Jensen, B. J.; Hayes, D. B.; Maestas, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last several years, many experiments have been conducted to study the dynamic response of U-Nb (6 wt.%) alloy. An understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the behavior of this material is necessary to develop robust physical models for today's hydrocodes. Previous experiments indicate that the dynamic response of this alloy is strongly dependant on the initial microstructure of the material. Using a well characterized material, a series of low pressure shock experiments were conducted at the single stage light gas gun facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Time resolved particle velocity measurements were made using VISAR. Absolute VISAR system timing was measured and cross correlated to shock breakout time to allow hugoniot points to be calculated. These shots provide both low pressure Hugoniot points for U-Nb (6 wt.%) alloy and a better constraint on the dynamic material response.

  3. Low Pressure Negative Ion Drift Chamber for Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. P. Snowden-Ifft; C. J. Martoff; J. M. Burwell

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are an attractive candidate for the dark matter thought to make up the bulk of the mass of our universe. We explore here the possibility of using a low pressure negative ion drift chamber to search for WIMPs. The innovation of drifting ions, instead of electrons, allows the design of a detector with exceptional sensitivity to, background rejection from, and signature of WIMPs.

  4. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  5. Wetting of Sodium on ??-Al2O3/YSZ Composites for Low Temperature Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, David M.; Coffey, Greg W.; Mast, Eric S.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Mansurov, Jirgal; Lu, Xiaochuan; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wetting of Na on B”-Al2O3/YSZ composites was investigated using the sessile drop technique. The effects of moisture and surface preparation were studied at low temperatures. Electrical conductivity of Na/B”-Al2O3-YSZ/Na cells was also investigated at low temperatures and correlated to the wetting behavior. The use of planar B”-Al2O3 substrates at low temperature with low cost polymeric seals is realized due to improved wetting at low temperature and conductivity values consistent with the literature.

  6. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-pressure dosing system treats wastewater and then pumps it into the soil several times daily. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of low-pressure dosing systems as well as estimated costs and maintenance requirements....

  7. ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1 , A. Mills1 , D. Youchison2/s. Based on these impressive performance results, a unique and scalable heat exchanger channel with ultra-low and ultra low-pressure drop short flow-path (SOFIT) concept was designed. Typical pressure drops through

  8. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

  9. anticoagulant sodium citrate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressure-velocity boundary ... Huh, Kang Yul 1982-01-01 38 Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy...

  10. Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Alan Edward

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

  11. Manifestation of constrained dynamics in a low pressure spark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auluck, S K H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some features of neutron emission from dense plasma focus suggest that the participating deuterons have energy in the range of 105 eV and have a directionality of toroidal motion. Theoretical models of these devices assume that the plasma evolves through a purely irrotational flow and thus fail to predict such solenoidal flow on the scale of the plasma dimensions. Predictions of a relaxation theory are consistent with experimental data [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas,18, 032508 (2011)], but the assumptions upon which it is based are not compatible with known features of these devices. There is thus no satisfactory theoretical construct which provides the necessity for solenoidal flow in these devices. This paper proposes such theoretical construct, namely, the principle of constrained dynamics, and describes an experiment which provides support for this idea. The experiment consisted of low inductance, self-breaking spark discharge in helium at a pressure ~100 hPa between two pointed electrodes separated by...

  12. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  13. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  14. Geophysical Prospecting, 2006, 54, 565573 Influence of pore pressure on velocity in low-porosity sandstone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    report the results of ultrasonic experiments to estimate n for low-porosity sand- stones with and without, permeability and resistivity. In a fluid-saturated rock, both pore pressure and confining pressure control

  15. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polat, Baris E.

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, ...

  16. 2110 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 37, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Low-Pressure Helicon-Plasma Discharge Initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    -temperature plasma research. Low- pressure (as low as 1 millitorr) inductively coupled plasmas are used for plasma

  17. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  18. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  19. Niobrara gas play: exploration and development of a low-pressure, low-permeability gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A.; Crafton, J.W.; Golson, J.G.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated interdisciplinary exploration/exploitation strategy contributed to the successful economic development of the Niobrara gas play, located in eastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas, and western Nebraska. The exploration, development, production, and evaluation data suggest that (1) Niobrara chalk reservoirs have exceptionally high porosities but very low permeabilities, (2) individual reservoirs are low-relief, highly faulted structural traps characterized consistently by extensive water-transition zones, (3) the reservoirs contain biogenic gas (the Niobrara acts as its own source rock,) (4) an exploration fairway can be defined if porosity, permeability, and pressure are correlated with paleodepth, (5) optimal logging, completion, stimulation, and producing methods are readily definable, (6) reservoir performance is predicted adequately by numerical simulation, and (7) infill drilling on 160-acre spacing will allow better reservoir drainage.

  20. Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Porta, Arthur

    Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence A is studied using cavitation. The flow is seeded with microscopic gas bubbles and the hydrostatic pressure is reduced until large negative pressure fluctuations trigger cavitation. Cavitation is detected via light

  1. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  2. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  3. A study of boiling water flow regimes at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiori, Mario P.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "A comprehensive experimental program to examine flow regimes at pressures below 100 psia for boiling of water in tubes was carried out. An electrical probe, which measures the resistance of the fluid between the centerline ...

  4. Scaling properties of a low-actuation pressure microfluidic valve Vincent Studer and Giao Hang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Michael

    Scaling properties of a low-actuation pressure microfluidic valve Vincent Studer and Giao Hang a design and method for the fabrication of microfluidic valves using multilayer soft lithography. These on-off valves have extremely low actuation pressures and can be used to fabricate active functions

  5. High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

  6. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, A.J.; Kaczmarsky, M.M.

    1986-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive, regulatory performance test program, utilizing an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using a 53 millimeter, Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of type three, air blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, containing about 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium and strontium was utilized. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, forty, fifty and sixty wt % salt. Performance test results include the ninety day ANS 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP Toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented also include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements.

  7. Pressure induced phase transition and pressure dependence of crystal structure in low {(alpha)} and Ca/A1-doped cristobalite.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, D. J. B.; Yeganeh-Haeri, A.; Weidner, D. J.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Saltzberg, M. A.; Materials Science Division; CHiPR; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook; CHiPr; E.I. DuPont Co.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase stability and atomic-level compression mechanisms for both SiO{sub 2} cristobalite, and for cristobalite partially stabilized by Ca/Al doping (Ca{sub x/2} Si{sub 2-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4}), have been investigated. A phase transition to a lower symmetry phase, observed with in situ high-pressure energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction, occurs at about 1.2 GPa. Structure models of the low-pressure phase were obtained by Rietveld analysis of neutron powder-diffraction data from powdered samples contained in a gas pressure apparatus. These data were collected at pressures up to 0.6 GPa and at 298 and 60 K. The results suggest collapse of the corner-connected framework from rotations of the rigid SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra at high pressures and low temperatures as the dominant mechanism for the densification of both materials. Compared to pure SiO{sub 2} cristobalite at the same pressure and temperature, the Ca/Al-doped material has a larger unit-cell volume. It also has a larger Si-O-Si bending angle and a more expanded framework as evidenced by the smaller rotations of the rigid SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The rate of change of these parameters as a function of pressure and temperature is the same for both pure and Ca/Al-doped cristobalite. These observations are consistent with Ca occupying positions within the cavities formed by the (Si, Al)-O framework and bracing it against collapse.

  8. Serial blood pressure measurements and exogenous creatinine clearance rates in partially nephrectomized dogs: the effect of dietary sodium intake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, Deborah Susan

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 Arterial Blood Pressure Studies. . . 14 Exogenous Creatinine Clearance. 2g Serum Creatinine and Urea Nitrogen Concentrations. . Urinalysis and Urine Bacteriologic Studies. . . . . . . . . Other Laboratory Tests. 32 36 40 Pathologic Studies.... . 40 IV DISCUSSION. 49 Blood Pressure. 49 Glomerular Filtration Rates. Urinalysis and Urine Bacteriologic Studies. . Serum Urea Nitrogen and Serum Creatinine. . . . 60 62 65 Hematologic Studies. . . Necropsy 66 66 vi I Chapter V...

  9. Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Scott C. Morris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Rotor Scott C. Morris , David B. Stephens The region downstream of a ducted rotor has been experimentally investigated in terms of its wake the description of the flow field and wall pressure in the region downstream of the rotor. Measurements involving

  10. Alternated high-and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternated high- and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results G a gas mixture of (N2 /H2):(50/50) in pressure, was applied to stainless-steel AISI 304. In the first or plasma nitriding of metal parts, in par- ticular those made of steel and cast iron, is extensively ap

  11. Behavior of alloy 617 at 650°C in low oxygen pressure environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mas, Fanny (Fanny P.)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of alloy 617 at 650°C in low oxygen partial pressure environments has been studied under static loading. Of particular interest was the crack growth rate in these conditions. For that, tests were conducted at ...

  12. Experimental study of the effects of wakes on separation in low pressure turbine flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O?ztu?rk, Burak

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations dealing with specific issues of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing a detailed unsteady boundary flow information to understand...

  13. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  14. Instrumentation development for magneto-transport and neutron scattering measurements at high pressure and low temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Weiwei

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure, high magnetic field and low temperature techniques are required to investigate magnetic transitions and quantum critical behaviour in different ferromagnetic materials to elucidate how novel forms of ...

  15. Soft pneumatic artificial muscles with low threshold pressures for a cardiac compression device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obiajulu, Steven (Steven C.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, I present the design, fabrication and characterization of fully soft pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) with low threshold pressures that are intended for direct cardiac compression (DCC). McKibben type ...

  16. Transient growth mechanisms of low Reynolds number flow over a low-pressure turbine blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, AS; Sherwin, SJ; Theofilis, V; 10.1007/s00162-010-0183-9

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct transient growth analysis for three-dimensional perturbations to flow past a periodic array of T-106/300 low-pressure turbine fan blades is presented. The methodology is based on a singular value decomposition of the flow evolution operator, linearised about a steady or periodic base flow. This analysis yields the optimal growth modes. Previous work on global mode stability analysis of this flow geometry showed the flow is asymptotically stable, indicating a non-modal explanation of transition may be more appropriate. The present work extends previous investigations into the transient growth around a steady base flow, to higher Reynolds numbers and periodic base flows. It is found that the notable transient growth of the optimal modes suggests a plausible route to transition in comparison to modal growth for this configuration. The spatial extent and localisation of the optimal modes is examined and possible physical triggering mechanisms are discussed. It is found that for longer times and longer sp...

  17. SN 2011A: an low-luminosity interacting transient, with a double plateau and strong sodium absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Jaeger, T; Pignata, G; Hamuy, M; Kankare, E; Stritzinger, M D; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; Elias-Rosa, N; Folatelli, G; Förster, F; González-Gaitán, S; Gutiérrez, C P; Inserra, C; Kotak, R; Lira, P; Morrell, N; Taddia, F; Tomasella, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical transient SN 2011A. Our data spans 140 days after discovery including $BVRIu'g'r'i'z'$ photometry and 11 epochs of optical spectroscopy. Originally classified as a type IIn supernova (SN IIn) due to the presence of narrow H$\\alpha$ emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. Firstly, the light curve shows a double plateau; a property only observed before in the impostor SN 1997bs. Secondly, SN 2011A has a very low luminosity ($M_{V}=-15.72$), placing it between normal luminous SNe IIn and SN impostors. Thirdly, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width absorption close to the sodium doublet, which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change of line profile; when the absorption becomes stronger, a P-Cygni profile appears. We discuss SN 2011A in the context of interacting SNe IIn and SN impostors, which appears to confirm the uniqueness of this transient. Whil...

  18. Low pressure EGR system having full range capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Milam, David Michael; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Bond, Michael Steven; Kapic, Amir

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust treatment system for an engine is disclosed and may have an air induction circuit, an exhaust circuit, and an exhaust recirculation circuit. The air induction circuit may be configured to direct air into the engine. The exhaust circuit may be configured to direct exhaust from the engine and include a turbine driven by the exhaust, a particulate filter disposed in series with and downstream of the turbine, and a catalytic device disposed in series with and downstream of the particulate filter. The exhaust recirculation circuit may be configured to selectively redirect at least some of the exhaust from between the particulate filter and the catalytic device to the air induction circuit. The catalytic device is selected to create backpressure within the exhaust circuit sufficient to ensure that, under normal engine operating conditions above low idle, exhaust can flow into the air induction circuit without throttling of the air.

  19. Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S (Kennewick, WA); Kelly, Ryan T (West Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. An "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates an electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer. Furthermore, chambers maintained at different pressures can allow for more optimal operating conditions for an electrospray emitter and an ion guide.

  20. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  1. Effect of shockwave-induced density jump on laser plasma interactions in low-pressure ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    1 Effect of shockwave-induced density jump on laser plasma interactions in low-pressure ambient air jump were investigated in low- pressure ambient air during the laser pulse using an optical interferometer. A tiny shockwave-induced density jump could be observed clearly in ambient air with pressure

  2. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  3. DGA proves out as a low pressure gas sweetener in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huval, M.; van de Venne, H.

    1981-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Aramco is successfully using diglycolamine (DGA) to treat low-pressure associated sour gases to 1/4 gr H/sub 2/S/100 SCF specifications. The DGA process meets the design criteria of (1) handling high acid-gas-content (up to 15%) feed gases, (2) sweetening at high temperatures (120/sup 0/-140/sup 0/F) and low pressures (120-180 psig), (3) removing both H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ in a single step and (4) providing a Claus-plant feed suitable for the production of bright-yellow (rather than black) sulfur.

  4. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  5. Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 × 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 × 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

  6. SmNd disequilibrium in high-pressure, low-temperature Himalayan and Alpine rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas, Chamot-Rooke

    disequilibrium in high-pressure, low-temperature rocks, Sm­Nd isotopic analyses were carried out on minerals from contamination processes. In the case of a magmatic protolith, contamination can be achieved through crustal sedimentary protolith contains components from an old contaminant crust. In the Himalayan samples, the inverse

  7. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Pratt & Whitney Engine Low Pressure Turbine Vane Cluster Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Turbine Vane Cluster Analysis Overview The goal was to provide Pratt & Whitney with a detailed finitePENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Pratt & Whitney ­ Engine Low Pressure 3D cloud data to useable CAD model Use finite element analysis to determine the areas of highest

  8. Nanoparticles designed from low pressure plasmas as identification tool for astrophysical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    interstellar media. The particles were polymerised in a low pressure capacitively coupled radio-frequency molecule production and reprocesses UV and optical radiation. The C-H stretch vibration of aliphatic coupled the radiofrequency discharge in argon/acetylene mixtures [Kovacevic submitted]. The particles

  9. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  11. In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Keven K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 C). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  12. In-Reactor Oxidation of Zircaloy-4 Under Low Water Vapor Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330° and 370°C). Data from these tests will be used to support fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr-4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex- reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  13. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huh, Kang Yul

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

  14. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  15. Equation of state of sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, J.N.; Olinger, B.

    1984-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The volume of sodium in the bcc structure was measured at 293 K to 9 GPa using a high pressure, x-ray diffraction technique. The compression of NaF was used as the pressure gauge. These data, the shock compression data of Rice and Bakanova et al., and the melting curve data of Luedemann and Kennedy, and Ivanov et al., are all used to establish a model for the equation of state of sodium.

  16. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  17. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group (SP3), Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B{sub z}) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is {approx}2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed.

  18. Steam catalysis in CaO carbonation under low steam partial pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S.J.; Xiao, Y.H. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CaO was widely used to capture CO{sub 2} in direct hydrogen production process, where steam always existed simultaneously. The effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance under low steam partial pressure was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The experimental results revealed that steam improved CaO carbonation performance significantly no matter whether Ca(OH){sub 2} was produced or not. At 823 K and 0.5 MPa of steam partial pressure, effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance could not be attributed mainly to production of Ca(OH){sub 2} because the hydration rate of CaO was very slow. The main reason was steam catalysis in CaO carbonation. Enhancement of steam on CaO carbonation performance without Ca(OH){sub 2} production could not be attributed to improvement of steam on the physical property, but to catalytic effect of steam. Effects of CaO precursors, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, steam partial pressure, and temperature with steam addition on CaO carbonation performance were also investigated.

  19. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  20. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke, E-mail: chedk@163.com, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao [Equipment Academy, Beijing 101416 (China)] [Equipment Academy, Beijing 101416 (China); Shao, Tao, E-mail: chedk@163.com, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  1. Operation of a THGEM-based detector in low-pressure Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cortesi; John Yurkon; Andreas Stolz

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), the operating properties of THick Gaseous Electron Multipliers (THGEM) in pure low-pressure Helium were investigated. This paper includes the effective gain dependence on pressure for different detector configurations (single-, double-, triple-cascade setup), long-term gain stability and energy resolution from tracks of 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Stable operational conditions and maximum detector gains of 10^4-10^7 have been achieved in pure Helium at pressure ranging from 100 torr up to 760 torr. Energy resolution of 6.65% (FWHM) for 690 keV of energy deposited by 5.5 MeV alpha particles at 350 torr was measured. The expected energy resolution for the full track is around 2.4% (FWHM). These results, together with the robustness of THGEM electrodes against spark damage, make THGEM structures highly competitive compared to other technologies considered for TPC applications in an active target operating with pure noble gases, requiring a high dynamic range and a wide operating pressure range down to few hundred torr.

  2. Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    incorporates low-density hollow glass spheres (HGS) to allow near-balanced drilling in low pressure and depleted reservoirs. The LDDIF uses potassium chloride (KCI) brine as the base fluid because of its low density and inhibition of clay hydration and employs...

  3. Experimental testing of cooling by low pressure adsorption in a zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, C.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small scale facility was designed, constructed, and utilized to test the use of zeolite adsorption of water vapor to augment chill storage in ice for conventional space cooling. The facility uses solar-derived energy, for the heat source and evaporatively chilled water for the heat sump. The product cooling uses sublimation of ice instead of melting. The ZCAT facility utilizes a heat pumping technique in which a water vapor adsorbent functions as the compressor and condenser. The design was based on use of 13X zeolite as the adsorber because of its high adsorbence at low pressures. However, it has been determined that other materials such as silica gel should give superior performance. While zeolite 13X holds more water in the pressure and temperature ranges of interest, silica gel cycles more water and has less residue water. Both points are very important in the design of an efficient and cost effective system.

  4. Determination of the Electron Temperature in a Low Pressure Dusty Radiofrequency Methane Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massereau-Guilbaud, Veronique; Geraud-Grenier, Isabelle; Plain, Andre [GREMI, UMR6606, Universite d'Orleans/CNRS (France) and GREMI, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, rue G.Berger, BP 4043, 18028 BOURGES cedex (France); Mikikian, Maxime [GREMI, Polytech'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The particles are obtained by PECVD in radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) low pressure plasmas (90%CH4-10%Ar). During the particle growth, the particles trap electrons and modify the EEDF, and the electrical and optical characteristics of the plasma. The plasma is analyzed by Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The excitation temperature and the electron temperature are calculated from the H{sub {alpha}}, H{sub {beta}}, H{sub {gamma}} Balmer hydrogen line intensities and from Ar ones. The temporal evolutions of the temperatures during the particle formation are compared and discussed.

  5. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department of Energy $18UnrevisedCool Roof InfrastructureLow-Pressure

  6. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  7. Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fran De Aquino

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the gravity acceleration just above a chamber filled with gas or plasma at ultra-low pressure can be strongly reduced by applying an Extra Low-Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field across the gas or the plasma. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is related to recent discovery of quantum correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass. According to the theory samples hung above the gas or the plasma should exhibit a weight decrease when the frequency of the electromagnetic field is decreased or when the intensity of the electromagnetic field is increased. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is unprecedented in the literature and can not be understood in the framework of the General Relativity. From the technical point of view, there are several applications for this discovery; possibly it will change the paradigms of energy generation, transportation and telecommunications.

  8. Determination of formation permeability using back-pressure test data from hydraulically-fractured, low-permeability gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krawtz, John Paul

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF FORMATION PERMEABILITY USING BACX-PRESSURE TEST DATA FROM HYDRAULICALLY-FRACTURED, LOW-PERMEABILITY GAS WELLS A Thesis JOHN PAUL KRAWTZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AsJ4 University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major subject: petroleum Engineering DETERMINATION OF FORMATION PERMEABILITY USING BACK-PRESSURE TEST DATA FROM HYDRAULICALLY-FRACTURED, LOW-PERMEABILITY GAS WELLS A Thesis JOHN PAUL KRAWTZ...

  9. Structural integrity assessment of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure vessels using a simplified fracture mechanics procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D. (Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a simplified fracture analysis procedure which was developed by Pellini to quantify fracture critical-crack sizes and crack-arrest temperatures of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure vessels. Fracture analysis diagrams have been developed using the simplified analysis procedure for various grades of carbon and low-alloy steels used in the construction of ASME, Section VIII, Division 1 pressure vessels. Structural integrity assessments have been conducted from the analysis diagrams.

  10. Pressure-induced amorphization of charge ordered spinel AlV{sub 2}O{sub 4} at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malavi, Pallavi S., E-mail: malavips@barc.gov.in; Karmakar, S., E-mail: malavips@barc.gov.in; Sharma, S. M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Maurizio, P. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural properties of charge ordered spinel AlV{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been investigated under high pressure at low temperature (80K) by synchrotron based x-ray diffraction measurements. It is observed that upon increasing pressure the structure becomes progressively disordered due to the distortion of the AlO{sub 4} tetrahedral unit and undergoes amorphization above ?12 GPa. While releasing pressure, the rhombohedral phase is only partially recovered at a much lower pressure (below 5 GPa). Within the stability of the rhombohedral phase, the distortion in the vanadium heptamer increases monotonically with pressure, suggesting enhanced charge ordering. This result is in sharp contrast with the recent observation of pressure-induced frustration in the charge ordered state leading to structural transition to the cubic phase at room temperature [JPCM 25, 292201, 2013].

  11. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgard, Kirby; Triana, Antonio; Johnson, John; Yang, Song; Premchand, Kiran

    2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project was to demonstrate that low pressure loop EGR incorporating a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) can be applied to an off-highway engine to meet Tier 3 (Task I) and Interim Tier 4 (Task II) off-road emissions standards. Task I data was collected using a John Deere 8.1 liter engine modified with a low pressure loop EGR system. The engine and EGR system was optimized and final data over the ISO 8178 eight mode test indicated the NOx emissions were less than 4 g/kWh and the PM was less than 0.02 g/kWh which means the engine met the Tier 3 off-road standard. Considerable experimental data was collected and used by Michigan Tech University to develop and calibrate the MTU-Filter 1D DPF model. The MTU-Filter 1D DPF code predicts the particulate mass evolution (deposition and oxidation) in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during simultaneous loading and during thermal and NO{sub 2}-assisted regeneration conditions. It also predicts the pressure drop across the DPF, the flow and temperature fields, the solid filtration efficiency and the particle number distribution downstream of the DPF. A DOC model was also used to predict the NO{sub 2} upstream of the DPF. The DPF model was calibrated to the experimental data at temperatures from 230 C to 550 C, and volumetric flow rates from 9 to 39 actual m{sup 3}/min. Model predictions of the solid particulate mass deposited in the DPF after each loading and regeneration case were in agreement within +/-10g (or +/-10%) of experimental measurements at the majority of the engine operating conditions. The activation temperatures obtained from the model calibration are in good agreement with values reported in the literature and gave good results in the model calibration by using constant pre-exponential factors throughout the entire range of conditions evaluated. The average clean filter permeability was 2.372 x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}. Estimates of the solid particulate mass packing density inside the porous wall were 1 to 5 kg/m{sup 3}; and percolation factors were 0.81 to 0.97. Average particulate layer permeability was 1.95 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}. Solid particulate layer packing density values were between 11 and 128 kg/m{sup 3}. These values were in good agreement with the Peclet number correlation theory reported in the literature. NO{sub 2}-assisted oxidation of PM in the DPF showed experimentally that a significant reduction of the pressure drop can be achieved (<8 kPa) when sufficient NO{sub 2} (>120 ppm) is available and high exhaust gas temperatures ({approx}360-460 C) can be maintained, even at high PM loadings (low NO{sub 2}/solid PM ratios). The CRT{trademark} (DOC-DPF system) showed limited advantages when used with high PM rates (low NOx/PM ratios) in combination with a low pressure loop EGR strategy for a continuous operation of an engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. The 8.1-liter engine was not designed for low-pressure loop EGR and when the EGR was added the NOx emissions were reduced but the PM emissions increased. This corresponds to the well known NOx to PM relationship in which if the NOx is reduced the PM emissions increase. In order for this technology to be successful on this engine family, the engine out PM emissions must be reduced. These results led to Task II. Task II objective was to meet the interim Tier 4 standards using the CCRT{trademark} technology applied to an advanced 6.8 liter John Deere engine. The advanced engine incorporated a 4 valve head, required additional EGR, an advanced high pressure common rail fuel system and a better matched turbocharger. The EGR system was optimized and the goal of less than 2 g/kWh NOx and less than 0.02 g/kWh PM were achieved over the 8 mode test. Again, experimental data was provided to Michigan Tech to study the passive regeneration of the CCRT{trademark} technology. Two computer models, i.e., the MTU 1-D DOC model and the MTU 1-D 2-layer CPF model were developed as part of this research and calibrated using the data obtained from experiments. The 1-D D

  12. Transient evolution of solitary electron holes in low pressure laboratory plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, Subroto

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solitary electrons holes (SEHs) are localized electrostatic positive potential structures in collisionless plasmas. These are vortex-like structures in the electron phase space. Its existence is cause of distortion of the electron distribution in the resonant region. These are explained theoretically first time by Schamel et.al [Phys. Scr. 20, 336 (1979) and Phys. Plasmas 19, 020501 (2012)]. Propagating solitary electron holes can also be formed in a laboratory plasma when a fast rising high positive voltage pulse is applied to a metallic electrode [Kar et. al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 102113 (2010)] immersed in a low pressure plasma. The temporal evolution of these structures can be studied by measuring the transient electron distribution function (EDF). In the present work, transient EDF is measured after formation of a solitary electron hole in nearly uniform, unmagnetized, and collisionless plasma for applied pulse width and, where and are applied pulse width and inverse of ion plasma frequency respectively. Fo...

  13. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian, E-mail: ynwang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21?cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130?MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  14. Surface Modification of Material by Irradiation of Low Power Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Kazunori [Kobe City College of Technology, 8-3 Gakuenhigashimachi, Kobe, Hyogo, 651-2194 (Japan); Azuma, Kingo [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosya, Himeji, Hyogo, 671-2280 (Japan); Onoi, Masahiro [Metal Technology Co., Ltd., 713 Shake Aza Narihira, Ebina, Kanagawa, 243-0424 (Japan)

    2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of a low power atmospheric pressure plasma jet for surface modifications of acrylic, aluminum, and highly crystalline graphite has been carried out experimentally. The plasma jet was generated with batteries-driven high voltage modulator. The power consumed for the plasma generation was estimated to be 0.12 W. The plasma had hydroxyl radicals, which is known as a strong oxider from an observation of optical emission spectrum. After the irradiation of the plasma, the surfaces of acrylic and aluminum became to be hydrophilic from the compartment of contact angle of water on these surfaces. The surface of highly crystalline graphite irradiated by the plasma jet had oxygen-rich functional groups such as C-O, C = O, and O = C-O.

  15. Low voltage active pressure sensor based on polymer space-charge-limited transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , via hole fabricated by laser drilling is needed to make electrical connection between pressure sen

  16. A layered sodium titanate as promising anode material for sodium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Di, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium ion batteries have recently received great attention for large-scale energy applications because of the abundance and low cost of sodium source. Although some cathode materials with desirable electrochemical properties ...

  17. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   One   of   the   challenges  of   sodium   ion   batteries   is   identification   of  for   use   in   batteries.   Our   recent   work   has  

  18. Low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-jet systems and their application for deposition of thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of thin films Z. Hubicka1 , M. Cada1 , O. Churpita1 , P. Virostko1,2 , P. Adámek3 , H. Síchová2 , M. Sícha. The target was to deposit such kind of thin films with crystalline structure at low temperature in order) perovskite thin films on kapton (polymer) foil with Pt electrode layer. The RF hollow cathode nozzle

  19. Advanced Models of LWR Pressure Vessel Embrittlement for Low Flux-HighFluence Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odette, G. Robert; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is an unresolved issue for light water reactor life extension, especially since transition temperature shifts (TTS) must be predicted for high 80-year fluence levels up to approximately 1,020 n/cm{sup 2}, far beyond the current surveillance database. Unfortunately, TTS may accelerate at high fluence, and may be further amplified by the formation of late blooming phases that result in severe embrittlement even in low-copper (Cu) steels. Embrittlement by this mechanism is a potentially significant degradation phenomenon that is not predicted by current regulatory models. This project will focus on accurately predicting transition temperature shifts at high fluence using advanced physically based, empirically validated and calibrated models. A major challenge is to develop models that can adjust test reactor data to account for flux effects. Since transition temperature shifts depend on synergistic combinations of many variables, flux-effects cannot be treated in isolation. The best current models systematically and significantly under-predict transition temperature at high fluence, although predominantly for irradiations at much higher flux than actual RPV service. This project will integrate surveillance, test reactor and mechanism data with advanced models to address a number of outstanding RPV embrittlement issues. The effort will include developing new databases and preliminary models of flux effects for irradiation conditions ranging from very low (e.g., boiling water reactor) to high (e.g., accelerated test reactor). The team will also develop a database and physical models to help predict the conditions for the formation of Mn-Ni-Si late blooming phases and to guide future efforts to fully resolve this issue. Researchers will carry out other tasks on a best-effort basis, including prediction of transition temperature shift attenuation through the vessel wall, remediation of embrittlement by annealing, and fracture toughness master curve issues.

  20. Spectroscopic study of unique line broadening and inversion in low-pressure microwave generated water plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, R L; Mayo, R M; Nansteel, M; Dhandapani, B; Phillips, J; Phillips, Jonathan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was demonstrated that low pressure (~0.2 Torr) water vapor plasmas generated in a 10 mm inner diameter quartz tube with an Evenson microwave cavity show at least two features which are not explained by conventional plasma models. First, significant (> 0.25 nm) hydrogen Balmer_ line broadening, of constant width, up to 5 cm from the microwave coupler was recorded. Only hydrogen, and not oxygen, showed significant line broadening. This feature, observed previously in hydrogen-containing mixed gas plasmas generated with high voltage dc and rf discharges was explained by some researchers to result from acceleration of hydrogen ions near the cathode. This explanation cannot apply to the line broadening observed in the (electrodeless) microwave plasmas generated in this work, particularly at distances as great as 5 cm from the microwave coupler. Second, inversion of the line intensities of both the Lyman and Balmer series, again, at distances up to 5 cm from the coupler, were observed. The line inversion suggest...

  1. Transport of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma through a localized magnetic filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of an ion-ion plasma where only few electrons are present in the discharge could be appropriated in the context of ion plasma source applications. We present in this paper results obtained with a one-dimensional fluid model in the context of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma. Without magnetic field, results show that the electron density is still large in the discharge. With a localized magnetic filter, where the magnetic field strength is such that the transport of the electrons is affected while the transport of ion species remains unmagnetized, we show that a region with a negative–positive ion plasma is found downstream the magnetic filter. The negative ions are produced in the filter due to the decrease of electron temperature. We also find conditions when the plasma sheath near the biased electrode collapses and the negative ion extraction from the plasma becomes possible. In addition, the influence of E?×?B electron transport on the one-dimensional model results is discussed.

  2. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  3. Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  4. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  5. A compact high-performance low-field NMR apparatus for measurements on fluids at very high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, R.; Anand, V., E-mail: VAnand@slb.com; Ganesan, K.; Tabrizi, P.; Torres, R. [Schlumberger Technology Corp., 110 Schlumberger Drive, Sugar Land, Texas 77478 (United States)] [Schlumberger Technology Corp., 110 Schlumberger Drive, Sugar Land, Texas 77478 (United States); Grant, B. [Grant Innovation, 618 Mesquite Drive, Cedar Creek, Texas 78612 (United States)] [Grant Innovation, 618 Mesquite Drive, Cedar Creek, Texas 78612 (United States); Catina, D. [National Oilwell Varco, 10302 Mula Road, Stafford, Texas 77477 (United States)] [National Oilwell Varco, 10302 Mula Road, Stafford, Texas 77477 (United States); Ryan, D.; Borman, C.; Krueckl, C. [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, 9450–17 Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)] [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, 9450–17 Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss an innovative new high-performance apparatus for performing low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation times and diffusion measurements on fluids at very high pressures and high temperatures. The apparatus sensor design and electronics specifications allow for dual deployment either in a fluid sampling well logging tool or in a laboratory. The sensor and electronics were designed to function in both environments. This paper discusses the use of the apparatus in a laboratory environment. The operating temperature and pressure limits, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new system exceed by a very wide margin what is currently possible. This major breakthrough was made possible by a revolutionary new sensor design that breaks many of the rules of conventional high pressure NMR sensor design. A metallic sample holder capable of operating at high pressures and temperatures is provided to contain the fluid under study. The sample holder has been successfully tested for operation up to 36 Kpsi. A solenoid coil wound on a slotted titanium frame sits inside the metallic sample holder and serves as an antenna to transmit RF pulses and receive NMR signals. The metal sample holder is sandwiched between a pair of gradient coils which provide a linear field gradient for pulsed field gradient diffusion measurements. The assembly sits in the bore of a low-gradient permanent magnet. The system can operate over a wide frequency range without the need for tuning the antenna to the Larmor frequency. The SNR measured on a water sample at room temperature is more than 15 times greater than that of the commercial low-field system in our laboratory. Thus, the new system provides for data acquisition more than 200 times faster than was previously possible. Laboratory NMR measurements of relaxations times and diffusion coefficients performed at pressures up to 25 Kpsi and at temperatures up to 175?°C with crude oils enlivened with dissolved hydrocarbon gases (referred to as “live oils”) are shown. This is the first time low-field NMR measurements have been performed at such high temperatures and pressures on live crude oil samples. We discuss the details of the apparatus design, tuning, calibration, and operation. NMR data acquired at multiple temperatures and pressures on a live oil sample are discussed.

  6. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigations of electron density in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron density is measured in low-pressure dual-frequency (2/60 MHz) capacitively coupled oxygen discharges by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The dependence of electron density at the discharge center on the high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and gas pressure are investigated in detail. A (1D) particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo method is developed to calculate the time-averaged electron density at the discharge center and the simulation results are compared with the experimental ones, and general agreements are achieved. With increasing HF power, the electron density linearly increases. The electron density exhibits different changes with the LF power at different HF powers. At low HF powers (e.g., 30 W in our experiment), the electron density increases with increasing LF power while the electron density decreases with increasing LF power at relatively high HF powers (e.g., 120 W in our experiment). With increasing gas pressure the electron density first increases rapidly to reach a maximum value and then decreases slowly due to the combined effect of the production process by the ionization and the loss processes including the surface and volume losses.

  8. Methods and systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  9. Systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID); LeRoy, Samuel D. (Houston, TX); Benzing, William M. (Tulsa, OK)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  10. Thermal expansion of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition polysilicon films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Roberto

    polysilicon films were deposited on the sub- strates by LPCVD in a hot-walled horizontal tube fur- nace with an inner diameter of 225 mm, using SiH4 at a flow rate of 100 sccm and a pressure of 300 mtorr J. Mater

  11. Kinetics and radiative processes in Xe/I{sub 2} inductively coupled rf discharges at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.N.; Verdeyen, J.T.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental concern over the presence of mercury in conventional fluorescent lamps has motivated research into alternative electrically efficient near UV plasma lighting sources. One such candidate is multi-wavelength UV emission from Xe/I{sub 2} mixtures, including excimer radiation from XeI at 253 nm. Previous studies of the XeI system were performed at high pressures and were intended for laser applications. Practical Xe/I{sub 2} lamps will likely operate in the 0.5--10 torr regime and use electrodeless excitation to avoid issues related to electrode erosion by the halogen. In this paper, the authors report on an experimental investigation of low pressure, inductively coupled plasmas sustained in Xe/I{sub 2} mixtures. The goals of this work are to characterize the UV emission and determine excitation mechanisms in a parameter space of interest to lighting applications.

  12. Effect of silicon on ultra-low temperature toughness of Nb–Ti microalloyed cryogenic pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, J.A. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Steels, International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wu, K.M., E-mail: wukaiming2000@yahoo.com [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Steels, International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Li, J.H. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Steels, International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Research and Development Center of WISCO, Wuhan 430080 (China); Hodgson, P.D. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Steels, International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Hou, T.P. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Steels, International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Ding, Q.F. [Research and Development Center of WISCO, Wuhan 430080 (China)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of Si on the ultra-low temperature toughness of Nb–Ti microalloyed cryogenic pressure vessel steels was investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Equiaxed ferrite and bainite were obtained in the tempered steels with small Si additions. Nanosized Nb–Ti carbides (< 10 nm) were formed in the steel containing 0.05% Si, whereas much coarser carbides (> 30 nm) were found in the steel containing 0.47% Si. The ultra-low temperature toughness of the Nb–Ti microalloyed cryogenic pressure vessel steel was remarkably enhanced by the reduction in the Si content, which was attributed to the pre-existing iron carbide formation before the precipitation of nanosized Nb–Ti carbides during tempering. - Highlights: • Nanosized Nb-Ti carbides formed in the tempered steel with smaller Si addition. • Coarser Nb-Ti carbides formed in the tempered steel with more Si addition. • Pre-existing cememtites provide nucleation sites for Nb-Ti carbide precipitation. • Ultra-low temperature toughness was remarkably enhanced by Si content reduction.

  13. Hydrostatic low-range pressure applications of the Paris-Edinburgh cell utilising polymer gaskets for diffuse x-ray scattering measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Kurtz, C.; Locke, D.; Parise, J. B.; Hriljac, J. A.; Stony Brook Univ.; Univ. of Birmingham

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of a polymeric Torlon (polyamide-imide) gasket material in a Paris-Edinburgh pressure cell for in situ high-pressure X-ray scattering measurements is demonstrated. The relatively low bulk modulus of the gasket allows for fine control of the sample pressure over the range 0.01-0.42 GPa. The quality of the data obtained in this way is suitable for Bragg and pair distribution function analysis.

  14. Position reconstruction in fission fragment detection using the low pressure MWPC technique for the JLab experiment E02-017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi-Yu, Qiu [Lanzhou U.; Tang, Liguang [JLAB; Margaryan, Amur T. [Yerevan; Jin-Zhang, Xu [Lanzhou; Bi-Tao, Hu [Lanzhou; Xi-Meng, Chen [Lanzhou

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a lambda hyperon was embedded in a nucleus, it can form a hypernucleus. The lifetime and its mass dependence of stable hypernuclei provide information about the weak decay of lambda hyperon inside nuclear medium. This work will introduce the Jefferson Lab experiment (E02-017) which aims to study the lifetime of the heavy hypernuclei using a specially developed fission fragment detection technique, a multi-wire proportional chamber operated under low gas pressure (LPMWPC). Presented here are the method and performance of the reconstruction of fission position on the target foil, the separation of target materials at different regions and the comparison and verification with the Mote Carlo simulation.

  15. Note: High turn density magnetic coils with improved low pressure water cooling for use in atom optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay Parry, Nicholas, E-mail: n.mckayparry@uq.net.au; Neely, Tyler; Carey, Thomas; Bell, Thomas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia); Baker, Mark [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a magnetic coil design utilizing concentrically wound electro-magnetic insulating (EMI) foil (25.4 ?m Kapton backing and 127 ?m thick layers). The magnetic coils are easily configurable for different coil sizes, while providing large surfaces for low-pressure (0.12 bar) water cooling. The coils have turn densities of ?5 mm{sup ?1} and achieve a maximum of 377 G at 2.1 kW driving power, measured at a distance 37.9 mm from the axial center of the coil. The coils achieve a steady-state temperature increase of 36.7°C/kW.

  16. Low loss hollow optical-waveguide connection from atmospheric pressure to ultra-high vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Tani, F.; Hölzer, P.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Russell, P. St. J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for optically accessing ultra-high vacuum environments, via a photonic-crystal fiber with a long small hollow core, is described. The small core and the long bore enable a pressure ratio of over 10{sup 8} to be maintained between two environments, while permitting efficient and unimpeded delivery of light, including ultrashort optical pulses. This delivery can be either passive or can encompass nonlinear optical processes such as optical pulse compression, deep UV generation, supercontinuum generation, or other useful phenomena.

  17. Autoignition of n-Butanol at Elevated Pressure and Low to Intermediate Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, B. W.; Kumar, K.; Zhang, Z.; Sung, C. J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autoignition experiments for n-butanol have been performed using a heated rapid compression machine at compressed pressures of 15 and 30 bar, in the compressed temperature range of 675–925 K, and for equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Over the conditions studied, the ignition delay decreases monotonically as temperature increases, and the autoignition response exhibits single-stage characteristics. A non-linear fit to the experimental data is performed and the reactivity, in terms of the inverse of ignition delay, shows nearly second order dependence on the initial oxygen mole fraction and slightly greater than first order dependence on initial fuel mole fraction and compressed pressure. Experimentally measured ignition delays are also compared to simulations using several reaction mechanisms available in the literature. Agreement between simulated and experimental ignition delay is found to be unsatisfactory. Sensitivity analysis is performed on one recent mechanism and indicates that uncertainties in the rate coefficients of parent fuel decomposition reactions play a major role in causing the poor agreement. Path analysis of the fuel decomposition reactions supports this conclusion and also highlights the particular importance of certain pathways. Further experimental investigations of the fuel decomposition, including speciation measurements, are required.

  18. Sodium Titanates as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes  for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   Marca  M.  Doeff,  dual   intercalation   batteries   based   on   sodium  future   of   sodium  ion  batteries  will  be  discussed  

  19. The measurement of gas relative permeability for low permeability cores using a pressure transient method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning, Xiuxu

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p pJ (4) The boundary conditions are as follows: pp(z, 0) = 0, 0 ( z ( L, (5) pp(0, t ) = p~(t, ), t, & 0, (6) pp(L t, ) = pp?(t, ), t, & 0) Vpsp 4 Pp ( Pp'l (P J, , (8) pZ(0) = o (9) ppegpVa l9ppa (Bppi =0, t. & 0. at. I, o*), , = (10... ? Q2 (18) V p2 = uil~p? ip where: where: Ppl Pf1 Qi = Pf1 Pp2 P f2 Gz = Pf2 (20) V?pi = upstream volume 1, cm, 3 V p2 = upstream volume 2, cm, V~, ? pore volume of the steel plug, cm, ppi = pulse pressure for the first run, psi, pfi...

  20. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  1. Beams of fast neutral atoms and molecules in low-pressure gas-discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metel, A. S., E-mail: ametel@stankin.ru [Moscow State University of Technology 'Stankin,' (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast neutral atom and molecule beams have been studied, the beams being produced in a vacuum chamber at nitrogen, argon, or helium pressure of 0.1-10 Pa due to charge-exchange collisions of ions accelerated in the sheath between the glow discharge plasma and a negative grid immersed therein. From a flat grid, two broad beams of molecules with continuous distribution of their energy from zero up to e(U + U{sub c}) (where U is voltage between the grid and the vacuum chamber and U{sub c} is cathode fall of the discharge) are propagating in opposite directions. The beam propagating from the concave surface of a 0.2-m-diameter grid is focused within a 10-mm-diameter spot on the target surface. When a 0.2-m-diameter 0.2-m-high cylindrical grid covered by end disks and composed of parallel 1.5-mm-diameter knitting needles spaced by 4.5 mm is immersed in the plasma, the accelerated ions pass through the gaps between the needles, turn inside the grid into fast atoms or molecules, and escape from the grid through the gaps on its opposite side. The Doppler shift of spectral lines allows for measuring the fast atom energy, which corresponds to the potential difference between the plasma inside the chamber and the plasma produced as a result of charge-exchange collisions inside the cylindrical grid.

  2. Electrical time resolved metrology of dust particles growing in low pressure cold plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wattieaux, Gaeetan [PRISME, Orleans University, 12 rue de Blois BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Mezeghrane, Abdelaziz [LPCQ, Mouloud Mammeri University, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Boufendi, Laiefa [GREMI, Orleans University, 14 rue d'Issoudun BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical parameters of a capacitively coupled radiofrequency (CCRF) discharge change significantly when dust arises in the discharge. This work demonstrates the ability to follow in real time the evolution of the size and of the concentration of dust particles forming in a CCRF discharge from the variation of the electron density and of the self-bias voltage of the active electrode. According to experimental findings, it appears that the variation of this self-bias voltage depends on the surface of the dust particles. This trend is confirmed by an analytical modelling considering the low frequency behaviour of the phenomenon.

  3. Low-Pressure Solubility of Gases in Liquid Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other4Q07) WindLow Voltage Cables

  4. Excitation in low-current discharges and breakdown in He at low pressures and very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelenkovic, B.M.; Phelps, A.V. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 75, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate optical emission from low-current discharges in He at very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N between parallel plate electrodes. We also determine the electrical breakdown and the voltage-current behavior at low currents. The E/N are 300 Td to 9 kTd (1 Td=10{sup -21} V m{sup 2}) at pressures times electrode separations p{sub 0}d from 3 to 0.9 Torr cm. Absolute optical emission probabilities versus distance are determined for the 501.6 nm line (3 {sup 1}P{yields}2 {sup 1}S) and for the 587.6 nm line (3 {sup 3}D{yields}2 {sup 3}P) by reference to Boltzmann calculations at our lowest E/N and to published pressure dependent electron beam experiments. At E/N below 1 kTd, the emission follows the exponential growth of the electron density, while at above 7 kTd heavy particle excitation is evident near the cathode. Collisional transfer of excitation from the singlet to the triplet system dominates the 587.6 nm excitation. Comparisons of models with experiments show the importance of excitation and of electron production at the cathode by fast He atoms produced by charge transfer collisions of He{sup +} with He. The breakdown voltage versus p{sub 0}d is multivalued for p{sub 0}d{approx}1.5 Torr cm. At currents below 100 {mu}A and our lower E/N, the discharge voltage decreases linearly with current as expected for an increasing electron yield with ion energy and E/N at the cathode.

  5. Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode is described. A method is provided for producing same. 11 figs.

  6. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Gentile, W.R. Blanchard, T.A. Kozub, M. Aristova, C. McGahan, S. Natta, K. Pagdon, J. Zelenty

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber wall acts as the primary heat exchanger. During removal, gas is pumped through the laser ports by turbo molecular-drag pumps (TM-DP). For the purpose of reducing organic based lubricants and seals, a magnetically levitated TM-DP is being investigated with pump manufacturers. Currently, magnetically levitated turbo molecular pumps are commercially available. The pumps will be exposed to thermal loads and ionizing radiation (tritium, Ar-41, post detonation neutrons). Although the TM-DP's will be subjected to these various radiations, current designs for similar pumping devices have been hardened and have the ability of locating control electronics in remote radiation shielded enclosures4. The radiation hardened TM-DP's will be 5 required to operate with minimal maintenance for periods of up to 18 continuous months. As part of this initial investigation for developing a conceptual engineering strategy for a gas fill solution, commercial suppliers of low pressure gas pumping systems have been contacted and engaged in this evaluation. Current technology in the area of mechanical pumping systems indicates that the development of a robust pumping system to meet the requirements of the FTF gas fill concept is within the limits of COTS equipment3,4.

  7. aged sodium borophosphate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ultraviolet flux will produce a similar variation in the column of neutral sodium for a fixed mass flux and density. However, if the cold gas is in pressure equilibrium with a hot...

  8. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: "Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges" and "Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe Kortshagen; Joachim Heberlein; Steven L. Girshick

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  9. Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonovics, Janis

    Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to increase from 36 to 70 Pa CO2 before the end of the 21st century. High pCO2 often increases the growth and repro- duction of C3 annuals, whereas low pCO2 decreases growth and may reduce or prevent

  10. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  11. Investigation of effect of excitation frequency on electron energy distribution functions in low pressure radio frequency bounded plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle in cell (PIC) simulations are employed to investigate the effect of excitation frequency {omega} on electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in a low pressure radio frequency (rf) discharge. The discharge is maintained over a length of 0.10 m, bounded by two infinite parallel plates, with the coherent heating field localized at the center of the discharge over a distance of 0.05 m and applied perpendicularly along the y and z directions. On varying the excitation frequency f (={omega}/2{pi}) in the range 0.01-50 MHz, it is observed that for f {<=} 5 MHz the EEDF shows a trend toward a convex (Druyvesteyn-like) distribution. For f > 5 MHz, the distribution resembles more like a Maxwellian with the familiar break energy visible in most of the distributions. A prominent ''hot tail'' is observed at f{>=} 20 MHz and the temperature of the tail is seen to decrease with further increase in frequency (e.g., at 30 MHz and 50 MHz). The mechanism for the generation of the ''hot tail'' is considered to be due to preferential transit time heating of energetic electrons as a function of {omega}, in the antenna heating field. There exists an optimum frequency for which high energy electrons are maximally heated. The occurrence of the Druyvesteyn-like distributions at lower {omega} may be explained by a balance between the heating of the electrons in the effective electric field and elastic cooling due to electron neutral collision frequency {nu}{sub en}; the transition being dictated by {omega} {approx} 2{pi}{nu}{sub en}.

  12. A compact bellows-driven diamond anvil cell for high-pressure, low-temperature magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Yejun [The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Silevitch, D. M.; Rosenbaum, T. F. [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the design of an efficient bellows-controlled diamond anvil cell that is optimized for use inside the bores of high-field superconducting magnets in helium-3 cryostats, dilution refrigerators, and commercial physical property measurement systems. Design of this non-magnetic pressure cell focuses on in situ pressure tuning and measurement by means of a helium-filled bellows actuator and fiber-coupled ruby fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. We demonstrate the utility of this pressure cell with ac susceptibility measurements of superconducting, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic phase transitions to pressures exceeding 8 GPa. This cell provides an opportunity to probe charge and magnetic order continuously and with high resolution in the three-dimensional Magnetic Field–Pressure–Temperature parameter space.

  13. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

  14. Submersible sodium pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  15. The effects of damage in and around a fracture upon the analysis of pressure data from low permeability gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Thomas Lee

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildup Data for a 100 Foot Fracture in an Unbounded Reservoir 15 16 Horner Plot of Pressure Buildup Data for a 100 Foot Fracture in an Unbounded Reservoir--Closure and non- Darcy Flow Included 17 Horner Plot of Pressure Buildup Data for a 100 Foot... Fracture in an Unbounded Reservoir--Closure and non- Darcy Flow Included--500 MCFPD Rate 18 10 Horner Plot of Pressure Buildup Data for a 100 Foot Fracture in an Unbounded Reservoir--Closure and non- Darcy Flow Included--1000 MCFPD Rate...

  16. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  17. LOW ALLOY STEELS FOR THICK WALL PRESSURE VESSELS Yearly Report for Period Oct. 1, 1976 to Sept. 30, 1977.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, R.M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vessel Fabrication Under ASME Code Current Pressure Vessel Sc a t i o n under the ASME code current s t e e l s , and (VESSEL FABRICATION UNDER ASME CODE Interactions with Babcock

  18. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF Ti and Fe VALENCE IN CHONDRULE-LIKE MELTS DURING COOLING UNDER CHANGING REDOX CONDITIONS AT LOW PARTIAL PRESSURES. S. B. Simon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Lawrence

    . This idea is being tested experimentally. Initial results were re- ported by [3]; here we report results CHANGING REDOX CONDITIONS AT LOW PARTIAL PRESSURES. S. B. Simon1 , J. R. Beckett2 , S. R. Sutton1,3 and L melted on Fe loops. Three runs are reported here: an isothermal run (I6) at 1400°C for 66 h at 2.75 log

  20. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C. [ed.

    1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  1. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  2. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  3. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  4. Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    low concentrations of the HGS so that fluid rheology is not altered. We have conducted extensive laboratory testing to compare performance of the HGS LDDIF with that of conventional horizontal well DIFs. Experiments consisted of permeability regain...

  5. Thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter, filled with inert gases, at low pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modin, V.A.; Nikolaev, Y.V.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data is presented on the thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter filled with He, Ar, and Xe in the pressure range 40--550 Pa. The need to account for the coefficients of thermal accommodation of the emitter-inert-gas-collector system in this range is shown. The accommodation coefficients for different temperature regimes are measured and expressions are obtained to calculate the heat flux transported by the inert gases in the electrode gap.

  6. Department of Defense/Department of Energy joint demilitarization technology demonstration program executive summary of Phase II demonstrations: The low-pressure rocket motor burns in X-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. W. Bellow; A. E. Moeller; D. Steele; S. M. Williams; R. L. Heinle; C. O. Pruneda; C. A. Velsko; B. E. Watkins; C. J. Hewitt; H. Fry; J. A. Sanchez; J. R. Stephens; J. R. Carson; W. C. Gray; W. C. Thomas; T. J. Tope; S. W. Allendorf; L. R. Carrillo; H. H. Hirano; H. A. Johnsen; J. Lipkin; D. K. Ottesen; R. L. Peabody; C. R. Shaddix; J. C. Swearengen; R. F. Boehm; A. Smiecinski; K. J. Stetzenback

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three low-pressure rocket motor burn tests were executed in May--June 1997 time frame at the X-tunnel complex located on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site.

  7. Three-electrode low pressure discharge apparatus and method for uniform ionization of gaseous media. [CO/sub 2/ laser oscillator and pulse smoother

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLellan, E.J.

    1980-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform, transverse electrical discharges are produced in gaseous media without the necessity of switching the main discharge voltage with an external device which carries the entire discharge current. A three-electrode low pressure discharge tube is charged across its anode and cathode to below breakdown voltage using a dc voltage source. An array of resistors or capacitors can be made to discharge to the wire screen anode by means of a low energy high voltage pulse circuit producing sufficient preionization in the region between the anode and cathode to initiate and control the main discharge. The invention has been demonstrated to be useful as a CO/sub 2/ laser oscillator and pulse-smoother. It can be reliably operated in the sealed-off mode.

  8. An Evaluation of the Annular Fuel and Bottle-Shaped Fuel Concepts for Sodium Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memmott, Matthew

    Two innovative fuel concepts, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel and the bottle-shaped fuel, were investigated with the goal of increasing the power density and reduce the pressure drop in the sodium-cooled ...

  9. A low-power pressure-and temperature-programmed separation system for a micro gas chromatograph.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacks, Richard D. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Robinson, Alex Lockwood (Advanced Sensor Technologies, Albuquerque, NM); Lambertus, Gordon R. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Potkay, Joseph A. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Wise, Kensall D. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the theory, design, fabrication and testing of the microvalves and columns necessary in a pressure- and temperature-programmed micro gas chromatograph ({micro}GC). Two microcolumn designs are investigated: a bonded Si-glass column having a rectangular cross section and a vapor-deposited silicon oxynitride (Sion) column having a roughly circular cross section. Both microcolumns contain integrated heaters and sensors for rapid, controlled heating. The 3.2 cm x 3.2 cm, 3 m-long silicon-glass column, coated with a non-polar polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stationary phase, separates 30 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in less than 6 min. This is the most efficient micromachined column reported to date, producing greater than 4000 plates/m. The 2.7 mm x 1.4 mm Sion column eliminates the glass sealing plate and silicon substrate using deposited dielectrics and is the lowest power and fastest GC column reported to date; it requires only 11 mW to raise the column temperature by 100 C and has a response time of 11s and natural temperature ramp rate of 580 C/min. A 1 m-long PDMS-coated Sion microcolumn separates 10 VOCs in 52s. A system-based design approach was used for both columns.

  10. Elastic properties, sp{sup 3} fraction, and Raman scattering in low and high pressure synthesized diamond-like boron rich carbides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Burgess, Katherine; Jia, Ruth; Sharma, Shiv; Ming, Li-Chung [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Liu, Yongsheng [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an Shanxi (China); Ciston, Jim [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hong, Shiming [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense BC{sub x} phases with high boron concentration are predicted to be metastable, superhard, and conductors or superconductors depending on boron concentration. However, up to this point, diamond-like boron rich carbides BC{sub x} (dl-BC{sub x}) phases have been thought obtainable only through high pressure and high temperature treatment, necessitating small specimen volume. Here, we use electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, surface Brillouin scattering, laser ultrasonics (LU) technique, and analysis of elastic properties to demonstrate that low pressure synthesis (chemical vapor deposition) of BC{sub x} phases may also lead to the creation of diamond-like boron rich carbides. The elastic properties of the dl-BC{sub x} phases depend on the carbon sp{sup 2} versus sp{sup 3} content, which decreases with increasing boron concentration, while the boron bonds determine the shape of the Raman spectra of the dl-BC{sub x} after high pressure-high temperature treatment. Using the estimation of the density value based on the sp{sup 3} fraction, the shear modulus ? of dl-BC{sub 4}, containing 10% carbon atoms with sp{sup 3} bonds, and dl-B{sub 3}C{sub 2}, containing 38% carbon atoms with sp{sup 3} bonds, were found to be ??=?19.3?GPa and ??=?170?GPa, respectively. The presented experimental data also imply that boron atoms lead to a creation of sp{sup 3} bonds during the deposition processes.

  11. Experimental investigations on sodium plugging in narrow flow channels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momozaki, Y.; Cho, D. H.; Sienicki, J. J.; Moisseytsev, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the potential for plugging of narrow flow channels of sodium by impurities (e.g., oxides). In the first phase of the experiments, clean sodium was circulated through the test sections simulating flow channels in a compact diffusion-bonded heat exchanger such as a printed circuit heat exchanger. The primary objective was to see if small channels whose cross sections are semicircles of 2, 4, and 6 mm in diameter are usable in liquid sodium applications where sodium purity is carefully controlled. It was concluded that the 2-mm channels, the smallest of the three, could be used in clean sodium systems at temperatures even as low as 100 to 110 C without plugging. In the second phase, sodium oxide was added to the loop, and the oxygen concentration in the liquid sodium was controlled by means of varying the cold-trap temperature. Intentional plugging was induced by creating a cold spot in the test sections, and the subsequent plugging behavior was observed. It was found that plugging in the 2-mm test section was initiated by lowering the cold spot temperature below the cold-trap temperature by 10 to 30 C. Unplugging of the plugged channels was accomplished by heating the affected test section.

  12. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  13. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  14. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  15. Effect of NH{sub 3} on the low pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiO{sub 2} film at low temperature using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Xuemei; Takoudis, Christos G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of NH{sub 3} on TiO{sub 2} film deposition using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT) and O{sub 2} as source gases in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor was studied at low temperatures ranging from 100 to 250 deg. C. TiO{sub 2} film is traditionally deposited at temperature above 300 deg. C using oxygen-based Ti precursors, such as titanium tetraisopropoxide. In this study, the authors demonstrate that a combination of both reactive precursors, i.e., TDEAT and NH{sub 3}, is an effective technique for TiO{sub 2} film deposition at lower temperatures, albeit with some nitrogen incorporation. It was found that films can be formed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C when NH{sub 3} is used. At higher temperatures, the growth rate of TiO{sub 2} films deposited using NH{sub 3} is higher than that of films deposited without NH{sub 3} by up to one order of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data show that NH{sub 3} enhances the formation of TiNO and TiN, and x-ray diffraction analysis shows that all as-deposited films have amorphous structure. Both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiles show that nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen are uniformly distributed throughout the film. The mechanism of enhancement of growth rate using NH{sub 3} is also discussed.

  16. ID-69 Sodium drain experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, D.C.

    1996-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

  17. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, S.D.

    1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

  18. Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO.sub.2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO.sub.2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and T1 can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention.

  19. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  20. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  1. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  2. Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grones, Kelly Leann

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In phase I all-beef and soy-added ground beef patties containing sodium lactate, sodium propionate, and sodium diacetate at various levels and combinations were stored for nine months at -10°C. Upon cooking, the addition of sodium lactate increased...

  3. Creep-rupture behavior of seven iron-base alloys after long term aging at 760/sup 0/C in low pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witzke, W.R.; Stephens, J.R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Candidate iron-base alloys for heater tube application in the Stirling automotive engine were aged at 760/sup 0/C for 3500 h in a low pressure argon or hydrogen atmosphere to determine the effect on mechanical behavior. The seven alloys evaluated were N-155, 19-9DL, 316SS, Nitronic 40, A286, Incoloy 800H, and RA330. Aging produced no appreciable changes in alloy grain size but did promote increased density and growth of precipitate particles in the grains and grain boundaries. Tensile properties were generally degraded by aging, with ductility and strength changes being influenced by grain structure. Aging also decreased creep-rupture strength, with coarse grain materials being more susceptible to strength loss. The presence of hydrogen during aging did not contribute significantly to creep strength degradation in the coarse grain alloys but did result in extensive strength losses in fine grain alloys. Based on current criteria for the Mod I Stirling engine, the N-155 and 19-9DL alloys were the only alloys in this study with strengths adequate for heater tube service at 760/sup 0/C.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of nitrogen and hydrogen dissociation from vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy in a developing low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laity, George; Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Frank, Klaus [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University at Erlangen - Nuernberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University at Erlangen - Nuernberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation density of N and H atoms present in a developing low temperature plasma, based on the emission and self-absorption of vacuum ultraviolet radiation produced from the plasma. Spark plasmas are produced via pulsed discharge in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures at atmospheric pressure, where information on the dissociated densities of the constituent gas molecules is desired without employing invasive diagnostic techniques. By analyzing the self-absorption line profile of 121.5 nm Lyman-{alpha} H radiation emitted within the first {approx}1.0 mm of plasma near the anode tip, a peak dissociated H atom concentration of 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed {approx}100 ns into spark formation, with an estimated electron density of 2.65 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} determined from Stark broadening. Similarly, simultaneous line fitting of the N 120.0/124.3 nm emission profiles revealed a peak dissociated N atom concentration of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} during the same discharge period.

  5. The Sodium Content of Your Food.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are usually processed without added salt. However, starchy vegetables such a s lima beans and peas frequently are sorted in brine before freezing. Frozen vegetables with added sauces, mushrooms or nuts are higher in sodium than plain varieties. Canned... ............................ Canned iced Powdaed. mn-flawred iced. sugarsweetened ......................... Low-calorie iced ....................... Thirst Quencher 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 8 fl oz Dairy...

  6. The effect of the operation modes of a gas discharge low-pressure amalgam lamp on the intensity of generation of 185 nm UV vacuum radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.

  7. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  8. Near-Region Modification of Total Pressure Fluctuations by a Normal Shock Wave in a Low-Density Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mai, Chi Luong Nhat

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -density hypersonic wind tunnel. Measurements were obtained with a fast-response Pitot pressure probe traversing in the freestream direction. The tunnel freestream noise level was characterized and served as the inflow/upstream condition to the interaction...

  9. Fixation of CO2 by chrysotile in low-pressure dry and moist carbonation: Ex-situ and in-situ characterizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    . Emitted in large proportions, especially from (stationary) fossil-fuel based power plants, carbon dioxide­1200 °C), humidity (0­10 mol %) and CO2 partial pressure (20­67 mol %), thermal preconditioning

  10. Strength and ductility of room-dry and water-saturated igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.; Bauer, S.J.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rock types that are likely candidates for drilling were tested. Reported herein are the short-time ultimate strengths and ductilities determined at temperatures of 25/sup 0/ to 1050/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/ of (a) room-dry Mt. Hood Andesite, Cuerbio Basalt, and Charcoal (St. Cloud Gray) Granodiorite at confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa, (b) water-saturated specimens of the same three rocks at zero effective pressure (both pore and confining pressures of 50 MPa), and (c) room-dry Newberry Rhyolite Obsidian at 0 and 50 MPa. These strengths are then compared with the stresses developed at the wall of a borehole in an elastic medium at the appropriate temperatures and mean pressures to assess the problem of borehole stability. (MHR)

  11. Single-site, noninvasive, blood pressure measurements at the ear using ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG), and a low-power, reflectance-mode PPG SoC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winokur, Eric S., 1984-

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a wearable congestive heart failure (CHF) monitor at the ear that uses the ballistocardiogram (BCG), electrocardiogram (ECG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to extract mean blood pressure up the Carotid ...

  12. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Abstract: Sodium ion (Na+) batteries...

  13. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride@cpe.fr #12;2 Abstract The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate performed to determine the area per surfactant molecule at various temperatures (20-50ºC) and the adsorption

  14. Impact of Sodium Layer variations on the performance of the E-ELT MCAO module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiber, L; Arcidiacono, C; Pfrommer, T; Holzlöhner, R; Lombini, M; Hickson, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems based on sodium Laser Guide Stars may exploit Natural Guide Stars to solve intrinsic limitations of artificial beacons (tip-tilt indetermination and anisoplanatism) and to mitigate the impact of the sodium layer structure and variability. The sodium layer may also have transverse structures leading to differential effects among Laser Guide Stars. Starting from the analysis of the input perturbations related to the Sodium Layer variability, modeled directly on measured sodium layer profiles, we analyze, through a simplified end-to-end simulation code, the impact of the low/medium orders induced on global performance of the European Extremely Large Telescope Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics module MAORY.

  15. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  16. An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Tin Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries Using Natural Wood Fiber as a Mechanical Buffer and Electrolyte Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Tin Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries Using Natural Wood Fiber as a Mechanical Buffer and Electrolyte Information ABSTRACT: Sodium (Na)-ion batteries offer an attractive option for low cost grid scale storage due to the abundance of Na. Tin (Sn) is touted as a high capacity anode for Na-ion batteries with a high theoretical

  18. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  19. Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety Implications of Advanced Technology Power Conversion and Design Innovations and Simplifications: Investigations of supercritical CO{sub 2} gas turbine Brayton cycles coupled to the sodium-cooled reactors and innovative concepts for sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers were performed to discover new designs for high efficiency electricity production. The objective of the analyses was to characterize the design and safety performance of equipment needed to implement the new power cycle. The project included considerations of heat transfer and power conversion systems arrangements and evaluations of systems performance. Task 4--Post Accident Heat Removal and In-Vessel Retention: Test plans were developed to evaluate (1) freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in subassembly geometry, (2) retention of metallic fuel core melt debris within reactor vessel structures, and (3) consequences of intermixing of high pressure CO{sub 2} and sodium. The objective of the test plan development was to provide planning for measurements of data needed to characterize the consequences of very low probability accident sequences unique to metallic fuel and CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycles. The project produced three test plans ready for execution.

  20. Combined effects of Reynolds number, turbulence intensity and periodic unsteady wake flow conditions on boundary layer development and heat transfer of a low pressure turbine blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Burak

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .18 (S R =80 mm)........................................103 Figure 11.1. Static pressure distributions at Re=110,000 and reduced frequencies S=0, 1.59, 3.18 (no rod, 160 mm, 80 mm), SS=Separation start, SE= Separation end...................................................110 Figure 11.2. Time-averaged hot-film distributions at Re=110,000 and reduced frequencies S=0, 1.59, 3.18 (no rod, 160 mm, 80 mm)...........................112 Figure 11.3. Ensemble averaged velocity as a function for (a) steady flow case S=0 (S R...

  1. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Dual Intercalation Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Dual Intercalation Batteries Lithium supply securityinterest in sodium-ion batteries. These devices operate muchsodium-ion or lithium-ion batteries that utilize them as

  2. Ignition of syngas/air and hydrogen/air mixtures at low temperatures and high pressures: Experimental data interpretation and kinetic modeling implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dryer, Frederick L.; Chaos, Marcos [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnitude of ignition delay observations and homogeneous kinetic calculations seen elsewhere is a result in large measure of departures of the experimental configurations from behavior dominated solely by homogeneous gas phase kinetics. In the regime of interest (higher pressures, lower temperatures), the hydrogen-oxygen chemical induction processes can be significantly perturbed by several nonhomogeneous effects, which include catalytic aberrations. The multiple perturbations that can significantly affect induction chemistry are very difficult to remove in research experiments and nearly impossible to control in engineering applications. The implications for developing lean premixing schemes for advanced syngas gas turbine applications are that designs must consider the inherent presence of these perturbations on ignition delay as well as those that might occur from potential particle contamination of the air stream exiting the compressor, if stimulated flashback into the mixing region is to be precluded.

  3. PAMM Proc. Appl. Math. Mech. 8, 10007 10010 (2008) / DOI 10.1002/pamm.200810007 Analysis of fluid-structure interaction in low pressure MEMS by Integral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frangi, Attilio

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been developed in the transition regime, their application to realistic 3D low-speed MEMS is still between molecules can be neglected and the momentum transfer to the moving shuttle can be easily computed of fixed parts and vibrating shuttles separated by gaps which are few microns wide. Resonating frequencies

  4. Design and fabrication of pressure-compensating compliant tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ian (Ian P.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Different fabrication methods are evaluated for producing pressure-compensating tubes for use in low-pressure drip irrigation systems. Such devices would allow drip irrigation systems to operate at driving pressures much ...

  5. varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggle, Peter J.

    varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack asthma low blood pressure alzheimer's cancer diabetes kidney failure dementia smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack

  6. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  7. A novel target-type low pressure drop bidirectional optoelectronic air flow sensor for infant artificial ventilation: Measurement principle and static calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Silvestri, Sergio [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic target-type volumetric air flow-rate transducer for bidirectional measurements is presented. The sensor is composed of a T-shaped target and two nominally identical LED-photodiode couples which are operated in differential mode. The sensitive surfaces of the photodiodes are differentially shadowed by the deflection of the target, which in turn depends on the gas flow-rate. The principle of operation is described in mathematical terms and the design parameters have been optimized in order to obtain the highest sensitivity along with minimal pressure drop and reduced dimensions. The sensor is placed in a 20 mm diameter hose and was tested with air flow-rate in the typical temperature range of mechanical ventilation between 20 and 40 deg. C. The theoretical model was validated through experiments carried out in the volumetric flow range from -7.0 to +7.0 l min{sup -1}. The nonlinear behavior allows sensitivities equal to 0.6 V l{sup -1} min for flow rates ranging from -2.0 to +2.0 l min{sup -1}, equal to 2.0 V l{sup -1} min for flow rates ranging from -3.0 to -2.0 l min{sup -1} and from +2.0 to +3.0 l min{sup -1}, up to 5.7 V l{sup -1} min at higher flow rates ranging from -7.0 to -3.0 l min{sup -1} and from +3.0 to +7.0 l min{sup -1}. The linear range extends from 3.0 to 7.0 l min{sup -1} with constant sensitivity equal to 5.7 V l{sup -1} min. The sensor is able to detect a flow-rate equal to 1.0 l min{sup -1} with a sensitivity of about 400 mV l{sup -1} min. The differential nature of the output minimizes the influence of the LEDs' power supply variations and allows to obtain a repeatability in the order of 3% of full scale output. The small pressure drop produced by the sensor placed in-line the fluid stream, of about 2.4 Pa at 7 l min{sup -1}, corresponds to a negligible fluid dynamic resistance lower than 0.34 Pa l{sup -1} min.

  8. Surface loss probability of atomic hydrogen for different electrode cover materials investigated in H{sub 2}-Ar low-pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sode, M., E-mail: maik.sode@ipp.mpg.de; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kersten, H. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11-19, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In an inductively coupled H{sub 2}-Ar plasma at a total pressure of 1.5?Pa, the influence of the electrode cover material on selected line intensities of H, H{sub 2}, and Ar are determined by optical emission spectroscopy and actinometry for the electrode cover materials stainless steel, copper, tungsten, Macor{sup ®}, and aluminum. Hydrogen dissociation degrees for the considered conditions are determined experimentally from the measured emission intensity ratios. The surface loss probability ?{sub H} of atomic hydrogen is correlated with the measured line intensities, and ?{sub H} values are determined for the considered materials. Without the knowledge of the atomic hydrogen temperature, ?{sub H} cannot be determined exactly. However, ratios of ?{sub H} values for different surface materials are in first order approximation independent of the atomic hydrogen temperature. Our results show that ?{sub H} of copper is equal to the value of stainless steel, ?{sub H} of Macor{sup ®} and tungsten is about 2 times smaller and ?{sub H} of aluminum about 5 times smaller compared with stainless steel. The latter ratio is in reasonable agreement with literature. The influence of the atomic hydrogen temperature T{sub H} on the absolute value is thoroughly discussed. For our assumption of T{sub H}?=?600?K, we determine a ?{sub H} for stainless steel of 0.39?±?0.13.

  9. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  10. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. Abstract: A substantial effort worldwide has been...

  11. SciTech Connect: Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been...

  12. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costes, D. [Consultant (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  13. Radionuclide inventories : ORIGEN2.2 isotopic depletion calculation for high burnup low-enriched uranium and weapons-grade mixed-oxide pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Ross, Kyle W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James Dean; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory computer code, ORIGEN2.2 (CCC-371, 2002), was used to obtain the elemental composition of irradiated low-enriched uranium (LEU)/mixed-oxide (MOX) pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies. Described in this report are the input parameters for the ORIGEN2.2 calculations. The rationale for performing the ORIGEN2.2 calculation was to generate inventories to be used to populate MELCOR radionuclide classes. Therefore the ORIGEN2.2 output was subsequently manipulated. The procedures performed in this data reduction process are also described herein. A listing of the ORIGEN2.2 input deck for two-cycle MOX is provided in the appendix. The final output from this data reduction process was three tables containing the radionuclide inventories for LEU/MOX in elemental form. Masses, thermal powers, and activities were reported for each category.

  14. A high-pressure route to thermoelectrics with low thermal conductivity: The solid solution series AgIn{sub x}Sb{sub 1?x}Te{sub 2} (x=0.1–0.6)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schröder, Thorsten; Rosenthal, Tobias; Souchay, Daniel; Petermayer, Christian; Grott, Sebastian [LMU Munich, Department of Chemistry, Butenandtstraße 5-13 (D), 81377 Munich (Germany); Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Gold, Christian; Scherer, Wolfgang [University of Augsburg, Institut für Physik, Universitätsstraße 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Oeckler, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.oeckler@gmx.de [Leipzig University, IMKM, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metastable rocksalt-type phases of the solid solution series AgIn{sub x}Sb{sub 1?x}Te{sub 2} (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) were prepared by high-pressure synthesis at 2.5 GPa and 400 °C. In these structures, the coordination number of In{sup 3+} is six, in contrast to chalcopyrite ambient-pressure AgInTe{sub 2} with fourfold In{sup 3+} coordination. Transmission electron microscopy shows that real-structure phenomena and a certain degree of short-range order are present, yet not very pronounced. All three cations are statistically disordered. The high degree of disorder is probably the reason why AgIn{sub x}Sb{sub 1?x}Te{sub 2} samples with 0.4low thermal conductivities with a total ?<0.5 W/K m and a lattice contribution of ?{sub ph} ?0.3 W/K m at room temperature. These are lower than those of other rocksalt-type tellurides at room temperature; e.g. the well-known thermoelectric AgSbTe{sub 2} (? ?0.6 W/K m). The highest ZT value (0.15 at 300 K) is observed for AgIn{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}Te{sub 2}, mainly due to its high Seebeck coefficient of 160 µV/K. Temperature-dependent X-ray powder patterns indicate that the solid solutions are metastable at ambient pressure. At 150 °C, the quaternary compounds decompose into chalcopyrite-type AgInTe{sub 2} and rocksalt-type AgSbTe{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Reaction scheme, temperature characteristics of the ZT value and a selected-area electron diffraction pattern (background) of AgIn{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}Te{sub 2}, which crystallizes in a rocksalt-type structure with statistical cation disorder. Display Omitted - Highlights: • High-pressure synthesis yields the novel solid solution series AgIn{sub x}Sb{sub 1?x}Te{sub 2}. • In contrast to AgInTe{sub 2}, the compounds are inert at ambient pressure. • HRTEM shows no pronounced short-range order in the disordered NaCl-type structure. • The metastable phases exhibit very low total thermal conductivities <0.5 W/K m. • ZT values of 0.15 at room temperature were measured for AgIn{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}Te{sub 2}.

  15. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd M. Francis, Paul R. Lichty, Christopher Perkins, Melinda Tucker, Peter B. Kreider, Hans H. Funke, Allan Lewandowski, and Alan W. Weimer

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar�driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  16. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  17. Radial power flattening in sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krentz-Wee, Rebecca (Rebecca Elizabeth)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to improve a new design for a uranium startup sodium cooled fast reactor which was proposed at MIT, this thesis evaluated radial power flattening by varying the fuel volume fraction at a fixed U-235 enrichment of ...

  18. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

  19. Investigation of alternative layouts for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle performance have largely settled on the recompression supercritical cycle (or Feher cycle) incorporating a flow split between the main compressor downstream of heat rejection, a recompressing compressor providing direct compression without heat rejection, and high and low temperature recuperators to raise the effectiveness of recuperation and the cycle efficiency. Alternative cycle layouts have been previously examined by Angelino (Politecnico, Milan), by MIT (Dostal, Hejzlar, and Driscoll), and possibly others but not for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) operating at relatively low core outlet temperature. Thus, the present authors could not be sure that the recompression cycle is an optimal arrangement for application to the SFR. To ensure that an advantageous alternative layout has not been overlooked, several alternative cycle layouts have been investigated for a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) SFR preconceptual design having a 510 C core outlet temperature and a 470 C turbine inlet temperature to determine if they provide any benefit in cycle performance (e.g., enhanced cycle efficiency). No such benefits were identified, consistent with the previous examinations, such that attention was devoted to optimizing the recompression supercritical cycle. The effects of optimizing the cycle minimum temperature and pressure are investigated including minimum temperatures and/or pressures below the critical values. It is found that improvements in the cycle efficiency of 1% or greater relative to previous analyses which arbitrarily fixed the minimum temperature and pressure can be realized through an optimal choice of the combination of the minimum cycle temperature and pressure (e.g., for a fixed minimum temperature there is an optimal minimum pressure). However, this leads to a requirement for a larger cooler for heat rejection which may impact the tradeoff between efficiency and capital cost. In addition, for minimum temperatures below the critical temperature, a lower heat sink temperature is required the availability of which is dependent upon the climate at the specific plant site.

  20. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  1. Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckert, Laura Anne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coarse ground beef was mixed with sodium lactate (0, 3, or 4%) alone or in combination with sodium propionate (0. 1 or 0. 2%). The mixtures were then re-ground and formed into hamburger patties, which were placed in Styrofoam meat trays and overwrapped... sodium lactate tended to be sweeter than control patties. Hamburger patties with sodium lactate were springier. more cohesive. and less crumbly than the control patties. Treatments containing 0. 2% sodium propionate were more juicy than the control...

  2. Sodium and oxygen in Nigerian coals: Possible effects on ash fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegbe, S.B.; Adetunji, J. [Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash fouling during heat transfers in coal power-plants has been known to be an engineering problem caused by high sodium levels of the feed-coals. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used in determining the concentration of some alkali elements (Na, Ca, Mg) associated with ash fouling for eight Nigerian coals mined at Onyeama, Ogbete, Enugu, Gombe, Okaba, Afikpo, Lafia and Asaba. Sodium levels were generally low (0.001-0.036%). Oxygen concentrations considered as an indicative measure of the wettability of each of the coals were determined. The possible effects of the concentration of these elements on ash fouling were discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NCN in low-pressure CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames and its role in prompt NO formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, Jeffrey A.; Williams, Bradley A.; Fleming, James W. [Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability, Chemistry Division, Combustion Dynamics Section, Code 6185, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    NCN profiles were measured for five rich and lean premixed, low-pressure methane flames using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). A semiquantitative determination of the NCN mole fractions as a function of spatial height above the burner is made by calibrating the NCN LIF signals using highly accurate OH LIF measurements in an adjacent spectral region. The resulting calibration yields an uncertainty estimate of a factor of 3 for the absolute values, but only {+-}25% for the relative NCN profiles. For all flame conditions, the NCN profiles occur immediately downstream of previously measured CH profiles. In addition, high correlations are found between the peak CH and peak NCN concentrations and the peak NCN and postflame NO concentrations over all equivalence ratios. These observations are consistent with NCN being the primary product channel from the CH + N{sub 2} reaction and the initial intermediate in the prompt NO formation. This is the first mechanistic study in hydrocarbon flames that provides such experimental evidence. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical calculations using modified versions of two well-established hydrocarbon kinetic mechanisms. Reasonable agreement between the calculations and experiment is found for NCN profile shape, location of peak NCN concentrations, and absolute mole fractions. However, the dependence on stoichiometry of the peak NCN concentration is overestimated. Further work is required on NCN kinetics for modeling prompt NO in laminar premixed flames. (author)

  4. Sodium hypochlorite Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteel CorporationSocovoltaic Systems JumpSodiumSodium

  5. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  6. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  7. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

  8. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  9. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  10. Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

  11. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  12. High-pressure studies of ammonia hydrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Craig W.

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia and water are major components of many planetary bodies, from comets and icy moons such as Saturn's Titan to the interiors of the planets Neptune and Uranus. Under a range of high pressures and/or low temperatures known ...

  13. Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckert, Laura Anne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH AEROBICALLY STORED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by LAURA ANNE ECKERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH...

  14. Pressure gradient passivation of carbonaceous material normally susceptible to spontaneous combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Sands, William D.; Schroeder, Karl; Summers, Cathy A.; Utz, Bruce R.

    2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a process for the passivation or deactivation with respect to oxygen of a carbonaceous material by the exposure of the carbonaceous material to an oxygenated gas in which the oxygenated gas pressure is increased from a first pressure to a second pressure and then the pressure is changed to a third pressure. Preferably a cyclic process which comprises exposing the carbonaceous material to the gas at low pressure and increasing the pressure to a second higher pressure and then returning the pressure to a lower pressure is used. The cycle is repeated at least twice wherein the higher pressure may be increased after a selected number of cycles.

  15. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Art (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Lambert, John (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Hayes, Steven (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting. Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Idaho Falls, ID); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  16. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  17. Growth and bone development in weanling quarter horses fed diets supplemented with sodium zeolite-A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Kimberly Suzanne

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) possibly due to SZA's high ion-exchange capabilities (Roland, 1985; Miles, 1986); however, natural zeolites have not been shown to improve egg shell quality especially in diets low in calcium (Nakaue and Koelliker, 1981). This could be due...GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT IN WEANLING QUARTER HORSES FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM ZEOLITE-A A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUZANNE FREY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  18. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

  19. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated alumina, total alkalinity, analysis of Al, Na, K, Cs, Fe, OH, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved and

  20. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

  1. Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt-binding macrobicycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt or potassium chloride as a contact ion-pair, is shown to effect- ively transport either salt across vesicle membranes. Sig- nificant transport is observed even when the transporter : phospholipid ratio is as low as 1

  2. Understanding Blood Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Blood Pressure · Monitorathomewithadigitalmonitor. · Useleftarmwithcorrectsizecuff. · Avoidcaffeine,alcohol,andtobacco. Steps to Follow FOR AN ACCURATE MEASUREMENT Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of blood on the walls of the arteries. Bottom number = Diastolic (force between heart beats) Top

  3. Efficacy of soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendments for the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendments for the in-situ immobilisation of uranium."Environmental Chemistry 4:293-300. Authors: DM Wellman EM Pierce MM Valenta...

  4. aqueous sodium sulfate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    viscosity, 771, for PDMDAAC fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light Dubin, Paul D. 32 Structure and Dynamics in Aqueous...

  5. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  6. INITIATION OF DEGRADATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINE SODIUM-BETA ALUMINA ELECTROLYTES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, L.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boundaries. XBB 804 4130 2B Degradation initiation at 300 C,the Proceedings INITIATION OF DEGRADATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINEs w a m INITIATION OF DEGRADATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINE SODIUM-

  7. United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    together to establish design goals and high-level requirements for sodium-cooled fast reactor prototypes; identify common safety principles and key technical innovations to...

  8. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  9. Industrial Energy Conservation: Are Market Pressures Sufficient or are Programs Needed? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crandall, G. C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,908 2. High Effic iency Fluorescent Lighting 10.8 91,162 3. High Pressure Sodium Lighting (Interior) 9.7 80,556 4. Solar Window Film 7.8 64,754 5. Insulation 5.6 47,154 64.0 535,534 With the exception of a few specific industrial...

  10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors/Advanced Burner Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton; Cho, Dae H.; Momozaki, Yoichi; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Haglund, Robert C.; Reed, Claude B.; Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimized supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle power converter has been developed for the 100 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) eliminating the potential for sodium-water reactions and achieving a small power converter and turbine generator building. Cycle and plant efficiencies of 39.1 and 38.3 %, respectively, are calculated for the ABTR core outlet temperature of 510 deg. C. The ABTR S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle will incorporate Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger{sup TM} units in the Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers, high and low temperature recuperators, and cooler. A new sodium test facility is being completed to investigate the potential for transient plugging of narrow sodium channels typical of a Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger under postulated off-normal or accident conditions. (authors)

  11. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  12. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  15. Effect of Sodium on the Catalytic Properties of VOx/CeO2 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Wei, Zhehao; Sun, Junming; Gao, Feng; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong

    2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of VOx/CeO2 catalysts with various sodium loadings (Na/V ratio from 0 to 1) has been studied for oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of methanol. The effect of sodium on the surface structure, redox properties, and surface acidity/basicity of VOx/CeO2 was investigated using hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), Raman spectroscopy, and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy (DRIFT). The experimental results indicate that the effect of sodium on VOx/CeO2 is highly dependent on the Na/V ratio. At a low Na/V ratio (Na/V<0.25), sodium addition only slightly decreases the redox properties of VOx/CeO2 and has little effect on its activity and selectivity to formaldehyde, even though the Brönsted acidity is almost completely eliminated at a Na/V ratio of 0.25. At a high Na/V ratio (Na/V>0.25), sodium addition greatly alters the nature of the active sites by V-O-Ce bond cleavage and V-O-Na bond formation, leading to significantly reduced activity of the VOx/CeO2 catalysts. At Na/V>0.25, the selectivity to formaldehyde also decreases with increasing Na/V ratio due to: (1) the suppressed reducibility of VOx, and (2) increased basicity leading to increased CO2.

  16. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission...

  17. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  18. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois as a fish poison. At concentrations of 1 p. p.m. sodium cyanide and at a variety of temperature and p

  19. RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac by 1 ml/kg/h continuous infusion for 24 hours. The control group received only a 3 ml/kg bolus

  20. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  1. Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleason, M.H. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Columbia, MD (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Eykholt, G.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydraulic conductivity of calcium and sodium bentonites was investigated for sand-bentonite mixtures, a thin bentonite layer simulating a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and bentonite-cement mixtures simulating backfill for a vertical cutoff wall. The permeant liquids were tap water and distilled water containing 0.25 M calcium chloride. In general, the hydraulic performance of calcium bentonite was not significantly better than the performance of sodium bentonite for either the clay-amended sand or the GCL application, and was substantially worse than the performance of sodium bentonite in the bentonite-cement mixture. A drained angle of internal friction of 21{degree} was measured for calcium bentonite, compared to 10{degree} for sodium bentonite. Except for a larger drained shear strength, no advantage of calcium bentonite over sodium bentonite could be identified from the results of this study.

  2. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  3. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Chae Un (Ithaca, NY); Gruner, Sol M. (Ithaca, NY)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  4. Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al was 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.

  5. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a movable surface which is coated with a light-responsive material, and which moves relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure. The same fiber optic collects a portion of the reflected or emitted light from the movable surface. Changes in pressure are determined by measuring changes in the amount of light collected. 5 figs.

  6. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  7. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  8. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate sodium lactate Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sodium-high lactate infusion'. Of course, it is easy to demonstrate that high lactate infusion... . Also, sodium-lactate infusion in humans ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

  10. High Pressure Neutron Powder Diffraction Study of Superhydrated Natrolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colligan,M.; Lee, Y.; Vogt, T.; Celestian, A.; Parise, J.; Marshall, W.; Hriljac, J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron powder diffraction data were collected on a sample of natrolite and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of perdeuterated methanol and water at a pressure of 1.87(11) GPa. The natrolite sample was superhydrated, with a water content double that observed at ambient pressure. All of the water deuterium atoms were located and the nature and extent of the hydrogen bonding elucidated for the first time. This has allowed the calculation of bond valence sums for the water oxygen atoms, and from this, it can be deduced that the key energetic factor leading to loss of the additional water molecule upon pressure release is the poor coordination to sodium cations within the pores.

  11. Hazard categorization and classification for the sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sodium Storage Facility is planned to be constructed in the 400 area for long term storage of sodium from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It will contain four large sodium storage tanks. Three of the tanks have a capacity of 80,000 gallons of sodium each, and the fourth will hold 52,500 gallons. The tanks will be connected by piping with each other and to the FFTF. Sodium from the FFTF primary and secondary Heat Transport Systems (HTS), Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to the facility, and stored there in a frozen state pending final disposition. A Hazard Classification has been performed in order to evaluate the potential toxic consequences of a sodium fire according to the provisions of DOE Order 5481.1B. The conclusion of these evaluations is that the Sodium Storage Facility meets the requirements of the lowest Hazard Category, i.e., radiological facility, and the Hazard Classification is recommended to be moderate.

  12. switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by drinking water or unsweetened beverages. Soda, energy drinks, and sports drinks are a major source of added "low sodium," "reduced sodium," or "no salt added." drink water instead of sugary drinks Cut calories and vegetables Choose red, orange, and dark-green vegetables like tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and broccoli, along

  13. switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "low sodium," "reduced sodium," or "no salt added." drink water instead of sugary drinks Cut calories by drinking water or unsweetened beverages. Soda, energy drinks, and sports drinks are a major source of added with color Brighten your salad by using colorful vegetables such as black beans, sliced red bell peppers

  14. Real Time Dynamic Wind Calculation for a Pressure Driven Wind System Criss Martin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parberry, Ian

    for controllable real time dynamic wind cal- culation for a pressure driven wind system. Our method allows re to specify the positions and pressure val- ues of a high and a low pressure system to drive the wind. SetupReal Time Dynamic Wind Calculation for a Pressure Driven Wind System Criss Martin Dept. of Computer

  15. PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

  16. High pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is an experimental study of the high pressure ejection of molten material and subsequent interactions within a concrete cavity. The program focuses on using prototypic system conditions and scaled models of reactor geometries to accurately simulate the ex-vessel processes during high-pressure accident sequences. Scaling analyses of the experiment show that the criteria established for core debris removal from the cavity are met or exceeded. Tests are performed at two scales, representing 1/10th and 1/20th linear reproductions of the Zion reactor plant. Results of the 1/20th scale tests are presented.

  17. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  18. Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applicatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B Schwenzer, J Xiao, Z Nie, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu.2012."Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications."Nano Letters 12(7):37833787....

  19. Title of dissertation: HYDROMAGNETIC TURBULENT INSTABILITY IN LIQUID SODIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: HYDROMAGNETIC TURBULENT INSTABILITY IN LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENTS Daniel R. Sisan, Doctor of Philosophy, 2004 Dissertation directed by: Professor Daniel P. Lathrop Department of Physics This dissertation describes the observation of magnetically-induced instabil- ities

  20. Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - Past and Future | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - Past and Future June 16, 2015 10:00AM to 11:00AM Presenter Taek K. Kim (NE), Principal Nuclear Engineer and Department Manager Location Building 205,...

  1. aluminum sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 47...

  2. aerated sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 39 Evaluation...

  3. aqueous sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 58 Systematic...

  4. acidified sodium chlorite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: In order to improve a new design for a uranium startup sodium cooled fast reactor which was proposed at MIT, this thesis evaluated radial power flattening by varying...

  5. Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

  6. Probabilistic transient analysis of fuel choices for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denman, Matthew R

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the implications of using a risk-informed licensing framework to inform the design of Sodium Fast Reactors. NUREG-1860, more commonly known as the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF), is a risk-informed ...

  7. Reactor protection system design alternatives for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, unprotected transients have been viewed as design basis events that can significantly challenge sodium-cooled fast reactors. The perceived potential consequences of a severe unprotected transient in a ...

  8. A Photoelectron Spectroscopic and Computational Study of Sodium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The global minimum of Na3Au3 - has a bent-flake structure lying 0.077 eV below a more compact structure. The global minima of the sodium auride clusters are confirmed by the...

  9. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

  10. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Tod H. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  11. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate and Alkaten as buffers in beef cattle diets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boerner, Benedict Joseph

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SODIUM BICARBONATE AND ALKATEN AS BUFFERS IN BEEF CATTLE DIETS A Thesis by BENED ICT JOSEP H BOERNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University im partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SC IENCE... August 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition SODIUM BICARBONATE AND ALKATEN AS BUFFERS IN BEEF CATTLE DIETS A thesis by BENEDICT JOSEPH BOERNER Approved as to style and content by: Flo M. Byers (Chairma of Committee) ~r( Gerald T. Schelling (Member...

  13. The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

  14. Classification : Original Article VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS POTENTIATE THE INVASIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - gated sodium channels in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Functional voltage-gated sodium channels cancerous cell lines H23, H460 and Calu-1 possess functional sodium channels while normal and weakly metastatic cell lines do not. While all the cell lines expressed mRNA for numerous sodium channel isoforms

  15. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard [IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France; Denning, Richard [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Ohno, Shuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan; Zeyen, Roland [Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  16. The analysis and design of a pressure-measuring syringe utilizing elastomeric bellows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffley, Samuel C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Endotracheal tube insertion requires the measurement of very low pressure. Currently, there exists no reliable method or device that is integral with the inflation syringe for measuring this pressure. Thus, a device for ...

  17. publication 348-827 Sodium is a necessary part of our diet. Sodium helps our bodies keep the right

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    amount of water, but we only need a little bit. The most common form of sodium is found in table salt-fashioned oatmeal Pasta and rice Peas, beans, and lentils Plain popcorn Pudding Seeds Unsalted nuts Whole

  18. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  19. High pressure counterflow CHF.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walkush, Joseph Patrick

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

  20. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Ya [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); You, Ya [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Chemistry; Yin, Yaxia [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nam, Kyung -Wan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. The Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  1. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Ya; Yu, Xiqian; You, Ya; Yin, Yaxia; Nam, Kyung -Wan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore »during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. The Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  2. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  3. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA); Sakaji, Richard H. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  4. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Chemical and Hydrostatic Pressure in Natrolites: Pressure Induced Hydration of an Aluminogermanate Natrolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.; Kao, C.; Seoung,D.H.,Bai,J., Kao,C.C.; Parise,J.B.; Vogt, T.

    2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The ambient structure and pressure-induced structural changes of a synthetic sodium aluminogermanate with a natrolite (NAT) framework topology (Na-AlGe-NAT) were characterized by using Rietveld refinements of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data at ambient and high pressures. Unlike a previously established model for Na{sub 8}Al{sub 8}Ge{sub 12}O{sub 40} {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}O based on a single-crystal study, the ambient structure of the Na-AlGe-NAT is found to adopt a monoclinic space group Cc (or Fd) with a ca. 6% expanded unit cell. The refined ambient structure of Na{sub 8}Al{sub 8}Ge{sub 12}O{sub 40} {center_dot} 12H{sub 2}O indicates an increased water content of 50%, compared to the single-crystal structure. The unit-cell volume and water-content relationships observed between the two Na-AlGe-NAT structures at ambient conditions with 8 and 12 H{sub 2}O respectively seem to mirror the ones found under hydrostatic pressure between the Na{sub 8}Al{sub 8}Ge{sub 12}O{sub 40} {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}O and the parantrolite phase Na{sub 8}Al{sub 8}Ge{sub 12}O{sub 40} {center_dot} 12H{sub 2}O. Under hydrostatic pressures mediated by a pore-penetrating alcohol and water mixture, the monoclinic Na-AlGe-NAT exhibits a gradual decrease of the unit-cell volume up to ca. 2.0 GPa, where the unit-cell volume then contracts abruptly by ca. 4.6%. This is in marked contrast to what is observed in the Na-AlSi-NAT and Na-GaSi-NAT systems, where one observes a pressure-induced hydration and volume expansion due to the auxetic nature of the frameworks. Above 2 GPa, the monoclinic phase of Na-AlGe-NAT transforms into a tetragonal structure with the unit-cell composition of Na{sub 8}Al{sub 8}Ge{sub 12}O{sub 40} {center_dot} 16H{sub 2}O, revealing pressure-induced hydration and a unit cell volume contraction. Unlike in the Na-Al,Si-paranatrolite phase, however, the sodium cations in the Na-AlGe-NAT maintain a 6-fold coordination in the monoclinic structure and only become 7-fold coordinated at higher pressures in the tetragonal structure. When comparing the pressure-induced hydration in the observed natrolite-type zeolites, Na-AlGe-NAT appears to have a nonauxetic framework and reveals the highest onset pressure for complete superhydration.

  6. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Liu, Tingting, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Welch, Susan; Cole, David [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, 275 Mendenhall Laboratory, 125 S Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rother, Gernot [Geochemistry and Interfacial Science Group, Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jalarvo, Niina [Jülich Center for Neutron Sciences (JCNS-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich Outstation at Spallation Neutron Source(SNS), Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  7. PURE NIOBIUM AS A PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T. J.; Carter, H. F.; Foley, M. H.; Klebaner, A. L.; Nicol, T. H.; Page, T. M.; Theilacker, J. C.; Wands, R. H.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Wu, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Physics laboratories around the world are developing niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for use in particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are typically cooled to low temperatures by direct contact with a liquid helium bath, resulting in at least part of the helium container being made from pure niobium. In the U.S., the Code of Federal Regulations allows national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel rules or use of alternative rules which provide a level of safety greater than or equal to that afforded by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up also being treated as a material for pressure vessels. This report summarizes what we have learned about the use of niobium as a pressure vessel material, with a focus on issues for compliance with pressure vessel codes. We present results of a literature search for mechanical properties and tests results, as well as a review of ASME pressure vessel code requirements and issues.

  8. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  9. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  10. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  11. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  12. Plating under reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. (TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

  13. Polymerization of Formic Acid under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A F; Manaa, M R; Zaug, J M; Fried, L E; Montgomery, W B

    2004-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report combined Raman, infrared (IR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, along with ab initio calculations on formic acid under pressure up to 50 GPa. Contrary to the report of Allan and Clark (PRL 82, 3464 (1999)), we find an infinite chain low-temperature Pna2{sub 1} structure consisting of trans molecules to be a high-pressure phase at room temperature. Our data indicate the symmetrization and a partially covalent character of the intra-chain hydrogen bonds above approximately 20 GPa. Raman spectra and XRD patterns indicate a loss of the long-range order at pressures above 40 GPa with a large hysteresis at decompression. We attribute this behavior to a three-dimensional polymerization of formic acid.

  14. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  15. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  16. The magnesium nutrition of cotton as influenced by sodium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thenabadu, Mervyn Wellesly

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1964 Major Subject. Plant Physic logy THE MAGNESIUM NUTRITION OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM A Thesis By MERVYN M. THENABADU Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi. e Nun Head of Department Member Mem, er Member Member... REVIEW OF LITERATURE (a) Sodium as a plant nutrient (b) I'he role of magnesium in plant nutrition MATERIALS AND METHODS RESUL:S DISCUSSION 13 21 24 (a) The effect of treatments on grcwth and reproduction (b) The effect of treatments on the ccr...

  17. Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

  18. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Hofherr, K. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  19. Chemical bath deposition and characterization of electrochromic thin films of sodium vanadium bronzes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najdoski, Metodija, E-mail: metonajd@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)] [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Koleva, Violeta [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)] [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Demiri, Sani [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)] [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a new chemical bath method for the deposition of vanadium bronze thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films are phase mixture of NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9} with 10.58% lattice water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-deposited vanadium bronze films exhibit two-step electrochromism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They change their yellow-orange color to green and then from green to blue color. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows the preparation of films on substrates with low melting point. -- Abstract: Thin yellow-orange films of sodium vanadium oxide bronzes have been prepared from a sodium-vanadium solution (1:1) at 75 Degree-Sign C and pH = 3. The composition, structure and morphology of the films have been studied by XRD, IR spectroscopy, TG and SEM-EDX analyses. It has been established that the prepared films are a phase mixture of hydrated NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} (predominant component) and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9} with total water content of 10.58%. The sodium vanadium bronze thin films exhibit two-step electrochromism followed by color change from yellow-orange to green, and then from green to blue. The cyclic voltammetry measurements on the as-deposited and annealed vanadium bronze films reveal the existence of different oxidation/reduction vanadium sites which make these films suitable for electrochromic devices. The annealing of the films at 400 Degree-Sign C changes the composition, optical and electrochemical properties.

  20. High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

  1. Technical Appendix to Cryogenic Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulholland, G.T.; Rucinski, R.A; /Fermilab

    1990-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The 20,000 gls. Liquid Argon dewar stores up to 15,000 gls. of high purity (<1.0 ppm O{sub 2}, 0.999995) LAr for use in the Liquid Argon calorimeters of E740, the D0 collider detector, at elevation 707-feet. The dewar provides for the total detector volume of 11,000 gls and a 4,000 gls. storage inventory. The large gas volume ({ge}5,000 gls.) serves operational needs and guards against overfill concerns. The LAr dewar functions in two modes: (1) low pressure (16 psi relief) storage, and liquid and gas transfer operations to and from the low pressure (13 psi relief) detector cryostats, and (2) high pressure (65 psi relief) liquid transfer operations to and from a delivery trailer at elevation 743-feet. The storage function is intended to be long term and nonventing. The dewar is equipped with a 40 kW LN{sub 2} condenser that operates to maintain the pressure constant in the storage mode. This service exactly parallels the NeH{sub 2} and D{sub 2} storage dewar services provided at the 15-feet bubble chamber for its operation.

  2. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Liu, Jue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lee, Byungju [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Qiao, Ruimin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Yang, Zhenzhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Xu, Shuyin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)] (ORCID:000000018513518X); Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Hu, Yong-Sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)] (ORCID:0000000284306474); Yang, Wanli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source] (ORCID:0000000306668063); Kang, Kisuk [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Li, Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)] (ORCID:000000028659086X); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Liquan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Huang, Xuejie [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  3. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore »identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  4. Transitions between corona, glow, and spark regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of large volume, low power, high chemical reactivity, and low gas temperature. At atmospheric pressure in air at atmospheric pressure David Z. Pai,a Deanna A. Lacoste, and Christophe O. Laux Laboratoire EM2C January 2010; published online 6 May 2010 In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K

  5. Pressure seals - Implications for deep gas exploration in Anadarko basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tigert, V.A.; Al-Shaieb, Z. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure seals are economically significant geological phenomena because they play an important role in deep natural gas entrapment. Pressure seals identified in basins worldwide may offer a new frontier for exploring natural gas reservoirs below {minus} 10,000 ft. Pressure seals are low-permeability envelopes that enclose abnormally pressured internal reservoirs. There are three different types of seals: basal, lateral, and top planar. Basal seals define the bottom of abnormal pressure compartments and usually follow a stratigraphic horizon. Lateral seals are usually associated with fault patterns. Top planar seals may cut across time-stratigraphic boundaries, different lithologies, and structures, and are by far the most significant type. The southeastern portion of the Anadarko basin in the Mill Creek graben area displays a layered sequence of abnormally pressured fluid compartments between {minus} 3,000 and {minus} minus 16,000 ft. These compartments are separated from each other as well as from overlying and underlying normal pressure zones by pressure seals. In McClain County, a top planar pressure seal separating two abnormal pressured compartments is located between {minus} 11,000 and {minus} 12,000 ft within the Simpson Group. Diagenetic signatures identified in the seal zone are characterized by carbonate and/or silica cemented intervals alternating with more porous and permeable units generating distinctive banded and/or laminated structures, coined zebra structures. The resulting compositional and textural heterogeneity of the Simpson sandstones may be related to diagenetic modification that occurred during the seal evolution.

  6. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

    1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

  7. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  8. High pressure apparatus for transport properties study in high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsmadi, A. M. (Abdel M.); Nakotte, H. (Heinrich); Honda, F.; Sechovsky, V. (Vladimir); Mikulina, O. (Olga); Kamarad, J.; Lacerda, A. H. (Alex H.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed a high pressure apparatus for measuring electrical-transport properties at low temperatures, high magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure up to 10 kbar. Details of the high-pressure cell and an exemplary study on UNiAI are described and discussed briefly.

  9. Dynamic behavior of an aggregate material at simultaneous high pressure and strain rate: SHPB triaxial tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Dynamic behavior of an aggregate material at simultaneous high pressure and strain rate: SHPB Low velocity impacts on energetic materials induce plastic deformations and sliding friction which can pressure and high strain rate). Thus, a technique based on the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars system

  10. Blood pressure tracking and implications for the design and sample size of intervention trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerkmann, Ralf

    Blood pressure tracking and implications for the design and sample size of intervention trials Prof Institutskolloquiums 3. Februar 2010, 16:15 Uhr Seminarraum, Ludwigstraße 33 I Aim: Blood pressure (BP) is related long-term effects on BP and was low to moderate. Therefore regular blood pressure controls are also

  11. Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  12. Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  13. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Randy A

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/SLC4A7/NBCn1 pulled down syntrophin c2 and con- versely GST/syntrophin c2 pulled down NBCn1. Moreover normally moves Na+ and HCO3 Ã? into cells and protects intracel- lular pH (pHi) from falling below normal

  14. Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 7.3 x 10/sup -1/ and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Compatibility Assessment of Advanced Stainless Steels in Sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type 316L stainless steel capsules containing commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS (austenitic, 14Cr-16Ni), NF-616 (ferritic/martensitic, 9Cr-2W-0.5Mo), or 316L (austenitic, 17Cr-10Ni-2Mo) stainless steel were exposed at 600 or 700 C for 100 and 400 h as a screening test for compatibility. Using weight change, tensile testing, and metallographic analysis, HT-UPS and 316L were found to be largely immune to changes resulting from sodium exposure, but NF-616 was found susceptible to substantial decarburization at 700 C. Subsequently, two thermal convection loops (TCLs) constructed of 316L and loaded with commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS and 316L were operated for 2000 h each one between 500 and 650 C, the other between 565 and 725 C at a flow rate of about 1.5 cm/s. Changes in specimen appearance, weight, and tensile properties were observed to be very minor in all cases, and there was no metallographic evidence of microstructure changes, composition gradients, or mass transfer resulting from prolonged exposure in a TCL. Thus, it appears that HT-UPS and 316L stainless steels are similarly compatible with commercially pure sodium under these exposure conditions.

  16. Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardiner, Duane

    and sodium. Two soil amendments were applied to plots furrowirrigated with wastewater. The amendments were gypsum (11 Mg ha-1), and PAM added to irrigation water at rates of 25 mg L-1 PAM applications were made during every irrigation and during every second...

  17. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  18. A flexible pressure monitoring system for pressure ulcer prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Marcus

    Pressure ulcers are painful sores that arise from prolonged exposure to high pressure points, which restricts blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis. This is a common occurrence among patients with impaired mobility, ...

  19. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  20. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  1. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  2. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  3. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  4. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  5. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  6. Agrin regulation of alpha3 sodium-potassium ATPase activity modulates cardiac myocyte contraction.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the U.S.A. Agrin Regulation of ? 3 Sodium-Potassiumis modulated by agrin regulation of ? 3 Na,K-ATPasegated sodium channels, capa- regulation of cardiac myocyte

  7. apical sodium-chloride cotransporter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    g magnesium chloride, 3.24 g magnesium sulfate bromide, 34 mg strontium chloride, 22 mg boric acid, 4 mg sodium silicate, 2.4 mg sodium fluoride, 1.6 mg Bae, Jin-Woo 302 The...

  8. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  9. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    power density - Improved vehicle cooling system (low temperature radiator) - Two stage turbo system - Increased cylinder pressure capability Transient response - Two stage turbo -...

  10. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  11. Go No-Go Recommendation for Sodium Borohydride for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Independent review panel recommendation for go/no go decision on use of hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen storage.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting sodium hypochlorite Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... and...

  13. Capillary exit pressure as a basin sealing mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shosa, J.; Cathles, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Abnormally pressured compartments in sedimentary basins require an efficient sealing mechanism. Most sealing mechanisms rely on either intrinsically low formation permeabilities or on the entry pressure of a non-aqueous phase into a fine-grained unit. However, the nanodarcy permeabilities required to maintain overpressures over significant geologic time are not plausible over wide areas. Entry pressures, while effective in trapping a non-aqueous phase in a local reservoir, can not prevent leakage where the non-aqueous phase is not ponded against the seal. The capillary exit pressure required to displace water from a fine-grained formation into a coarse-grained formation which contains a non-aqueous phase provides an alternative sealing mechanism. Capillary exit pressure seals require contrasts in grain size and the presence of two phases in the coarse-grained unit, but do not require 100% saturation of the non-aqueous phase. These conditions can exist on all sides of a pressure compartment, and can account for sealing on the top, bottom, and sides of a compartment. We have shown in the laboratory that capillary exit pressure seals under reservoir conditions allow no fluid flow across the seal until a threshold pressure is exceeded (e.g., the seat is not a relative permeability effect) and that exit pressures are additive over a series of fine/coarse interfaces. Capillary exit pressure seals can maintain the abnormal pressures observed in the South Eugene Island Block 330 field. Both a sufficient number of sand/shale layers and a gas phase are present in the pressure transition zone there. We believe capillary exit pressure seals are a general feature of sedimentary basins and are important in controlling large scale fluid flow.

  14. Capillary exit pressure as a basin sealing mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shosa, J.; Cathles, L. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abnormally pressured compartments in sedimentary basins require an efficient sealing mechanism. Most sealing mechanisms rely on either intrinsically low formation permeabilities or on the entry pressure of a non-aqueous phase into a fine-grained unit. However, the nanodarcy permeabilities required to maintain overpressures over significant geologic time are not plausible over wide areas. Entry pressures, while effective in trapping a non-aqueous phase in a local reservoir, can not prevent leakage where the non-aqueous phase is not ponded against the seal. The capillary exit pressure required to displace water from a fine-grained formation into a coarse-grained formation which contains a non-aqueous phase provides an alternative sealing mechanism. Capillary exit pressure seals require contrasts in grain size and the presence of two phases in the coarse-grained unit, but do not require 100% saturation of the non-aqueous phase. These conditions can exist on all sides of a pressure compartment, and can account for sealing on the top, bottom, and sides of a compartment. We have shown in the laboratory that capillary exit pressure seals under reservoir conditions allow no fluid flow across the seal until a threshold pressure is exceeded (e.g., the seat is not a relative permeability effect) and that exit pressures are additive over a series of fine/coarse interfaces. Capillary exit pressure seals can maintain the abnormal pressures observed in the South Eugene Island Block 330 field. Both a sufficient number of sand/shale layers and a gas phase are present in the pressure transition zone there. We believe capillary exit pressure seals are a general feature of sedimentary basins and are important in controlling large scale fluid flow.

  15. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  16. Teaching Sodium Fast Reactor Technology and Operation for the Present and Future Generations of SFR Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Teaching Sodium Fast Reactor Technology and Operation for the Present and Future Generations of SFR or development of sodium fast reactors and related experimental facilities. The sum of courses provided by CEA on sodium fast reactor design, technology, safety and operation experience, decommissioning aspects

  17. Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb A Christensen Submitted of Philosophy Abstract The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23

  18. Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ji Man

    Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block) structures, using sodium silicate as the silica source and amphiphilic block copolymers as the structure of mesoporous silica material using nonionic surfac- tant and sodium silicate in the pH range 3­10.5. However

  19. Nitrogen at very high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nellis, W.J.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure results for nitrogen are reviewed and discussed in terms of phenomena that occur at extreme conditions.

  20. Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  1. Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  2. Blood Pressure Medicine: Special Instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Blood Pressure Medicine: Special Instructions: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute · What is my blood pressure reading in numbers? · What is my goal blood pressure? · Is there a healthy eating plan that I should follow to help

  3. DOE H2 Program Annual Review, 5-20-2003 Insulated Pressure Vessels for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    range. J. We are generating tank performance data. K. Testing BOP components. L. Low venting losses) car, km 0 1 2 3 4 5 hydrogenlosses,kg low-pressure LH2 tank MLVSI insulated pressure vessel fueled with LH2 LH2 80 K CH2 1998: thermodynamic analysis 1999: cryogenic cycling 2001: DOT/ISO Tests 2003

  4. Electrical breakdown at low pressure for planar microelectromechanical systems with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    is a major drawback for the simulation of Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However when the Navier

  5. Low-pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.

    1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  6. Low pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  7. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  8. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor chamber, and (2

  9. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy the equations that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor

  10. Synthesis of YBCO Superconductors Using Low-Pressure Processing - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(Insert Directive Number andHydrogen

  11. Emergency Filter for Low Pressure EGR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard | Department of EnergyMeckes Aboutof

  12. Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat PumpAllegations of

  13. An EGS Stimulation Experiment Under Low Wellhead Pressures | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan BlanchAmite County,Amrit

  14. Energetics of ion competition in the DEKA selectivity filter of neuronal sodium channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Boda; G. Leaf; J. Fonseca; B. Eisenberg

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The energetics of ionic selectivity in the neuronal sodium channels is studied. A simple model constructed for the selectivity filter of the channel is used. The selectivity filter of this channel type contains aspartate (D), glutamate (E), lysine (K), and alanine (A) residues (the DEKA locus). We use Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations to compute equilibrium binding selectivity in the selectivity filter and to obtain various terms of the excess chemical potential from a particle insertion procedure based on Widom's method. We show that K$^{+}$ ions in competition with Na$^{+}$ are efficiently excluded from the selectivity filter due to entropic hard sphere exclusion. The dielectric constant of protein has no effect on this selectivity. Ca$^{2+}$ ions, on the other hand, are excluded from the filter due to a free energetic penalty which is enhanced by the low dielectric constant of protein.

  15. Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid 4He under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glyde, Henry R [University of Delaware; Omar Diallo, Souleymane [ORNL; Azuah, Richard T [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Kirichek, Oleg [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Taylor, Jon W. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present neutron scattering measurements of Bose-Einstein condensation, the atomic momen- tum distribution and Final State effects in liquid 4He under pressure. The condensate fraction at low temperature is found to decrease from n0 = 7.25 0.75% at SVP (p 0) to n0 = 3.2 0.75% at pressure p = 24 bar. This indicates an n0 = 3.0% in the liquid at the liquid/solid co-existence line (p = 25.3 bar). The atomic momentum distribution n(k) has high occupation of low k states and differs significantly from a Gaussian (e.g. a classical n(k)). Both n(k) and the Final state function broaden with increasing pressure, reflecting the increased localization of the 4He in space under increased pressure.

  16. The effects of colored quark entropy on the bag pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David E

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of the ground state entropy of colored quarks upon the bag pressure at low temperatures. The vacuum expectation values of the quark and gluon fields are used to express the interactions in QCD ground state in the limit of low temperatures and chemical potentials. Apparently, the inclusion of this entropy in the equation of state provides the hadron constituents with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the hadronic bag and consequently decreases the non-perturbative bag pressure. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, $\\Delta$ and $\\Omega^-$. In both cases we have found that the bag pressure decreases with the temperature. On the other hand, when the colored quark ground state entropy is not considered, the bag pressure as conventionally believed remains constant for finite temperature.

  17. The use of sodium and/or potassium lactate to extend shelf-life and reduce sodium levels in precooked beef systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pagach, Denise Ann

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology THE USE OF SODIUM AND/OR POTASSIUM LACTATE TO EXTEND SHELF-LIFE AND REDUCE SODIUM LEVELS IN PRECOOKED BEEF SYSTEMS A Thesis by DENISE ANN PAGACH... ABSTRACT The Use of Sodium and/or Potassium Lactate to Extend Shelf-Life and Reduce Sodium Levels in Precooked Beef Systems. (May 1992) Denise Ann Pagach, B. S. , Texas AdtM University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. K. Miller Concern for food...

  18. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (Melrose, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

  19. High-pressure neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This lecture will cover progress and prospect of applications of high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques to Earth and materials sciences. I will first introduce general high-pressure research topics and available in-situ high-pressure techniques. Then I'll talk about high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques using two types of pressure cells: fluid-driven and anvil-type cells. Lastly, I will give several case studies using these techniques, particularly, those on hydrogen-bearing materials and magnetic transitions.

  20. Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

    1984-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant.

  1. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  2. Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9November 6, 2014 PNGC, 711

  3. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  4. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  5. Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

  6. Low differential pressure and multiphase flow measurements by means of differential pressure devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justo, Hernandez Ruiz,

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    performance in the gas mass flow rate estimation was exhibited by the slotted and standard plates for the air-water flow, while poor results were obtained for the air-oil and air-water oil flows. The performance of all the flow meter tested in the analysis...

  7. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers New Training on Energy6

  8. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  9. Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

  10. THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF SODIUM LIQUID AND VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1 Enthalpy and Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.1.2 Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure, CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Heat

  11. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Banerjee, D.D. (Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  12. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  13. Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, Donald R.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

  14. Cradle and pressure grippers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muniak, John E. (New York, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gripper that is designed to incorporate the functions of gripping, supporting and pressure tongs into one device. The gripper has two opposing finger sections with interlocking fingers that incline and taper to form a wedge. The interlocking fingers are vertically off-set so that the opposing finger sections may close together allowing the inclined, tapered tips of the fingers to extend beyond the plane defined by the opposing finger section's engagement surface. The range of motion defined by the interlocking relationship of the finger sections allows the gripper to grab, lift and support objects of varying size and shape. The gripper has one stationary and one moveable finger section. Power is provided to the moveable finger section by an actuating device enabling the gripper to close around an object to be lifted. A lifting bail is attached to the gripper and is supported by a crane that provides vertical lift.

  15. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  16. Steam Oxidation at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

    2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

  17. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. Abstract: Abstract: Hydrogen is being...

  18. To estimate vapor pressure easily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

  19. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

  20. Pressure testing of torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.

  1. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)] [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  2. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry.

  3. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massacret, N. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aix-Marseille Université, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Moysan, J., E-mail: joseph.moysan@univ-amu.fr; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Université, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Jeannot, J. P. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  4. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  5. Possible Pressure Effect for Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kwang-Hua Chu

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We make an estimate of the possible range of $\\Delta T_c$ induced by high-pressure effects in post-metallic superconductors by using the theory of {\\it extended irreversible/reversible thermodynamics} and Pippard's length scale. The relationship between the increment of the superconducting temperature and the increase of the pressure is parabolic.

  6. Interaction Between Trace Metals, Sodium and Sorbents in Combustion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, O.L.; Davis, S.

    1997-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

  7. DRESDYN - A new facility for MHD experiments with liquid sodium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefani, F; Gerbeth, G; Giesecke, A; Gundrum, Th; Steglich, C; Weier, T; Wustmann, B

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN) is intended as a platform both for large scale experiments related to geo- and astrophysics as well as for experiments related to thermohydraulic and safety aspects of liquid metal batteries and liquid metal fast reactors. The most ambitious projects in the framework of DRESDYN are a homogeneous hydromagnetic dynamo driven solely by precession and a large Taylor-Couette type experiment for the combined investigation of the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. In this paper we give a short summary about the ongoing preparations and delineate the next steps for the realization of DRESDYN.

  8. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd ofEvaluations in Covered Facilities |List ofSodium-Beta Batteries

  9. Sodium hypochlorite Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteel CorporationSocovoltaic Systems JumpSodium

  10. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  11. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Nesbitt, L.B.

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs. 3 figs.

  12. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Nesbitt, Loyd B. (San Jose, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs.

  13. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nester, Dean [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company - CHPRC (United States); Crocker, Ben [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. (United States); Smart, Bill [IMPACT Services, Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  14. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  15. On the Criticality Safety of Transuranic Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Transport Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Bays; Ayodeji Alajo

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses the neutronic performance and criticality safety issues of transport casks for fuel pertaining to low conversion ratio sodium cooled fast reactors, conventionally known as Advanced Burner Reactors. The criticality of a one, three, seven and 19-assembly cask capacity is presented. Both dry “helium” and flooded “water” filled casks are considered. No credit for fuel burnup or fission products was assumed. As many as possible of the conservatisms used in licensing light water reactor universal transport casks were incorporated into this SFR cask criticality design and analysis. It was found that at 7-assemblies or more, adding moderator to the SFR cask increases criticality margin. Also, removal of MAs from the fuel increases criticality margin of dry casks and takes a slight amount of margin away for wet casks. Assuming credit for borated fuel tube liners, this design analysis suggests that as many as 19 assemblies can be loaded in a cask if limited purely by criticality safety. If no credit for boron is assumed, the cask could possibly hold seven assemblies if low conversion ratio fast reactor grade fuel and not breeder reactor grade fuel is assumed. The analysis showed that there is a need for new cask designs for fast reactors spent fuel transportation. There is a potential of modifying existing transportation cask design as the starting point for fast reactor spent fuel transportation.

  16. Effects of phosphorus on corrosion resistance of electroless nickel in 50% sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeller, R.L. III (Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)); Salvati, L. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (United States))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel (Ni) and electroless nickel (EN) coatings are used extensively in caustic soda (NaOH) service. The corrosion resistance of an EN coating is dependent upon phosphorus (P) content, but not in the trend expected. High-phosphorus EN (HPEN) coatings have poorer corrosion resistance in hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) than low-phosphorus (LPEN) and medium-phosphorus (MPEN) coatings, which have a corrosion resistance comparable to Ni. The purpose of this work was to quantify the effect of P in EN coatings on their corrosion resistance in 50% NaOH at room temperature (RT). Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the corrosion processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize coating surfaces. Very low corrosion rates ([<=] [mu]m/y) were measured for all coatings. It was proposed that the detrimental effect of P in EN coatings exposed to a concentrated NaOH environment was a result of the higher solubility of nickel phosphate (Ni[sub 3][PO[sub 4

  17. Effect of Sodium on the Catalytic Properties of VOx/CeO2 Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dehydrogenation (ODH) of methanol. The effect of sodium on the surface structure, redox properties, and surface aciditybasicity of VOxCeO2 was investigated using hydrogen...

  18. EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE prepared a EIS that evaluated the potential environmental impacts of treatment and management of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel.

  19. Radiation effects on reactor pressure vessel supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology; Lipinski, R.E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present the findings from the work done in accordance with the Task Action Plan developed to resolve the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Safety Issue No. 15, (GSI-15). GSI-15 was established to evaluate the potential for low-temperature, low-flux-level neutron irradiation to embrittle reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports to the point of compromising plant safety. An evaluation of surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had suggested that some materials used for RPV supports in pressurized-water reactors could exhibit higher than expected embrittlement rates. However, further tests designed to evaluate the applicability of the HFIR data to reactor RPV supports under operating conditions led to the conclusion that RPV supports could be evaluated using traditional method. It was found that the unique HFIR radiation environment allowed the gamma radiation to contribute significantly to the embrittlement. The shielding provided by the thick steel RPV shell ensures that degradation of RPV supports from gamma irradiation is improbable or minimal. The findings reported herein were used, in part, as the basis for technical resolution of the issue.

  20. Why Pressure Reducing Valves (PVR's) are costing you money

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saving hundreds of thousands of dollars on your electric bill and taking only a minimal hit in the available heat content? Why let steam down and get no benefit from it, when putting it through a low pressure steam turbine coupled to a generator would...

  1. Transient pressure behavior of multiple-fractured gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choo, Yew Kai

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -theta" coordinates will be developed. This simulator will then be employed to study the tr ansient pressure behavior of low-permeability gas wells with multiple finite-conductivity fractures. This thesis follows the form and style of the Journal of Petr oleum...

  2. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Gary (Gloucester, VA); D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

    1986-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  3. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  4. Why Pressure Reducing Valves (PVR's) are costing you money 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saving hundreds of thousands of dollars on your electric bill and taking only a minimal hit in the available heat content? Why let steam down and get no benefit from it, when putting it through a low pressure steam turbine coupled to a generator would...

  5. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  6. REACTIONS OF SODIUM PEROXIDE WITH COMPONENTS OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Missimer, D.; Crowder, M.

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) calcined at >900 C resists dissolution in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3})-potassium fluoride (KF) solutions, a common method for their dissolution. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an alternate method for large samples of PuO{sub 2}-bearing materials using sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fusion as a pretreatment. The products of the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} have been reported in the literature. As part of the SRNL development effort, additional data about the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} were required. Also needed were data concerning the reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} with other components that may be present in the feed materials. Sodium peroxide was reacted with aluminum metal (Al), beryllium metal (Be), graphite, potassium chloride (KCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The paper reports and discusses the reaction products of these and related compounds with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  7. Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O. [AREVA (France); Dalle, F. [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M. [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

  8. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hodges, Franklin R. (Loudon, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  9. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  10. Molecular Surface Chemistry by Metal Single Crystals and Nanoparticles from Vacuum to High Pressure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Model systems for studying molecular surface chemistry have evolved from single crystal surfaces at low pressure to colloidal nanoparticles at high pressure. Low pressure surface structure studies of platinum single crystals using molecular beam surface scattering and low energy electron diffraction techniques probe the unique activity of defects, steps and kinks at the surface for dissociation reactions (H-H, C-H, C-C, O{double_bond}O bonds). High-pressure investigations of platinum single crystals using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy have revealed the presence and the nature of reaction intermediates. High pressure scanning tunneling microscopy of platinum single crystal surfaces showed adsorbate mobility during a catalytic reaction. Nanoparticle systems are used to determine the role of metal-oxide interfaces, site blocking and the role of surface structures in reactive surface chemistry. The size, shape and composition of nanoparticles play important roles in determining reaction activity and selectivity.

  11. OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AFFECTS FRACTURE APERTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AFFECTS FRACTURE APERTURE AND FRACTURE PERMEABILITY IN A FRACTURED RESERVOIR are in integrated reservoir study, reservoir charac- terization, naturally fractured reservoirs, waterflooding in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs." His research areas include experimental analysis

  12. Guidelines for a Low Sodium Diet Many of us eat about 3500 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day. Almost one-fourth of that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    body from keeping extra water and fluids. Help the meds you take work better. Decrease your risk or processed meats. Use herbs spices, and salt-free seasoning blends when cooking and at the table. Cook rice backed beans Croutons Instant hot cereals Vegetables to Avoid Canned vegetable Sauerkraut Tomato

  13. Niobrara gas play: exploration and development of a low pressure, low permeability gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A.; Crafton, J.W.; Golson, J.G.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Niobrara Gas Play in eastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska is an exemplary model for developing an integrated interdisciplinary exploration and exploitation strategy. This paper demonstrates a method to incorporate all types of analyses including geology and gas origin, petrology, drilling and completion, log interpretation, fracture stimulation and producing methods. Together these analyses are integrated into a rigorous reservoir study using mathematical simulation to evaluate well productivity and reservoir performance. 9 refs.

  14. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA); Antenucci, Annette B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  15. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  16. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  17. Sequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is critically important in the translocation of death receptor to the cell surface. Moreover, sodium arsenite and further down-regulates cFLIP levels in melanoma cells. We have evaluated the effects of sequentialSequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL

  18. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of Salmonella inhibitory effect in the recovery media. Keywords : Salmonella typhimurium, Sodium chloride, Heat treatment, but they also generate damaged cells. The ability of heated cells to survive depends on the recovery conditions

  19. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric Titration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric States ABSTRACT: We report on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto functionalized graphene-to- oxygen ratio of 18, monolayer adsorption of SDS on FGS reaches full surface coverage by 12 M SDS

  20. Challenges and Innovative Technologies On Fuel Handling Systems for Future Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , AREVA, and EDF have an extensive experience and significant expertise in sodium-cooled fast reactorsChallenges and Innovative Technologies On Fuel Handling Systems for Future Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors Mathieu CHASSIGNET1;Ã , Sebastien DUMAS1 , Christophe PENIGOT1 , Ge´rard PRELE2 , Alain CAPITAINE2

  1. 4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures Strong Corrosives ­ Strong Bases (SB) Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) PrintOH Form: pellets Color: white Melting point/freezing point: 318 °C (604 °F

  2. Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garofalini, Stephen H.

    Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina David A. Litton March 1998; accepted 21 October 1998) Sodium silicate intergranular films (IGF) in contact. The results were compared to previous simulations of calcium silicate and sol-gel silica IGF's in contact

  3. Volume 33, number 2 OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS May 1980 THE PROCESS OF ENERGY TRANSFER BETWEENEXCITED SODIUM ATOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroud Jr., Carlos R.

    Volume 33, number 2 OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS May 1980 THE PROCESS OF ENERGY TRANSFER BETWEENEXCITED SODIUM ATOMS J. KRASINSKI, T. STACEWICZ Institute of Experimental Physics WarsawUniversity, 00681 Warsaw,Poland(nX) denotes the sodium atom in one of the higher excited states. The energy difference AE is supplied

  4. Thermodynamics and dynamics of a monoatomic glass former. Constant pressure and constant volume behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    Thermodynamics and dynamics of a monoatomic glass former. Constant pressure and constant volume-pressure simulations of the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the low-temperature liquid and crystalline phases the thermodynamics of the configurational manifold as an ensemble of excitations, each carrying an excitation entropy

  5. Optimization of Pressurized Oxy4Combustion with Flameless Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malavasi, Massimo; Landegger, Gregory

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized OxyECombustion is one of the most promising technologies for utilityEscale power generation plants. Benefits include the ability to burn low rank coal and capture C02. By increasing the flue gas pressure during this process, greater efficiencies are derived from increased quantity and quality of thermal energy recovery. UPA with modeling support from MIT and testing and data verification by Georgia Tech’s Research Center designed and built a 100kW system capable of demonstrating pressurized oxyEcombustion using a flameless combustor. Wyoming PRB coal was run at 15 and 32 bar. Additional tests were not completed but sampled data demonstrated the viability of the technology over a broader range of operating pressures, Modeling results illustrated a flat efficiency curve over 20 bar, with optimum efficiency achieved at 29 bar. This resulted in a 33% (HHV) efficiency, a 5 points increase in efficiency versus atmospheric oxyEcombustion, and a competitive cost of electricity plus greater C02 avoidance costs then prior study’s presented. UPA’s operation of the benchEscale system provided evidence that key performance targets were achieved: flue gas sampled at the combustor outlet had nonE detectable residual fly ashes, and low levels of SO3 and heavyEmetal. These results correspond to prior pressurized oxyEcombustion testing completed by IteaEEnel.

  6. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  7. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  8. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  9. Some aspects of materials development for sodium heated steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, P.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A development program was undertaken to support the materials selection for steam generator piping and IHX which are to be used in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Four major topics were reviewed, describing the results obtained as well as the direction of future tests. These topics are: carbon transport in sodium, effect of carbon loss/gain upon materials in the reactor Intermediate Heat Transport System (IHTS), corrosion fatigue and aqueous corrosion. The results support the initial assumptions made in specifying the use of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo as the construction material for the evaporator and superheater and Type 316 piping of the IHT system. Future direction of the experimental programs is to further verify the materials choice and to also obtain information which will be essential during the plant installation, operation and reliability of the components.

  10. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  11. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  13. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  14. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, and activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950`s and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the 105-DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF was initially used only for engineering-scale alkali metal reaction studies. In addition, the Fusion Safety Support Studies program sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium lead compounds. The facility has also been used to store and treat alkali metal waste, therefore the LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

  15. Flexible Pressure Sensors: Modeling and Experimental Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viana, J.C.

    Flexible capacitive pressure sensors fabricated with nanocomposites were experimentally characterized and results compared with simulations from analytical modeling. Unlike traditional diaphragm silicon pressure sensors, ...

  16. Documentation Requirements for Pressurized Experiment Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation Requirements for Pressurized Experiment Apparatus PSSC NOTE01 15-Jan-2013 When bringing a piece of apparatus to the APS for an experiment that will involve pressure,...

  17. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  18. Increase Your Boiler Pressure to Decrease Your Electric Bill: The True Cost of CHP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit of clean, low cost and reliable onsite power production. Introduction What if plant designers could create a payback on a replacement or new boiler? Operators still get the heat for the process, but now instead of a large capital investment... is not complicated and produces real savings. For our analysis, a company is examining the economic and operating variables inherit with replacing their current 65 psig low pressure boiler with a high pressure 400 psig boiler. They still only require 65 psig...

  19. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

  20. Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

  1. In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weightIn vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weightIn vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight ­ Supplementary Information.0-3.0 ug/mL. TEM samples were prepared on carbon film-coated grid to which 1% sodium phosphotungstate

  2. Sodium-Beta Batteries for Grid-Scale Storage: Planar Sodium-Beta Batteries for Renewable Integration and Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: EaglePicher is developing a sodium-beta alumina (Na-Beta) battery for grid-scale energy storage. High-temperature Na-Beta batteries are a promising grid-scale energy storage technology, but existing approaches are expensive and unreliable. EaglePicher has modified the shape of the traditional, tubular-shaped Na-Beta battery. It is using an inexpensive stacked design to improve performance at lower temperatures, leading to a less expensive overall storage technology. The new design greatly simplifies the manufacturing process for beta alumina membranes (a key enabling technology), providing a subsequent pathway to the production of scalable, modular batteries at half the cost of the existing tubular designs.

  3. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  4. Spectrally resolved detection of sodium in the atmosphere of HD189733b with the HARPS spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyttenbach, A; Lovis, C; Udry, S; Pepe, F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric properties of exoplanets can be constrained with transit spectroscopy. The signature of atomic sodium NaI, known to be present above the clouds, is a powerful probe of the upper atmosphere, where it can be best detected and characterized at high spectral resolution. Our goal is to obtain a high-resolution transit spectrum of HD189733b in the region around the resonance doublet of NaI at 589 nm, to characterize the absorption signature previously detected from space at low resolution. We analyze archival transit data of HD189733b obtained with the HARPS spectrograph. We retrieve the transit spectrum and light curve of the planet, implementing corrections for telluric contamination and planetary orbital motion. We spectrally resolve the NaI D doublet and measure line contrasts of $0.64\\pm0.07\\%$ (D2) and $0.40\\pm0.07\\%$ (D1) and FWHMs of $0.52\\pm0.08~\\AA$. This corresponds to a detection at the 10-$\\sigma$ level of excess of absorption of $0.32\\pm0.03\\%$ in a passband of $2\\times0.75\\ \\AA$ centered ...

  5. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  6. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  7. The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laroussi, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

  8. SUBNANOWATT MICROBUBBLE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER C. A. Gutierrez*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Ellis

    pprrr g &&&& 421 2 3 2 (1) where r is the bubble radius (dots denote time-derivative), pg and p microchamber, for pressure sensing. Pressure-induced bubble size variation is detected by electrochemical pressure measurement applications. INTRODUCTION It is known that gas bubbles respond to external pressure

  9. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  10. Guest disorder and high pressure behavior of argon hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Tulk, C.A.; Klug, D.D.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Ehm, L.; Molaison, J.J.; Parise, J.B.; Simonson, J.M. (NRCC); (SBU); (ORNL)

    2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of argon hydrate was studied at ambient pressure and low temperature, and between 1.7 and 4.2 GPa at 295 K. This analysis produced a single Ar guest atom, positionally disordered off-center in the large cages of sII. Above 1.7 GPa Ar clathrate transformed to a mixture of a body-centered orthorhombic filled-ice phase, which can be viewed as a polytype of ice-Ih, and high pressure forms of pure ice. The guest disorder is further substantiated by analysis of the guest to host ratio in this high pressure filled-ice structure. The bulk modulus of Ar filled-ice found to be 11.7 {+-} 0.4 GPa.

  11. Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

  12. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, C.J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  13. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  14. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  15. Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauduri, Anantha S.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Managed Pressure Drilling now at the pinnacle of the 'Oil Well Drilling' evolution tree, has itself been coined in 2003. It is an umbrella term for a few new drilling techniques and some preexisting drilling techniques, all of them aiming to solve...

  16. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

  17. Enlarge Image Peer pressure. Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thywissen, Joseph

    to stick it to your refrigerator, but an ultra-cold gas magnetizes itself just as do metals such as ironEnlarge Image Peer pressure. Magnetic domains in steel (vertical bans) arise when neighboring electrons point their magnetic poles in the same direction. CREDIT: ZUREKS, CHRIS VARDON

  18. Enlarge Image Peer pressure. Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enlarge Image Peer pressure. Magnetic domains in steel (vertical bans) arise when neighboring electrons point their magnetic poles in the same direction. CREDIT: ZUREKS, CHRIS VARDON/WIKIMEDIA By Adrian Cho ScienceNOW Daily News 18 September 2009 It would be tough to stick it to your refrigerator

  19. Quantum Mechanical Pressure Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    by the kinetic theory of gases for an individual gas molecule. #12; Planck's constant. Using de Broglie's equation in the classical expression for kinetic energy converts provides, as we see now, a quantum interpretation for gas pressure. #12;To show this we will consider

  20. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, John A. (Melrose, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  1. Integrated-fin gasket for palm cubic-anvil high pressure apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.-G. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Matsubayashi, K.; Nagasaki, S.; Hisada, A.; Hirayama, T.; Uwatoko, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Hedo, M. [Faculty of Science, University of Ryukyus, Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Kagi, H. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We described an integrated-fin gasket technique for the palm cubic-anvil apparatus specialized for the high-pressure and low-temperature measurements. By using such a gasket made from the semi-sintered MgO ceramics and the tungsten-carbide anvils of 2.5 mm square top, we successfully generate pressures over 16 GPa at both room and cryogenic temperatures down to 0.5 K. We observed a pressure self-increment for this specific configuration and further characterized the thermally induced pressure variation by monitoring the antiferromagnetic transition temperature of chromium up to 12 GPa. In addition to enlarge the pressure capacity, such a modified gasket also improves greatly the surviving rate of electrical leads hanging the sample inside a Teflon capsule filled with the liquid pressure-transmitting medium. These improvements should be attributed to the reduced extrusion of gasket materials during the initial compression.

  2. Pressure Fluctuations as a Diagnostic Tool for Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethan Bure; Joel R. Schroeder; Ramon De La Cruz; Robert C. Brown

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the origin of pressure fluctuations in fluidized bed systems. The study assessed the potential for using pressure fluctuations as an indicator of fluidized bed hydrodynamics in both laboratory scale cold-models and industrial scale boilers. Both bubbling fluidized beds and circulating fluidized beds were evaluated. Testing including both cold-flow models and laboratory and industrial-scale combustors operating at elevated temperatures. The study yielded several conclusions on the relationship of pressure fluctuations and hydrodynamic behavior in fluidized beds. The study revealed the importance of collecting sufficiently long data sets to capture low frequency (on the order of 1 Hz) pressure phenomena in fluidized beds. Past research has tended toward truncated data sets collected with high frequency response transducers, which miss much of the spectral structure of fluidized bed hydrodynamics. As a result, many previous studies have drawn conclusions concerning hydrodynamic similitude between model and prototype fluidized beds that is insupportable from the low resolution data presented.

  3. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  4. Example Work Domain Analysis for a Reference Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. Uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. This report describes how the classical Work Domain Analysis method was adapted to develop operational concept frameworks for new plants. This adaptation of the method is better able to deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method in the operational analysis of sodium-cooled reactors. Insights from this application and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of Work Domain Analysis as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  5. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 °C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 °C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 °C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 °C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design ‘fixes’, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  6. Reaction rates from pressure-gauge measurements in reacting explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginsberg, M.J.; Anderson, A.B.; Wackerle, J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proper hydrodynamic data and an equation of state are sufficient to describe quantitatively the reaction rates of explosives during the shock-to-detonation transition. Manganin pressure gauges embedded in the reacting explosive have provided these data for the explosives PETN, PBX 9404, TATB, and TNT. Once a pressure-field history has been assembled from individual pressure histories at different depths in the explosive, the conservation equations can be applied in a Lagrangian analysis of the data. The combination of a reactant-product equation of state with this analysis then allows the calculation of the extent of reaction and reaction rate. Successful correlation of the calculated reaction rate values with other thermodynamic variables, such as pressure or temperature, allows formulation of a rate law and the prediction of initiation behavior under circumstances quite different from the experiments that led to the rate law. The best dynamic piezoresistive pressure gauge for most applications would have a substantial output voltage and present negligible disturbance to the flow. In explosives, however, requirements for survival in the extreme temperature and pressure environment encountered by the gauge dictate compromise. Low electrical resistance (approx. 20 m..cap omega..) helps to minimize shunt conductivity failures, but this drastically reduces output and demands that much attention be given to reducingnoise. Although relatively thick insulation perturbs the flow to some extent, survivability requirements dictate its use. Pressure measurements in reactive flow can now be made routinely with gauges that successfully produce data leading to a description of the flow and a powerful predictive capability.

  7. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  8. Tailoring Topology Optimization to Composite Pressure Vessel Design with Simultaneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    ;Introduction ­ CNG Pressure Vessels Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Pressure Vessels CNG Cargo Containment System

  9. Applying risk informed methodologies to improve the economics of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitta, Christopher C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to support the increasing demand for clean sustainable electricity production and for nuclear waste management, the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is being developed. The main drawback has been its high capital ...

  10. Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

  11. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries: Potential Alternatives toCurrent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. 2 (2012):J. , Rojo, T. Na-ion Batteries, Recent Advances and Present

  12. The Beta-Neutrino Correlation in Sodium-21 and Other Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Paul A.; Abo-Shaeer, Jamil; Freedman, Stuart J.; Maruyama, Reina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RIA?INTproc?abetanu THE BETA-NEUTRINO CORRELATION IN SODIUM-electrons shaken off in beta decay. High detection ef?ciencyTOF template spectra for beta decays to 21 Ne + , are shown

  13. Application of the Technology Neutral Framework to Sodium-­Cooled Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Brian C.

    Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG-1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

  14. Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Review of Chemical Processes for the Synthesis of Sodium Borohydride Millennium Cell Inc. Prepared........................................................................................... 6 Methane (or Natural Gas) as Reducing Agent remained the same since it became commercial in the 1950s and is based on synthetic pathways developed

  15. Ultracold molecules from ultracold atoms : interactions in sodium and lithium gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Caleb A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23 atomic gases were studied near a Feshbach resonance at high magnetic fields. The enhanced interactions between atoms in the presence ...

  16. Application of the technology neutral framework to sodium cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Brian C. (Brian Carl)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG- 1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

  17. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: a synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of an elusive metastable hydrated salt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an unusual application of synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction with hard X-rays to obtain structural information on metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate. This hydrate was often mentioned in nineteenth ...

  18. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of innovative fuel configurations for the sodium fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memmott, Matthew J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sodium fast reactor (SFR) is currently being reconsidered as an instrument for actinide management throughout the world, thanks in part to international programs such as the Generation-IV and especially the Global ...

  20. Development of an improved sodium exposure test cell experiment for characterization of AMTEC electrode performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiebig, Bradley Nelson

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation into sources of inconsistencies in sodium exposure test cell (SETC) measurements, used to characterize AMTEC electrode performance, was conducted. Development of modifications to the SETC setup and operation ...

  1. Population strategies to decrease sodium intake : a global cost-effectiveness analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Michael William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excessive sodium consumption is both prevalent and very costly in many countries around the world. Recent research has found that more than 90% of the world's adult population live in countries with mean intakes exceeding ...

  2. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  3. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

  4. Transport parameter determination and modeling of sodium and strontium plumes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londergan, John Thomas

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSPORT PARAMETER DETERMINATION AND MODELING OF SODIUM AND STRONTIUM PLUMES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY A Thesis by JOHN THOMAS LONDERGAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Geophysics TRANSPORT PARAMETER DETERMINATION AND MODELING OF SODIUM AND STRONTIUM PLUMES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY A Thesis by JOHN THOMAS LONDERGAN Approved...

  5. Sodium and potassium levels in the serum of acutely irradiated and non-irradiated rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, David Preston

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Zoology SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

  6. Penetration mechanism and distribution gradients of sodium tripolyphosphate in peeled and deveined shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenhet, Vickie Lynn

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Approved as to style...

  7. The effect of sodium chloride in the irrigation water on the growth of selected ornamental plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, Gary Edward

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Floriculture THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  8. The tolerance of two varieties of cotton to relatively high levels of sodium and magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parekh, Manhar C

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TO'ERANCE OF TNO VARIETIES OF COTTON TO RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM A Tnesis by Msnhar C. Parekh Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...) (Nember) (Nemb ) August 1969 ABSTRACT The Tolerance of Two Varieties of Cotton to Relatively High Levels of Sodium and Magnesium. (August 1969) Masher C. Parekh, B. S. , Gujarat University, Directed by: Dr. H. E. Joham An experiment was conducted...

  9. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  10. Applications of the Radiation Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    ) of the Sun at the Earth's surface: I = 1.2 kW/m2 · The total energy of all photons falling on 1 m2 per 1;12 Theory · Photon's energy: E = h (400 pN nm) · Photon's momentum: p = h/ · Energy and momentum of photon second · From Maxwell's equations, the energy density of an EM wave: · In terms of irradiance: Pressure P

  11. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  12. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  13. Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guralnik, S.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project has two primary objectives. The first is to verify a set of hydrodynamic scaling relationships for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC). The second objective is to investigate solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd combined-cycle demonstration plant will provide time-varying pressure drop data to serve as the basis for the scaling verification. The verification will involve demonstrating that a properly scaled cold model and the Tidd PFBC exhibit hydrodynamically similar behavior. An important issue in PFBC design is the spacing of fuel feed ports. The feed spacing is dictated by the fuel distribution and the mixing characteristics within the bed. After completing the scaling verification, the cold model will be used to study the characteristics of PFBCs. A thermal tracer technique will be utilized to study mixing both near the fuel feed region and in the far field. The results allow the coal feed and distributor to be designed for optimal heating.

  14. Pressure safety program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borzileri, C.; Traini, M.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a Research and Development facility. Programs include research in: nuclear weapons, energy, environmental, biomedical, and other DOE funded programs. LLNL is managed by the University of California for the Department of Energy. Many research and development programs require the use of pressurized fluid systems. In the early 1960`s, courses were developed to train personnel to safely work with pressurized systems. These courses served as a foundation for the Pressure Safety Program. The Pressure Safety Program is administered by the Pressure Safety Manager through the Hazards Control Department, and responsibilities include: (1) Pressure Safety course development and training, (2) Equipment documentation, tracking and inspections/retests, (3) Formal and informal review of pressure systems. The program uses accepted codes and standards and closely follows the DOE Pressure Safety Guidelines Manual. This manual was developed for DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DOE Pressure Safety Guidelines Manual defines five (5) basic elements which constitute this Pressure Safety Program. These elements are: (1) A Pressure Safety Manual, (2) A Safety Committee, (3) Personnel who are trained and qualified, (4) Documentation and accountability for each pressure vessel or system, (5) Control of the selection and the use of high pressure hardware.

  15. Measuring barometric pressure with a manifold pressure sensor in a microprocessor based engine control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauwels, M.A.; Wright, D.O.

    1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microprocessor based electronic engine control system is described for an internal combustion engine, a method for updating the stored ambient pressure signal by measuring the ambient barometric pressure during engine operation using a manifold pressure sensor. The method consists of: generating timing signals indicating the rotational position of an engine member and including a signal indicating a predetermined rotational position in the rotation of the engine member; generating a pressure signal from the manifold pressure sensor representing the pressure surrounding the sensor in response to the predetermined rotational position; reading the value of ambient barometric pressure stored in the memory of the microprocessor; comparing the value of the barometric pressure stored in the memory of the microprocessor and the value of the pressure signal; increasing the value of the barometric pressure by one unit to generate a new barometric pressure value when the value of the pressure signal is greater than the value of the barometric pressure; comparing the new barometric pressure value with a predetermined fixed constant representing the maximum barometric pressure; and storing in the memory of the microprocessor either the new barometric pressure value if equal to or less than the fixed constant or the value of the maximum barometric pressure if the new barometric pressure value is greater than the fixed constant.

  16. Pressure Data: BOP Summary 28 May 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a schematic of the BOP stack with the static pressure data recoded on the 28th of May and shows pressures before and after the attempted top kill and junk shots.

  17. Effect of high pressure on structural oddities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Russell D. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the effect of pressure on crystal structures that are in some way unusual. The aim was to investigate whether pressure could be used to force these ‘structural oddities’ to conform to more conventional ...

  18. Nanocomposite Flexible Pressure Sensor for Biomedical Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fachin, F.

    A new approach for the fabrication of flexible pressure sensors based on aligned carbon nanotubes (A-CNTs) is described in this paper. The technology is suitable for blood pressure sensors that can be attached to a stent-graft ...

  19. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

  20. THE SUITABILITY OF SODIUM PEROXIDE FUSION FOR PRODUCTION-SCALE PLUTONIUM PROCESSING OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Edwards, T.

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fusion is a method that offers significant benefits to the processing of high-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) materials. Those benefits include reduction in dissolution cycle time, decrease in residual solids, and reduction of the potential for generation of a flammable gas mixture during dissolution. Implementation of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} fusion may also increase the PuO{sub 2} throughput in the HB-Line dissolving lines. To fuse a material, Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} is mixed with the feed material in a crucible and heated to 600-700 C. For low-fired and high-fired PuO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} reacts with PuO{sub 2} to form a compound that readily dissolves in ambient-temperature nitric acid without the use of potassium fluoride. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated the feasibility of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} fusion and subsequent dissolution for the processing of high-fired PuO{sub 2} materials in HB-Line. Testing evaluated critical dissolution characteristics and defined preliminary process parameters. Based on experimental measurements, a dissolution cycle can be complete in less than one hour, compared to the current processing time of 6-10 hours for solution heating and dissolution. Final Pu concentrations of 30-35 g/L were produced without the formation of precipitates in the final solution.