National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lost foam metal

  1. Manufacturers Saving with Lost Foam Metal Casting | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Metal casting was identified as one of the top 10 energy users in manufacturing. The technology represents a 20- to 25-percent reduction in production costs and uses 7 percent...

  2. CFD Modeling for Lost Foam White Side

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The lost foam casting process produces clean, high-quality castings with close tolerances. The most important advantage is that no cores (with binders) are required. One challenge in lost foam...

  3. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  4. Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The project will further reduce porosity and fold defects in lost foam casting to improve production efficiency, mechanical properties, and marketability of castings.

  5. Advanced lost foam from casting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, C. E.; Littleton, H. E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B. A.; Sheldon, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects Task 4: Pattern Gating Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas in the period of October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers.

  6. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology - Phase V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanliang Sun; Harry E. Littleton; Charles E. Bates

    2004-04-29

    Previous research, conducted under DOE Contracts DE-FC07-89ID12869, DE-FC07-93ID12230 and DE-FC07-95ID113358 made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional developments were needed to improve the process and make it more functional in industrial environments. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--Computational Model for the Process and Data Base to Support the Model; Task 2--Casting Dimensional Accuracy; Task 3--Pattern Production; Task 4--Improved Pattern Materials; Task 5--Coating Control; Task 6--In-Plant Case Studies; Task 7--Energy and the Environmental Data; and Task 8--Technology Transfer. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2004. The results obtained in each task and subtask are summarized in this Executive Summary and details are provided in subsequent sections of the report.

  7. Comparison of Lost Foam Casting of AM60B Alloy and A356 Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval; Nedkova, Teodora [Kaiser Aluminum

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings in order to compare the difference in castability between magnesium alloys and aluminum alloy using the lost foam casting process. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  8. Improvement of the Lost Foam Casting Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Casting is an energy-intensive manufacturing process within the metal casting and aluminum industries, requiring natural gas to melt aluminum and electricity to run equipment. The higher-than...

  9. Advanced Lost Foam Casting technology: 1997 summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--pyrolysis defects and sand distortion; Task 2--bronze casting technology; Task 3--steel casting technology; Task 4--sand filling and compaction; Task 5--coating technology; Task 6--precision pattern production; Task 7--computational modeling; and Task 8--project management and technology transfer. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all eight tasks in the period of October 1, 1995 through December 31, 1997.

  10. Advanced lost foam casting technology. 1995 summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B.A.; Sheldon, D.S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production; Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency; Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects; Task 4: Pattern Gating; and Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers. This report summarizes the work done in the past two years and the conclusions drawn from the work.

  11. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi; Griffin, John A.

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (? 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  12. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P; Tappan, Bryce; Mueller, Alex; Mihaila, Bogdan; Volz, Heather; Cardenas, Andreas; Papin, Pallas; Veauthier, Jackie; Stan, Marius

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  13. Final Technical Report Quantification and Standardization of Pattern Properties for the Control of the Lost Foam Casting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Michaels

    2005-09-30

    This project takes a fresh look at the ''white side'' of the lost foam casting process. We have developed the gel front hypothesis for foam pyrolysis behavior and the magnetic metal pump method for controlling lost foam casting metal fill event. The subject of this report is work done in the improvement of the Lost Foam Casting Process. The original objective of this project was to improve the control of metal fill by understanding the influence of foam pattern and coating properties on the metal fill event. Relevant pattern properties could then be controlled, providing control of the metal fill event. One of the original premises of this project was that the process of metal fill was relatively well understood. Considerable previous work had been done to develop fluid mechanical and heat transfer models of the process. If we could just incorporate measured pattern properties into these models we would be able predict accurately the metal fill event. As we began to study the pyrolysis behavior of EPS during the metal fill event, we discovered that the chemical nature of this event had been completely overlooked in previous research. Styrene is the most prevalent breakdown product of EPS pyrolysis and it is a solvent for polystyrene. Much of the styrene generated by foam pyrolysis diffuses into intact foam, producing a molten gel of mechanically entangled polystyrene molecules. Much of the work of our project has centered on validation of this concept and producing a qualitative model of the behavior of EPS foam undergoing pyrolysis in a confined environment. A conclusion of this report is that styrene dissolution in EPS is a key phenomenon in the pyrolysis process and deserves considerable further study. While it is possible to continue to model the metal fill event parametrically using empirical data, we recommend that work be undertaken by qualified researchers to directly characterize and quantify this phenomenon for the benefit of modelers, researchers, and workers in the field. Another original premise of this project was that foam pattern and coating properties could be used to efficiently control metal fill. After studying the structure of EPS foam in detail for the period of this contract, we have come to the conclusion that EPS foam has an inherent variability at a scale that influences metal fill behavior. This does not allow for the detailed fine control of the process that we originally envisioned. We therefore have sought other methods for the control of the metal fill event. Of those, we now believe that the magnetic metal pump shows the most promise. We have conducted two casting trials using this method and preliminary results are very encouraging. A conclusion of our report is that, while every effort should continue to be made to produce uniform foam and coatings, the use of the magnetic metal pump should be encouraged and closed loop control mechanisms should be developed for this pouring method.

  14. Manufacturers Saving with Lost Foam Metal Casting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The technology represents a 20- to 25-percent reduction in production costs and uses 7 percent fewer materials than traditional processes.

  15. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L. (Oakland, CA); Barry, Patrick E. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  16. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Littleton; John Griffin

    2011-07-31

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (�¢����Energy SMARRT�¢���) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU�¢����s/year and 6.46 trillion BTU�¢����s/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  17. Pyrophoric metal-carbon foam composites and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Baumann, Theodore F. (Discovery Bay, CA); Worsley, Marcus A. (Belmont, CA)

    2012-05-08

    A method for creating a pyrophoric material according to one embodiment includes thermally activating a carbon foam for creating micropores therein; contacting the activated carbon foam with a liquid solution comprising a metal salt for depositing metal ions in the carbon foam; and reducing the metal ions in the foam to metal particles. A pyrophoric material in yet another embodiment includes a pyrophoric metal-carbon foam composite comprising a carbon foam having micropores and mesopores and a surface area of greater than or equal to about 2000 m.sup.2/g, and metal particles in the pores of the carbon foam. Additional methods and materials are also disclosed.

  18. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  19. An Investigation and Characterization of Metal Foam Filled Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    a metal foam filled double-pipe heat exchanger: a) Pressurein a metal foam filled double-pipe heat exchanger witha plain double-pipe heat exchanger: a) Total heat transfer

  20. Thermal Transport in Porous Media with Application to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Thermal Transport in Porous Media with Application to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams by Ehsan Sadeghi B.Sc., Sharif University of Technology, Iran of thermal transport phenomena in fuel cell gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and metal foams and describes new

  1. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2012-11-06

    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  2. Effect of flask vibration time on casting integrity, Surface Penetration and Coating Inclusion in lost foam casting of Al-Si Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karimian, Majid [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr branch, Islamic Azad University-(Khomeinishahr- Isfahan) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Idris, M. H. [Dept. of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Johor Bauru (Malaysia); Ourdjini, A.; Muthu, Kali [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Khomeinishahr branch, Islamic Azad University-(Khomeinishahr- Isfahan) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-17

    The paper presents the result of an experimental investigation conducted on medium aluminum silicon alloy casting- LM6, using no-vacuum assisted lost foam casting process. The study is directed for establishing the relationship between the flask vibrations times developed for molded sample on the casting integrity, surface penetration and coating inclusion defects of the casting. Four different flask vibration times namely 180, 120, 90 and 60 sec. were investigated. The casting integrity was investigated in terms of fulfilling in all portions and edges. The surface penetration was measured using optical microscope whilst image analyzer was used to quantify the percentage of coating inclusion in the casting. The results show that vibration time has significant influence on the fulfilling as well as the internal integrity of the lost foam casting. It was found that the lower vibration time produced comparatively sound casing.

  3. On the eective thermal conductivity of a three-dimensionally structured uid-saturated metal foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    thermal conductivity to a large extent, a fact that must be dealt with in the foam manufacturing process thermal conductivity in the volume averaged homogeneous energy equation. Antohe et al. [11] also requiredOn the eective thermal conductivity of a three- dimensionally structured Żuid-saturated metal foam

  4. Thermal conductivity and contact resistance of metal foams This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    distribution in metal foams is necessary for design and modelling of thermal-hydraulic systems incorporating conductivity and TCR in metal foams is described. Measurements are performed in a vacuum under varying

  5. Thermal Transport in Porous Media with Application to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of thermal transport phenomena in fuel cell gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and metal foams and describes new transfer through the GDL is a key process in the design and operation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM program allows the separation of effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance. For GDLs

  6. Shear properties on aluminum metal foams prepared by the melt route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenz, E. [UTRC GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Technologiezentrum; Baranda, P.S. [UTRC, S.L., Minano (Spain); Bonhomme, J. [ITMA, Coruno-Llanera (Spain). Parque Tecnologico de Asturias

    1998-12-31

    The shear modulus and shear strength of AlSi7Mg Aluminum foam with 15% (vol) of 13 {micro}m SiC particles were determined through shear testing. A foam slab with a density of 0.31 g/cm3 was supplied by Hydro Aluminium. Four samples were tested according to ASTM C 273-61. The specimens were bonded to steel load plates. The relative displacement of the plates was measured using two extensometers. In order to evaluate the effect of the cell size distribution on shear properties, cell size and material distribution analyses were carried out for the metal foam slab in areas close to those from which the shear specimens were extracted. A fast failure was observed after the maximum shear load. The failure in the samples were located in the central section of the slab mainly because the lower density was located there.

  7. Optimization of Design and Manufacturing Process of Metal Foam Filled Anti-Intrusion Bars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Andrea; Mussi, Valerio; Strano, Matteo

    2011-05-04

    The role of an anti-intrusion bar for automotive use is to absorb the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies that is partially converted into internal work of the bodies involved in the crash. The aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of a new kind of anti-intrusion bars for automotive use, filled with metallic foams. The reason for using a cellular material as a filler deals with its capacity to absorb energy during plastic deformation, while being lightweight. The study is the evolution of a previous paper presented by the authors at Esaform 2010 and will present new results and findings. It is conducted by evaluating some key technical issues of the manufacturing problem and by conducting experimental and numerical analyses. The evaluation of materials and shapes of the closed sections to be filled is made in the perspective of a car manufacturer (production costs, weight reduction, space availability in a car door, etc.). Experimentally, foams are produced starting from an industrial aluminium precursor with a TiH{sub 2} blowing agent. Bars are tested in three point bending, in order to evaluate their performances in terms of force-displacement response and other specific performance parameters. In order to understand the role of interface between the inner surface of the tube and the external surface of the foam, different kinds of interface are tested.

  8. Image Reconstruction of a Metal Fill Industrial Process Using Genetic Programming Alaa Al-Afeef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    the characteristic of the molten metal in Lost Foam Casting (LFC) process [12], [13] and many others. B. ECT SensorImage Reconstruction of a Metal Fill Industrial Process Using Genetic Programming Alaa Al-field and Ill-condition characteristic of ECT. The basic idea of the ECT for image re- construction for a metal

  9. Synthesis of open-cell metal foams by templated directed vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    , Derek D. Hass, David J. Sypeck, and Haydn N.G. Wadley Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904) and Metapore (Soci- e`te` Sorapec, Fontenay Sous Bois, France) for use in Ni­ Cd and Ni­metal hydride batteries

  10. PARAMETRIC EFFECTS OF ANTI-FOAM COMPOSITION, SIMULANT PROPERTIES AND NOBLE METALS ON THE GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE OF A NON-NEWTONIAN WASTE SLURRY SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H; Charles Crawford, C; Mark Fowley, M

    2008-08-07

    Gas holdup tests were performed in bench-scale and small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing systems at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101. These featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A anti-foam agent. Results indicated that this anti-foam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter-intuitively, that the holdup increased as the non-newtonian simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). Such results raised the potential of increased flammable gas retention in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs) during a Design Basis Event (DBE). Additional testing was performed to determine the effects of simulant properties, composition of alternate AFAs, and presence of trace noble metals. Key results are that: (1) Increased gas holdup resulting from addition of Q2-3183A is due to a decrease in surface tension that supports small bubbles which have low rise velocities. (2) Dow Corning 1520-US AFA shows it to be a viable replacement to Dow Corning Q2-3183A AFA. This alternative AFA, however, requires significantly higher dosage for the same anti-foam function. (3) Addition of noble metals to the AZ-101 waste simulant does not produce a catalytic gas retention effect with the AFA.

  11. Foam patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  12. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong

    2009-11-11

    Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The transport of foam in porous media is complicated in that the number of lamellae present governs flow characteristics such as viscosity, relative permeability, fluid distribution, and interactions between fluids. Hence, foam is a non-Newtonian fluid. During transport, foam destruction and formation occur. The net result of the two processes determines the foam texture (i.e., bubble density). Some of the foam may be trapped during transport. According to the impacts of the aqueous and gas flow rates, foam flow generally has two regimes – weak and strong foam. There is also a minimum pressure gradient to initiate foam flow and a critical capillary for foam to be sustained. Similar to other fluids, the transport of foam is described by Darcy’s law with the exception that the foam viscosity is variable. Three major approaches to modeling foam transport in porous media are the empirical, semi-empirical, and mechanistic methods. Mechanistic approaches can be complete in principal but may be difficult to obtain reliable parameters, whereas empirical and semi-empirical approaches can be limited by the detail used to describe foam rheology and mobility. Mechanistic approaches include the bubble population-balance model, the network/percolation theory, the catastrophe theory, and the filtration theory. Among these methods, all were developed for modeling polyhedral foam with the exception that the method based on the filtration theory was for the ball foam (microfoam).

  13. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  14. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  15. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  16. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  17. Nanoporous cobalt foam and a Co/Co(OH)2 coreshell structure for electrochemical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    - smelting process,11 and transition metal foams of nickel, copper, cobalt, and Ni­Cu and Ni­Co alloys have nanoporous cobalt foam and its application in a supercapacitor. Pearl- necklace-type carbon nanotube (CNT

  18. The properties of copper foams with negative Poisson's ratio via resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakes, Roderic

    such as flexural rigidity and plane strain fracture toughness [3]. Re- entrant transformation of copper foam the softening point, and cooled. For ductile metal foams, the material is compressed permanently in increments

  19. Foam drilling simulator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paknejad, Amir Saman

    2007-04-25

    of foam change along the wellbore. Foam physical and thermal properties are strongly affected by pressure and temperature. Many problems associated with field applications still exist, and a precise characterization of the rheological properties...

  20. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  1. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  2. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Morrison, R.L.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1994-10-25

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located there between. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery. 3 figs.

  3. Primary cementing across massive lost circulation zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turki, W.H.; Mackay, A.S.

    1983-03-01

    As a result of severe lost circulation problems in some wells in the Ghawar and Abqaiq Fields, Aramco has been unable to cover the Umm Er-Radhuma (Paleocene) and Wasia (Cretaceous) aquifers with cement. This has necessitated setting an extended liner opposite the Wasia aquifer, to ensure that there are two casing strings and a cement sheath across the aquifer, resulting in increased casing cost and reduced well productivity. This paper describes the results of field trial tests performed, along with conclusions and recommendations aimed at solving this problem. Field methods employed include light weight extended cements, ultra-light cement slurries weighing as little as 55 lbm/ft/sup 3/ (pcf), using ceramic hollow spheres, glass bubbles and foam, plus hydrostatic cementing, and mechanical devices. Finally, methods of job evaluation are discussed. These include temperature surveys, bond logs, radioactive tracers, and a new cement volume log.

  4. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, Thomas E. (Grandview, MO); Spieker, David A. (Olathe, KS)

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  5. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  6. Understanding foams & foaming D.D. Joseph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    in applications ranging from the transport of cuttings in drilling and the placement of sands in cracks in oil. To keep a foam To appear in the column entitled Signi cant Questions in Fluid Mechanics," in the Journal of Fluids Engineering. 1 #12;CMC CMC Figure 1: Surface tension versus bulk concentration . CMC

  7. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Curro, J.G.; Quintana, C.A.; Russick, E.M.; Shaw, M.T.

    1985-10-02

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the reusltant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 ..mu..m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  8. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Curro, John G. (Placitas, NM); Quintana, Carlos A. (Albuquerque, NM); Russick, Edward M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaw, Montgomery T. (Mansfield Center, CT)

    1987-01-01

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the resultant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Means for subjecting such a solvent to one-dimensional cooling are also provided. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 .mu.m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  9. Foam encapsulated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA); Dahlbacka, Glen H. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Foam encapsulated laser-fusion targets wherein a quantity of thermonuclear fuel is embedded in low density, microcellular foam which serves as an electron conduction channel for symmetrical implosion of the fuel by illumination of the target by one or more laser beams. The fuel, such as DT, is contained within a hollow shell constructed of glass, for example, with the foam having a cell size of preferably no greater than 2 .mu.m, a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3, and external diameter of less than 200 .mu.m.

  10. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 .ANG.. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  11. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, C.B.

    1984-05-18

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  12. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darsh T. Wasan

    2002-02-20

    Radioactive waste treatment processes usually involve concentration of radionuclides before waste can be immobilized by storing it in stable solid form. Foaming is observed at various stages of waste processing like sludge chemical processing and melter operations. Hence, the objective of this research was to study the mechanisms that produce foaming during nuclear waste treatment, to identify key parameters which aggravate foaming, and to identify effective ways to eliminate or mitigate foaming. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomenon, suspension rheology, and bubble generation and interactions that lead to the formation of foam during waste processing were pursued under this EMSP project. Advanced experimental techniques including a novel capillary force balance in conjunction with the combined differential and common interferometry were developed to characterize particle-particle interactions at the foam lamella surfaces as well as inside the foam lamella. Laboratory tests were conducted using a non-radioactive simulant slurry containing high levels of noble metals and mercury similar to the High-Level Waste. We concluded that foaminess of the simulant sludge was due to the presence of colloidal particles such as aluminum, iron, and manganese. We have established the two major mechanisms of formation and stabilization of foams containing such colloidal particles: (1) structural and depletion forces; and (2) steric stabilization due to the adsorbed particles at the surfaces of the foam lamella. Based on this mechanistic understanding of foam generation and stability, an improved antifoam agent was developed by us, since commercial antifoam agents were found to be ineffective in the aggressive physical and chemical environment present in the sludge processing. The improved antifoamer was subsequently tested in a pilot plant at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and was found to be effective. Also, in the SRTC experiment, the irradiated antifoamer appeared to be as effective as nonirradiated antifoamers. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the successful development, demonstration and deployment of the new antifoam in the Defense Waste Processing Facility chemical processing.

  13. Get familiar with CO2 foaming process to produce polymeric foams Research field: Get familiar with CO2 foaming process to produce polymeric foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Get familiar with CO2 foaming process to produce polymeric foams Research field: Get familiar with CO2 foaming process to produce polymeric foams Nature of job: Polymeric foams have now been widely, etc. The properties of those foams are directly related with the structure and are therefore dependent

  14. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullen, Ken I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  15. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  16. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  17. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demmer, Ricky L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tripp, Julia L. (Pocatello, ID); Cooper, David C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Karen E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  18. Foam Processing of Textiles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bafford, R. A.; Namboodri, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Foam processing is an energy-conserving alternative to the conventional wet processing, i.e., dyeing, printing and finishing, of textiles. Where water is ordinarily used as a medium to apply dyes or chemicals to a fabric, up to 75% of the water can...

  19. Generalized correlation for foam flow in tubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotter, Carol Lynnette

    1996-01-01

    with respect to foam in the laminar flow region. A semi-automated system to collect pressure drop-flow rate data for gas in liquid foams was constructed in which foam is created by a foam generator and the pressure drop resulting from the foam flow is measured...

  20. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  1. Method and apparatus for improving the insulating properties of closed cell foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Lanciani, Arlene J. (Sterling, MA)

    1991-04-23

    A filler of non-metallic, light transparent material is formed into particles or flakes and coated with opaque material and dispersed in closed cell foam to reduce overall thermal conductivity and, specifically, to reduce radiation heat transfer.

  2. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  3. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  4. Method for fabricating composite carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  5. Liquid Foams and K. Brakke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brakke, Ken

    coarsening with time due to gas diffusion, its elastic and plastic properties, and the drainage of liquid-static properties. However, this is only part of a wider subject: dynamic effects remain as a considerable challenge]), they began to build a systematic theory of foam properties. The recent Physics of Foams [8] is a broad

  6. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  7. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  8. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei-Yang

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  9. Method of casting pitch based foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing molded pitch based foam is disclosed which minimizes cracking. The process includes forming a viscous pitch foam in a container, and then transferring the viscous pitch foam from the container into a mold. The viscous pitch foam in the mold is hardened to provide a carbon foam having a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts.

  10. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well...

  11. Carbon foam characterization tensile evaluation of carbon foam ligaments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdugo Rodriguez, Rogelio Alberto

    2004-09-30

    of the carbon foam ligaments (RVC) could be described with a one-population distribution, it is found that a two-population Weibull distribution is necessary to describe the distribution of strength of the SiC coated ligaments....

  12. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, Judith W. (Peralta, NM); Montoya, Orelio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM); Willan, Vernon O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO.sub.2 in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  13. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  14. Process for making carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    The process obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  15. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (6291 Alisal St., Pleasanton, CA 94566); Mayer, Steven T. (16026 Selborne Dr., San Leandro, CA 94578); Pekala, Richard W. (802 Cliffside Dr., Pleasant Hill, CA 94523)

    1993-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  16. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1993-11-09

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m[sup 2]/g-1000 m[sup 2]/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figures.

  17. Flow of fracturing foams in vertical, horizontal and inclined pipes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krindinti, Kshipraprasad H

    2002-01-01

    Foams are complex mixtures of a gas and a liquid, with the latter being the continuous phase. The rheological properties of foams are strongly influenced by parameters like temperature, absolute pressure, foam quality, texture, foam-channel wall...

  18. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2005-03-16

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research is to lay the groundwork for more-applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media.

  19. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2005-01-05

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media.

  20. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  1. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Metal Hydride Based Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, W.H. Jr.

    1999-10-20

    This thesis presents a transient heat transfer analysis to model the heat transfer in the Pd/k packed column, and the impact of adding metallic foam.

  2. Experimental characterization of foam drainage and stability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheth, Vikas Rameshchandra

    1993-01-01

    A novel experimental procedure to characterize the stability of foams is established. The procedure involves the unsteady state drainage of liquid from a stationary foam due to an applied pressure difference (forced drainage)- Unlike other bulk...

  3. Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Min

    2010-07-14

    Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low ...

  4. Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Berkeley Lab researchers mathematically describe the complex evolution and disappearance of foamy bubbles May 9,...

  5. Mechanical probing of liquid foam aging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isabelle Cantat; Olivier Pitois

    2006-09-19

    We present experimental results on the Stokes experiment performed in a 3D dry liquid foam. The system is used as a rheometric tool : from the force exerted on a 1cm glass bead, plunged at controlled velocity in the foam in a quasi static regime, local foam properties are probed around the sphere. With this original and simple technique, we show the possibility of measuring the foam shear modulus, the gravity drainage rate and the evolution of the bubble size during coarsening.

  6. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  7. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  8. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Morrison, R.L.

    1999-08-03

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material is disclosed. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  9. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  10. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  11. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

  12. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, D.A.

    1994-09-06

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drill string in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drill string at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone. 6 figs.

  13. Method of forming a continuous polymeric skin on a cellular foam material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Barthell, Barry L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the outer surface of the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tensin of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  14. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  15. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Ainslie T. (Los Alamos, NM); Marsters, Robert G. (Jemez Springs, NM); Moreno, Dawn K. (Espanola, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A microcellular low density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) which is particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 .mu.m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given; and the yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  16. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, A.T.

    1982-03-03

    A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  17. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  18. FOAM: NOVEL DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF VADOSE ZONE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Wu, Yuxin; Foote, Martin; Zhang, Z. F.; Hubbard, Susan

    2011-07-05

    Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, the methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges which limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones which frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative, in-situ technologies may be the only way to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which readily penetrate low permeability zones. Although surfactant foams have been utilized for subsurface mobilization efforts in the oil and gas industry, so far, the concept of using foams as a delivery mechanism for transporting remedial amendments into deep vadose zone environments to stabilize metal and long-lived radionuclide contaminants has not been explored. Foam flow can be directed by pressure gradients, rather than being dominated by gravity; and, foam delivery mechanisms limit the volume of water (< 5% vol.) required for remedy delivery and emplacement, thus mitigating contaminant mobilization. We will present the results of a numerical modeling and integrated laboratory- / intermediate-scale investigation to simulate, develop, demonstrate, and monitor (i.e. advanced geophysical techniques and advanced predictive biomarkers) foam-based delivery of remedial amendments to remediate metals and radionuclides in vadose zone environments.

  19. Effect of Gas Diffusion on Mobility of Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery Lars E. Nonnekes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    as one reason why CO2 foams for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) are less resistant to flow than N2 foams weakness of CO2 foam therefore evidently lies in factors other than CO2's large diffusion rate through foam. Keywords Foam ·Diffusion · Enhanced oil recovery · Foam stability ·CO2 foam · Steam foam 1 Introduction

  20. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  1. Switching Reversibly between Ultrastable and Unstable Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne-Laure Fameau; Arnaud Saint-Jalmes; Fabrice Cousin; Bérénice Houinsou Houssou; François Boué; Bruno Novales; Laurence Navailles; Frédéric Nallet; Cédric Gaillard; Jean-Paul Douliez.

    2012-10-21

    Ultrastable foams with an optimal foamability have been obtained using hydroxyl fatty acids tubes. The stabilization results from the adsorption of monomers at the air-water interface preventing coalescence and coarsening and from the presence of tubes in the Plateau borders limiting the drainage. Upon heating, tubes transit to micelles, which induces foam destabilization. Such foams are thus the first to have a temperature tunable stability.

  2. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  3. How Bubbly Mixtures Foam and Foam Control Using a Fluidized Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    How Bubbly Mixtures Foam and Foam Control Using a Fluidized Bed by Jos e Guiti anz Daniel Joseph to the top because it has a higher gas fraction than the bubbly mixture from which it comes. The high gas slit bubble reactor which when used with aqueous anionic surfactants gives rise to foam. This reactor

  4. Process for preparing silicon carbide foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.L.; Nichols, M.C.; Wheeler, D.R.; Loy, D.A.

    1997-09-16

    A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam. 9 figs.

  5. Process for preparing silicon carbide foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, LeRoy Louis (Livermore, CA); Nichols, Monte Carl (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David Roger (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas Anson (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam.

  6. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  7. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward (Oak Lawn, IL); Libera, Joseph A. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam.

  8. Carbon Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging Carbon Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  9. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project are: Developing advanced material composites with pore morphology control and CO2 foaming to achieve R-6 per inch foam building insulation at competitive costs;...

  10. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. The most significant progress during this period was made on Tasks 1 and 3. Research on Task 1 focused on selecting and characterizing a surfactant/polymer formulation for initial experiments. The two (high-quality and low-quality) strong-foam regimes were identified from steady-state coreflood data for the formulation without polymer, for comparison with behavior with polymer. This formulation showed unconventional behavior in the low-quality regime in that pressure gradient decreases at increasing liquid injection rate. Such behavior was not seen in most previous studies of foam, but it is consistent with dense-CO{sub 2} foam data recently obtained in our laboratory. We are considering the significance of the unconventional trend in the data and proceeding with initial experiments with polymer. Research on Task 3 focused on foam generation at limited pressure gradient in sandpacks. In these experiments liquid injection rate and pressure drop across the core are held fixed, and gas injection rate responds to creation and properties of foam. Initial experiments included three permeabilities (1.2, 3.6 and 5 darcy), three surfactant concentrations (0.12, 1.2 and 2.4 wt%) and two liquid injection rates (1.29 and 2.76 ft/day). Separating experimental artifacts from physical phenomena in these experiments is difficult and an ongoing process.

  11. 22 March 2012 Employee Information Lost Time No Lost Time Modified Duties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    22 March 2012 Employee Information Lost Time No Lost Time Modified Duties Last Name First Name the injured worker have personal coverage? Yes No Is the injured worker a partner or director in this business OR Did this condition develop over a period of time? Yes No Hours of employment on the day of accident

  12. Couette Flow of Two-Dimensional Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Katgert; B. P. Tighe; M. E. Möbius; M. van Hecke

    2010-04-26

    We experimentally investigate flow of quasi two-dimensional disordered foams in Couette geometries, both for foams squeezed below a top plate and for freely floating foams. With the top-plate, the flows are strongly localized and rate dependent. For the freely floating foams the flow profiles become essentially rate-independent, the local and global rheology do not match, and in particular the foam flows in regions where the stress is below the global yield stress. We attribute this to nonlocal effects and show that the "fluidity" model recently introduced by Goyon {\\em et al.} ({\\em Nature}, {\\bf 454} (2008)) captures the essential features of flow both with and without a top plate.

  13. Foam generator and viscometer apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Troy D.; Pickell, Mark B.; Volk, Leonard J.

    2004-10-26

    An apparatus and process to generate a liquid-gas-surfactant foam and to measure its viscosity and enable optical and or electronic measurements of physical properties. The process includes the steps of pumping selected and measured liquids and measured gases into a mixing cell. The mixing cell is pressurized to a desired pressure and maintained at a desired pressure. Liquids and gas are mixed in the mixing cell to produce a foam of desired consistency. The temperature of the foam in the mixing cell is controlled. Foam is delivered from the mixing cell through a viscometer under controlled pressure and temperature conditions where the viscous and physical properties of the foam are measured and observed.

  14. Foams Stabilized by Tricationic Amphiphilic Surfactants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth Heerschap; John N. Marafino; Kristin McKenna; Kevin L. Caran; Klebert Feitosa

    2015-09-11

    The unique surface properties of amphiphilic molecules have made them widely used in applications where foaming, emulsifying or coating processes are needed. Novel surfactant architectures with multi-cephalic and multi-tailed molecules have reportedly enhanced their anti-bacterial activity in connection with tail length and the nature of the head group, but their ability to produce and stabilize foam is mostly unknown. Here we report on experiments with tris-cationic, triple-headed, double- and single-tailed amphiphiles and their foamability and foam stability with respect to head group, tail number and tail length. The amphiphiles are composed of an aromatic mesitylene core and three benzylic amonium bromide groups, with alkyl chains attached to one or two of the head groups. Whereas shorter (14 carbons in length) double-tailed molecules are found to produce very stable foams, foams made with single tail molecules of the same length show poor foamability and stability, and foams with longer (16 carbons in length) double-tail molecules do not foam with the methods used. By contrast, the structure of the non-tail-bearing head group (trimethylammonium vs. pyridinium) has no impact on foamability. Furthermore, observations of the coarsening rate at nearly constant liquid content indicate that the enhanced foam stability is a result of lower gas permeability through the surfactant monolayer. Finally, the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of the surfactants demonstrates to be a good predictor of foamability and foam stability for these small molecule surfactants. This results inform how surfactant architecture can be tailored to produce stable foams.

  15. Volume equalized constitutive equations for foamed polymer solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valkó, Peter

    Volume equalized constitutive equations for foamed polymer solutions P. Valko and M. J. Economides; accepted 21 April 1992) Synopsis In order to develop a constitutive equation for foamed polymer solutions Hydroxypropylguar (HPG) solutions containing a small amount of foaming agent and foamed by nitrogen and/or carbon

  16. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  17. Compounding and foaming of microfibrillatedCompounding and foaming of microfibrillated cellulose and polylactic acid biocompositescellulose and polylactic acid biocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    foamed with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) under different conditions. The structure of the foams CO2 foaming, based on the instability of fluids above the critical temperature and critical pressure foams. CO2 blowing agent was chosen due to its chemical environmental (non-toxic) and economic

  18. The physical properties of microcellular composite foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyitray, A.M.; Williams, J.M.; Onn, D.; Witek, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Applied Thermal Physics Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    Recently we reported on a method of preparing microcellular composite foams. In this procedure an open-celled polystyrene foam is prepared by the polymerization of a high-internal-phase water-in-oil emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene, surfactant, free-radial initiator and water. After drying, the cells of the polystyrene foam are then filled with other materials such as aerogel or resoles. The physical properties of these materials, e.g., surface area, density, thermal conductivity, and compressive strength will be presented. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  20. Statistical Mechanics of Two-dimensional Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Durand

    2010-09-07

    The methods of statistical mechanics are applied to two-dimensional foams under macroscopic agitation. A new variable -- the total cell curvature -- is introduced, which plays the role of energy in conventional statistical thermodynamics. The probability distribution of the number of sides for a cell of given area is derived. This expression allows to correlate the distribution of sides ("topological disorder") to the distribution of sizes ("geometrical disorder") in a foam. The model predictions agree well with available experimental data.

  1. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-06-25

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g-1000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  2. Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Variable valve actuation with onoff IEGR pre-bump is...

  3. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Huo, X. Sharon [Tennessee Technological University

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  4. UMBC POLICY ON LOST AND FOUND PROPERTY I. POLICY STATEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suri, Manil

    UMBC POLICY ON LOST AND FOUND PROPERTY I. POLICY STATEMENT The UMBC community will have access to a University Policy on Lost and Found Property. II. PURPOSE OF THE POLICY The purpose of the Lost and Found Property Policy is to provide procedures for the accountability and safekeeping of currency and tangible

  5. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A RECTANGULAR HE-COOLED REFRACTORY FOAM HX-CHANNEL FOR DIVERTOR APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    .williams@ultramet.com A rectangular single channel low pressure drop helium-cooled refractory metal heat exchanger (HX) tube the path of helium flow through foam to about 11 mm and thus the pressure drop through the porous media surfaces, such as a flat-plate divertor, without substantially increasing the coolant pressure losses. We

  6. Radiative transfer and thermal performance levels in foam insulation boardstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, John David

    1991-01-01

    The validity of predictive models for the thermal conductivity of foam insulation is established based on the fundamental geometry of the closed-cell foam. The extinction coefficient is experimentally and theoretically ...

  7. Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Gilbreth; Scott Sullivan; Michael Dennin

    2006-08-08

    For sufficiently slow rates of strain, flowing foam can exhibit inhomogeneous flows. The nature of these flows is an area of active study in both two-dimensional model foams and three dimensional foam. Recent work in three-dimensional foam has identified three distinct regimes of flow [S. Rodts, J. C. Baudez, and P. Coussot, Europhys. Lett. {\\bf 69}, 636 (2005)]. Two of these regimes are identified with continuum behavior (full flow and shear-banding), and the third regime is identified as a discrete regime exhibiting extreme localization. In this paper, the discrete regime is studied in more detail using a model two dimensional foam: a bubble raft. We characterize the behavior of the bubble raft subjected to a constant rate of strain as a function of time, system size, and applied rate of strain. We observe localized flow that is consistent with the coexistence of a power-law fluid with rigid body rotation. As a function of applied rate of strain, there is a transition from a continuum description of the flow to discrete flow when the thickness of the flow region is approximately 10 bubbles. This occurs at an applied rotation rate of approximately $0.07 {\\rm s^{-1}}$.

  8. Yielding and flow of foamed metakaolin pastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucie Ducloué; Olivier Pitois; Laurent Tocquer; Julie Goyon; Guillaume Ovarlez

    2015-10-01

    Metakaolin is a broadly used industrial raw material, with applications in the production of ceramics and geopolymers, and the partial replacement of Portland cement. The early stages of the manufacturing of some of these materials require the preparation and processing of a foamed metakaolin-based slurry. In this study, we propose to investigate the rheology of a foamed metakaolin-based fresh paste by performing well-controlled experiments. We work with a non-reactive metakaolin paste containing surfactant, in which we disperse bubbles of known radius at a chosen volume fraction. We perform rheometry measurements to characterize the minimum stress required for the foamed materials to flow (yield stress), and the dissipation occurring during flow. We show that the yield stress of the foamed samples is equal to the one of the metakaolin paste, and that dissipation during flow increases quadratically with the bubble volume fraction. Comparison with yielding and flow of model foamed yield stress fluids allows us to understand these results in terms of coupling between the bubbles' surface tension and the metakaolin paste's rheology.

  9. Method for making one-container rigid foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.

    2005-04-12

    A method of making a one-container foam by dissolving a polymer in liquified gas at a pressure greater than the vapor pressure of the liquified gas and than rapidly decreasing the pressure within approximately 60 seconds to foam a foam. The foam can be rigid and also have adhesive properties. The liquified gas used is CF.sub.3 l or mixtures thereof.

  10. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  11. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 2. Synthetic Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 2. Synthetic Crude Oil Systems Nael N. Zaki, Michael K to the petroleum industry. Nonaqueous foams occur in the production of and refining of crude oil. Crude oil foams can pose major problems for operators of gas/oil separation plants, causing a loss of crude

  12. Mechanistic Foam Flow Simulation in Heterogeneous and Multidimensional Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    , and thermal reservoir simulator and created a fully functional, mechanistic foam simulator. Because foam, field-scale model for foam displacement is currently in use. The population-balance method for modeling that is analogous to energy and species mass balances7, 8. Accordingly, a separate conservation equation is written

  13. Elastic effects in the foaming of thermoplastics Celeste Sagui,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Martin

    . Inside an extruder, the foams are pre- pared by dissolving a small molecular species, such as CO2 , whichElastic effects in the foaming of thermoplastics Celeste Sagui,1 Luc Piche´,1,2 Abdelhadi Sahnoune1063-651X 98 16109-3 PACS number s : 83.80.Bp, 61.25.Hq, 82.70.Rr Polymeric foams have gained

  14. Experiments for foam model development and validation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Mahoney, James F.; Russick, Edward Mark; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Gorby, Allen D.

    2008-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to allow observation of the foaming process and the collection of temperature, rise rate, and microstructural data. Microfocus video is used in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to elucidate the boundary condition at the wall. Rheology, reaction kinetics and density measurements complement the flow visualization. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to examine the cured foams to determine density gradients. These data provide input to a continuum level finite element model of the blowing process.

  15. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Cash, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  16. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Rand, P.B.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  17. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Aubert, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  18. Progress in The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Wright, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50{percent} through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April, 1990--March, 1991. 4 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Thermo-mechanical characterization of silicone foams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rangaswamy, Partha; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Cady, Carl M.; Lewis, Matthew W.

    2015-10-01

    Cellular solids such as elastomeric foams are used in many structural applications to absorb and dissipate energy, due to their light weight (low density) and high energy absorption capability. In this paper we will discuss foams derived from S5370, a silicone foam formulation developed by Dow Corning. In the application presented, the foam is consolidated into a cushion component of constant thickness but variable density. A mechanical material model developed by Lewis (2013), predicts material response, in part, as a function of relative density. To determine the required parameters for this model we have obtained the mechanical response in compressionmore »for ambient, cold and hot temperatures. The variable density cushion provided samples sufficient samples so that the effect of sample initial density on the mechanical response could be studied. The mechanical response data showed extreme sensitivity to relative density. We also observed at strains corresponding to 1 MPa a linear relationship between strain and initial density for all temperatures. Samples taken from parts with a history of thermal cycling demonstrated a stiffening response that was a function of temperature, with the trend of more stiffness as temperature increased above ambient. This observation is in agreement with the entropic effects on the thermo-mechanical behavior of silicone polymers. In this study, we present the experimental methods necessary for the development of a material model, the testing protocol, analysis of test data, and a discussion of load (stress) and gap (strain) as a function of sample initial densities and temperatures« less

  20. Pipe viscometry of foams C. Enzendorfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valkó, Peter

    Pipe viscometry of foams C. Enzendorfer Institute of Drilling and Production, Mining University solutions are used widely. They are especially attractive as proppant carrying fluids in hydraulic frac a homogeneous fluid with rheology depending not only on the shear rate but on additional parameters

  1. Rapid oxidation/stabilization technique for carbon foams, carbon fibers and C/C composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Seng; Tan, Cher-Dip

    2004-05-11

    An enhanced method for the post processing, i.e. oxidation or stabilization, of carbon materials including, but not limited to, carbon foams, carbon fibers, dense carbon-carbon composites, carbon/ceramic and carbon/metal composites, which method requires relatively very short and more effective such processing steps. The introduction of an "oxygen spill over catalyst" into the carbon precursor by blending with the carbon starting material or exposure of the carbon precursor to such a material supplies required oxygen at the atomic level and permits oxidation/stabilization of carbon materials in a fraction of the time and with a fraction of the energy normally required to accomplish such carbon processing steps. Carbon based foams, solids, composites and fiber products made utilizing this method are also described.

  2. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO? foam for CO? EOR application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ning; Lee, Robert; Yu, Jianjia; Li, Liangxiong; Bustamante, Elizabeth; Khalil, Munawar; Mo, Di; Jia, Bao; Wang, Sai; San, Jingshan; An, Cheng

    2015-01-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop nanoparticle-stabilized CO? foam for CO? -EOR application, in which nanoparticles instead of surfactants are used for stabilizing CO? foam to improve the CO? sweep efficiency and increase oil recovery. The studies included: (1) investigation of CO? foam generation nanoparticles, such as silica nanoparticles, and the effects of particle concentration and surface properties, CO?/brine ratio, brine salinity, pressure, and temperature on foam generation and foam stability; (2) coreflooding tests to understand the nanoparticle-stabilized CO? foam for waterflooded residual oil recovery, which include: oil-free coreflooding experiments with nanoparticle-stabilized CO? foam to understand the transportation of nanoparticles through the core; measurements of foam stability and CO? sweep efficiency under reservoir conditions to investigate temperature and pressure effects on the foam performance and oil recovery as well as the sweep efficiency in different core samples with different rock properties; and (3) long-term coreflooding experiments with the nanoparticle- stabilized CO? foam for residual oil recovery. Finally, the technical and economical feasibility of this technology was evaluated.

  3. Military housing foam application and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  4. Osmotic Stabilisation of Concentrated Emulsions and Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Webster; M. E. Cates

    2001-01-19

    In the absence of coalescence, coarsening of emulsions (and foams) is controlled by molecular diffusion of dispersed phase between droplets/bubbles. Studies of dilute emulsions have shown how the osmotic pressure of a trapped species within droplets can ``osmotically stabilise'' the emulsion. Webster and Cates (Langmuir, 1998, 14, 2068-2079) gave rigorous criteria for osmotic stabilisation of mono- and polydisperse emulsions, in the dilute regime. We consider here whether analogous criteria exist for the osmotic stabilisation of mono- and polydisperse concentrated emulsions and foams, and suggest that the pressure differences driving coarsening are small compared to the mean Laplace pressure. An exact calculation confirms this for a monodisperse 2D model, finding a bubble's pressure as P_i = P + Pi + P_i^G, with P, Pi the atmospheric and osmotic pressures, and P_i^G a ``geometric pressure'' that reduces to the Laplace pressure only for a spherical bubble. For Princen's 2D emulsion model, P_i^G is only 5% larger in the dry limit than the dilute limit. We conclude that osmotic stabilisation of dense systems typically requires a pressure of trapped molecules in each droplet that is comparable to the Laplace pressures the same droplets would have if spherical, as opposed to the much larger Laplace pressures present in the system. We study coarsening of foams and concentrated emulsions when there is insufficient of the trapped species present. Rate-limiting mechanisms are considered, their applicability and associated droplet growth rates discussed. In a concentrated foam or emulsion, a finite yield threshold for droplet rearrangement may be enough to prevent coarsening of the remainder.

  5. ENHANCEMENT OF STRUCTURAL FOAM MATERIALS BY INCORPORATION OF GASIFIER SLAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olin Perry Norton; Ronald A. Palmer; W. Gene Ramsey

    2006-03-15

    As advanced gasification technology is increasingly adopted as an energy source, disposal of the resulting slag will become a problem. We have shown that gasifier slag can be incorporated into foamed glass, which is currently being manufactured as an abrasive and as an insulating material. The slag we add to foamed glass does not simply act as filler, but improves the mechanical properties of the product. Incorporation of gasifier slag can make foamed glass stronger and more abrasion resistant.

  6. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Tanya; Davies, Daniel; Bhadra, Shoham; Van Tassell, Barry.; Erdonmez, Can; Steingart, Daniel A.

    2015-04-24

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrastmore »to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn?/Zn˛? showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.« less

  7. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chamoun, Mylad [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hertzberg, Benjamin J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Gupta, Tanya [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Davies, Daniel [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bhadra, Shoham [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Van Tassell, Barry. [City College of New York, NY (United States); Erdonmez, Can [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steingart, Daniel A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-04-24

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrast to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn?/Zn˛? showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.

  8. Foaming characteristics of refigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Shah, D.O.; Jotshi, C.K.; Bhagwat, S.; Leung, M.; Gregory, A.

    1997-04-01

    The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry has moved to HFC refrigerants which have zero ozone depletion and low global warming potential due to regulations on CFC and HCFC refrigerants and concerns for the environment. The change in refrigerants has prompted the switch from mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants to polyolester-based lubricants. This change has also brought about a desire for lubricant, refrigerant and compressor manufacturers to understand the foaming properties of alternative refrigerant/ lubricant mixtures, as well as the mechanisms which affect these properties. The objectives of this investigation are to experimentally determine the foaming absorption and desorption rates of HFC and blended refrigerants in polyolester lubricant and to define the characteristics of the foam formed when the refrigerant leaves the refrigerant/ lubricant mixture after being exposed to a pressure drop. The refrigerants being examined include baseline refrigerants: CFC-12 (R-12) and HCFC-22 (R-22); alternative refrigerants: HFC-32 (R-32), R-125, R-134a, and R-143a; and blended refrigerants: R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A. The baseline refrigerants are tested with ISO 32 (Witco 3GS) and ISO 68 (4GS) mineral oils while the alternative and blended refrigerants are tested with two ISO 68 polyolesters (Witco SL68 and ICI RL68H).

  9. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Derzon, Dora K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nelson, Jill S. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  10. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  11. Tissue Magnetic Susceptibility Matched Pyrolytic Graphite Foam for Improved MRI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Gary Chiaray

    2011-01-01

    on a ZPrinter Model 150 3D printer (ZCorp, Burlington, MA),PG foam neck cushions. A 3D printer was used to create the

  12. Evaluation of biodegradation potential of foam embedded Burkholderia cepacia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    of contaminated ground- waters. Materials and methods Bacterial growth conditions and foam preparation Axenic to degrade pollutants like aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents (Fol- som and Chapman, 1991

  13. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  14. FOAM (Functional Ontology Assignments for Metagenomes): A Hidden...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ontology Assignments for Metagenomes): A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) database with environmental focus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FOAM (Functional Ontology...

  15. Show me the (shortest) way to go home Foams, soap films and minimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    importance: · Oil recovery · Car manufacture · (Industrial) cleaning · Fire-fighting · Ore separation · Personal Care · Food products Why are foams of interest? foams@aber.ac.uk #12;

  16. polyurethane foam Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L.; Henderson...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L.; Henderson, C.; Skala, D.M. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; FOAMS;...

  17. Lost conservation opportunities in the Pacific Northwest irrigation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1987-06-01

    Initial efforts in the study were focused on identifying potential lost opportunities. Results of these efforts resulted in the following measures being identified as potential lost opportunities in the irrigation sector: pumping plant efficiency improvements on both existing and new sprinkler irrigated acres, low-pressure irrigation on new sprinkler acres, and mainline modification and fittings redesign on new sprinkler acres. All of these potential lost opportunities except fittings design were subject to more detailed analyses through a survey of irrigation equipment dealers, pump repairers and country extension agents. Fittings design was omitted from the survey. Results of the survey indicated that only high-efficiency electric motors and correct pump selection methods on existing and new sprinkler systems and low-pressure irrigation on new handmove/sideroll systems should be considered lost opportunities.

  18. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} species to MnO during melter preprocessing. At the lower redox limit of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {approx} 0.09 about 99% of the Mn{sup +4}/Mn{sup +3} is converted to Mn{sup +2}. Therefore, the lower REDOX limits eliminates melter foaming from deoxygenation.

  19. A vibrating razor blade machining tool for material removal on low- density foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillyer, D.F. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed an accurate method of machining low-density foams into rectangular blank shapes by using a commercial oscillating razor blade machining tool concept marketed as a Vibratome. Since 1970, Vibratome has been used by medical laboratories to section fresh or fixed animal and plant tissues without freezing or embedding. By employing a vibrating razor blade principle, Vibratome sectioning avoids the alteration of morphology and the destruction of enzyme activities. The patented vibrating blade principle moves the sectioning razor blade in a reciprocating arcuate path as it penetrates the specimen. Sectioning takes place in a liquid bath using an ordinary injector-type razor blade. Although other commercial products may accomplish the same task, the Vibratome concept is currently being used at LLNL to obtain improved foam surface qualities from razor machining by combining state-of-the-art air bearing hardware with precise linear motion and an electrodynamic exciter that generates sinusoidal excitation. Razor cut foam surfaces of less than 25 {mu}m (0.001 in.) flatness are achieved over areas of 8.75 in.{sup 2} (2.5 {times} 3.5 in.). Razor machining of wide or narrow foam surfaces is generally characterized by a continuous curl chip for the full length of the material removed. This continuous chip facilitates flatness and prevents increased surface densities caused by material chip collection often left in the surface cells by conventional machine tools. This report covers the design evolution of razor machining of non-metallic soft materials. Hardware that maintains close dimensional tolerances and concurrently leaves the machined surface free of physical property changes is described. 20 figs.

  20. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Burchell, Timothy D.; Choudhury, Ashok

    2004-01-06

    A thermally conductive carbon foam is provided, normally having a thermal conductivity of at least 40 W/m.multidot.K. The carbon foam usually has a specific thermal conductivity, defined as the thermal conductivity divided by the density, of at least about 75 W.multidot.cm.sup.3 /m.multidot..degree.K.multidot.gm. The foam also has a high specific surface area, typically at least about 6,000 m.sup.2 /m.sup.3. The foam is characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern having "doublet" 100 and 101 peaks characterized by a relative peak split factor no greater than about 0.470. The foam is graphitic and exhibits substantially isotropic thermal conductivity. The foam comprises substantially ellipsoidal pores and the mean pore diameter of such pores is preferably no greater than about 340 microns. Other materials, such as phase change materials, can be impregnated in the pores in order to impart beneficial thermal properties to the foam. Heat exchange devices and evaporatively cooled heat sinks utilizing the foams are also disclosed.

  1. Sandia-Power Surety Task Force Hawaii foam analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-11-01

    The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Power Surety Task Force was officially created in early 2008, after nearly two years of work in demand reduction and renewable energy technologies to support the Warfighter in Theater. The OSD Power Surety Task Force is tasked with identifying efficient energy solutions that support mission requirements. Spray foam insulation demonstrations were recently expanded beyond field structures to include military housing at Ft. Belvoir. Initial results to using the foam in both applications are favorable. This project will address the remaining key questions: (1) Can this technology help to reduce utility costs for the Installation Commander? (2) Is the foam cost effective? (3) What application differences in housing affect those key metrics? The critical need for energy solutions in Hawaii and the existing relationships among Sandia, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Forest City, make this location a logical choice for a foam demonstration. This project includes application and analysis of foam to a residential duplex at the Waikulu military community on Oahu, Hawaii, as well as reference to spray foam applied to a PACOM facility and additional foamed units on Maui, conducted during this project phase. This report concludes the analysis and describes the utilization of foam insulation at military housing in Hawaii and the subsequent data gathering and analysis.

  2. Carbon 41 (2003) 11751180 Thermomechanical behavior of a graphite foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    2003-01-01

    vehicle radiators, satellite panels, heat exchangers for the low density of 0.5 g/cm , the specific), 0.15 for flexible graphite and 0.22 for PTFE. The loss tangent of the graphite foam decreased strain in the graphite foam upon heating and subsequent cooling, such that the thermal expansion

  3. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 1. Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    by unwanted foaming. To study this phenomenon, 20 crude oils were subjected to low-pressure foaming volume, not collapse slope, strongly related to crude oil surface tension. For low asphaltenic crudes the production of crude oil and gas is the high pressure separator, often followed by one or more separators

  4. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Burchell, Timothy D.; Choudhury, Ashok

    2006-07-04

    A thermally conductive carbon foam is provided, normally having a thermal conductivity of at least 40 W/mK. The carbon foam usually has a specific thermal conductivity, defined as the thermal conductivity divided by the density, of at least about 75 Wcm.sup.3/m.degree. Kgm. The foam also has a high specific surface area, typically at least about 6,000 m.sup.2/m.sup.3. The foam is characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern having "doublet" 100 and 101 peaks characterized by a relative peak split factor no greater than about 0.470. The foam is graphitic and exhibits substantially isotropic thermal conductivity. The foam comprises substantially ellipsoidal pores and the mean pore diameter of such pores is preferably no greater than about 340 microns. Other materials, such as phase change materials, can be impregnated in the pores in order to impart beneficial thermal properties to the foam. Heat exchange devices and evaporatively cooled heat sinks utilizing the foams are also disclosed.

  5. Recovery of flexible polyurethane foam from shredder residue.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, b. J.

    1999-06-29

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a patented, continuous process for the recovery of flexible polyurethane foam (PUF) from auto shredder residue (ASR). To test the process, Argonne researchers conceived of, designed, and built a continuous foam washing and drying system that was pilot-tested at a shredder facility for six months. Economic analysis of the process, using manufacturers' quotes and operating data from Argonne's pilot plant, indicates a payback of less than two years for a plant producing about 1,000 ton/yr of foam. Samples of clean foam were shipped to three major foam reprocessors; all three indicated that the quality of the PUF recovered by the Argonne process met their requirements. Tests of the recovered foam by an independent testing laboratory showed that the recycled foam met the specifications for several automotive applications, including carpet padding, headliner, and sound-suppression support materials. Recovery of foam reduces the mass and the volume of material going to the landfill by about 5% and 30%, respectively. Annually, recovery will save about 1.2 x 10{sup 12} Btu of energy, cut the amount of solid waste being landfilled by about 150,000 tons, and eliminate the emission of about 250 tons of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air.

  6. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

    1984-11-21

    A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  7. Mechanical behavior of Nickel base foams for Diesel Particle Filter applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    conditions. 1 Introduction Open-cell Ni foams are mainly used as battery electrodes. The very large spe of microtomography of Ni foams [3], 2D image analysis and electrical resistivity measurements. Creep of alloyed foams creep. A 3D investigation of microtomographic foam images with the Finite Elements Method is finally

  8. Quantum Foam, Gravity and Gravitational Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, R T

    2003-01-01

    The new information-theoretic Process Physics has shown that space is a quantum foam system with gravity being, in effect, an inhomogeneous in-flow of the quantum foam into matter. The theory predicts that absolute motion with respect to this system should be observable, and it is shown here that absolute motion has been detected in at least seven experiments. As well this experimental data also reveals the existence of a gravitational wave phenomena associated with the in-flow. It is shown that Galilean Relativity and Special Relativity are in fact compatible, contrary to current beliefs: absolute motion actually causes the special relativity effects. The new theory of gravity passes all the tests of the previous Newtonian and General Relativity theories, but in addition resolves the numerous gravitational anomalies such as the spiral galaxy `dark matter' effect, the absence of `dark matter' in elliptical galaxies, the inconsistencies in measuring G, the borehole g anomaly, and others. It is shown that Newto...

  9. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GOOLSBY,TOMMY D.; SCOTT,STEVEN H.

    1999-09-15

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be seriously injured during violent confrontations. The very low density of the high expansion foam also makes it more suitable for indoor use. This paper summarizes the results of the project.

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Zhong, Lirong; White, Mark D.; Szecsody, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Foam has the potential to effectively carry and distribute either aqueous or gaseous amendments to the deep vadose zone for contaminant remediation. However, the transport of foam in porous media is complicated because flow characteristics such as the effective viscosity are affected not only by foam properties but also by the sediment properties and flow conditions. We determined the average effective foam viscosity via a series of laboratory experiments and found that the effective foam viscosity increased with the liquid fraction in foam, the injection rate, and sediment permeability. These impacts are quantified with an empirical expression, which is further demonstrated with data from literature. The results show that the liquid fraction in foam and sediment permeability are two primary factors affecting effective foam viscosity. These results suggest that, when foam is used in deep vadose zone remediation, foam flow will not suffer from gravitational drainage and can distribute amendments uniformly in heterogeneous sediments.

  11. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer foamed with a chemical blowing agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazlett, R.D.; Shu, P.

    1989-05-16

    A method is described for reducing the permeability in an area of a subterranean formation which consists of mixing a gellable composition containing: water, about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt.% of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group charide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group, and about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt.% of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer thereby causing the polymer to become more thermally stable. Also included are sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to reduce permeability in a more permeable zone in the formation. A chemical surfactant, and an alkali metal salt of azodicarboxylic acid, are then introduced produce a gas sufficient to foam the composition described above. The composition is then injected into the desired area of the formation where the azodicarboxylic acid decomposes thereby generating nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas in an amount sufficient to form a foam which subsequently hardens and reduces the permeability in the desired area.

  12. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  13. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we will discuss some of the early pioneering work as well as some of our more recent research. The Albany Research Center (ARC) has been involved with the melting and processing of metals since it was established in 1942. In the early days, hardly anything was known about melting refractory or reactive metals and as such, virtually everything had to be developed in-house. Besides the more common induction heated air-melt furnaces, ARC has built and/or utilized a wide variety of furnaces including vacuum arc remelt ingot and casting furnaces, cold wall induction furnaces, electric arc furnaces, cupola furnaces and reverberatory furnaces. The melt size of these furnaces range from several grams to a ton or more. We have used these furnaces to formulate custom alloys for wrought applications as well as for such casting techniques as spin casting, investment casting and lost foam casting among many. Two early spin-off industrializations were Wah Chang (wrought zirconium alloys for military and commercial nuclear applications) and Oremet (both wrought and cast Ti). Both of these companies are now part of the ATI Allegheny Ludlum Corporation.

  14. KOSHLIAKOV'S FORMULA AND GUINAND'S FORMULA IN RAMANUJAN'S LOST NOTEBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Bruce C.

    KOSHLIAKOV'S FORMULA AND GUINAND'S FORMULA IN RAMANUJAN'S LOST NOTEBOOK BRUCE C. BERNDT1 , YOONBOK involving the modified Bessel function K(z). These include Koshliakov's formula and Guinand's formula, both by these authors several years after Ramanujan's death. Other formulas, including one by K. Soni and two

  15. Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty Steinar M. Elgsaeter Olav.ntnu.no) Abstract: The information content in measurements of offshore oil and gas production is often low, and when in the context of offshore oil and gas fields, can be considered the total output of production wells, a mass

  16. Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Periodicals, Inc. KEYWORDS: VOC control; air pollution control; modeling; biologically activated foam filters are increasingly utilized for air pollution control from stationary sources (Cox and Deshusses in air was examined. Model parametric sensitivity studies showed which parameters affect the removal

  17. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    on soda-silicate or soda-lime- silicate melts [2-5,9], or on6]. However, even for soda- lime glasses and metallurgicalon the foaming of soda-lime glass batch in air atmospheres

  18. Carbon foam characterization: sandwich flexure, tensile and shear response 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarzynski, Melanie Diane

    2004-09-30

    The focus of this research is characterizing a new material system composed of carbon and graphite foams, which has potential in a wide variety of applications encompassing aerospace, military, offshore, power production ...

  19. Spectroscopic diagnosis of foam z-pinch plasmas on SATURN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Allshouse, G.; Deeney, C.; Jobe, D.; Seaman, J.; Gilliland, T.; McGurn, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); MacFarlane, J.J.; Wang, P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Solid and annular silicon aerogel and agar foams were imploded on the SATURN accelerator to study plasma initiation, acceleration, and stagnation. SATURN delivers 7 MA with a 50 ns rise time to these foam loads. We fielded several spectroscopic diagnostics to measure plasma parameters throughout the z-pinch discharge. A spatially resolved single frame time-gated extreme ultraviolet spectrometer measured the extent of plasma ablation off the surface of the foam. A time integrated crystal spectrometer showed that characteristic K shell radiation of silicon in the aerogel and of sulfur and sodium impurities in the agar were attenuated when the foam loads were coated with a conductive layer of gold. A time-resolved pinhole camera showed that in general the quality of the pinch implosions was poor but improved with increasing efforts to improve current continuity such as prepulse and conductive coatings. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Spectroscopic diagnosis of foam z-pinch plasmas on SATURN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Allshouse, G.; Deeney, C.; Jobe, D.; McGurn, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacFarlane, J.J.; Wang, P. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Solid and annular silicon aerogel and agar foams were shot on the accelerator SATURN to study plasma initiation, acceleration, and stagnation. SATURN delivers 7 MA with a 50 nsec rise time to these foam loads. We fielded several spectroscopic diagnostics to measure plasma parameters throughout the z-pinch discharge. A spatially resolved single frame time-gated EUV spectrometer measured the extent of plasma ablation off the surface foam. A time integrated crystal spectrometer showed that characteristic K shell radiation of silicon in the aerogel and of S and Na impurities in the agar were all attenuated when the foam loads were coated with a conductive layer of gold. The time resolved pinhole camera showed that in general the quality of the pinch implosions was poor but improved with increasing efforts to improve current continuity such as prepulse and conductive coatings.

  1. Graphite Foams for Lithium-Ion Battery Current Collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Tiegs, Terry N [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Jang, Young-Il [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Graphite open-cell foams, with their very high electronic and thermal conductivities, may serve as high surface area and corrosion resistant current collectors for lithium-ion batteries. As a proof of principle, cathodes were prepared by sintering carbon-coated LiFePO4 particles into the porous graphite foams. Cycling these cathodes in a liquid electrolyte cell showed promising performance even for materials and coatings that have not been optimized. The specific capacity is not limited by the foam structure, but by the cycling performance of the coated LiFePO4 particles. Upon extended cycling for more than 100 deep cycles, no loss of capacity is observed for rates of C/2 or less. The uncoated graphite foams will slowly intercalate lithium reversibly at potentials less than 0.2 volts versus lithium.

  2. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  3. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1998-08-04

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g--1,000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  4. Plackett-Burman Analysis of Glass Microballoon Filled Syntactic Foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Zachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cordes, Nikolaus Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-21

    Syntactic foams are an important category of composite materials that have abundant applications in a wide variety of fields. The current study utilized a Plackett-Burman (PB) experimental design to investigate the main effects of six variables on properties of syntactic foams formulated from a silicone elastomer and glass microballoons(MB). Findings from this investigation are meant to identify the most significant variables with respect to foam properties. Eight foam samples were created and tested using thermal, physical and mechanical techniques. The data from these tests was then evaluated using a Plackett-Burman response coefficient calculation (RCC). This calculation was applied to determine the statistical significance of the selected variables by comparison with a dummy variable. The data suggests that thermal properties, such as glass transition temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion, do not rely on any of the studied variables. Physical and mechanical measurements however were found to depend heavily on the matrix composition and the vacuum pressure used during mixing. Some variables were found to have little to no effect on any of the studied properties. Ultimately, this data could be used to formulate a comprehensive catalogue of syntactic foams based on their compositions. This type of database would allow customers in industry to identify which syntactic foam would best fit their application according to one or two properties.

  5. Polymer grouts for plugging lost circulation in geothermal wells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, D. (Green Mountain International, Waynesvile, NC); Mansure, Arthur James; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-12-01

    We have concluded a laboratory study to evaluate the survival potential of polymeric materials used for lost circulation plugs in geothermal wells. We learned early in the study that these materials were susceptible to hydrolysis. Through a systematic program in which many potential chemical combinations were evaluated, polymers were developed which tolerated hydrolysis for eight weeks at 500 F. The polymers also met material, handling, cost, and emplacement criteria. This screening process identified the most promising materials. A benefit of this work is that the components of the polymers developed can be mixed at the surface and pumped downhole through a single hose. Further strength testing is required to determine precisely the maximum temperature at which extrusion through fractures or voids causes failure of the lost circulation plug.

  6. Bubbling supertubes and foaming black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bena, Iosif; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2006-09-15

    We construct smooth BPS three-charge geometries that resolve the zero-entropy singularity of the U(1)xU(1) invariant black ring. This singularity is resolved by a geometric transition that results in geometries without any branes sources or singularities but with nontrivial topology. These geometries are both ground states of the black ring, and nontrivial microstates of the D1-D5-P system. We also find the form of the geometries that result from the geometric transition of N zero-entropy black rings, and argue that, in general, such geometries give a very large number of smooth bound-state three-charge solutions, parametrized by 6N functions. The generic microstate solution is specified by a four-dimensional hyper-Kaehler geometry of a certain signature, and contains a 'foam' of nontrivial two-spheres. We conjecture that these geometries will account for a significant part of the entropy of the D1-D5-P black hole, and that Mathur's conjecture might reduce to counting certain hyper-Kaehler manifolds.

  7. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams...

  8. Effect of microstructure of closed cell foam on strength and effective stiffness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sue, Ji Woong

    2007-04-25

    This research is concerned with the modeling and failure analysis of closed cell foam with various scales of microstructure that is disordered due to defects. This foam material is used for the forward bipod closeout on ...

  9. Mesoscale simulation of shocked poly-(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroen, Diana Grace; Flicker, Dawn G.; Haill, Thomas A.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

    2011-06-01

    Hydrocarbon foams are commonly used in HEDP experiments, and are subject to shock compression from tens to hundreds of GPa. Modeling foams is challenging due to the heterogeneous character of the foam. A quantitative understanding of foams under strong dynamic compression is sought. We use Sandia's ALEGRA-MHD code to simulate 3D mesoscale models of pure poly(4-methyl-1-petene) (PMP) foams. We employ two models of the initial polymer-void structure of the foam and analyze the statistical properties of the initial and shocked states. We compare the simulations to multi-Mbar shock experiments at various initial foam densities and flyer impact velocities. Scatter in the experimental data may be a consequence of the initial foam inhomogeneity. We compare the statistical properties the simulations with the scatter in the experimental data.

  10. The Effect of Moisture Absorption on the Physical Properties of Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymer Foams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ya-Jen

    2012-07-16

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams...

  11. Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for supercritical CO2 power cycles for concentrated solar power Title Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat...

  12. Moab Project Logs 2 Million Work Hours Without Lost-Time Injury...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Logs 2 Million Work Hours Without Lost-Time Injury or Illness Moab Project Logs 2 Million Work Hours Without Lost-Time Injury or Illness March 31, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Empty...

  13. Recovery of the lost individual: a Deweyan examination of individuality and community 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, Nakia S

    1999-01-01

    In 1929 - 1930, John Dewey wrote a series of essays which became the work "Individualism Old and New.'' In this work, he describes a type of individual which he terms "lost.'' The lost individual is disconnected, disoriented, and disassociated...

  14. Modelling Lost Person Behaviour and Intelligent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in a Wilderness Search and Rescue Scenario 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRiggi, John

    2013-01-11

    ’re lost should be reasonable input variables into a model attempting to predict the lost person’s most likely path. Taken a significant step further, if unmanned aerial vehicles enabled with terrain recognition and navigation capabilities derived from...

  15. Plackett-Burman experimental design to facilitate syntactic foam development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Zachary D.; Keller, Jennie R.; Bello, Mollie; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Torres, Joseph A.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pacheco, Robin M.; Sandoval, Cynthia W.

    2015-09-14

    The use of an eight-experiment Plackett–Burman method can assess six experimental variables and eight responses in a polysiloxane-glass microsphere syntactic foam. The approach aims to decrease the time required to develop a tunable polymer composite by identifying a reduced set of variables and responses suitable for future predictive modeling. The statistical design assesses the main effects of mixing process parameters, polymer matrix composition, microsphere density and volume loading, and the blending of two grades of microspheres, using a dummy factor in statistical calculations. Responses cover rheological, physical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The cure accelerator content of the polymer matrix andmore »the volume loading of the microspheres have the largest effects on foam properties. These factors are the most suitable for controlling the gel point of the curing foam, and the density of the cured foam. The mixing parameters introduce widespread variability and therefore should be fixed at effective levels during follow-up testing. Some responses may require greater contrast in microsphere-related factors. As a result, compared to other possible statistical approaches, the run economy of the Plackett–Burman method makes it a valuable tool for rapidly characterizing new foams.« less

  16. Vacuum Furnace Brazing Open Cell Reticulated Foam to Stainless Steel Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.S.

    2002-09-13

    This paper describes the intended application and development effort required to braze the copper foam to the stainless steel tubing.

  17. The Stokes experiment in a foam S.J. Cox, M.D. Alonso

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    dishwasher detergent (Fairy Liquid) and push gas through a sparger immersed in the solution. The foam which

  18. Lost River Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressedListguidedand Long BeachLost River

  19. Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: I. Model Development and Experimental Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , a new type of bioreactor for air pollution control referred to as the foamed emulsion bior- eactor (FEBR of an actively growing culture of pollutant-degrading microor- ganisms, made into a foam with the air undergoing. KEYWORDS: VOC control; air pollution control; modeling; biologically activated foam; biodegradation

  20. Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams Christopher Gilbreth, Scott Sullivan, and Michael Dennin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennin, Michael

    Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams Christopher Gilbreth, Scott Sullivan, and Michael Dennin: November 21, 2006) For sufficiently slow rates of strain, flowing foam can exhibit inhomogeneous flows. The nature of these flows is an area of active study in both two-dimensional model foams and three

  1. Foam Control using a Fluidized Bed of Hydrophobic Particles by Clara Mata*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    Foam Control using a Fluidized Bed of Hydrophobic Particles by Clara Mata* & D. D. Joseph may be strongly suppressed by fluidizing hydrophilic particles in the bubbly mixture below the foam different tests (particle-induced film rupture and foam shake test), but they did not use a fluidized bed

  2. Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer Andrei G models for thermophysical and transport properties and heat, mass, and radiation transfer in glass foams. In addition, the new results on simulation of combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in glass foams

  3. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1996-03-19

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam are disclosed. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm{sup 3} and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  4. Casting Loop Quantum Cosmology in the Spin Foam Paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhay Ashtekar; Miguel Campiglia; Adam Henderson

    2010-04-03

    The goal of spin foam models is to provide a viable path integral formulation of quantum gravity. Because of background independence, their underlying framework has certain novel features that are not shared by path integral formulations of familiar field theories in Minkowski space. As a simple viability test, these features were recently examined through the lens of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Results of that analysis, reported in a brief communication [1], turned out to provide concrete arguments in support of the spin foam paradigm. We now present detailed proofs of those results. Since the quantum theory of LQC models is well understood, this analysis also serves to shed new light on some long standing issues in the spin foam and group field theory literature. In particular, it suggests an intriguing possibility for addressing the question of why the cosmological constant is positive and small.

  5. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

    1996-01-01

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm.sup.3 and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  6. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  7. Exotherm data acquisition in polyurethane foam formation using a microcomputer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebrard, M.J.; Leroux, J.

    1986-01-01

    An Apple microcomputer was used to collect exotherm data of the reactions leading to the formation of polyurethane foams, to differentiate the curves with respect to time and to measure the position and magnitude of the inflection points. Hardware, software, operations and reproducibility of this automated data acquisition system are described.

  8. 1. Introduction Slag foaming consists of introducing gas bubbles into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    that slag foaming could be more beneficial in steel production. Indeed, it provides a shield bubbled into molten CaO­SiO2­FeO­MgO­Al2O3 slags of various compositions contained in cylindrical tanks

  9. Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed. The new process relies on an organic-phase emulsion and actively growing pollutant- degrading

  10. Protein accumulation and distribution in floodplain soils and river foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rilli, Matthias C.

    REPORT Protein accumulation and distribution in floodplain soils and river foam Mary J. Harner,1 of particular organisms is unknown. In this study, we explore how a Bradford-reactive soil protein (BRSP in Montana, we extracted BRSP from soils and related the protein concentrations to the age of soil surfaces

  11. Modeling triblock surfactant-templated mesostructured cellular foams Supriyo Bhattacharyaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Supriyo

    to understand the role of surfactant self-assembly in the synthesis of templated mesoporous materials, and inorganic oxide. Depending on the temperature and component concentrations, these systems phase separate to sphere transition associated with the synthesis of the mesostructured cellular foams MCFs . Pore size

  12. Self-lubricated transport of aqueous foams in horizontal conduits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    1. Introduction Foams are encountered in many industrial applications; they are used as cleaning fluids, fire mitigators and in froth flotation in the paper and metallurgy industry. Many cosmetics in under-balanced drilling, for reservoir clean-up and for enhanced oil recovery in porous sand

  13. Environmentally-benign Flame Retardant Nanocoating for Foam and Fabric 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cain, Amanda Ashley

    2014-12-09

    for the purpose of inhibiting or suppressing the combustion cycle. Inspiration for first applying polymer/clay thin films (i.e., nanobrick walls) as flame retardant (FR) coatings to polyurethane foam via LbL came from the final stage of a proposed flame...

  14. 1 INTRODUCTION Flexible polyurethane foams are usually applied in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , producing polyurea and carbon dioxide, with simultaneous expansion of CO2 bubbles (foaming) and polymerization of the mixture. The first step of the expansion is bubble nucleation, where CO2 molecules chemical reactions take place: the first one creates CO2 into the fluid matrix (germination of bubbles

  15. Generalized entering coefficients: A criterion for foam stability against oil in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, V.; Fagan, M.E.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The unique mobility-control properties of foam in porous media make it an attractive choice as an injection fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Unfortunately, in many cases oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important to understand how oil destabilizes foam and what surfactant properties lead to increased stability against oil. To explain the stability of foam in porous media in the presence of oil, we generalize the ideas of spreading and entering behavior using Frumkin-Deryaguin wetting theory. This formulation overcomes the inherent deficiencies in the classical spreading and entering coefficients used to explain foam stability against oil. We find that oil-tolerant foam can be produced by making the oil surface ``water wet``. To test our theoretical ideas, we measure foam-flow resistance through 45--70 {mu}m glass beadpacks, surface and interfacial tensions, and disjoining pressure isotherms for foam and pseudoemulsion films for a variety of surfactant/oil systems. Most notably, we measure pseudoemulsion-film disjoining pressure isotherms for the first time and directly establish that pseudoemulsion film stability controls the stability of the foam in the systems we tested. Moreover, we demonstrate the correspondence between stable pseudoemulsion films, negative entering behavior, and oil-tolerant foams.

  16. Mixing energy analysis of Bingham plastic fluids for severe lost circulation prevention using similitude 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massingill, Robert Derryl, Jr.

    2006-04-12

    , efforts have been focused on developing new Lost Circulation Materials (LCM?s) that are more effective and that minimize the operation costs by achieving sufficient FCS to allow drilling to continue.7,8 A variety of products have been proposed with a... chemical lost circulation treatments have emerged that focus on rapid application and effectively widening the mud weight window, therefore, minimizing drilling costs. Among the most popular LCM?s used while treating minor lost circulations are blended...

  17. A Lost Generation: The Trafficking of China’s Left-Behind Children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellmann, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    McGirk, Yanning Wei A Lost Generation: The Trafficking ofhis son. “For the older generation, they feel like such a

  18. Big Bang Day : Afternoon Play - Torchwood: Lost Souls

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Martha Jones, ex-time traveller and now working as a doctor for a UN task force, has been called to CERN where they're about to activate the Large Hadron Collider. Once activated, the Collider will fire beams of protons together recreating conditions a billionth of a second after the Big Bang - and potentially allowing the human race a greater insight into what the Universe is made of. But so much could go wrong - it could open a gateway to a parallel dimension, or create a black hole - and now voices from the past are calling out to people and scientists have started to disappear... Where have the missing scientists gone? What is the secret of the glowing man? What is lurking in the underground tunnel? And do the dead ever really stay dead? Lost Souls is a spin-off from the award-winning BBC Wales TV production Torchwood. It stars John Barrowman, Freema Agyeman, Eve Myles, Gareth David-Lloyd, Lucy Montgomery (of Titty Bang Bang) and Stephen Critchlow.

  19. Effects of quantum space time foam in the neutrino sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus; H. Päs; U. Sarkar

    2000-07-05

    We discuss violations of CPT and quantum mechanics due to interactions of neutrinos with space-time quantum foam. Neutrinoless double beta decay and oscillations of neutrinos from astrophysical sources (supernovae, active galactic nuclei) are analysed. It is found that the propagation distance is the crucial quantity entering any bounds on EHNS parameters. Thus, while the bounds from neutrinoless double beta decay are not significant, the data of the supernova 1987a imply a bound being several orders of magnitude more stringent than the ones known from the literature. Even more stringent limits may be obtained from the investigation of neutrino oscillations from active galactic nuclei sources, which have an impressive potential for the search of quantum foam interactions in the neutrino sector.

  20. Calibrating the Abaqus Crushable Foam Material Model using UNM Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schembri, Philip E.; Lewis, Matthew W.

    2014-02-27

    Triaxial test data from the University of New Mexico and uniaxial test data from W-14 is used to calibrate the Abaqus crushable foam material model to represent the syntactic foam comprised of APO-BMI matrix and carbon microballoons used in the W76. The material model is an elasto-plasticity model in which the yield strength depends on pressure. Both the elastic properties and the yield stress are estimated by fitting a line to the elastic region of each test response. The model parameters are fit to the data (in a non-rigorous way) to provide both a conservative and not-conservative material model. The model is verified to perform as intended by comparing the values of pressure and shear stress at yield, as well as the shear and volumetric stress-strain response, to the test data.

  1. Equipment compatibility and logistics assessment for containment foam deployment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McRoberts, Vincent M.; Martell, Mary-Alena; Jones, Joseph A.

    2005-09-01

    The deployment of the Joint Technical Operations Team (JTOT) is evolving toward a lean and mobile response team. As a result, opportunities to support more rapid mobilization are being investigated. This study investigates three specific opportunities including: (1) the potential of using standard firefighting equipment to support deployment of the aqueous foam concentrate (AFC-380); (2) determining the feasibility and needs for regional staging of equipment to reduce the inventory currently mobilized during a JTOT response; and (3) determining the feasibility and needs for development of the next generation AFC-380 to reduce the volume of foam concentrate required for a response. This study supports the need to ensure that requirements for alternative deployment schemes are understood and in place to support improved response activities.

  2. Comments on Cahill's Quantum Foam Inflow Theory of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. D. Martin

    2004-07-20

    We reveal an underlying flaw in Reginald T. Cahill's recently promoted quantum foam inflow theory of gravity. It appears to arise from a confusion of the idea of the Galilean invariance of the acceleration of an individual flow with what is obtained as an acceleration when a homogeneous flow is superposed with an inhomogeneous flow. We also point out that the General Relativistic covering theory he creates by substituting a generalized Painleve-Gullstrand metric into Einstein's field equations leads to absurd results.

  3. Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    nearly linearly with the heating rate and no foam was produced when CO2 + 55% H2O atmosphere was introduced at 300°C. It was shown that the lack of foaming in the test with CO2 + 55% H2O atmospherePNNL-15394 Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D.-S. Kim M. Portch J. Matyas

  4. Process Physics: From Quantum Foam to General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T. Cahill

    2002-03-05

    Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality. Here general relativity and the technical language of general covariance is seen not to be fundamental but a phenomenological construct, arising as an amalgam of two distinct phenomena: the `gravitational' characteristics of the emergent quantum foam for which `matter' acts as a sink, and the classical `spacetime' measurement protocol, but with the later violated by quantum measurement processes. Quantum gravity, as manifested in the emergent Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of the process-space or quantum foam, is logically prior to the emergence of the general relativity phenomenology, and cannot be derived from it.

  5. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viecelli, James A. (Orinda, CA); Wood, Lowell L. (Simi Valley, CA); Ishikawa, Muriel Y. (Livermore, CA); Nuckolls, John H. (Danville, CA); Pagoria, Phillip F. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  6. The use of coated micropowders to reduce radiation heat transfer in foam insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marge, Arlene Lanciani

    1991-01-01

    Polyurethane foam is the most effective insulation currently available for buildings. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blowing agents, which have low thermal conductivities, contribute highly to the effectiveness of this insulation. ...

  7. Synthesis of Mesocellular Silica Foams with Tunable Window and Cell Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    Polystyrene microspheres coated with cationic surfactants are easily prepared by micro- emulsion templates. These silica foams resemble dense aerogels. Introduction Because of their greatly enhanced pore

  8. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  9. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  10. An Estimate of Tidal Energy Lost to Turbulence at the Hawaiian Ridge JODY M. KLYMAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasubramanian, Ravi

    An Estimate of Tidal Energy Lost to Turbulence at the Hawaiian Ridge JODY M. KLYMAK Scripps an estimate of 3 1.5 GW of tidal energy lost to turbulence dissipation within 60 km of the ridge and Toole 1997). Another closely related question is that of where tidal energy gets removed from the ocean

  11. JULY 2005 1 An estimate of tidal energy lost to turbulence at the Hawaiian Ridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klymak, Jody M.

    JULY 2005 1 An estimate of tidal energy lost to turbulence at the Hawaiian Ridge JODY M. KLYMAK1 of the ridge, giving an estimate of 3±1.5 GW of tidal energy lost to turbulence dissipation within 60 km relation- ship between the energy in the semi-diurnal internal tide (E) and the depth

  12. Lost at Sea: Hurricane Force Wind Fields and the North Pacific Ocean Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Businger, Steven

    Lost at Sea: Hurricane Force Wind Fields and the North Pacific Ocean Environment 1 Steven Businger and Selen Yildiz SOEST at University of Hawaii at Manoa This research is supported by ONR Lost at Sea: Hurricane Force Wind Fields and the North Pacific Ocean Environment 2 Hurricane Force (HF) Wind Fields

  13. Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Portch, Matthew P.; Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2005-09-23

    In a previous study, the effect of the furnace atmosphere on E glass foaming was investigated with the specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. The present study extended the previous study and focused on the effect of glass batch chemical composition on E-glass foaming. The present study also included reruns of foam tests performed in a previous study, which resulted in the same trend: the foaming extent increased nearly linearly with the heating rate and no foam was produced when CO2 + 55% H2O atmosphere was introduced at 300°C. It was shown that the lack of foaming in the test with CO2 + 55% H2O atmosphere introduced at 300°C was caused by a loss of sulfate at T <1250°C because of higher water content at the early stages of melting. The tests with new batches in the present study showed that replacing quicklime with limestone tend to decrease foaming, possibly caused by increased sulfate loss during early stages of melting in the batch with limestone. The batches where Na2SO4 was replaced with NaNO3, NaNO3 + CeO2, or CeO2, produced only very limited foaming regardless of the replacing components. As expected, the foaming extent increased as the sulfate content in the batch increased. The results of the present study suggest that foaming can be reduced by using limestone over quicklime and by decreasing the sulfate addition to a minimum required for refining.

  14. Multiple Percolation in a Carbon-Filled Polymer Composites via Foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    . However, there are few publi- cations reporting on the electrical conductivity of foam polymer composites6Multiple Percolation in a Carbon-Filled Polymer Composites via Foaming M. R. Thompson,1 G. H conductivity for a car- bon-filled cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) composite incorpo- rating both chopped carbon

  15. Sedimenting discs in a two-dimensional foam I. T. Davies, S. J. Cox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    ]. Other work where foam flow is probed by a fixed sphere uses the variation in drag force on the particle weight. Their positions are tracked and the lift and drag force measured in numerical calculations using on experiments in which a constant force is applied to a particle in a foam is limited to a single sphere [6

  16. Foam Superstabilization by Polymer Microrods Rossitza G. Alargova, Devdutta S. Warhadpande, Vesselin N. Paunov, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    suspension close to its coagulation point5 or short living foams stabilized by sludge particles.9 A large University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905, and Surfactant & Colloid Group, Department of Chemistry foam systems stabilized by solid particles have been reported, and usually the particles have been used

  17. Mechanism(s) of cell Nucleation and Growth in Foam Injection Molding through Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Mechanism(s) of cell Nucleation and Growth in Foam Injection Molding through Visualization Research field: Mechanism(s) of cell Nucleation and Growth in Foam Injection Molding through Visualization Equipment/materials: Injection Molding Machine, Visualization Mold, High-speed Camera, Thermoplastics

  18. CELLULAR FOAMS: A POTENTIAL INNOVATIVE SOLID BREEDER MATERIAL FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    CELLULAR FOAMS: A POTENTIAL INNOVATIVE SOLID BREEDER MATERIAL FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS S. Sharafat-1597; shahrams@ucla.edu Ultramet Inc., Pacoima CA, Pacoima CA 91331-2210 Ceramic foam and cellular materials the past decade advances in manufacturing of cellular materials have resulted in ceramics with highly

  19. Solid-State Microcellular Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Foams Solid-StateMicrocellular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Solid-State Microcellular Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Foams Solid-StateMicrocellular Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Foams Ross E. Murray, John E. Weller and Vipin Kumar* Department of Mechanical. INTRODUCTION ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)has grown to become one of the most widely used thermoplastic

  20. Plasticity of sandwich beam withPlasticity of sandwich beam withPlasticity of sandwich beam withPlasticity of sandwich beam with metallic foam coremetallic foam coremetallic foam coremetallic foam core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Xiaoyu

    Plasticity of sandwich beam withPlasticity of sandwich beam withPlasticity of sandwich beam withPlasticity-- · Plasticity of lightweight sandwich structures, 2006 --Plasticity of lightweight sandwich structures, 2006 --Plasticity of lightweight sandwich structures, 2006 --Plasticity of lightweight sandwich structures, 2006

  1. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming Dong-Sang Kim a,*, Bryan C. Dutton b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming Dong-Sang Kim a,*, Bryan C. Dutton b , Pavel R in revised form 21 August 2006 Abstract The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming has been studied with the specific goal of understanding the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E

  2. Impact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams Impact Strength of High Relative Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    microcellular CPET foams using C02asa blowing agent are described. Starting with solid CPET, foams with relative is an increased glass transition temperature (T,), thus requiring higher foaming temperatures. Baldwin and Suh inwhich the polymer is first saturated with a gas, and then heated to a temperature above the glass

  3. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anatasia; Baker, Richard; Prahl, Duncan

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  4. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  5. FOAM (Functional Ontology Assignments for Metagenomes): A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) database with environmental focus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prestat, Emmanuel; David, Maude M.; Hultman, Jenni; Ta , Neslihan; Lamendella, Regina; Dvornik, Jill; Mackelprang, Rachel; Myrold, David D.; Jumpponen, Ari; Tringe, Susannah G.; et al

    2014-09-26

    A new functional gene database, FOAM (Functional Ontology Assignments for Metagenomes), was developed to screen environmental metagenomic sequence datasets. FOAM provides a new functional ontology dedicated to classify gene functions relevant to environmental microorganisms based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Sets of aligned protein sequences (i.e. ‘profiles’) were tailored to a large group of target KEGG Orthologs (KOs) from which HMMs were trained. The alignments were checked and curated to make them specific to the targeted KO. Within this process, sequence profiles were enriched with the most abundant sequences available to maximize the yield of accurate classifier models. An associatedmore »functional ontology was built to describe the functional groups and hierarchy. FOAM allows the user to select the target search space before HMM-based comparison steps and to easily organize the results into different functional categories and subcategories. FOAM is publicly available at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/m1317/FOAM/.« less

  6. Prompt radiation-induced conductivity in polyurethane foam and glass microballoons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2014-06-01

    We performed measurements and analyses of the prompt radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of polyurethane foam and glass microballoon foam at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. The RIC coefficient was non-linear with dose rate for polyurethane foam; however, typical values at 1E11 rad(si)/s dose rate was measured as 0.8E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 5 lb./cu ft. foam and 0.3E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 10 lb./cu ft. density polyurethane foam. For encapsulated glass microballoons (GMB) the RIC coefficient was approximately 1E-15 mho/m/rad/s and was not a strong function of dose rate.

  7. FOAM (Functional Ontology Assignments for Metagenomes): a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) database with environmental focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prestat, E.; David, M. M.; Hultman, J.; Ta , N.; Lamendella, R.; Dvornik, J.; Mackelprang, R.; Myrold, D. D.; Jumpponen, A.; Tringe, S. G.; Holman, E.; Mavromatis, K.; Jansson, J. K.

    2014-09-26

    A new functional gene database, FOAM (Functional Ontology Assignments for Metagenomes), was developed to screen environmental metagenomic sequence datasets. FOAM provides a new functional ontology dedicated to classify gene functions relevant to environmental microorganisms based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Sets of aligned protein sequences (i.e. ‘profiles’) were tailored to a large group of target KEGG Orthologs (KOs) from which HMMs were trained. The alignments were checked and curated to make them specific to the targeted KO. Within this process, sequence profiles were enriched with the most abundant sequences available to maximize the yield of accurate classifier models. An associated functional ontology was built to describe the functional groups and hierarchy. FOAM allows the user to select the target search space before HMM-based comparison steps and to easily organize the results into different functional categories and subcategories. FOAM is publicly available at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/m1317/FOAM/.

  8. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, Ephim

    2014-01-01

    A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

  9. FOAM (Functional Ontology Assignments for Metagenomes): A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) database with environmental focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prestat, Emmanuel; David, Maude M.; Hultman, Jenni; Ta , Neslihan; Lamendella, Regina; Dvornik, Jill; Mackelprang, Rachel; Myrold, David D.; Jumpponen, Ari; Tringe, Susannah G.; Holman, Elizabeth; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Jansson, Janet K.

    2014-09-26

    A new functional gene database, FOAM (Functional Ontology Assignments for Metagenomes), was developed to screen environmental metagenomic sequence datasets. FOAM provides a new functional ontology dedicated to classify gene functions relevant to environmental microorganisms based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Sets of aligned protein sequences (i.e. ‘profiles’) were tailored to a large group of target KEGG Orthologs (KOs) from which HMMs were trained. The alignments were checked and curated to make them specific to the targeted KO. Within this process, sequence profiles were enriched with the most abundant sequences available to maximize the yield of accurate classifier models. An associated functional ontology was built to describe the functional groups and hierarchy. FOAM allows the user to select the target search space before HMM-based comparison steps and to easily organize the results into different functional categories and subcategories. FOAM is publicly available at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/m1317/FOAM/.

  10. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.

    2012-12-01

    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cement’s curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and –toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS surfaces; 2) inhibiting the cathodic reactions at the corrosion site of CS; 3) extending the coverage of cement over CS surfaces; and, 4) improving the adherence of the cement to CS surfaces. Thus, the CS’s corrosion rate of 176 milli inch/per year (mpy) for 1 wt% FA-foamed cement without AP was considerably reduced to 69 mpy by adding only 2 wt% AP. Addition of AP at 10 wt% further reduced this rate to less than 10 mpy.

  11. Controlling Foaming in Hydrogen Release from Boranes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortal Controlling Foaming in Hydrogen Release

  12. Sea change for foam | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcomingmagnetoresistance | ArgonnePrinceton PlasmaSea change for foam Sea

  13. Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with TCP structure[Tetrahedrally Close-Packed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REINELT,DOUGLAS A.; KRAYNIK,ANDREW M.

    2000-02-16

    The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to large, quasistatic, simple shearing deformations is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by calculating foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The minimal surfaces are computed with the Surface Evolver program developed by Brakke. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3} where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometry and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations that violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new foam topology associated with each stable solution branch results from a cascade of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization.

  14. Fact #901: November 30, 2015 States Assessing Fees on Electric Vehicles to Make Up For Lost Fuel Tax Revenue- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for States Assessing Fees on Electric Vehicles to Make Up For Lost Fuel Tax Revenue

  15. Y-12 Construction hits one million-hour mark without a lost-time...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Construction hits one ... Y-12 Construction hits one million-hour mark without a lost-time accident Posted: August 30, 2012 - 5:30pm The B&W Y-12 Direct-Hire Construction team has...

  16. Wanderl[o]st: Lost Identities and Losing Place in the New World (Dis)Order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitney, Kendall Abbott

    2009-04-22

    Through the investigation of works by contemporary Spanish and Spanish-American writers--Roberto Bolańo, Abilio Estévez, Lucía Etxebarria, Ray Loriga, and Antonio José Ponte--this project explores subjects that get lost ...

  17. A review of "The Romantic Legacy of Paradise Lost: Reading against the grain" by Jonathan Shears 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urban, David V.

    2013-01-01

    ? and ?contextual studies.? As a snapshot of recent work by both junior and senior scholars in the ?eld, To Repair the Ruins speaks to the methodological vigor, diversity, and eclecticism of American Milton studies today. Jonathan Shears. ?e Romantic Legacy... and Romantic literature? and ?the legacy that Romantic readings of Paradise Lost have held, and still hold, on the critical consciousness? (?). Respecting but consciously setting his argument against Lucy Newlyn?s Paradise Lost and the Romantic Reader...

  18. Evaluation of equipment and methods to map lost circulation zones in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, W.J.; Leon, P.A.; Pittard, G.

    1981-05-01

    A study and evaluation of methods to locate, characterize, and quantify lost circulation zones are described. Twenty-five methods of mapping and quantifying lost circulation zones were evaluated, including electrical, acoustical, mechanical, radioactive, and optical systems. Each tool studied is described. The structured, numerical evaluation plan, used as the basis for comparing the 25 tools, and the resulting ranking among the tools is presented.

  19. Radiation induced effects on mechanical properties of nanoporous gold foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro, M., E-mail: magda@lanl.gov, E-mail: efu@pku.edu.cn; Fu, E. G., E-mail: magda@lanl.gov, E-mail: efu@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Y. Q.; Martinez, E.; Caro, A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mook, W. M.; Sheehan, C.; Baldwin, J. K. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-06-09

    It has recently been shown that due to a high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoporous materials display radiation tolerance. The abundance of surfaces, which are perfect sinks for defects, and the relation between ligament size, defect diffusion, and time combine to define a window of radiation resistance [Fu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191607 (2012)]. Outside this window, the dominant defect created by irradiation in Au nanofoams are stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT). Molecular dynamics computer simulations of nanopillars, taken as the elemental constituent of foams, predict that SFTs act as dislocation sources inducing softening, in contrast to the usual behavior in bulk materials, where defects are obstacles to dislocation motion, producing hardening. In this work we test that prediction and answer the question whether irradiation actually hardens or softens a nanofam. Ne ion irradiations of gold nanofoams were performed at room temperature for a total dose up to 4 dpa, and their mechanical behavior was measured by nanoindentation. We find that hardness increases after irradiation, a result that we analyze in terms of the role of SFTs on the deformation mode of foams.

  20. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC) [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  1. Foaming/antifoaming in WTP Tanks Equipped with Pulse Jet Mixer and Air Spargers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HASSAN, NEGUIB

    2004-06-29

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using actual Hanford waste and simulants subjected to air sparging. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated in SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming and ultrafiltration studies and commercial antifoam DOW Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels, HLW Concentrate Receipt Vessel, and the Ultrafiltration Vessels to assist the performance of the Jet Pulse Mixers (JPM). Sparging of air into WTP tanks will induce a foam layer within the process vessels. The air dispersion in the waste slurries and generated foams could present problems during plant operation. Foam in the tanks could also adversely impact hydrogen removal and mitigation. Antifoam (DOW Q2-3183A) will be used to control foaming in Hanford sparged waste processing tanks. These tanks will be mixed by a combination of pulse-jet mixers and air spargers. The percent allowable foaminess or freeboard in WTP tanks are shown in tables.

  2. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  3. Foam composition for treating asbestos-containing materials and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, J.; Krupkin, N.V.; Kuespert, D.R.; Nishioka, G.M.; Lau, J.W.K.; Palmer, N.I.

    1998-04-28

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, at least about 0.1% by weight of a source of fluoride ions, and a stable foam forming amount of a foaming agent system having both cationic and non-ionic functionality. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition in the form of a foam also disclosed.

  4. Heat transfer in sound propagation and attenuation through gas-liquid polyhedral foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri M. Shtemler; Isaac R. Shreiber

    2007-05-20

    A cell method is developed, which takes into account the bubble geometry of polyhedral foams, and provides for the generalized Rayleigh-Plesset equation that contains the non-local in time term corresponding to heat relaxation. The Rayleigh-Plesset equation together with the equations of mass and momentum balances for an effective single-phase inviscid fluid yield a model for foam acoustics. The present calculations reconcile observed sound velocity and attenuation with those predicted using the assumption that thermal dissipation is the dominant damping mechanism in a range of foam expansions and sound excitation frequencies.

  5. Microstructural characterization of in situ MXCT images of high density foams under large strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Brian M; Gleiman, Seth; Marks, Trevor G; Milstein, Fredrick

    2009-01-01

    Foams are used in numerous applications, such as vibration damping and energy mitigation (e.g., packaging and helmets), wherein their mechanical properties are of critical importance. A typical compressive response of a high density elastomeric foam, shown in Fig 1, generally contains three regions of interest: (I) a linear-elastic region, governed by strut bending; (II) a relatively flat, or slowly increasing stress-strain response, accompanied by strut buckling and the localized collapse of pores; and (III) an exponentially increasing stress-strain curve wherein the collapse of the pore matrix leads to densification. Two material properties of interest, upon which considerable research has focused are the foam's Young's modulus, E{sub f}, defined as the slope of the stress-strain response in region I, and the collapse stress, {sigma}{sub f}, defined as the stress at which the response begins to deviate from linearity. It has been observed [1, 2, 3] that Young's modulus and the collapse stress are dependent on the material properties of the strut material and the non-dimensional relative-density of the foam, {rho}* = {rho}{sub f}/{rho}{sub m}, where {rho}{sub r} is the gross density of the foam and {rho}{sub m} is the density of the strut, or matrix, material. For foam of low relative-density, i.e, {rho}* < 0.1, the collapse stress and Young's modulus obey the relations {sigma}{sub c}/E{sub m} {proportional_to} ({rho}*){sup m} and E{sub f}/E{sub m} {proportional_to} ({rho}*){sup n} where E{sub m} is Young's modulus of the strut material and the bounds on the parameters m and n are 0.05 {le} m {le} 0.2 and 1 {le} n {le} 4 [4]. For open-celled foams, n = 2, whereas for closed-celled foams, n = 3. Theoretically, n = 1 for foams with an ''ideal strut'' configuration [6]. Foams of high relative-density ({rho}* > 0.1) require correcting terms to account for the axial contributions of the ''thick'' struts [5]. The above equations relate important foam properties to the relative-density of the foam; however, there exists a gap in the understanding of how the foam microstructure affects the mechanical response of the foam. This is due in large part to the difficulty of characterizing foam structures in 3D, especially foams of high relative-density. Most elastomeric foams are manufactured by the introduction of a gas into a cross-linking polymer. The developing foam microstructure has a complex dependence on the polymer viscosity and rate of polymerization, resulting in a randomly arranged pore structure with a large distribution of pore sizes. One approach is to characterize foam microstructures solely in terms of the cross-sectional shape and vector arrangement of the strut matrix, since it is this matrix that supports the stresses upon loading of the foam; yet as the density of a foam is increased, the very definition of what constitutes a strut brakes down. Another, perhaps easier to visualize, characterization of foam microstructure can come from a description of the pore shape and arrangement. Given the random nature of the microstructures of blown foam, both approaches are useful and valid. This paper describes our work aimed at linking the mechanical response and microstructural evolution of high relative-density foam as it undergoes large deformation. This work consists of several inter-related parts, including (i) measuring the compressive stress-strain response, as illustrated in Fig. 1, (ii) obtaining in situ micro X-ray computed tomography (MXCT) images of high relative-density foams undergoing large strains, and (iii) developing mathematical, computer aided, methodologies to perform image analysis and calculations of parameters that characterize the pores and struts. By using MXCT, a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal structure of materials, we are able to observe, internally, individual struts and pores as they undergo large deformation. Here we describe our computer aided image analysis methodologies and present examples of their application to the MXCT images of foams. Operations of the compute

  6. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2013_Foamed Cement_20140124.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Figure 1, the 10% foam quality sample, the entrained air is not visibly apparent to the naked eye. Larger, "vug-like" air voids are noticeable in one of the samples. This is a...

  7. Density measurement of shock compressed foam using two-dimensional x-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Pape, Sebastien; Macphee, Andrew; Hey, Daniel; Patel, Pravesh; Mackinnon, Andrew; Key, Mike; Pasley, John; Wei, Mingsheng; Chen, Sophia; Ma, Tammy; Beg, Farhat; Alexander, N.; Stephens, Rich; Offerman, Dustin; Link, A.; Van-Woerkom, Lynn; Freeman, R.

    2008-10-15

    We have used spherically bent quartz crystal to image a laser-generated shock in a foam medium. The foam targets had a density of 0.16 g/cm{sup 3} and thickness of 150 {mu}m, an aluminum/copper pusher drove the shock. The experiment was performed at the Titan facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a 2 ns, 250 J laser pulse to compress the foam target, and a short pulse (10 ps, 350 J) to generate a bright Ti K{alpha} x-ray source at 4.5 keV to radiograph the shocked target. The crystal used gives a high resolution ({approx}20 {mu}m) monochromatic image of the shock compressed foam.

  8. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2014_Addendum 1 to Foamed Cement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Langlinais, J. C.; Griffith, J. E. Foamed cement job successful in deep HTHP offshore well. Oil and Gas Journal 1996, 94, 58-63. Kutchko, B.; Crandall, D.; Gill, M.; McIntyre,...

  9. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    efficiency with foam targets is due to novel fabrication techniques based on atomic-layer-deposition of Ti atoms on an aerogel scaffold. A Ti concentration of 33 at. % was...

  10. Self-Similar Collapse of Stationary Bulk Foams Tad W. Patzek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    and water coning in aquifer gas storage projects (With- erspoon et al., 1987; Persoff et al., 1990 component, but must then release it at a reasonable rate. Foam-protected gas storage would rely on emplacing

  11. Application of Genetic Algorithms and Thermogravimetry to Determine the Kinetics of Polyurethane Foam in Smoldering Combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Lautenberger, Chris; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Torero, Jose L; Urban, David

    In this work, the kinetic parameters governing the thermal and oxidative degradation of flexible polyurethane foam are determined using thermogravimetric data and a genetic algorithm. These kinetic parameters are needed ...

  12. Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam is displacing wet suppression as the method of choice for controlling fugitive emissions from coal. Coal treated by wet suppression consumes through moisture addition, a heat energy equivalent of 1 ton out of every ...

  13. Part IB Metals Course A: Worked Examples (2022)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    2022-01-01

    and the surface finish is good. A heat­resistant nickel base alloy cast using the lost wax process in which a wax model is surrounded by ceramic, the wax is then burnt off and the metal cast into the ceramic mould

  14. FOAM FORMATION IN THE SALTSTONE PRODUCTION FACILITY: EVALUATION OF SOURCES AND MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.

    2011-01-18

    The Saltstone Production Facility receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. Influents into Tank 50H include the Effluent Treatment Project waste concentrate, H-Canyon low activity waste and General Purpose Evaporator bottoms, Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit decontaminated salt solution, and salt solution from the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjust campaign. Using the Waste Characterization System (WCS), this study tracks the relative amounts of each influent into Tank 50H, as well as the total content of Tank 50H, in an attempt to identify the source of foaming observed in the Saltstone Production Facility hopper. Saltstone has been using antifoam as part of routine processing with the restart of the facility in December 2006. It was determined that the maximum admix usage in the Saltstone Production Facility, both antifoam and set retarder, corresponded with the maximum concentration of H-Canyon low activity waste in Tank 50H. This paper also evaluates archived salt solutions from Waste Acceptance Criteria analysis for propensity to foam and the antifoam dosage required to mitigate foaming. It was determined that Effluent Treatment Project contributed to the expansion factor (foam formation) and General Purpose Evaporator contributed to foaminess (persistence). It was also determined that undissolved solids contribute to foam persistence. It was shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced both the expansion factor and foaminess of salt solutions. The evaluation of foaming in the grout hopper during the transition from water to salt solution indicated that higher water-to-premix ratios tended to produce increased foaming. It was also shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced foam formation and persistence.

  15. Method and composition for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lula, James W. (Bonner Springs, KS); Schicker, James R. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    1984-01-01

    A method and a composition are provided for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles. A low density molded desiccant article may be made as a syntactic foam by blending a thermosetting resin, microspheres and molecular sieve desiccant powder, molding and curing. Such articles have densities of 0.2-0.9 g/cc, moisture capacities of 1-12% by weight, and can serve as light weight structural supports.

  16. Method and composition for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.; Schicker, J.R.

    1984-05-08

    A method and a composition are provided for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles. A low density molded desiccant article may be made as a syntactic foam by blending a thermosetting resin, microspheres and molecular sieve desiccant powder, molding and curing. Such articles have densities of 0.2-0.9 g/cc, moisture capacities of 1-12% by weight, and can serve as light weight structural supports.

  17. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  18. Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Anchored Nanocarbon Hybrid Foam for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    such as batteries and fuel cells. Increasing the energysuch as batteries and fuel cells 1 . In often cases SCs are

  19. Mechanical behavior of closed-cell and hollow-sphere metallic foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Wynn Steven, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    (cont.) The elastic anisotropy and yield surfaces are fully characterized, and numerical equations are developed to allow the simple evaluation of the effect of geometric and material properties on the mechanical behavior ...

  20. Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Anchored Nanocarbon Hybrid Foam for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    supercapacitors. Energy & Environmental Science Wang, W. etultracapacitors. Energy & Environmental Science 3, Xia, H. ,

  1. Model Fit to Experimental Data for Foam-Assisted Deep Vadose Zone Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roostapour, A.; Lee, G.; Zhong, Lirong; Kam, Seung I.

    2014-01-15

    Foam has been regarded as a promising means of remeidal amendment delivery to overcome subsurface heterogeneity in subsurface remediation processes. This study investigates how a foam model, developed by Method of Characteristics and fractional flow analysis in the companion paper of Roostapour and Kam (2012), can be applied to make a fit to a set of existing laboratory flow experiments (Zhong et al., 2009) in an application relevant to deep vadose zone remediation. This study reveals a few important insights regarding foam-assisted deep vadose zone remediation: (i) the mathematical framework established for foam modeling can fit typical flow experiments matching wave velocities, saturation history , and pressure responses; (ii) the set of input parameters may not be unique for the fit, and therefore conducting experiments to measure basic model parameters related to relative permeability, initial and residual saturations, surfactant adsorption and so on should not be overlooked; and (iii) gas compressibility plays an important role for data analysis, thus should be handled carefully in laboratory flow experiments. Foam kinetics, causing foam texture to reach its steady-state value slowly, may impose additional complications.

  2. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centers, P.W.

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino; Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (?500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  4. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Smegal, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  5. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  6. PROFESSIONS DE FOI, CTPU FEVRIER 2010 Christopher Newfield: You think the strikes lost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    PROFESSIONS DE FOI, CTPU FEVRIER 2010 Christopher Newfield: You think the strikes lost? Isabelle, as well as the professions de foi which explain what each list stands for. As far as I can tell that in practice one votes not for a collection of individual candidates but rather for a profession de foi. I

  7. Carbon geochemistry of serpentinites in the Lost City Hydrothermal System (30N, MAR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Massif (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N) was exam- ined to characterize carbon sources and speciation in oceanic. The speciation of carbon de- pends on the chemical and physical conditions prevailing in the reservoir, and itsCarbon geochemistry of serpentinites in the Lost City Hydrothermal System (30°N, MAR) Ade

  8. Bridge Funding Bridge funding is designed to stabilize meritorious research programs that have lost extramural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    Bridge Funding Overview: Bridge funding is designed to stabilize meritorious research programs that have lost extramural funding. Bridge funds are for one year and are intended to enhance the likelihood by the applicant's Department/Division. Applicants may only request bridge funding once per calendar year. Bridge

  9. Accelerated Aging of BKC 44306-10 Rigid Polyurethane Foam: FT-IR Spectroscopy, Dimensional Analysis, and Micro Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbertson, Robert D.; Patterson, Brian M.; Smith, Zachary

    2014-01-02

    An accelerated aging study of BKC 44306-10 rigid polyurethane foam was carried out. Foam samples were aged in a nitrogen atmosphere at three different temperatures: 50 °C, 65 °C, and 80 °C. Foam samples were periodically removed from the aging canisters at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 month intervals when FT-IR spectroscopy, dimensional analysis, and mechanical testing experiments were performed. Micro Computed Tomography imaging was also employed to study the morphology of the foams. Over the course of the aging study the foams the decreased in size by a magnitude of 0.001 inches per inch of foam. Micro CT showed the heterogeneous nature of the foam structure likely resulting from flow effects during the molding process. The effect of aging on the compression and tensile strength of the foam was minor and no cause for concern. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the foam chemistry. However, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the changes in chemical nature of the materials due to large variability throughout the samples.

  10. Connection Lost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lai Wa

    2013-01-01

    2008-2009. Documentary film. Williams, Patricia J. The2008-2009. Documentary film. Yosso, Tara. Critical Race

  11. Connection Lost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lai Wa

    2013-01-01

    me Waipo Grandma’s dumpling recipe? From:   Sent:   To:  tea. Haha you want to make dumplings? I will mail recipe.It is Waipo’s recipe. Remember don’t put too much filing in

  12. Something Lost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Sheila

    1983-01-01

    D, giving the closest the spoken 'words 0 ;; If you ":JOuld come this 1tlay, [{entlemen 9 II "'food said.. Kirk \\'IA,tohed thc,m go, slightly disturhed hy the Hay that the last lTI,-"nhe2' of the p'p,:cty to leave carried his tail bet\\Kirk's tempcT. L?t~. Pro}-:'C1sko. came OVer to him. ~;I'm sorrY9 sirs there's notbinrs? to inclicate ':[here tb['.t fJl"l1ell migrlt be coming from. J~ncl we CEi,n I t cle?a1.' it until H0 find tho source...

  13. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  14. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  15. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  16. Rod Lakes, University of Wisconsin, 1 Brandel, B. and Lakes, R. S., "Negative Poisson's ratio polyethylene foams",

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakes, Roderic

    ] by first saturating the polymer sample with a non-reactive gas, typically CO2 or N2, in a high pressure polyethylene foams", adapted from J. Materials Science, 36, 5885-5893, July (2001). Abstract Various polyethylene foams were subjected to thermo-mechanical processing with the aim of transforming them into re

  17. Sedimentation of an elliptical object in a two-dimensional foam I.T. Davies, S.J. Cox1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Simon

    Sedimentation of an elliptical object in a two-dimensional foam I.T. Davies, S.J. Cox1 Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ, UK Abstract The sedimentation laterally. A larger, more eccentric, ellipse rotates more quickly. Key words: foam, ellipse, sedimentation 1

  18. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope

    2005-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  19. Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.; Suo-Anttila, Jill M.; Erickson, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.

  20. Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon foams and process for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, R.W.; Pekala, R.W.

    1987-04-30

    Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

  1. Statistical Mechanics of Two-dimensional Foams: Physical Foundations of the Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Durand

    2015-07-16

    In a recent series of papers [1--3], a statistical model that accounts for correlations between topological and geometrical properties of a two-dimensional shuffled foam has been proposed and compared with experimental and numerical data. Here, the various assumptions on which the model is based are exposed and justified: the equiprobability hypothesis of the foam configurations is argued. The range of correlations between bubbles is discussed, and the mean field approximation that is used in the model is detailed. The two self-consistency equations associated with this mean field description can be interpreted as the conservation laws of number of sides and bubble curvature, respectively. Finally, the use of a "Grand-Canonical" description, in which the foam constitutes a reservoir of sides and curvature, is justified.

  2. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  3. Disordered locality and Lorentz dispersion relations: an explicit model of quantum foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Caravelli; Fotini Markopoulou

    2012-07-04

    Using the framework of Quantum Graphity, we construct an explicit model of a quantum foam, a quantum spacetime with spatial non-local links. The states depend on two parameters: the minimal size of the link and their density with respect to this length. Macroscopic Lorentz invariance requires that the quantum superposition of spacetimes is suppressed by the length of these non-local links. We parametrize this suppression by the distribution of non-local links lengths in the quantum foam. We discuss the general case and then analyze two specific natural distributions. Corrections to the Lorentz dispersion relations are calculated using techniques developed in previous work.

  4. Results of Large-Scale Testing on Effects of Anti-Foam Agent on Gas Retention and Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Arm, Stuart T.; Butcher, Mark G.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Park, Walter R.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Su, Yin-Fong; Wend, Christopher F.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Cooley, Scott K.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Reid, Larry D.; Smith, Harry D.; Wells, Beric E.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2008-01-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste treatment process in the pretreatment facility will mix both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries in large process tanks. Process vessels mixing non-Newtonian slurries will use pulse jet mixers (PJMs), air sparging, and recirculation pumps. An anti-foam agent (AFA) will be added to the process streams to prevent surface foaming, but may also increase gas holdup and retention within the slurry. The work described in this report addresses gas retention and release in simulants with AFA through testing and analytical studies. Gas holdup and release tests were conducted in a 1/4-scale replica of the lag storage vessel operated in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Applied Process Engineering Laboratory using a kaolin/bentonite clay and AZ-101 HLW chemical simulant with non-Newtonian rheological properties representative of actual waste slurries. Additional tests were performed in a small-scale mixing vessel in the PNNL Physical Sciences Building using liquids and slurries representing major components of typical WTP waste streams. Analytical studies were directed at discovering how the effect of AFA might depend on gas composition and predicting the effect of AFA on gas retention and release in the full-scale plant, including the effects of mass transfer to the sparge air. The work at PNNL was part of a larger program that included tests conducted at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is being reported separately. SRNL conducted gas holdup tests in a small-scale mixing vessel using the AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) chemical simulant to investigate the effects of different AFAs, their components, and of adding noble metals. Full-scale, single-sparger mass transfer tests were also conducted at SRNL in water and AZ-101 HLW simulant to provide data for PNNL’s WTP gas retention and release modeling.

  5. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller

    2006-09-09

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a drive fluid for ASP flooding. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability produced by surfactant injection.

  6. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  7. Structural foam-core panels in Northwest HUD-code manufactured housing: A preliminary assessment of opportunities and obstacles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durfee, D.L.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1993-07-01

    This investigation of structural foam-core panels (foam panels) in manufactured housing was initiated during the Super Good Cents (SGC) program. The SGC program limited allowable glazing area because of the relatively high thermal losses associated with most windows. Due to their superior thermal performance, foam panels appeared to be a viable option to allow increased glazing area without compromising the thermal integrity of the wall. With the inception of the Manufactured-Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), however, the focus of this study has shifted. MAP permits unlimited glazing area if expensive, super-efficient, vinyl-framed, argon-gas-filled, low-emissivity coated windows are installed. Although MAP permits unlimited glazing area, a foam panel wall could allow the use of less expensive windows, larger window area, or less insulation and still provide the required thermal performance for the building. Bonneville contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the feasibility of using foam panels in HUD-code manufactured housing. This study presents the results from a product and literature search. The potential barriers and benefits to the use of foam panels are determined from a regional survey of the HUD-code manufacturers and foam panel producers.

  8. Small cell foams and blends and a process for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, D.M.; Tomalia, D.A.

    1995-02-07

    Dense star polymers or dendrimers, modified by capping with a hydrophobic group capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell, act as molecular nucleating agents. These modified dense star polymers or dendrimers are particularly effective for the production of small cell foams.

  9. High-expansion foam for LNG vapor mitigation. Topical report, September 1987-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.; Peterlinz, M.E.

    1990-05-01

    One of the purposes of these high expansion foam systems is to reduce the extent of the hazardous vapor cloud generated during an accidental LNG release. Should the LNG ignite, these systems serve the additional function of controlling the LNG fire and minimizing its radiation to the surroundings. Foam generators have been installed along the tops of dike walls surrounding some LNG storage tanks, and around other fenced containment areas where LNG may be accidentally released, such as LNG pump pits and pipe rack trenches. To date there are no technically justifiable guidelines for the design and installation of these systems. Furthermore, there are no models that may be used describe the vapor source so as to be able to predict the reduction in the hazardous vapor cloud zone when high expansion foam is applied to an LNG spill. Information is essential not only for the optimal design of high expansion foam systems, but also for comparing the cost effectiveness of alternative LNG vapor mitigation measures.

  10. Microcellular Sheet Foaming of Poly-Latic Acid University of Toronto, Capstone Design Project Team 35

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    the temperature of die and tandem line, RPM of tandem line, CO2 content and die pressure. PLA foams were obtained at 5 wt%, 7 wt% and 9 wt% CO2. As shown in SEM images, higher weight percentage of CO2 yielded larg expansion ratio was obtained by: Increasing the CO2 content to 9 wt% Decreasing the die and tandem line

  11. Analysis of Principal Gas Products During Combustion of Polyether Polyurethane Foam at Different Irradiance Levels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante Valencia, Lucas; Rogaume, Thomas; Guillaume, Eric; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2009-01-01

    . This allows the mass balance of the elements in the virgin foam content with the gaseous product content. The effective heat of combustion and the ratio between heat release rate and CO2 mass flow are calculated at each of the irradiance levels....

  12. Identification and Quantitation of Urea Precipitates in Flexible Polyurethane Foam Formulations by X-ray Spectromicroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with isocyanates to form carbamic acid, which decomposes to an amine and CO2. Rapid reaction of the primary. The heat evolved due to the exothermic nature of the reactions along with the CO2 produced helps to blowIdentification and Quantitation of Urea Precipitates in Flexible Polyurethane Foam Formulations

  13. Ultrathin Graphite Foam: A Three-Dimensional Conductive Network for Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    graphite foam (UGF), loaded with lithium iron phosphate (LFP), as a cathode in a lithium ion battery in lithium ion batteries. Moreover, preparation of the UGF electrode was facile, cost-dimensional electrode, conductive network, lithium ion battery Advanced battery technologies are known to suffer from

  14. Effects of internal pore pressure on closed-cell elastomeric foams Oscar Lopez-Pamies a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    Effects of internal pore pressure on closed-cell elastomeric foams Oscar Lopez-Pamies a, , Pedro Microstructures a b s t r a c t A micromechanics framework for porous elastomers with internal pore pressure, wherein the initial internal pore pressure is identical to the external pressure exerted

  15. Society of Petroleum Engineers Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE 26402 Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media A.R. Kovscek, T.W. Patzek, and C.J. Radke, U. of California SPE Members Copyright 1993, Society of Petroleum and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in Houston, Texas, 3-6 October 1993. This paper

  16. Advanced high-temperature lightweight foamed cements for geothermal well completions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Galen, B.G.

    1986-04-01

    Foamed cement slurries that were prepared by mixing a cementitious material having a Class H cement-to-silica flour ratio of 1.0 in conjunction with a alpha-olefin sulfate foam surfactant and a coconut diethanolamide foam stabilizer were exposed in an autoclave at a temperature of 300/sup 0/C and a hydrostatic pressure of 2000 psi (13.79 MPa). One lightweight slurry having a density of 9.61 lb/gal (1.15 g/cc) yielded a cellular cement having a compressive strength at 24 hr of >1000 psi (6.9 MPa) and a water permeability of approx.10/sup -3/ darcys. The factors responsible for the attainment of these mechanical and physical properties were identified to be well-crystallized truscottite phases and a uniform distribution of discrete fine bubbles. The addition of graphite fiber reinforcement for the cement matrix significantly suppressed any segregation of foam caused by thermal expansion of the air bubbles and further improved the mechanical characteristics of the cured cements.

  17. Thermal Transport in Three-Dimensional Foam Architectures of Few-Layer Graphene and Ultrathin Graphite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemical vapor deposition on reticulated nickel foams, was increased from 0.26 to 1.7 W m-1 K-1 after the etchant for the sacrificial nickel support was changed from an aggressive hydrochloric acid solution for carbon nanotubes (CNTs)1 and graphene,2 these carbon nanomaterials have been investigated as nanofillers

  18. Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 455460 Breeder foam: an innovative low porosity solid breeder material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 455­460 Breeder foam: an innovative low porosity solid@ucla.edu (S. Sharafat). breeder pebble beds remains a field of intense R&D for fusion power reactor B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2005.06.374 #12;456 S. Sharafat et al. / Fusion

  19. Workers at EM’s West Valley Site Surpass 1 Million Hours without Lost-Time Accident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WEST VALLEY, N.Y. – EM’s cleanup contractor at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) recently marked 1 million work hours without a lost-time accident or illness.

  20. A Monte Carlo approach to modeling lost person behavior in wilderness areas using a geographic information system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, Lori

    1995-01-01

    Monte Carlo modeling techniques using mean information fields (MIF), developed by Torsten Hagerstrand in the 1950s, were integrated with a geographic information system (GIS) to simulate lost person behavior in wilderness areas. Big Bend Ranch State...

  1. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiernan, Joan E. (Novato, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

  2. Modeling the dynamic response of low-density, reticulated, elastomeric foam impregnated with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Matthew A. (Matthew Aaron), 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Engineering cellular solids, such as honeycombs and foams, are widely used in applications ranging from thermal insulation to energy absorption. Natural cellular materials, such as wood, have been used in structures for ...

  3. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  4. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study the effectiveness of three slurry rheology modifiers. An effective modifier was identified which resulted in lowering the yield stress of the waste simulant. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the basic understanding of the foaming/antifoaming mechanism in waste slurries as well as identification of a rheology modifier, which enhances the processing throughput, and accelerates the DOE mission. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that produced foaming and air entrainment in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity (LAW) radioactive waste separation and immobilization processes, and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming/rheology modifier agents. Antifoams/rheology modifiers developed from this research ere tested using non-radioactive simulants of the radioactive wastes obtained from Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  5. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of graphite foams by polymer derived-silicon carbide coating for concentrated solar power applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, T.; Singh, D.; Singh, M.

    2015-05-01

    Graphite foam with extremely high thermal conductivity has been investigated to enhance heat transfer of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However, the use of graphite foam for elevated temperature applications (>600 °C) is limited due to poor oxidation resistance of graphite. In the present study, oxidation resistance of graphite foam coated with silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. A pre-ceramic polymer derived coating (PDC) method was used to form a SiC coating on the graphite foams. Post coating deposition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The oxidation resistance of PDC-SiC coating was quantifiedmore »by measuring the weight of the samples at several measuring points. The experiments were conducted under static argon atmosphere in a furnace. After the experiments, oxidation rates (%/hour) were calculated to predict the lifetime of the graphite foams. The experimental results showed that the PDC-SiC coating could prevent the oxidation of graphite foam under static argon atmosphere up to 900 °C.« less

  6. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of graphite foams by polymer derived-silicon carbide coating for concentrated solar power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T.; Singh, D.; Singh, M.

    2015-05-01

    Graphite foam with extremely high thermal conductivity has been investigated to enhance heat transfer of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However, the use of graphite foam for elevated temperature applications (>600 °C) is limited due to poor oxidation resistance of graphite. In the present study, oxidation resistance of graphite foam coated with silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. A pre-ceramic polymer derived coating (PDC) method was used to form a SiC coating on the graphite foams. Post coating deposition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The oxidation resistance of PDC-SiC coating was quantified by measuring the weight of the samples at several measuring points. The experiments were conducted under static argon atmosphere in a furnace. After the experiments, oxidation rates (%/hour) were calculated to predict the lifetime of the graphite foams. The experimental results showed that the PDC-SiC coating could prevent the oxidation of graphite foam under static argon atmosphere up to 900 °C.

  7. Information conservation is fundamental: recovering the lost information in Hawking radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baocheng Zhang; Qing-yu Cai; Ming-sheng Zhan; Li You

    2013-05-27

    In both classical and quantum world, information cannot appear or disappear. This fundamental principle, however, is questioned for a black hole, by the acclaimed "information loss paradox". Based on the conservation laws of energy, charge, and angular momentum, we recently show the total information encoded in the correlations among Hawking radiations equals exactly to the same amount previously considered lost, assuming the non-thermal spectrum of Parikh and Wilczek. Thus the information loss paradox can be falsified through experiments by detecting correlations, for instance, through measuring the covariances of Hawking radiations from black holes, such as the manmade ones speculated to appear in LHC experiments. The affirmation of information conservation in Hawking radiation will shine new light on the unification of gravity with quantum mechanics.

  8. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Tseng H.W.

    1996-07-16

    A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.

  9. Development of a Foam OTEC System. Final technical report for Fiscal Year 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Research on Development of a Foam OTEC System, as carried out at Carnegie-Mellon University from October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979, is described. To a brief section summarizing highlights of research results are appended 12 technical reports which detail specific sections of the program. The work described is continuing and a proposal is currently being submitted to provide support in fiscal 1980.

  10. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  11. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  12. Evaluation of Foaming and Antifoam Effectiveness During the WTP Oxidative Leaching Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P. R.; Jones, T. M.; White, T. L.; Crawford, C. L.; Calloway, T. B

    2005-10-11

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using a Hanford waste simulant subjected to air sparging during oxidative leaching. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated by SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming studies and in small scale air sparger studies. The commercial antifoam, Dow Corning Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators and in vessel equipped with pulse jet mixers and air spargers. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels (HLP-VSL-00027A/B), the Ultrafiltration Vessels (UFP-VSL-00002A&B), and the HLW Feed Blend Vessel (HLPVSL-00028) to assist the performance of the Pulse Jet Mixers (PJM). The previous air sparger antifoam studies conducted by SRNL researchers did not evaluate the hydrogen generation rate expected from antifoam additions or the effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching or oxidative leaching. The fate of the various antifoam components and breakdown products in the WTP process under prototypic process conditions (temperature & radiation) was also not investigated. The effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching, expected hydrogen generation rate associated with antifoam addition, and the fate of various antifoam components are being conducted under separate SRNL research tasks.

  13. Method and composition for molding low-density desiccant syntactic-foam articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-12-07

    These and other objects of the invention are achieved by a process for molding to size a desiccant syntactic foam article having a density of 0.2 to 0.9 g/cc and a moisture capacity of 1 to 12% by weight, comprising the steps of: charging a mold with a powdery mixture of an activated desiccant, microspheres and a thermosetting resin, the amount of the desiccant being sufficient to provide the required moisture capacity, and the amounts of the microspheres and resin being such that the microspheres/desiccant volume fraction exceeds the packing factor by an amount sufficient to substantially avoid shrinkage without causing excessively high molding pressures; covering the mold and heating the covered mold to a temperature and for an amount of time sufficient to melt the resin; and tightly closing the mold and heating the closed mold to a temperature and for an amount of time sufficient to cure the resin, and removing the resultant desiccant syntactic foam article from the mold. In a composition of matter aspect, the present invention provides desiccant syntactic foam articles, and a composition of matter for use in molding the same.

  14. The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards -- implications for foam panel construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.D.; Schrock, D.W.; Flintoft, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report reviews the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development construction code for (HUD-code) manufactured homes, Part 3280: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (the HUD Code), to identify sections that might be relevant in determining if insulated foam core panels (or structural insulated panels, SIPs) meet the requirements of Part 3280 for use in manufactured home construction. The U.S. Department of Energy and other parties are interested in the use of SIPs in residential construction, including HUD-Code manufactured homes, because the foam panels can have a higher effective insulation value than standard stud-framed construction and use less dimensional lumber. Although SIPs have not been used in manufactured housing, they may be well suited to the factory production process used to manufacture HUD-Code homes and the fact that they require less virgin timber may reduce the effect of volatile and increasing timber prices. Part 3280 requirements for fire resistance, wind resistance, structural load strength, ventilation, transportation shock, and thermal protection are reviewed. A brief comparison is made between the HUD Code requirements and data collected from foam panel manufacturers. 8 refs.

  15. 3D simulations of wet foam coarsening evidence a self similar growth regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilberto L. Thomas; Julio M. Belmonte; François Graner; James A. Glazier; Rita M. C. de Almeida

    2015-02-11

    In wet liquid foams, slow diffusion of gas through bubble walls changes bubble pressure, volume and wall curvature. Large bubbles grow at the expenses of smaller ones. The smaller the bubble, the faster it shrinks. As the number of bubbles in a given volume decreases in time, the average bubble size increases: i.e. the foam coarsens. During coarsening, bubbles also move relative to each other, changing bubble topology and shape, while liquid moves within the regions separating the bubbles. Analyzing the combined effects of these mechanisms requires examining a volume with enough bubbles to provide appropriate statistics throughout coarsening. Using a Cellular Potts model, we simulate these mechanisms during the evolution of three-dimensional foams with wetnesses of $\\phi=0.00$, $0.05$ and $ 0.20$. We represent the liquid phase as an ensemble of many small fluid particles, which allows us to monitor liquid flow in the region between bubbles. The simulations begin with $2 \\times 10^5$ bubbles for $\\phi = 0.00$ and $1.25 \\times 10^5$ bubbles for $\\phi = 0.05$ and $0.20$, allowing us to track the distribution functions for bubble size, topology and growth rate over two and a half decades of volume change. All simulations eventually reach a self-similar growth regime, with the distribution functions time independent and the number of bubbles decreasing with time as a power law whose exponent depends on the wetness.

  16. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecial ReportProposal to changeNovemberEnergyMessage fromMetal

  17. How is open solar magnetic flux lost over the solar cycle? M. J. Owens,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    How is open solar magnetic flux lost over the solar cycle? M. J. Owens,1,2 N. U. Crooker,3 and M 2011. [1] The Sun's open magnetic field, magnetic flux dragged out into the heliosphere by the solar wind, varies by approximately a factor of 2 over the solar cycle. We consider the evolution of open

  18. Silica phase changes: Diagenetic agent for oil entrapment, Lost Hills field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julander, D.R.; Szymanski, D.L. )

    1991-02-01

    The siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target at Lost Hills. Silica phase changes have influenced the distribution and entrapment of hydrocarbons. With increasing temperature, opal A phase diatomite is converted to opal CT and finally quartz phase rock. All phases are low in permeability. The opal A diatomite is characteristically high in oil saturation and productive saturation. Productivity from this phase is dependent on structural position and fieldwide variations in oil viscosity and biodegradation. The deeper chert reservoir coincides with the opal CT to quartz phase transition. Porosity is again reduced in this transition, but saturations in the quartz phase rocks increase. Tests in the chert reservoir indicate a single, low-permeability system, suggesting the importance of matric contribution. resistivity and porosity in the diatomite, and resistivity and velocity in the chert, are the physical properties which best reflect saturation. Methods exploiting these properties (FMS, BHTV, borehole, and surface shear wave studies) should be helpful in further characterizing the reservoirs and identifying future pay.

  19. JOM, February 2013, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 234-245 234 A Review of Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Matrix Syntactic Foams Effect of Hollow Particle Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    JOM, February 2013, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 234-245 234 A Review of Thermal Conductivity of Polymer compositions of syntactic foams. Basic understating of the relationship between thermal conductivity Introduction Hollow particle filled polymer matrix composites, called syntactic foams, are used in weight

  20. SPRAY FOAM IN ACCESSIBLE SPACES:BEST PRACTICES AND CASE STUDIES FOR RETROFIT IN MIXED-HUMID CLIMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gant, Kathy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-12-01

    Heating and cooling the house is one of the homeowners major expenses. Reducing these costs, saving energy, and creating a healthier, more comfortable indoor environment are good reasons to consider improving the building thermal envelope. Improvements usually consider increasing the amount of insulation, reducing the infiltration of outside air, and controlling moisture in existing buildings. This report describes the use of spray foam materials to insulate, seal, and control moisture. This discussion is limited to treating areas that are accessible. What is accessible, however, can vary depending on the type of renovation. If the building has been gutted or exterior surfaces removed, there are more options. This report will look at areas to consider for spray foam application and discuss the types of spray foams available and their uses. A number of case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of this retrofit in existing houses based on performance data.

  1. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F. (Los Angeles, CA); Vajo, John J. (West Hills, CA); Cumberland, Robert W. (Malibu, CA); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Salguero, Tina T. (Encino, CA)

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  2. Non-Darcy natural convection in high porosity metal foams M.S. Phanikumar a,*, R.L. Mahajan b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­Forchheimer-extended Darcy flow model and a semi-heuristic two-equation energy model obtained by relaxing the local thermal Lansing, MI 48824, USA b CAMPMode (Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Packaging of Microwave, Optical for the same configuration are used to test the numerical model and the validity of the thermal equilibrium

  3. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  4. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  5. COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES AND METAL COMPLEXES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muetterties, E.L.

    2013-01-01

    4, 1980 Catalysis~ COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACESAND METAL COMPLEXES Earl L. Muetterties December 1979 TWO-10308 COORDINATION CHEt1ISTRY OF METAL SURFACES AND METAL

  6. Area 2. Use Of Engineered Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO2 Foams To Improve Volumetric Sweep Of CO2 EOR Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiCarlo, David; Huh, Chun; Johnston, Keith P.

    2015-01-31

    The goal of this project was to develop a new CO2 injection enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process using engineered nanoparticles with optimized surface coatings that has better volumetric sweep efficiency and a wider application range than conventional CO2-EOR processes. The main objectives of this project were to (1) identify the characteristics of the optimal nanoparticles that generate extremely stable CO2 foams in situ in reservoir regions without oil; (2) develop a novel method of mobility control using “self-guiding” foams with smart nanoparticles; and (3) extend the applicability of the new method to reservoirs having a wide range of salinity, temperatures, and heterogeneity. Concurrent with our experimental effort to understand the foam generation and transport processes and foam-induced mobility reduction, we also developed mathematical models to explain the underlying processes and mechanisms that govern the fate of nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams in porous media and applied these models to (1) simulate the results of foam generation and transport experiments conducted in beadpack and sandstone core systems, (2) analyze CO2 injection data received from a field operator, and (3) aid with the design of a foam injection pilot test. Our simulator is applicable to near-injection well field-scale foam injection problems and accounts for the effects due to layered heterogeneity in permeability field, foam stabilizing agents effects, oil presence, and shear-thinning on the generation and transport of nanoparticle-stabilized C/W foams. This report presents the details of our experimental and numerical modeling work and outlines the highlights of our findings.

  7. A x-ray radiography-densitometry technique for the quantitative determination of metal deposit profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Will, F.G.; Iacovangelo, C.D.

    1984-03-01

    The application of x-ray radiography in conjunction with high resolution optical densitometry for the quantitative determination of metal deposit profiles parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface is described. The principles of the technique and the range of its applicability are discussed. The technique is applied to the study of zinc deposition on highly porous carbon foams from circulating aqueous zinc bromide solutions. The effect of substrate pore size on the zinc distribution is explored. Zinc is found to deposit predominantly on the porous substrate/electrolyte and substrate/current collector interfaces. Smaller pore size favors smoother and more uniform deposits throughout the substrate.

  8. Application and Continued Development of Thin Faraday Collectors as a Lost Ion Diagnostic for Tokamak Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Ed Cecil

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  9. The Lost Ones: Post-Gatekeeper U.S. Latina Fiction and the Construction of Cultural Trauma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caminero-Santangelo, Marta

    2010-01-13

    Studies. The Lost Ones: Post-Gatekeeper U.S. Latina Fiction and the Construction of Cultural Trauma By Marta Caminero-Santangelo, University of Kansas When violence and state repression in El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1980s caused large... The Guardians (2007), Reyna Grande’s Across a Hundred Mountains (2006), and Alicia Gaspar de Alba’s Desert Blood: The Juárez Murders (2005).2 In this essay, I argue that such Chicana texts are 1 I am...

  10. Workers at Paducah Site Exceed 1.5 Million Hours Without Lost-Time Injury,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyThe U.S.Lacledeutilities.EnergyKirstinMetals Plant is shownIllness | Department

  11. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  12. Strain rate effects in the mechanical response of polymer anchored carbon nanotube foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Misra; J. R. Greer; C. Daraio

    2008-04-05

    Super-compressible foam-like carbon nanotube films have been reported to exhibit highly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour in compression similar to soft tissue. Their unique combination of light weight and exceptional electrical, thermal and mechanical properties have helped identify them as viable building blocks for more complex nanosystems and as stand-alone structures for a variety of different applications. In the as-grown state, their mechanical performance is limited by the weak adhesion between the tubes, controlled by the van der Waals forces, and the substrate allowing the forests to split easily and to have low resistance in shear. Under axial compression loading carbon nanotubes have demonstrated bending, buckling8 and fracture9 (or a combination of the above) depending on the loading conditions and on the number of loading cycles. In this work, we partially anchor dense vertically aligned foam-like forests of carbon nanotubes on a thin, flexible polymer layer to provide structural stability, and report the mechanical response of such systems as a function of the strain rate. We test the sample under quasi-static indentation loading and under impact loading and report a variable nonlinear response and different elastic recovery with varying strain rates. A Bauschinger-like effect is observed at very low strain rates while buckling and the formation of permanent defects in the tube structure is reported at very high strain rates. Using high-resolution transmission microscopy

  13. Hydrous ruthenium oxide nanoparticles anchored to graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, S.; Lee, I.; Ahmed, K.; Zhong, J.; Favors, Z.; Zaera, F.; Ozkan, M.; Ozkan, C. S

    2014-03-25

    In real life applications, supercapacitors (SCs) often can only be used as part of a hybrid system together with other high energy storage devices due to their relatively lower energy density in comparison to other types of energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Increasing the energy density of SCs will have a huge impact on the development of future energy storage devices by broadening the area of application for SCs. Here, we report a simple and scalable way of preparing a three-dimensional (3D) sub-5 nm hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO?) anchored graphene and CNT hybrid foam (RGM) architecture for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This RGM architecture demonstrates a novel graphene foam conformally covered with hybrid networks of RuO? nanoparticles and anchored CNTs. SCs based on RGM show superior gravimetric and per-area capacitive performance (specific capacitance: 502.78 F g?ą, areal capacitance: 1.11 F cm?˛) which leads to an exceptionally high energy density of 39.28 Wh kg?ą and power density of 128.01 kW kg?ą. The electrochemical stability, excellent capacitive performance, and the ease of preparation suggest this RGM system is promising for future energy storage applications.

  14. Microstructural characterization of low-density foams. [Silica, resorcinol/formaldehyde, cellulose/acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    Low-density foams (of the order 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/) synthesized from silica aerogel, resorcinol/formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate have fine, delicate microstructures that are extremely difficult to characterize. Improved low-voltage resolution of an SEM equipped with a field-emission gun (FESEM) does permit these materials to be examined directly without coating and at sufficient magnification to reveal the microstructures. Light coatings applied by ion-beam deposition can stabilize the specimens to some extent and reduce electron charging without seriously altering the microstructure, but coatings applied by conventional techniques usually obliterate these microstructures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is required to provide unambiguous microstructural interpretations. However, TEM examinations of these materials can be severely restricted by specimen preparation difficulties and electron-beam damage, and considerable care must be taken to ensure that reasonably accurate TEM results have been obtained. This work demonstrates that low-voltage FESEM analyses can be used to characterize microstructures in these foams, but TEM analyses are required to confirm the FESEM analyses and perform quantitative measurements. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  15. HPC realization of a controlled turbulent round jet using OpenFOAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Önder, Asim

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates high performance computing abilities of OpenFOAM for a low Reynolds number ($Re_D=2000$) axisymmetric jet subject to multiple zero net mass flux (ZNMF) actuators. First, parallel performance of OpenFOAM is tested by performing a scaling study up to $2048$ processors on a supercomputer of Flemish Supercomputer Center(VSC). Then, a method to improve the parallel efficiency is proposed. The method is based on developing a hybrid concept to calculate the statistical moments. This new concept combines ensemble and time averaging in order to allow data sampling in parallel. The motivation is obtaining a reduction in the walltime to collect turbulent statistics which is observed to be the dominating part in the ZNMF controlled jet flow. Employing this parallel statistical averaging approach in combination with regular grid partitioning parallelism, allowed us conducting DNS cases on $P=624$ processors with an overall speed-up of $S_e=540.56$ and a parallel efficiency of $E_e=0.87$. The...

  16. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  17. Implications from a study of the timing of oil entrapment in Monterey siliceous shales, Lost Hills, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julander, D.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The oil and gas-rich upper Miocene siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target in the Lost Hills Oil Field, San Joaquin Valley, California. As a result of diagenesis, the siliceous shales can be subdivided by opal phase into three sections (from shallow to deep): the Opal-A diatomites which are rich in oil saturation; the Opal-CT porcellanites which are predominantly wet but include pockets of moderate oil saturation; and the Quartz cherts and porcellanites which in some places are highly oil saturated immediately below the Opal CT section. Productivity trends in each of the three sections have been established through drilling and production testing, but a predictive model was not available until a study of the timing of oil entrapment at Lost Hills was recently completed. The study included an analysis of the depositional history of the siliceous shales and timing of: (1) structural growth of the Lost Hills fold, (2) source-rock maturation, and (3) development of the opal-phase segregation of the Monterey shales. The study led to enhanced understanding of the known oil saturation and production trends in the three opal-phase sections and yielded a predictive model that is being used to identify areas in the field with remedial or delineation potential. The study also produced evidence of fold axis rotation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene that helps explain differences in fracture orientations within the Monterey shales.

  18. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of...

  19. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical analyses and hypothesis tests as a part of the validation step to provide feedback to analysts and modelers. Decisions on how to proceed in making model-based predictions are made based on these analyses together with the application requirements. Updating modifying and understanding the boundaries associated with the model are also assisted through this feedback. (4) We include a ''model supplement term'' when model problems are indicated. This term provides a (bias) correction to the model so that it will better match the experimental results and more accurately account for uncertainty. Presumably, as the models continue to develop and are used for future applications, the causes for these apparent biases will be identified and the need for this supplementary modeling will diminish. (5) We use a response-modeling approach for our predictions that allows for general types of prediction and for assessment of prediction uncertainty. This approach is demonstrated through a case study supporting the assessment of a weapons response when subjected to a hydrocarbon fuel fire. The foam decomposition model provides an important element of the response of a weapon system in this abnormal thermal environment. Rigid foam is used to encapsulate critical components in the weapon system providing the needed mechanical support as well as thermal isolation. Because the foam begins to decompose at temperatures above 250 C, modeling the decomposition is critical to assessing a weapons response. In the validation analysis it is indicated that the model tends to ''exaggerate'' the effect of temperature changes when compared to the experimental results. The data, however, are too few and to restricted in terms of experimental design to make confident statements regarding modeling problems. For illustration, we assume these indications are correct and compensate for this apparent bias by constructing a model supplement term for use in the model-based predictions. Several hypothetical prediction problems are created and addressed. Hypothetical problems are used because no guidance was provided concern

  20. Metal stud wall systems -- Thermal disaster, or modern wall systems with highly efficient thermal insulation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Buildings Technology Center

    1997-11-01

    Because steel has higher thermal conductivity than wood and intense heat transfer occurs through the metal wall components, thermal performances of a metal stud wall are significantly lower than for similar wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. That is why metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar made of wood. However, properly designed metal stud walls can be as thermally effective as wood stud walls. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is widely used as a remedy for a weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of the promising metal stud wall configurations is analyzed using results of finite difference computer modeling and guarded hotbox tests. Some of these walls were designed and tested in the ORNL Building Technology Center, some were tested in other laboratories, and some walls were developed and forgotten long time ago. Also, a novel concept of combined foam-metal studs is considered. The main aim of the present paper is to prove that it is possible to build metal stud walls which perform as well as wood stud walls. The key lies in designing; metal stud wall systems have to be treated in a special way with particular consideration to the high thermal conduction of metal components. In the discussed collection of the efficient metal stud wall configurations, reductions of the in-cavity R-value caused by metal studs are between 10 and 20%.

  1. DESIGN OF FOAM COVERING FOR ROBOTIC ARMS TO ENSURE HUMAN SAFETY Lingqi Zeng and Gary M. Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bone, Gary

    , and robot and human velocities. The impact experiments are performed with an apparatus simulating the humanDESIGN OF FOAM COVERING FOR ROBOTIC ARMS TO ENSURE HUMAN SAFETY Lingqi Zeng and Gary M. Bone@mcmaster.ca ABSTRACT Unintentional physical human-robot contact is becoming more common as robots operate in closer

  2. Long-Term Stabilization of Foams and Emulsions with In-Situ Formed Microparticles from Hydrophobic Cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Cellulose Hartmut A. Wege, Sejong Kim, Vesselin N. Paunov, Qixin Zhong,*,§ and Orlin D. Velev*, Department a simple method to produce foams and emulsions of extraordinary stability by using hydrophobic cellulose microparticles, which are formed in situ by a liquid-liquid dispersion technique. The hydrophobic cellulose

  3. Heavy metal biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  4. An elastic, plastic, viscous model for slow shear of a liquid foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Marmottant; François Graner

    2007-07-06

    We suggest a scalar model for deformation and flow of an amorphous material such as a foam or an emulsion. To describe elastic, plastic and viscous behaviours, we use three scalar variables: elastic deformation, plastic deformation rate and total deformation rate; and three material specific parameters: shear modulus, yield deformation and viscosity. We obtain equations valid for different types of deformations and flows slower than the relaxation rate towards mechanical equilibrium. In particular, they are valid both in transient or steady flow regimes, even at large elastic deformation. We discuss why viscosity can be relevant even in this slow shear (often called "quasi-static") limit. Predictions of the storage and loss moduli agree with the experimental literature, and explain with simple arguments the non-linear large amplitude trends.

  5. Current initiation in low-density foam z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, M.; Nash, T.; Allshouse, G. [and others

    1996-07-01

    Low density agar and aerogel foams were tested as z-pinch loads on the SATURN accelerator. In these first experiments, we studied the initial plasma conditions by measuring the visible emission at early times with a framing camera and 1-D imaging. At later time, near the stagnation when the plasma is hotter, x-ray imaging and spectral diagnostics were used to characterize the plasma. Filamentation and arcing at the current contacts was observed. None of the implosions were uniform along the z-axis. The prime causes of these problems are believed to be the electrode contacts and the current return configuration and these are solvable. Periodic phenomena consistent with the formation of instabilities were observed on one shot, not on others, implying that there may be a way of controlling instabilities in the pinch. Many of the issues involving current initiation may be solvable. Solutions are discussed.

  6. Measurement of emission diameter as a function of time on foam z- pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazier, S.E.; Barber, T.L. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derzon, M.S.; Kellogg, J.W.

    1996-05-14

    We have developed a streaked imaging capability to make time-resolved measurements of the emission size for low density foam z-pinches. By lens coupling visible emission from the z-pinch target to an array of fiber optics we obtained the emission profile in the visible as a function of time with radial resolution of 300 {mu}m. To measure the emission at temperatures greater than {approx}40 eV the source was slit-imaged or pin-hole imaged onto an x-ray filtered scintillator. Non-uniformities in both visible and x-ray emission were observed. We describe the diagnostics, the image unfold process, and results from the instrument for both visible and x-ray measurements.

  7. Creating a Lost/Write-Off Retirement Document On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup and Maintenance box in the middle of the screen look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creating a Lost/Write-Off Retirement Document On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup to the main screen of the document and the asset number is showing in the Asset Number field you must click

  8. METAL NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH METAL-LIGAND COVALENT BONDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Xiongwu

    2012-01-01

    Formation of catalytic metal-molecule contacts. Science,of Organotransition Metal Compounds. Advances inof highly monodisperse metal nanoparticles. Journal of the

  9. Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

    2000-04-01

    This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

  10. Investigation of Kelvin-like solid foams for potential engineering applications: An attractive set of geometrical and thermo-hydraulic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prashant Kumar

    2014-12-02

    Open cell foams have diverse industrial applications e.g. heat exchangers, structured reactors, filtration due to their unique properties such as high porosity and high specific surface area. In order to theoretically determine the geometric specific surface area and relationships between geometrical parameters of isotropic open cell foams, a generalized mathematical correlation was developed. For this purpose the tetrakaidecahedron geometry was used and different shapes of strut cross-sections of foam structures were taken explicitly into account. The derived correlation to predict geometrical properties can be easily extended to different strut shapes. 3-D numerical simulations at pore scale were performed to study the pressure drop characteristics and effective thermal conductivity. Fluid flow through open cell foam was performed in three different regimes: Darcy regime, transition regime and inertia regime. Importance of geometrical properties on fluid flow characteristics and their inclusion in the proposed correlations for predicting pressure drop is discussed. Can Ergun parameters have constant numerical values or not is also extensively discussed. Three different correlations were derived to predict the effective thermal conductivity for both, isotropic and anisotropic open cell foams. Geometrical parameters of foam matrix were introduced in the correlations to predict effective thermal conductivity.

  11. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-06-03

    An electrochemical cell is described having a metal anode selected from the group consisting of zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and, an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal having the same metal as the metal of the anode, the improvement comprising: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte consisting solely of a tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt, which salt is soluble of water and forms and substantially water immiscible liquid bromine complex at temperatures in the range of about 10/sup 0/C. to about 60/sup 0/C. and wherein the tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt is selected from asymmetric quaternary ammonium compounds.

  12. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  13. Ecological Interactions Between Metals and Microbes That Impact Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopka, Allan E.

    1998-06-01

    Samples have been obtained from (a) soil highly contaminated with Cr (tannery site) and (b) soils contaminated with petroleum, Cr, and Pb (Seymour, IN). Microcosm experiments with the tannery site soil indicated that microbial biomass (assayed as phospholipid-phosphate) and activity (assayed as carbon dioxide evolution) were primarily determined by organic carbon availability, but not total Cr concentration. The toxicity of metals to the indigenous microbial populations of the Seymour soils was determined by measuring microbial activity (incorporation of tritiated leucine into protein) of cells extracted from soil particles in solutions of increasing metal concentration. Although total Cr concentration varied 100-fold in these soils, the inhibition constant for Cr toxicity varied < 3-fold. Of additional interest in one soil was the dose-response function; the response suggests the soil contains a complex mixture of microbes with different Cr resistance levels. Cr and Pb resistant bacteria have been isolated from these soil samples. In Arthrobacter sp. Cr15, Cr resistance was spontaneously lost at a frequency of ca. 0.5% after growth for 20 generations in non-selective medium. The wild-type contained a 60 kb plasmid. In two Cr sensitive strains, restriction fragment analysis has shown that 15 kb of the plasmid have been lost. Matings between the wild type and cured strains result in transfer of the Cr resistance phenotype at a frequency of 1%.

  14. Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Print Monday, 19 December 2011 18:29 While mononuclear, polynuclear, and polymeric metal complexes are most often...

  15. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiernan, Joan E. (38 Clay Ct., Novato, CA 94947)

    1991-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  16. Viscoelastic Analysis of Sandwich Beams Having Aluminum and Fiber-reinforced Polymer Skins with a Polystyrene Foam Core 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts-Tompkins, Altramese L.

    2010-07-14

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering VISCOELASTIC ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH BEAMS HAVING ALUMINUM AND FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER SKINS WITH A POLYSTYRENE FOAM... CORE A Thesis by ALTRAMESE LASH? ROBERTS-TOMPKINS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee...

  17. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  18. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-10-11

    A new composition of matter is described which is an alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  19. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  20. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  1. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  2. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Plants Chelating agents Pb hyperaccumulation Effects of pH on metal extraction Disposal options contaminants from soils Contaminants must be in harvestable portions of the plant (Wongkongkatep et al. 2003) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al

  3. Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Fractogel® Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins and Cartridges Tools for His·Tag® Fusion-MACTM Cartridges #12;2 Novagen · Fractogel Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins Ni-MACTM , Co-MACTM and u-MACTM Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins and Cartridges HI Ni2+ Ni2+ Ni2+ HISHISHI SHISHISHIS Ni2

  4. Metal roofing Shingle roofing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Metal roofing panel Shingle roofing Water & ice barrier Thermal Barrier Plywood Student: Arpit a cost benefit analysis and choose the most efficient and cost effective modification. Metal or shingle roof with only a water barrier between the plywood and the roofing panels. Metal roofing panel Shingle

  5. Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides Arthur R. Davoyan by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides Arthur R. Davoyan,a Ilya V. Shadrivov,a Sergey I.davoyan@gmail.com Abstract. We revisited the problem of the existence of plasmonic modes guided by metal- dielectric-metal

  6. High Metallicity LGRB Hosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, J F; Levesque, E M; Kewley, L J; Tanvir, N R; Levan, A J; Patel, S K; Misra, K; Huang, K -H; Reichart, D E; Nysewander, M; Schady, P

    2015-01-01

    We present our imaging and spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of two dark long bursts with anomalously high metallicities, LGRB 051022 and LGRB 020819B, which in conjunction with another LGRB event with an optical afterglow comprise the three LGRBs with high metallicity host galaxies in the Graham & Fruchter (2013) sample. In Graham & Fruchter (2013), we showed that LGRBs exhibit a strong and apparently intrinsic preference for low metallicity environments (12+log(O/H) & redshift. This is surprising: even among a preselected sample of high metallicity LGRBs, were the metal aversion to remain in effect for these objects, we would expect their metallicity to still be lower than the typical metallicity for the galaxies at that luminosity and redshift. Therefore we deduce that it...

  7. Thermal characterization and model free kinetics of aged epoxies and foams using TGA and DSC methods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Nissen, April

    2013-10-01

    Two classes of materials, poly(methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) or PMDI foam, and cross-linked epoxy resins, were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to help understand the effects of aging and %E2%80%9Cbake-out%E2%80%9D. The materials were evaluated for mass loss and the onset of decomposition. In some experiments, volatile materials released during heating were analyzed via mass spectroscopy. In all, over twenty materials were evaluated to compare the mass loss and onset temperature for decomposition. Model free kinetic (MFK) measurements, acquired using variable heating rate TGA experiments, were used to calculate the apparent activation energy of thermal decomposition. From these compiled data the effects of aging, bake-out, and sample history on the thermal stability of materials were compared. No significant differences between aged and unaged materials were detected. Bake-out did slightly affect the onset temperature of decomposition but only at the highest bake-out temperatures. Finally, some recommendations for future handling are made.

  8. Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Exterior rigid foam insulation at the edge of the slab foundation was a unique feature for this low-load, unoccupied test house in a hot-dry climate and may be more appropriate for climates with higher heating loads. U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team IBACOS worked with National Housing Quality Award winner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes, Inc., to assess the performance of this feature in a single-family detached ranch house with three bedrooms and two full bathrooms constructed on a slab-on-grade foundation in Fresno, California. One challenge during installation of the system was the attachment of the butyl flashing to the open framing. To solve this constructability issue, the team added a nailer to the base of the wall to properly attach and lap the flashing. In this strategy, R-7.5, 1.5-in.-thick extruded polystyrene was installed on the exterior of the slab for a modeled savings of 4,500 Btu/h on the heating load.

  9. Steady-State Thermal Performance Evaluation of Steel-Framed Wall Assembly with Local Foam Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    During January and May, 2009, two configurations of steel-framed walls constructed with conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with R-19 ~14cm. (5.5-in. thick) and R-13 ~9cm. (3.5-in. thick) fiberglass insulation batts were tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) guarded hot-box using ASTM C1363 test procedure. The first test wall used conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with 2.5-cm. (1-in.) thick foam profiles, called stud snugglers. These stud snugglers converted the 2 4 wall assembly into a 2 6 assembly allowing application of R-19 fiberglass insulation. The second wall tested for comparison was a conventional 2 4 steel stud wall using R-13 insulation batts. Further, numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the steady-state thermal performance of various wood- and steel-framed wall assemblies. The effects of adding the stud-snugglers to the wood and steel studs were also investigated numerically. Different combinations of insulation and framing factor were used in the simulations.

  10. A C. elegans-based foam for rapid on-site detection of residual live virus.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negrete, Oscar A.; Branda, Catherine; Hardesty, Jasper O. E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Tucker, Mark David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kaiser, Julia N. (Global Product Management, Hilden, Germany); Kozina, Carol L.; Chirica, Gabriela S.

    2012-02-01

    In the response to and recovery from a critical homeland security event involving deliberate or accidental release of biological agents, initial decontamination efforts are necessarily followed by tests for the presence of residual live virus or bacteria. Such 'clearance sampling' should be rapid and accurate, to inform decision makers as they take appropriate action to ensure the safety of the public and of operational personnel. However, the current protocol for clearance sampling is extremely time-intensive and costly, and requires significant amounts of laboratory space and capacity. Detection of residual live virus is particularly problematic and time-consuming, as it requires evaluation of replication potential within a eukaryotic host such as chicken embryos. The intention of this project was to develop a new method for clearance sampling, by leveraging Sandia's expertise in the biological and material sciences in order to create a C. elegans-based foam that could be applied directly to the entire contaminated area for quick and accurate detection of any and all residual live virus by means of a fluorescent signal. Such a novel technology for rapid, on-site detection of live virus would greatly interest the DHS, DoD, and EPA, and hold broad commercial potential, especially with regard to the transportation industry.

  11. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  12. X-ray micro-tomography investigation of the foaming process in the system of waste glass–silica mud–MnO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducman, V., E-mail: vilma.ducman@zag.si [ZAG Ljubljana, Dimi?eva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Korat, L.; Legat, A. [ZAG Ljubljana, Dimi?eva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mirti?, B. [NTF, Ašker?eva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-12-15

    In case of foamed lightweight aggregates (LWAs), porosity is introduced by the addition of a foaming agent to the glassy matrix, which degasses at an elevated temperature, so that the resulting gases remain trapped inside the glassy structure. The efficiency of action of MnO{sub 2} as a foaming agent in waste glass and waste glass/silica mud systems was studied. Samples were fired at different temperatures and with different dwelling times at a certain temperature, and the development of porosity was investigated by means of X-ray micro-tomography. It was found that, with the prolongation in dwelling times, the number of pores decreased, while, on the other hand, the volume of these pores increased, and that the addition of silica mud increases the foaming temperature and slows down the foaming process. - Highlights: • Preparation of lightweight aggregate from waste glass, silica sludge, and MnO{sub 2} • DTA/TG investigation of MnO{sub 2} • Characterization of pore-forming process by means of X-ray micro-tomography (?cT)

  13. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  14. Polyacidic multiloading metal extractants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, R. J.; Campbell, J.; Henderson, D.K.; Henry, D. C. R.; Swart, R. M.; Tasker, P. A.; White, F. J.; Wood, J. L.; Yellowlees, L. J

    2008-01-01

    Novel polynucleating, di- and tri-acidic ligands have been designed to increase the molar and mass transport efficiencies for the recovery of base metals by solvent extraction.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasparek, Eva M.; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert; Zencker, Uwe [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m{sup 3} and 488 kg/m{sup 3} from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to impact limiters under severe accidental conditions. The reference data base is provided by experiments, where weights between 212 kg and 1200 kg have been dropped from heights between 1.25 m and 7 m on confined 10 cm cubic foam specimens. By presenting the deviations between experimental values and the corresponding output of finite element simulations, the potentials and restrictions of the resulting models are highlighted. Systematic compression tests on polyurethane foams had been performed at BAM test site within the framework of a research project on impact limiters for handling casks for radioactive waste. The experimental results had been used to adapt numerical models for simulating the behaviour of different foam types at different temperatures. The loading speed, however, turned out to have a major influence on their flow curves that can not be captured by simple strain-rate dependent multipliers. Especially for guided drop tests that come close to real accidental scenarios there is a significant gap between experimental and numerical results even when applying such advanced material models. Hence, the extensive data base is currently deployed for expanding the standard algorithms to include adequate dynamic hardening factors. (authors)

  16. Collaborative Research: Barotropic Radiation Experiment (BARX) The question of how energy flows through the oceans, especially how energy is lost from the currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dushaw, Brian

    flows through the oceans, especially how energy is lost from the currents comprising the general and vorticity. Intellectual Merit. A fundamental process by which ocean currents lose the energy acquired from will provide a benchmark on a phenomenon that is important to the dynamics of ocean currents but is difficult

  17. Additional or Lost Gillnet Tag Order Form All NE multispecies Category A, E, and F Day gillnet vessels fishing for NE multispecies and/or vessels fishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vessels fishing for NE multispecies and/or vessels fishing under a monkfish DAS using gillnet gear must tag their gillnets with BLUE gillnet tags. Vessel owners are required to account for the total number of tags issued. Should tags be lost, missing, or destroyed, vessel owners/operators must report

  18. Do you think that DOTS may have your bicycle? DOTS currently has hundreds of bicycles in our bicycle impound that have been lost, abandoned, or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    Do you think that DOTS may have your bicycle? DOTS currently has hundreds of bicycles in our bicycle impound that have been lost, abandoned, or impounded. Many of these bikes are similar models and colors and therefore we are unable to identify your bicycle without detailed information and time to look

  19. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical analogy is used to analyze the interaction between the magnetic field, electric current and deformation of interfaces in liquid metal batteries. It is found that, during charging or discharging, a sufficiently large battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the metal pad instability known for aluminum reduction cells. Another type is new. It is related to the destabilizing effect of the Lorentz force formed by the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current and the current perturbations caused by the local variations of the thickness of the electrolyte layer.

  20. Lost in Translation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traywick, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    setting off rumors of murder, torture and a US conspiracy.Cardeńo’s death into a local murder mystery. But it was thelater fuel speculation of murder and conspiracy. This is the

  1. Finding Lost Children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eden, Ashley Michelle

    2010-01-01

    66] ed. Leslie Farkas. Anthropometry of the Head and Face.2005. [39] L.G. Farkas. Anthropometry of the head and faceof anthropometric data. Anthropometry is the science of

  2. Lost in Translation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traywick, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    of the security company gave the family about $500 to helpthe security company and the military to answer the family’sthe family’s, the army’s, and the security company’s —detail

  3. Heavy Metal Humor: Reconsidering Carnival in Heavy Metal Culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gary Botts

    2013-06-05

    Bakhtin?s carnivalesque theory by analyzing comedic rhetoric performed by two comedic metal bands. Through the theories of Johan Huizinga and Mikhail Bakhtin, Chapter I: I Play Metal argues that heavy metal culture is a modern carnivalesque play...

  4. Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Main Group Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Based Frameworks with Open Metal Sites In previous work, weClusters Introduction Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)abundant choice of metal ions and clusters, numerous organic

  5. Metallic nanowire networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  6. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  7. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  8. Metallization of electronic insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An electroplated element is formed to include an insulating substrate, a conducting polymer polymerized in situ on the substrate, and a metal layer deposited on the conducting polymer. In one application a circuit board is formed by polymerizing pyrrole on an epoxy-fiberglass substrate in a single step process and then electrodepositing a metal over the resulting polypyrrole polymer. No chemical deposition of the metal is required prior to electroplating and the resulting layer of substrate-polymer-metal has excellent adhesion characteristics. The metal deposition is surprisingly smooth and uniform over the relatively high resistance film of polypyrrole. A continuous manufacturing process is obtained by filtering the solution between successive substrates to remove polymer formed in the solution, by maintaining the solution oxidizing potential within selected limits, and by adding a strong oxidant, such as KMnO.sub.4 at periodic intervals to maintain a low sheet resistivity in the resulting conducting polymer film.

  9. Metal nanodisks using bicellar templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-12-03

    Metallic nanodisks and a method of making them. The metallic nanodisks are wheel-shaped structures that that provide large surface areas for catalytic applications. The metallic nanodisks are grown within bicelles (disk-like micelles) that template the growth of the metal in the form of approximately circular dendritic sheets. The zero-valent metal forming the nanodisks is formed by reduction of a metal ion using a suitable electron donor species.

  10. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  11. Metal-Poor Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Frebel

    2008-02-13

    The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer crucial observational constraints on the nature of the first stars. This review presents the history of the first discoveries of metal-poor stars that laid the foundation to this field. Observed abundance trends at the lowest metallicities are described, as well as particular classes of metal-poor stars such as r-process and C-rich stars. Scenarios on the origins of the abundances of metal-poor stars and the application of large samples of metal-poor stars to cosmological questions are discussed.

  12. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  13. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  14. EXELFS of Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Y.; Alamgir, F.M.; Schwarz, R.B.; Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    1999-11-30

    The feasibility of using extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) obtained from {approximately}1 nm regions of metallic glasses to study their short-range order has been examined. Ionization edges of the metallic glasses in the electron energy-loss spectrum (EELS) have been obtained from PdNiP bulk metallic glass and Ni{sub 2}P polycrystalline powder in a transmission electron microscope. The complexity of EXELFS analysis of L- and M-ionization edges of heavy elements (Z>22, i.e. Ni and Pd) is addressed by theoretical calculations using an ab initio computer code, and its results are compared with the experimental data.

  15. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  16. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  17. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-21

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  18. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  19. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  20. Aerogels: stiff foams composed of up to 99.8% air Silica aerogel is the world's lowest-density solid: 1 mg/cm3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    #12;Aerogels: stiff foams composed of up to 99.8% air Silica aerogel is the world's lowest-density solid: 1 mg/cm3 Aerogels hold 15 different records for material properties, including best insulator 2.38 g piece of aerogel supports a 2.5 kg brick. #12;#12;#12;l = m × n unit vector in orbital space

  1. Divalent metal nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVries, Gretchen Anne

    2008-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

  2. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  3. METALS DESIGN HANDBOOK DISCLAIMER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    9 06 Revision 0 METALS DESIGN HANDBOOK DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States...

  4. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  5. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  6. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  7. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  8. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

    1981-02-01

    Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

  9. Peroxotitanates for Biodelivery of Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, David; Elvington, M.

    2009-02-11

    Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions, and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APT are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro, then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials vs. metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that 'biodelivery' by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APT are plausible solid phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.

  10. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  11. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  12. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  13. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerle, James E. (Plum Borough, PA); Reed, William H. (Monroeville, PA); Berkey, Edgar (Murrysville, PA)

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  14. Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Schmitt, Roman A. (Corvallis, OR)

    1992-01-01

    A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  15. Metal-optic and Plasmonic Semiconductor-based Nanolasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakhani, Amit

    2012-01-01

    of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .coupled Metal-optic Nanocavities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .dependent quality factors Q metal for good conduc- tors.

  16. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  17. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  18. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  19. Fast Rotation vs. Metallicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronaldo Levenhagen; Nelson Vani Leister; Juan Zorec; Yves Fremat

    2005-09-07

    Fast rotation seems to be the major factor to trigger the Be phenomenon. Surface fast rotation can be favored by initial formation conditions such as metal abundance. Models of fast rotating atmospheres and evolutionary tracks are used to determine the stellar fundamental parameters of 120 Be stars situated in spatially well-separated regions to imply there is between them some gradient of metallicity. We study the effects of the incidence of this gradient on the nature of the studied stars as fast rotators.

  20. Catalysis Without Precious Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, R. Morris

    2010-11-01

    Written for chemists in industry and academia, this ready reference and handbook summarizes recent progress in the development of new catalysts that do not require precious metals. The research thus presented points the way to how new catalysts may ultimately supplant the use of precious metals in some types of reactions, while highlighting the remaining challenges. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. Metal alloy identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  2. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  3. Fabricated Metals (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fabricated Metals (2010 MECS) Fabricated Metals (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Fabricated Metals Sector (NAICS 332) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS...

  4. Locating experiential richness in doom metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    as Trouble) (1984), Metal Blade. Witchfinder General.Death Penalty (1982), Heavy Metal Records.the Balinese Death/ Thrash Metal Scene. ” Popular Music 22,

  5. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-01-01

    Structural Evolution in Metal Oxide/Semiconductor Colloidalasymmetric one-sided metal-tipped semiconductor nanocrystalGrowth of Magnetic-Metal- Functionalized Semiconductor Oxide

  6. Metal working lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andress, H.J.; Davis, R.H.; Schick, J.W.

    1981-08-11

    A lubricant concentrate for use in metal processing comprises a sulfur compound such as a sulfurized olefin or sulfurized mineral oil and an ester prepared from a fatty acid having 12 to 40 carbon atoms or the dimer thereof or a polyalkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride and a hydroxyl-containing amine.

  7. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, William V. (Boulder, CO)

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  8. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  9. The erosion of metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, David Richard

    1980-10-21

    The study of the erosion of metallic surfaces by solid particles has been an area of dispute recently (1980) especially concerning the importance of target melting as a mechanism for the removal of material. In addition, erosion by particles at a...

  10. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  11. 9 Metal to Non-metal Transitions in Solids and on Surfaces studied using Photoemission Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    9 Metal to Non-metal Transitions in Solids and on Surfaces studied using Photoemission Spectroscopy of the electrical properties of a material between those of a metal and those of a non-metal (be it semiconducting metal to non-metal transitions. (Thephrase `metal to non-metal transition' is used in this paper

  12. Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: a route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N J Watson; R K Johal; Y Reinwald; L J White; A M Ghaemmaghami; S P Morgan; F R A J Rose; M J W Povey; N G Parker

    2013-02-18

    We expose thick polymer foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound and study its effect on the openness of the pore architecture and fluid transport through the scaffold. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via x-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with no loss of scaffold integrity and negligible mass loss, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is a highly targetted and efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds.

  13. Novel CO2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Quoc; Hirasaki, George; Johnston, Keith

    2015-02-05

    We explored cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants to identify candidates that have the potential to satisfy all the key requirements for CO2 foams in EOR. We have examined the formation, texture, rheology and stability of CO2 foams as a function of the surfactant structure and formulation variables including temperature, pressure, water/CO2 ratio, surfactant concentration, salinity and concentration of oil. Furthermore, the partitioning of surfactants between oil and water as well as CO2 and water was examined in conjunction with adsorption measurements on limestone by the Hirasaki lab to develop strategies to optimize the transport of surfactants in reservoirs.

  14. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  15. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  16. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  17. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  18. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  19. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  20. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  1. A general methodology for inverse estimation of the elastic and anelastic properties of anisotropic open-cell porous materials—with application to a melamine foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, Jacques, E-mail: jcuenca@kth.se; Van der Kelen, Christophe; Göransson, Peter [Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 8, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-28

    This paper proposes an inverse estimation method for the characterisation of the elastic and anelastic properties of the frame of anisotropic open-cell foams used for sound absorption. A model of viscoelasticity based on a fractional differential constitutive equation is used, leading to an augmented Hooke's law in the frequency domain, where the elastic and anelastic phenomena appear as distinctive terms in the stiffness matrix. The parameters of the model are nine orthotropic elastic moduli, three angles of orientation of the material principal directions and three parameters governing the anelastic frequency dependence. The inverse estimation consists in numerically fitting the model on a set of transfer functions extracted from a sample of material. The setup uses a seismic-mass measurement repeated in the three directions of space and is placed in a vacuum chamber in order to remove the air from the pores of the sample. The method allows to reconstruct the full frequency-dependent complex stiffness matrix of the frame of an anisotropic open-cell foam and in particular it provides the frequency of maximum energy dissipation by viscoelastic effects. The characterisation of a melamine foam sample is performed and the relation between the fractional-derivative model and other types of parameterisations of the augmented Hooke's law is discussed.

  2. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  3. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  4. Spray casting of metallic preforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID); Sears, James W. (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A metal alloy is melted in a crucible and ejected from the bottom of the crucible as a descending stream of molten metal. The descending stream is impacted with a plurality of primary inert gas jets surrounding the molten metal stream to produce a plume of atomized molten metal droplets. An inert gas is blown onto a lower portion of the plume with a plurality of auxiliary inert gas jets to deflect the plume into a more restricted pattern of high droplet density, thereby substantially eliminating unwanted overspray and resulting wasted material. The plume is projected onto a moving substrate to form a monolithic metallic product having generally parallel sides.

  5. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  6. Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

  7. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  8. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  9. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    Exterior rigid foam insulation at the edge of the slab foundation was a unique feature for this low-load, unoccupied test house in a hot-dry climate and may be more appropriate for climates with higher heating loads. U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team IBACOS worked with National Housing Quality Award winner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes, Inc., to assess the performance of this feature in a single-family detached ranch house with three bedrooms and two full bathrooms constructed on a slab-on-grade foundation in Fresno, California. One challenge during installation of the system was the attachment of the butyl flashing to the open framing. To solve this constructability issue, the team added a nailer to the base of the wall to properly attach and lap the flashing. In this strategy, R-7.5, 1.5-in.-thick extruded polystyrene was installed on the exterior of the slab for a modeled savings of 4,500 Btu/h on the heating load.

  10. COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES AND METAL COMPLEXES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muetterties, E.L.

    2013-01-01

    molecular coordination chemistry of CH3NC has been reported.features of this surface chemistry. ACKNOw"LEDGMENTS The1980 Catalysis~ COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES AND

  11. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  12. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  13. Probing metal solidification nondestructively

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  14. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.WeekProducts >TransportationEHSS A-ZTravisTrending: Metal

  15. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.WeekProducts >TransportationEHSSTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds

  16. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.WeekProducts >TransportationEHSSTrending: Metal Oxo

  17. Probing metal solidification nondestructively

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices inPrincipalFirm Exchange . . .Probing metal

  18. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Ravindra (Iowa City, IA); Singh, Ajeet (Iowa City, IA); Halasz, Istvan (Iowa City, IA); Serban, Manuela (Iowa City, IA)

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  19. Degenerate doping of metallic anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody A; Zeller, Robert A; Johnson, Paul B; Switzer, Elise E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the invention relate to an electrochemical cell comprising: (i) a fuel electrode comprising a metal fuel, (ii) a positive electrode, (iii) an ionically conductive medium, and (iv) a dopant; the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the metal fuel is oxidized at the fuel electrode and the dopant increases the conductivity of the metal fuel oxidation product. In an embodiment, the oxidation product comprises an oxide of the metal fuel which is doped degenerately. In an embodiment, the positive electrode is an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, wherein during discharge mode, oxygen is reduced at the air electrode. Embodiments of the invention also relate to methods of producing an electrode comprising a metal and a doped metal oxidation product.

  20. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasecki, John V. (Livonia, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

    1991-01-01

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  1. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  2. REVERSIBLE METAL-TO-METAL METHYL TRANSFER IN n5-CYCLOPENTADIENYL(TRIPHENYLPHOSPHINE)DIMETHYLCOBALT(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryndza, Henry E.

    2013-01-01

    transfer between transition metals which is assisted by aJournal of the American Chemical Society REVERSIBLE METAL-TO-METAL METHYL TRANSFER IN n 5-CYCLOPENTAOIENYL(

  3. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  4. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  5. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe (Haifa, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Sheft, Irving (Oak Park, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  6. Electronic structure of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oelhafen, P.; Lapka, R.; Gubler, U.; Krieg, J.; DasGupta, A.; Guentherodt, H.J.; Mizoguchi, T.; Hague, C.; Kuebler, J.; Nagel, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is organized in six sections and deals with (1) the glassy transition metal alloys, their d-band structure, the d-band shifts on alloying and their relation to the alloy heat of formation (..delta..H) and the glass forming ability, (2) the glass to crystal phase transition viewed by valence band spectroscopy, (3) band structure calculations, (4) metallic glasses prepared by laser glazing, (5) glassy normal metal alloys, and (6) glassy hydrides.

  7. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  8. Metal-ceramic joint assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (New Milford, CT)

    2002-01-01

    A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

  9. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  10. Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, N.N.; Smith, B.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of two metals, either nickel-tungsten, nickel-zinc, or zinc-tin. This report reviews the literature and details currently available on emerging technologies that could affect recovery of metals from electroplating baths under development by Boeing Aerospace. This literature survey summarizes technologies relevant to the recovery of metals from electroplating processes. The authors expanded the scope to investigate single metal ion recovery technologies that could be applied to metal ion recovery from alloy baths. This review clearly showed that the electroplating industry has traditionally relied on precipitation and more recently on electrowinning as its waste treatment methods. Despite the almost ubiquitous use of precipitation to remove contaminant metal ions from waste electroplating baths and rinse waters, this technology is clearly no longer feasible for the electroplating industry for several reasons. First, disposal of unstabilized sludge is no longer allowed by law. Second, these methods are no longer adequate as metal-removal techniques because they cannot meet stringent new metal discharge limits. Third, precious resources are being wasted or discarded because these methods do not readily permit recovery of the target metal ions. As a result, emerging technologies for metal recovery are beginning to see application to electroplating waste recycle. This report summarizes current research in these areas. Included are descriptions of various membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, ion exchange and chelating polymer technology, and electrodialysis.

  11. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  12. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  13. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  14. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M.

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  16. Non-Destructive Inspection of Adhesive Bonds in Metal-Metal Joints...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inspection of Adhesive Bonds in Metal-Metal Joints Non-Destructive Inspection of Adhesive Bonds in Metal-Metal Joints 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  17. Histological Features of Pseudotumor-like Tissues From Metal-on-Metal Hips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Pat; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Nelson, Scott; Takamura, Karren; Smet, Koen; Amstutz, Harlan C.

    2010-01-01

    Fayyazi A, Flury R, Windler M, Koster G, Lohmann CH. Metal-on-metal bearings and hyper- sensitivity in patients withthe acetabular com- ponent and metal ion levels in metal-on-

  18. Expanding hollow metal rings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, Harold B. (Evans, GA); Imrich, Kenneth J. (Grovetown, GA)

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  19. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..