National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for loop solar water

  1. Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel ...

  2. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures. Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is ...

  3. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  4. VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP SOLAR TRACKER CONTROLLER*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss

    2008-01-01

    A versatile single-board controller for two-axis solar tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating solar tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis solar tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop control methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this controller hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.

  5. Entech Solar Inc formerly WorldWater Solar Technologies | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Inc formerly WorldWater Solar Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Entech Solar Inc. (formerly WorldWater & Solar Technologies) Place: Fort Worth, Texas Zip: 76177...

  6. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  7. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  8. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  9. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in

  10. Solar water heating panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, B.G.

    1984-10-02

    The present invention discloses a solar water heating panel and method of constructing such a solar panel from a pair of thin sheets bonded together around their peripheral edges and having at least one of the sheets formed with resiliently flexible areas defined by a plurality of abutting concave hexagonal areas or zones. The center of each hexagonal zone is formed as a dimple, concave with respect to the opposite sheet, whose radius of curvature is greater than the radius of an inscribed circle within said zone. The abutting zones between each hexagonal zone are formed convex relative to the opposite sheet and have a radius less than that of an inscribed circle. In a preferred form, the sheets are joined together at the center of alternate spaced-apart hexagonal areas. In this way, except for the centers bonded near the panel edges, each joined hexagonal center is surrounded by six unjoined areas to form both transverse and longitudinal flow passages through the panel.

  11. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  12. Solar Works in Seattle: Domestic Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seattle's residential solar hot water workshop. Content also covers general solar resource assessment, siting, and financial incentives.

  13. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)1...

  14. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of...

  15. Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  16. Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Renewable Energy Ready Home Table of ... Assumptions of the RERH Solar Water Heating Specification ...

  17. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  18. Solar Water Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Water Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarWaterHeat&oldid26719...

  19. Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2013-02-01

    ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

  20. Unresolved fine-scale structure in solar coronal loop-tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scullion, E.; Van der Voort, L. Rouppe; Wedemeyer, S.; Antolin, P.

    2014-12-10

    New and advanced space-based observing facilities continue to lower the resolution limit and detect solar coronal loops in greater detail. We continue to discover even finer substructures within coronal loop cross-sections, in order to understand the nature of the solar corona. Here, we push this lower limit further to search for the finest coronal loop substructures, through taking advantage of the resolving power of the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope/CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter (CRISP), together with co-observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA). High-resolution imaging of the chromospheric H? 656.28 nm spectral line core and wings can, under certain circumstances, allow one to deduce the topology of the local magnetic environment of the solar atmosphere where its observed. Here, we study post-flare coronal loops, which become filled with evaporated chromosphere that rapidly condenses into chromospheric clumps of plasma (detectable in H?) known as a coronal rain, to investigate their fine-scale structure. We identify, through analysis of three data sets, large-scale catastrophic cooling in coronal loop-tops and the existence of multi-thermal, multi-stranded substructures. Many cool strands even extend fully intact from loop-top to footpoint. We discover that coronal loop fine-scale strands can appear bunched with as many as eight parallel strands within an AIA coronal loop cross-section. The strand number density versus cross-sectional width distribution, as detected by CRISP within AIA-defined coronal loops, most likely peaks at well below 100 km, and currently, 69% of the substructure strands are statistically unresolved in AIA coronal loops.

  1. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon thermal fluids showing thermally stability to 600 C have been tested for solar thermal-power applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C indicated that the fluid isomerized and degraded at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components in trough solar electric generating systems, such as the waste heat rejection exchanger, may become coated or clogged affecting loop performance. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene, without addition of stabilizers, does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the temperatures greater than 500 C. The performance of a concentrating solar loop using high temperature fluids was modeled based on the National Renewable Laboratory Solar Advisory Model. It was determined that a solar-to-electricity efficiency of up to 30% and a capacity factor of near 60% could be achieved using a high efficiency collector and 12 h thermal energy storage.

  2. Statistical evidence for the existence of Alfvénic turbulence in solar coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jiajia; McIntosh, Scott W.; Bethge, Christian; De Moortel, Ineke; Threlfall, James

    2014-12-10

    Recent observations have demonstrated that waves capable of carrying large amounts of energy are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. However, the question of how this wave energy is dissipated (on which timescales and length scales) and released into the plasma remains largely unanswered. Both analytic and numerical models have previously shown that Alfvénic turbulence may play a key role not only in the generation of the fast solar wind, but in the heating of coronal loops. In an effort to bridge the gap between theory and observations, we expand on a recent study by analyzing 37 clearly isolated coronal loops using data from the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter instrument. We observe Alfvénic perturbations with phase speeds which range from 250 to 750 km s{sup –1} and periods from 140 to 270 s for the chosen loops. While excesses of high-frequency wave power are observed near the apex of some loops (tentatively supporting the onset of Alfvénic turbulence), we show that this excess depends on loop length and the wavelength of the observed oscillations. In deriving a proportional relationship between the loop length/wavelength ratio and the enhanced wave power at the loop apex, and from the analysis of the line widths associated with these loops, our findings are supportive of the existence of Alfvénic turbulence in coronal loops.

  3. SMUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the...

  4. Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper investigating cost-performance tradeoffs in replacing glazed collectors with unglazed collectors in solar domestic water heating systems.

  5. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Energy Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers electric residential and commercial customers low-interest loans for photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heaters.

  6. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  7. Affordable Solar Hot Water and Power LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water and Power LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Affordable Solar Hot Water and Power LLC Place: Dothan, Alabama Zip: 36305 Sector: Solar Product: Solar and Energy Efficiency...

  8. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Solar Water Heaters ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Solar Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential solar ...

  9. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters Preprint J. Burch National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Thornton Thermal Energy System Specialists, Inc. ...

  10. Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Commercial Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Beginning in August 2011, the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) will provide grants* for feasibility studies of commercial solar hot water systems through the Commonwealth Solar Hot Wat...

  11. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar...

  12. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar ...

  13. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  14. Solar Water Heating Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherization Assistance Program » Pilot Projects » Solar Water Heating Webinar Solar Water Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's Nov. 16, 2010, presentation about residential solar water heating technologies and applications. It's one in a series of Webinars to support state and local projects funded by Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Grants. You can also read a transcript of the Webinar. More Information For

  15. Clark Public Utilities- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition, Clark Public Utilities offers a loan program for eligible solar water heater equipment. For additional information, call Energy Services at (360) 992-3355.

  16. Valley Electric Association- Solar Water Heating Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA...

  17. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

  18. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | ...

  19. Plasma dynamics above solar flare soft x-ray loop tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; McKenzie, D. E.

    2014-06-10

    We measure non-thermal motions in flare loop tops and above the loop tops using profiles of highly ionized spectral lines of Fe XXIV and Fe XXIII formed at multimillion-degree temperatures. Non-thermal motions that may be due to turbulence or multiple flow regions along the line of sight are extracted from the line profiles. The non-thermal motions are measured for four flares seen at or close to the solar limb. The profile data are obtained using the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on the Hinode spacecraft. The multimillion-degree non-thermal motions are between 20 and 60 km s{sup 1} and appear to increase with height above the loop tops. Motions determined from coronal lines (i.e., lines formed at about 1.5 MK) tend to be smaller. The multimillion-degree temperatures in the loop tops and above range from about 11 MK to 15 MK and also tend to increase with height above the bright X-ray-emitting loop tops. The non-thermal motions measured along the line of sight, as well as their apparent increase with height, are supported by Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements of turbulent velocities in the plane of the sky.

  20. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  1. List of Solar Water Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics Solar Water Heat Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes City and County of Denver - Solar Panel Permitting (Colorado) SolarWind Permitting Standards Colorado Commercial...

  2. University of Maryland's "WaterShed" Wins 2011 Solar Decathlon...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    space that generates its energy from solar power. | Courtesy of University of Maryland Solar Decathlon Team The University of Maryland's "WaterShed" won the 2011 Solar Decathlon. ...

  3. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heating Transcript Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar ... More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar ...

  4. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  5. Extremely stable bare hematite photoanode for solar water splitting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extremely stable bare hematite photoanode for solar water splitting Prev Next Title: Extremely stable bare hematite photoanode for solar water splitting Authors: Dias, Paula ; ...

  6. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit:...

  7. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes Greenfield, Massachusetts ... Building Component: Solar water heating Application: Single-family Years Tested: 2010-2013 ...

  8. Solar Hot Water Market Development in Knoxville, TN

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessment of local solar hot water markets, market variables, market barriers, and suggested strategies to increase solar hot water deployment in the city and county.

  9. Solar Water Splitting: Putting an Extra "Eye" on Surface Reactions...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Solar Water Splitting: Putting an Extra "Eye" on Surface Reactions that Store Sunlight as ... Solar Water Splitting: Putting an Extra "Eye" on Surface Reactions that Store Sunlight as ...

  10. Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology...

  11. Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-05-06

    This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

  12. Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Residential Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since February 2011, the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) has provided rebates for the installation of residential and small commercial solar hot water systems through the Commonwealth...

  13. Piedmont EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Piedmont Electric Membership Corporation is offering a $500 rebate to its residential members who install solar water heaters on their homes. The utility recommends but does not require the system...

  14. CPS Energy- Solar Hot Water Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of a larger program designed to reduce electricity demand within its service territory, CPS Energy now offers rebates for solar water heaters to its customers. In general, any CPS Energy...

  15. Lakeland Electric- Solar Water Heating Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, offers solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility bills the customer $34.95 per month regardless of use. The $34.95...

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  17. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  18. Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This sheet presents information on solar water heaters (passive and active), solar collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough), lists opportunities for use of solar water heating, and describes what is required and the costs. Important terms are defined.

  19. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar Water Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transcript | Department of Energy Solar Water Heating Transcript Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar Water Heating Transcript Video recording transcript of a Webinar on Nov. 16, 2010 about residential solar water heating applications solar_water_heating_webinar.pdf (152.62 KB) More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Water Heaters Sustainable

  20. Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to obtain one of these specialty licenses, installers must meet the following criteria. The applicant for a Restricted Solar Mechanic license must provide the Arkansas Department of...

  1. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  2. Development of Water Radiolysis Code for the JMTR IASCC Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoshi Hanawa; Tomonori Sato; Yuichiro Mori; Jin Oogiyanagi; Yoshiyuki Kaji; Shunsuke Uchida

    2006-07-01

    In order to evaluate the water chemistry in the irradiation field during IASCC irradiation test, a water radiolysis code for IASCC irradiation loop system was developed. In the water radiolysis code, a multiple node model was introduced since the irradiation loop system has a wide rage temperature distribution as well as the dose distribution. To investigate the applicability of developed water radiolysis code, water chemistry at the water sampling point of the irradiation loop system was measured and compared with analytical results under several water chemistry conditions. Further, water chemistry distribution in the in-pile region as well as in the out-pile region was calculated by the developed water radiolysis code. (authors)

  3. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair May 30, 2012 - 2:35pm Addthis Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to...

  4. NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference: Seabold, J.A.; Zhu, K.; Neale. N.R. (2014). "Efficient Solar Photoelectrolysis ... NRELFS-5900-61070 | January 2014 NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by ...

  5. PV vs. Solar Water Heating- Simple Solar Payback

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar energy systems hang their hats on payback. Financial payback is as tangible as money in your bank account, while other types of payback—like environmental externalities—are not usually calculated in dollars. There’s no doubt that photovoltaic (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems will pay you back. Maybe not as quickly as you’d like, but all systems will significantly offset their cost over their lifetimes. Here we’ll try to answer: Which system will give the quickest return on investment (ROI)?

  6. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar...

  7. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  8. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  9. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap K. Hudon, T. Merrigan, J. Burch ... No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap ...

  10. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  11. Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE, from the U.S. Environmental ... DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist DOE Zero Energy Ready Home ...

  12. Solar Domestic Water Heating: a Roof-Integrated Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-03

    This fact sheet describes an evaluation of the performance of a roof-integrated solar water heating system.

  13. SOLAR MOSS PATTERNS: HEATING OF CORONAL LOOPS BY TURBULENCE AND MAGNETIC CONNECTION TO THE FOOTPOINTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kittinaradorn, R.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: scdjr@mahidol.ac.th

    2009-09-10

    We address the origin of the patchy dark and bright emission structure, known as 'moss', observed by TRACE extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar disk. Here we propose an explanation based on turbulent, patchy heat conduction from the corona into the transition region. Computer simulations demonstrate that magnetic turbulence in coronal loops develops a flux rope structure with current sheets near the flux rope boundaries. Localized heating due to current sheet activity such as magnetic reconnection is followed by heat conduction along turbulent magnetic field lines. The field line trajectories tend to remain near the flux rope boundaries, resulting in selective heating of the plasma in the transition region. This can explain the network of bright regions in the observed moss morphology.

  14. SLAC, Stanford Gadget Grabs More Solar Energy to Disinfect Water...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SLAC, Stanford Gadget Grabs More Solar Energy to Disinfect Water Faster: Plopped Into water, a tiny device triggers the formation of chemicals that kill microbes in minutes SLAC, ...

  15. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace. Researchers in the Residential ...

  16. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every

  17. WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    get curren WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER Be part of the Clean Energy Generation! YOUR HOUSE BIOMASS ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Clean energy can come from the sun. 2 The energy in wind can make electricity. We can make energy with moving water. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our homes. Check out these cool websites to learn more about clean energy! Energy Information Administration

  18. What to expect from a batch solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.

    1984-01-01

    Batch solar water heaters are becoming more popular because of their low initial cost and simplicity of operation. Batch type water heaters have the following features in common: a water tank or tanks, an insulated tank enclosure, a glazed collecter surface, and a reflector system. The advantages of this type of solar water heater are discussed.

  19. Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems October 7, 2014 - 2:39pm Q&A What do you want to know about solar at home? Tell Us Addthis Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank. | Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank. | Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable

  20. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lumbee River EMC is offering $850 rebates to residential customers who install solar water heaters on their homes. To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings and...

  1. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering 6% loans to residential customers for the installation of solar water heaters on their homes.  To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings and...

  2. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Photovoltaic Modules. North Carolina Solar Center Heat Your Water with the Sun (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy Addthis Related Articles An example of a solar pool...

  3. South River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    South River Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) is providing rebates to encourage their customers to install solar water heating systems. To be eligible for the rebate solar collectors must have...

  4. Orlando Utilities Commission- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through a partnership with the Orlando Federal Credit Union (OFCU), OUC also offers a Residential Solar Loan Program to finance the solar hot water system. Customers who choose to finance through...

  5. MODELING OF GYROSYNCHROTRON RADIO EMISSION PULSATIONS PRODUCED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC LOOP OSCILLATIONS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mossessian, George; Fleishman, Gregory D.

    2012-04-01

    A quantitative study of the observable radio signatures of the sausage, kink, and torsional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation modes in flaring coronal loops is performed. Considering first non-zero order effect of these various MHD oscillation modes on the radio source parameters such as magnetic field, line of sight, plasma density and temperature, electron distribution function, and the source dimensions, we compute time-dependent radio emission (spectra and light curves). The radio light curves (of both flux density and degree of polarization) at all considered radio frequencies are then quantified in both time domain (via computation of the full modulation amplitude as a function of frequency) and in Fourier domain (oscillation spectra, phases, and partial modulation amplitude) to form the signatures specific to a particular oscillation mode and/or source parameter regime. We found that the parameter regime and the involved MHD mode can indeed be distinguished using the quantitative measures derived in the modeling. We apply the developed approach to analyze radio burst recorded by Owens Valley Solar Array and report possible detection of the sausage mode oscillation in one (partly occulted) flare and kink or torsional oscillations in another flare.

  6. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters » Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional

  7. EFFECTS OF ALFVEN WAVES ON ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER EMISSION IN CORONAL LOOPS AND SOLAR TYPE I RADIO STORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, Y. H.

    2013-06-10

    Solar type I radio storms are long-lived radio emissions from the solar atmosphere. It is believed that these type I storms are produced by energetic electrons trapped within a closed magnetic structure and are characterized by a high ordinary (O) mode polarization. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open problem. Recently, Wu et al. found that Alfven waves (AWs) can significantly influence the basic physics of wave-particle interactions by modifying the resonant condition. Taking the effects of AWs into account, this work investigates electron cyclotron maser emission driven by power-law energetic electrons with a low-energy cutoff distribution, which are trapped in coronal loops by closed solar magnetic fields. The results show that the emission is dominated by the O mode. It is proposed that this O mode emission may possibly be responsible for solar type I radio storms.

  8. Monitoring SERC Technologies - Solar Hot Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Water Monitoring SERC Technologies - Solar Hot Water On October 27, 2011, Eliza Hotchkiss, an analyst at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, presented a Webinar about Solar Hot Water systems and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation or read the transcript. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the presentation include: Database for State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency NREL Solar Technology Analysis Models and Tools SunShot

  9. Water Consumption from Freeze Protection Valves for Solar Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze protection valves for solar domestic water heating systems in cold climates.

  10. Sacramento Ordinance to Waive Fees for Solar Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An ordinance suspending for the calendar years 2007-2009 all fees related to installations of solar water heaters on existing residences.

  11. Ocala Utility Services- Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Water Heater Rebate Program is offered to residential retail electric customers by the City of Ocala Utility Services. Interested customers must complete an application and receive...

  12. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration Jordan Macknick and Stuart Cohen National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Technical Report NRELTP-6A20-63011 September...

  13. Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Template Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D Kate Hudon National Renewable Energy Laboratory ... This project addresses this barrier by working with an industry research partner to ...

  14. Austin Energy - Solar Water Heating Rebate | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal Government Multifamily Residential Institutional Savings Category Solar Water Heat Maximum Rebate Rebate: 2,000 Loan: 10,000 for duplex; 5,000 for single family...

  15. Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 18, 2003, MAG passed permit submission requirements for residential solar domestic water heating systems. This is in addition to the existing standards for residential and...

  16. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision...

  17. Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of 286 per qualifying...

  18. Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of Arizona and the House of Refuge Sunnyslope are partnering to install solar hot water systems at five Phoenix-area housing sites for homeless men.

  19. Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

  20. Sandia Energy - Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Energy News EC News & Events Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning Previous Next Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning The Molten Salt...

  1. The elimination of the reverse circulation in thermosiphon solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prapas, D.E.; Sotiropoulos, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Thermosiphon solar water heaters (TSWH), employing either closed or open collector loops, are widely used today to cover a substantial part of the hot water needs, mostly in residential small scale applications. Their cost is lower in comparison to pumped systems, because no pumps, controls etc. are required. However, the storage tank has to be mounted above the collector in order to promote the thermosiphon flow; this could be a serious drawback in some applications. An undesirable characteristic of TSWH is the reverse circulation (RC) of the working liquid when the temperature of the collector is lower than that of the storage tank. The causes of reverse circulation in thermosyphon solar water heaters, the geometry of the systems, and the affects of nocturnal radiative cooling of the collector are discussed. A means of interconnecting collector and tank to drastically reduce reverse circulation is presented.

  2. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To invest in a renewable resource, consider an ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater and use free energy from the sun to heat your water. Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers rebates of $20...

  3. Comparative performance indices for solar batch water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Aaboe, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A simple method is developed to allow direct comparison of various solar batch water heaters. Certain system variables must be determined by calculation or measurement which may vary with season. These include Thermal Efficiency of Collection, Tank R value, Collector Surface to Tank Volume Ratio, Clear Day Collection Period in Hours, System Cost, and Installed Solar Heatings Fraction (optional). These variables are used to compute any one of four performance indices. This method allows a valid comparison not only between various solar batch water heaters but between other types of solar water heaters as well. This system may be used by consumers or designers to choose the most cost and performance effective options.

  4. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Solar Hot Water. solar_thermal_presentation.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story: Montana Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat

  5. Build-it-yourself solar water heater: reduce electric use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Drawings and instructions for a simple breadbox-style solar water heater are presented. This booklet is a step-by-step guide to building a solar water heater for approximately 15 percent of the cost of most commercially-installed systems. This system does not provide as much energy as the commercially available systems. (MHR)

  6. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can usually save you

  7. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater March 2, 2015 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water...

  8. Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Highly Water-Resistant Solar Reflective Retrofit Roof Coating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar ...

  9. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit...

  10. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production via a Novel Lowe Pressure, Magnetically Stabilized, Non-volatile Iron Oxide Looping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Florida is developing a windowless high-temperature chemical reactor that converts concentrated solar thermal energy to syngas, which can be used to produce gasoline. The overarching project goal is lowering the cost of the solar thermochemical production of syngas for clean and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels like petroleum. The team will develop processes that rely on water and recycled CO2 as the sole feed-stock, and concentrated solar radiation as the sole energy source, to power the reactor to produce fuel efficiently. Successful large-scale deployment of this solar thermochemical fuel production could substantially improve our national and economic security by replacing imported oil with domestically produced solar fuels.

  11. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Cohen, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This analysis provides a detailed national and regional description of the water-related impacts and constraints of high solar electricity penetration scenarios in the U.S. in 2030 and 2050. A modified version of the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that incorporates water resource availability and costs as a constraint in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions was utilized to explore national and regional differences in water use impacts and solar deployment locations under different solar energy cost and water availability scenarios (Macknick et al. 2015). Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013a). Scenarios analyzed include two business-as-usual solar energy cost cases, one with and one without considering available water resources, and four solar energy cost cases that meet the SunShot cost goals (i.e., $1/watt for utility-scale PV systems), with varying levels of water availability restrictions. This analysis provides insight into the role solar energy technologies have in the broader electricity sector under scenarios of water constraints.

  12. Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using Recovery Act funding, L.L. Bean, the popular outdoor apparel company, recently installed a 180-tube solar hot water collector array on the roof of their flagship store in Freeport, Maine. Find out some how much energy and money they're saving thanks to the new solar installation.

  13. Towards a Design of a Complete Solar Water Splitting System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Towards a Design of a Complete Solar Water Splitting System 1 Feb 2013 BISfuel : A team of Bisfuel researchers led by Devens Gust, Ana Moore and Tom Moore has designed and ...

  14. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems (both for domestic and pool heating uses) in their newly-constructed homes. Rebates of...

  15. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  16. Efficient Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Solar Water...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The developer installed SDHW to reduce fossil-fuel consumption, and CARB has been monitoring the system since its completion. Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings (703.51 ...

  17. City Water Light and Power- Solar Rewards Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City Water, Light and Power  (CWLP) is offering residential and commercial customers a $500 per kilowatt (kW) rebate for installing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with a maximum rebate of up to $2...

  18. Pasadena Water and Power- Solar Power Installation Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pasadena Water & Power (PWP) offers its electric customers a rebate for photovoltaic (PV) installations, with a goal of helping to fund the installation of 14 megawatts (MW) of solar power by...

  19. City of Palo Alto Utilities- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Palo Alto Utilities is offering incentives for their residential, commercial and industrial customers to install solar water heating systems on their homes and facilities with a goal of 1...

  20. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Questar Gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  1. City of Tallahassee Utilities- Solar Water Heating Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The homeowner must allow the City of Tallahassee to conduct an energy audit on the home in order to make a preliminary assessment of sun exposure and to provide program guidance. All solar water...

  2. GreyStone Power- Solar Water Heating Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative serving 103,000 customers in Georgia, introduced a solar water heating rebate in March 2009. This $500 rebate is available to customers regardless of...

  3. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  4. Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

  5. Glendale Water and Power- Solar Solutions Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Solutions program provides all customer groups with an incentive to install photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes and buildings. Rebate levels will decrease over time on an annual...

  6. NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    NREL and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heater market.

  7. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION residential; Residential Buildings; ARBI; Building America; TRNSYS; multifamily; domestic hot water; solar water ...

  8. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  9. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  10. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & ...

  11. Seawater as salt and water source for solar ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folchitto, S. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a method for preliminary design of a 1 km{sup 2} solar pond that will be supplied with salt and water from the sea. The evaporating basins, needed to concentrate the seawater are also included in the project. Starting from the experience that Agip Petroli gained in running the 25,000 m{sup 2} Solar Pond, built inside a salt-work in Margherita di Savoia, in southern Italy, two projects were worked out: the first one of 25,000 m{sup 2} and the second one of 1 km{sup 2} of surface. Making comparison between harvested energy cost of the solar pond, and the energy cost of alternative and traditional energy sources, the coastal Solar Pond of 1 km{sup 2} that utilizes seawater as salt and water source, is competitive.

  12. EWEB- Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB) offers residential customers a loan and cash discount program called, "The Bright Way To Heat Water." The program is designed to promote the installation of...

  13. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The batch collector is a large box holding a tank and covered with a glaze that faces the sun. Water is heated in this tank, and another pipe takes the heated water from the batch...

  14. Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

  15. Sandia Energy - Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Energy Storage Systems Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed Previous Next Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed The pump was...

  16. Sandia Energy - Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salt Home Renewable Energy Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt Previous Next Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt The Molten Salt Test...

  17. THE PHASES OF WATER ICE IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciesla, Fred J.

    2014-03-20

    Understanding the phases of water ice that were present in the solar nebula has implications for understanding cometary and planetary compositions as well as the internal evolution of these bodies. Here we show that amorphous ice formed more readily than previously recognized, with formation at temperatures <70K being possible under protoplanetary disk conditions. We further argue that photodesorption and freeze-out of water molecules near the surface layers of the solar nebula would have provided the conditions needed for amorphous ice to form. This processing would be a natural consequence of ice dynamics and would allow for the trapping of noble gases and other volatiles in water ice in the outer solar nebula.

  18. Solar Water Heaters and the Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One Coloradan examines the costs and benefits of passive versus conventional water heating systems - and it's effects on property value in the long-term.

  19. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  20. Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lounis, M.; Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider

    2011-01-17

    Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m{sup 2} of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

  1. OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF THE EMERGING EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN AS SEEN WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, L. P.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Kariyappa, R.; Hasan, S. S.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2013-05-01

    We used data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study coronal loops at small scales, emerging in the quiet Sun. With HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, we derive the integrated and unsigned photospheric magnetic flux at the loop footpoints in the photosphere. These loops are bright in the EUV channels of AIA. Using the six AIA EUV filters, we construct the differential emission measure (DEM) in the temperature range 5.7-6.5 in log T (K) for several hours of observations. The observed DEMs have a peak distribution around log T Almost-Equal-To 6.3, falling rapidly at higher temperatures. For log T < 6.3, DEMs are comparable to their peak values within an order of magnitude. The emission-weighted temperature is calculated, and its time variations are compared with those of magnetic flux. We present two possibilities for explaining the observed DEMs and temperatures variations. (1) Assuming that the observed loops are composed of a hundred thin strands with certain radius and length, we tested three time-dependent heating models and compared the resulting DEMs and temperatures with the observed quantities. This modeling used enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), a zero-dimensional (0D) hydrodynamic code. The comparisons suggest that a medium-frequency heating model with a population of different heating amplitudes can roughly reproduce the observations. (2) We also consider a loop model with steady heating and non-uniform cross-section of the loop along its length, and find that this model can also reproduce the observed DEMs, provided the loop expansion factor {gamma} {approx} 5-10. More observational constraints are required to better understand the nature of coronal heating in the short emerging loops on the quiet Sun.

  2. Examining System-Wide Impacts of Solar PV Control Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2014-06-08

    High penetration levels of distributed solar PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts, such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter control schemes have been developed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, local closed-loop control may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. To enable the study of the performance of advanced control schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a test platform has been developed that integrates Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) with concurrent time-series electric distribution system simulation. In the test platform, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs a detailed simulation of a distribution feeder in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a hardware inverter interacts with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system. Power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of inverter control modes—constant power factor and active Volt/VAr control—when integrated into a simulated IEEE 8500-node test feeder. We demonstrate that this platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter controls and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, results are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter controls.

  3. Examining System-Wide Impacts of Solar PV Control Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2014-10-11

    High penetration levels of distributed solar PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter control schemes have been proposed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, closed-loop control may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. In order to enable the study of the performance of advanced control schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) platform has been developed. In the HIL system, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling to hardware located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Hardware inverters interact with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system and power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of controls applied to inverters that are integrated into a simulation of the IEEE 8500-node test feeder, with inverters in either constant power factor control or active volt/VAR control. We demonstrate that this HIL platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter controls and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, the results from HIL are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter controls.

  4. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. This paper proposes a more realistic ratings draw that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum; Denver, Colorado; May 13-17, 2012.

  5. Salem Electric- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Salem Electric residential customers with electric water heating are eligible for a $600 rebate through Salem's Bright Way program. A program brochure with details is available on the program...

  6. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  7. Simple solar water heating systems: The SWAP program in Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, J.

    1997-11-01

    This article describes the development of a solar water heating system appropriate for low-income Florida residents and the appliances developed in conjunction with it that may appeal to a wider market. Among the topics discussed are size and design of the system including passive preheaters and affordable active systems. Electric water heaters with 40 and 50 gallon capacity were found to be the most cost effective. The feed-back from customers is also discussed. 3 figs.

  8. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  9. Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, J.; Liu, W.

    1998-09-15

    Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.

  10. Mexico-GTZ Support for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Support for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Mexico-GTZ Support for the Programme to Promote Solar Water Heating Name Mexico-GTZ...

  11. Enabling unassisted solar water splitting by iron oxide and silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jang, Ji-Wook; Du, Chun; Ye, Yifan; Lin, Yongjing; Yao, Xiahui; Thorne, James; Liu, Erik; McMahon, Gregory; Zhu, Junfa; Javey, Ali; et al

    2015-06-16

    A solution for large-scale solar energy storage is photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. However, its development has been impeded by the poor performance of photoanodes, particularly in their capability for photovoltage generation. Many examples employing photovoltaic modules to correct the deficiency for unassisted solar water splitting have been reported to-date. We show that, by using the prototypical photoanode material of haematite as a study tool, structural disorders on or near the surfaces are important causes of the low photovoltages. We develop a facile re-growth strategy to reduce surface disorders and as a consequence, a turn-on voltage of 0.45 V (versus reversiblemore » hydrogen electrode) is achieved. In conclusion, this result permits us to construct a photoelectrochemical device with a haematite photoanode and Si photocathode to split water at an overall efficiency of 0.91%, with NiFeOx and TiO2/Pt overlayers, respectively.« less

  12. Cost, Design, and Performance of Solar Hot Water in Cold-Climate Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-05-03

    This paper examines long-term performance of two solar hot water heating systems in the northern climate zone.

  13. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: residential; Residential Buildings; ARBI; Building America; TRNSYS; multifamily; domestic hot water; solar water heater; recirculation Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  14. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist DOE Zero Energy Ready Home National Program encourages, but does not require, consideration of this checklist. SHW-Ready Checklists.pdf (85.65 KB) More Documents & Publications Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE DOE Zero Energy Ready Home PV-Ready Checklist Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications

  16. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  17. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  18. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, David; Seitzler, Matt; Backman, Christine; Weitzel, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  19. Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, J.

    1998-10-01

    This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

  20. High-energy particle acceleration during the implosion driven by three-dimensional X-type current loop coalescence in solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, Junichi )

    1990-12-01

    A model for high-energy solar flares is presented to explain prompt proton and electron acceleration within 1 sec to relativistic energies. The three-dimensional X-type current loop coalescence, where two crossed flux tubes interact in one point, is a fundamemtally new process as compared to the one- and two-dimensional cases studied earlier. It is shown that the strong implosion can be driven by the magnetic pinch in the region where two current loops interact. The strong inductive electric field can be excited during the implosion. A test-particle orbit under the EM fields derived from the MHD equations is studied. It is also shown that both protons and electrons can be promptly accelerated to about 100 GeV and 100 MeV, respectively. 26 refs.

  1. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin; Davenport, Roger; Talbot, Jan; Herz, Richard; Genders, David; Symons, Peter; Brown, Lloyd

    2014-04-25

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are

  2. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  3. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R.; Zacarias, A.

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  4. Secretary Chu Announces more than $200 Million for Solar and Water Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy more than $200 Million for Solar and Water Power Technologies Secretary Chu Announces more than $200 Million for Solar and Water Power Technologies April 22, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - On the 40th Anniversary of Earth Day, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced that the Department will invest more than $200 million over five years to expand and accelerate the development, commercialization, and use of solar and water power

  5. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Break-even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Hannah Cassard, Paul Denholm, and Sean Ong Technical Report NREL...

  6. San Diego Solar Panels Generate Clean Electricity Along with Clean Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Thanks to San Diego's ambitious solar energy program, the Otay Water Treatment Plant may soon be able to do that with net zero electricity consumption.

  7. Tapping Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico Tapping Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico November 3, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE What does this mean for me? 150 new jobs. 1200 solar water heaters installed. In Puerto Rico, solar water heaters have been popular for decades. But even with energy savings, not everyone can afford one. Through a new Recovery Act-funded program for the island, more

  8. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    checklist. PDF icon SHW-Ready Checklists.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE DOE Zero Energy Ready Home PV-Ready Checklist ...

  9. SRP - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on SRCC rating) Summary NOTE: SRP no longer provides incentives for solar electric photovoltaic systems. SRP's Solar Electric Program provides incentives to its residential...

  10. Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2010-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

  11. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P.; He, Hongbo; Menicucci, David F.; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Burch, Jay

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  12. SolOPT: PV and Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation Software Tool - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search SolOPT: PV and Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation Software Tool National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Using SolOPT (835 KB) Technology Marketing Summary In order to increase the speed and scale of Renewable Energy (RE) solar project deployment on buildings, energy savings

  13. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  14. Solar conductive spa water heater and safety cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, G.W.

    1987-04-28

    This patent describes a solar conductive portable cover for a spa which has an opening for access comprising a rigid plastic member vacuum formed in a series of interconnected parallel U-shaped channels. Each channel is separated from an adjacent channel by a wall. A shape conforms plastic top solvent or heat is welded to a top surface of the walls to form a cover wider in diameter than the opening of the spa, such that the cover rests on coping at the top of the spa. Method is described for heating water for a spa comprising covering the top of the spa with a portable rigid thin plastic member forming a cover wider than the opening of the spa such that the cover rests on coping at the top of the spa and having a series of parallel U-shaped channels.

  15. Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems in Single-Family Homes | Department of Energy Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes In 2011, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed the construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), which is a development of 20 very efficient homes in Greenfield, Massachusetts. The homes feature R-40 walls, triple-pane windows, R-50 attic insulation, and airtight

  16. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 “flux traps” (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loop’s temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  17. Solar Array on Portland Water Bureau Meter Shop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this photograph, the 12-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) array is the largest system entirely owned by the City of Portland. Portland is a Solar America City.

  18. Water Pollution Control Plant Solar Site Evaluation: San José

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the findings of a solar site evaluation conducted at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (Site) in the City of San Jose, California (City). This evaluation was conducted as part of a larger study to assess solar potential at multiple public facilities within the City.

  19. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy solar_thermal_transcript.pdf (148.79 KB) More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics

  20. Solar Energy Water Desalination in the United States and Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luft, W.

    1981-04-01

    Five solar energy water desalination systems are described. The systems will each deliver 6000 m3/day of desalted water from either seawater or brackish water. After the system definition study is completed in August 1981, two systems will be selected for pilot plant construction. The pilot plants will have capacities in the range of 1 00 to 400 m3/day.

  1. Duke Energy Florida- SunSense Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duke Energy Florida (DEF) launched the Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise Program in February 2007 to encourage its residential customers to participate in its load control program and install a...

  2. Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar Reflective Retrofit Roof Coating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly ...

  3. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  4. California Solar Initiative- Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) voted in October 2011 to create the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Thermal Low-Income program for single and multifamily residential properties....

  5. Efficient Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Solar Water Heating in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily Buildings | Department of Energy Existing Homes Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings Efficient Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings In spring 2014, Olive Street Development completed a major renovation project-converting an old school building in Greenfield, Massachusetts, into 12 high-performance apartments. The developer installed SDHW to reduce fossil-fuel consumption, and CARB has been monitoring the system

  6. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  7. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  8. Low-cost Batch Solar Water Heater research and development project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1983-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the development and testing of Batch Solar Water Heaters. Batch Heaters tested include several kinds of tank-under-glass (Breadbox) models and several types of Inverted Batch Solar Water Heaters with both fixed and moveable reflector systems. Temperature graphs and tables of performance indices are presented for each water heater tested. An Inverted Batch Water Heater was developed based upon the test results called the Bottomgainer. Two prototypes of the Bottomgainer model were installed and monitored in use on residences. The Bottomgainer concept could be adapted to commercial production.

  9. Texas Gas Service- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Only active systems with panels (or collectors) that are certified OG-100 by the Solar Rating Certification Corporation (SRCC) qualify for this rebate. Work must be completed by a licensed contra...

  10. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  11. Community Water Pump and Treatment Facility PV Solar Power Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    200,000 kWhyear PROJECT LOCATION SITE DETAILS Water Pump and Treatment Facility Sole provider of water to Pueblo and its 5,000 residents 1 pump house, 2 water ...

  12. Dehumidification -- Closed loop systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyatt, C.H.; Crowe, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    Dehumidification is the removal of water from the air. Dehumidification equipment treats the ambient air before it is introduced to the enclosure. A closed loop system is one that theoretically routes all the air exiting an enclosure through the appropriate filter media and treatment equipment and then returns it to the enclosure. By establishing a closed loop system, the ``treated`` air is continuously processed, which improves the efficiency of this operation. The generic types of dehumidification equipment and their application in a closed loop system will be presented. This article will deal solely with the use of dehumidification and other related equipment used to control the environment within the work enclosure.

  13. Dynamics of the Coupled Human-climate System Resulting from Closed-loop Control of Solar Geoengineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Keith, David; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-08

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM, in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response; this would also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. This feedback creates an emergent coupled human-climate system, with entirely new dynamics. In addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a simple box-diffusion dynamic model to understand how changing feedback-control parameters and time delay affect the behavior of this coupled natural-human system, and verify these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain), but a delayed response needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to uncertain changes.

  14. Efficient Solar Concentrators: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Teledyne is developing a liquid prism panel that tracks the position of the sun to help efficiently concentrate its light onto a solar cell to produce power. Typically, solar tracking devices have bulky and expensive mechanical moving parts that require a lot of power and are often unreliable. Teledynes liquid prism panel has no bulky and heavy supporting partsinstead it relies on electrowetting. Electrowetting is a process where an electric field is applied to the liquid to control the angle at which it meets the sunlight above and to control the angle of the sunlight to the focusing lensthe more direct the angle to the focusing lens, the more efficiently the light can be concentrated to solar panels and converted into electricity. This allows the prism to be tuned like a radio to track the sun across the sky and steer sunlight into the solar cell without any moving mechanical parts. This process uses very little power and requires no expensive supporting hardware or moving parts, enabling efficient and quiet rooftop operation for integration into buildings.

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist (Encouraged) DOE Zero Energy Ready Home National Program encourages, but does not require, consideration of this checklist. Although the checklist is always encouraged, the following three conditions could be considered when deciding on using the checklist. Where all three conditions of the following conditions are met DOE encourages use of this checklist: 1. Location, based on zip code has at least 5 kWh/m 2 /day average daily solar

  16. Aqueous propylene-glycol concentrations for the freeze protection of thermosyphon solar energy water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, B. ); Edmonds, J.E.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Using a validated dynamic simulation model, the thermal performance of an indirect thermosyphon solar energy water heater was examined. The heat transfer fluids employed were aqueous solutions of propylene glycol. The effect of varying the glycol concentration on the hot water output and efficacy of freeze protection was determined for a specific pattern of hot water withdrawal and weather for the temperature maritime climate of London, England. The heat output is compared with that of a drain-down direct system.

  17. Solar Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility InstallersContractors Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics...

  18. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Boeing Engineering and Construction. System design final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The system design for a future commercial solar energy brackish water desalination plant is described. Key features of the plant are discussed along with its configuration selection rationale, design objectives, operation, and performance. The water treatment technology used in the plant is ion exchange pretreatment and single stage reverse osmosis desalination utilizing high-flux membranes. Electrical power needed for plant operation is produced by a solar energy system, which is based on the Brayton cycle having air as the working fluid. Primary solar system components are: heliostat field, central cavity-tube receiver, receiver support tower, thermal energy storage, and a commercial gas turbine generator set. The thermal energy storage subsystem is of the sensible heat brick type and provides a capability for continuous day/night power generation during most weather conditions. This system design was selected in a study of various system alternatives and their life cycle product water costs for a representative site in western Texas.

  19. FEMP Solar Hot Water Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Calculator AgencyCompany Organization: Federal Energy Management Program Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings Phase: Determine Baseline Topics: Baseline projection...

  20. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  1. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-09-29

    The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector

  2. Characteristics and experiences of applicants for HUD grants for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-eight winners and 45 losers of HUD solar water heater grants in the Florida panhandle were interviewed in 1978 concerning their experiences, and their solar installations were inspected. Operational problems were mostly attributable to control system failure. Grantees were generally pleased with the subsidy program. Grant recipients were not typical of the general public, in that they were mostly middle-aged, well-educated, reasonably affluent people who had a technical background, liked to do things on their own, and were fairly sophisticated so far as energy problems were concerned. It may be that the grant program is not having a great effect on solar energy commercialization, except perhaps in terms of publicity; the recipients generally would have installed systems without a grant, and most of the losers had gone ahead with a solar installation or were planning to do so.

  3. Corona Department of Water & Power- Solar Partnership Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corona Department of Water & Power is providing rebates for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rebate amount for 2015 is $0.78 per watt up to $2,340 for residential...

  4. Burbank Water and Power- Residential and Commercial Solar Support Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Burbank Water and Power (BWP) offers customers an up-front capacity-based rebate for photovoltaic (PV) systems up to 30 kW. These incentives decline over time as defined capacity goals are met, e...

  5. DOE NSF Partnership to Address Critical Challenges in Hydrogen Production from Solar Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE and the National Science Foundation (NSF) announce a funding opportunity in the area of renewable hydrogen technology research and development, specifically addressing discovery and development of advanced materials systems and chemical proceesses for direct photochemical and/or thermochemical water splitting for application in the solar production of hydrogen fuel.

  6. Performance comparison of several passive solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Nagy, C.

    1980-01-01

    Three .076 m/sup 3/ (20 gal.) batch water heaters were constructed for the purpose of side by side testing. The test models included an Inverted Batch Water Heater, a Greenhouse Integrated Skylight Heater, and a typical Breadbox Batch Heater. These designs were chosen because of their low initial cost, simple construction, ease of freeze protection, uncomplicated operation and heating effectiveness. The results of our testing show that our test models produced 35 to 70/sup 0/C (95 to 158/sup 0/F) average water temperatures with average collection efficiencies of about 34%. Materials costs for each of these systems were $200 to $400. These systems were tested side by side during periods of both low and high thermal demand, both with and without a selective surface foil on the absorber surfaces.

  7. California Solar Initiative- Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The program is only available to customers who currently heat their water with natural gas in the service territories of Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), San Diego Gas & Electric ...

  8. Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hot water demand soars at the six-building Knox County Detention Facility in Tennessee. It's open 24/7 with 1,036 inmate beds and 4,500 meals served daily—and don't forget the laundry.

  9. PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE OF ... Title: PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE ...

  10. Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (Poster) Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HARDWARE; LOOP; POSTER; Buildings; Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems; Solar Energy - Thermal ELECTRICITY; GRID; ICS; INTERCONNECTION; SYSTEM; EVALUATOR;...

  11. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  12. Modeling the Impacts of Solar Distributed Generation on U.S. Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda, Smith; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Jaron, Peck

    2015-01-01

    Distributed electric power generation technologies typically use little or no water per unit of electrical energy produced; in particular, renewable energy sources such as solar PV systems do not require cooling systems and present an opportunity to reduce water usage for power generation. Within the US, the fuel mix used for power generation varies regionally, and certain areas use more water for power generation than others. The need to reduce water usage for power generation is even more urgent in view of climate change uncertainties. In this paper, we present an example case within the state of Tennessee, one of the top four states in water consumption for power generation and one of the states with little or no potential for developing centralized renewable energy generations. The potential for developing PV generation within Knox County, Tennessee, is studied, along with the potential for reducing water withdrawal and consumption within the Tennessee Valley stream region. Electric power generation plants in the region are quantified for their electricity production and expected water withdrawal and consumption over one year, where electrical generation data is provided over one year and water usage is modeled based on the cooling system(s) in use. Potential solar PV electrical production is modeled based on LiDAR data and weather data for the same year. Our proposed methodology can be summarized as follows: First, the potential solar generation is compared against the local grid demand. Next, electrical generation reductions are specified that would result in a given reduction in water withdrawal and a given reduction in water consumption, and compared with the current water withdrawal and consumption rates for the existing fuel mix. The increase in solar PV development that would produce an equivalent amount of power, is determined. In this way, we consider how targeted local actions may affect the larger stream region through thoughtful energy development

  13. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-02-21

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  14. Experience with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water for solar heating and load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildin, M.W.; Witkofsky, M.P.; Noble, J.M.; Hopper, R.E.; Stromberg, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results have been obtained for performance of stratified tanks of water used to store heating and cooling capacity in a 5574 m/sup 2/ university building. The major sources of energy used to charge the heated tanks were solar energy, obtained via collectors on the roof of the building, and excess heat recovered from the interior of the building via thermal storage and electric-driven heat pump/chillers. Through stratification of the water in the storage tanks and an appropriate system operating strategy, 40 percent of the building's total heating needs were supplied by solar energy during the first four months of 1981. Month-long thermal efficiencies of the storage array ranging from 70 percent during the heating season to nearly 90 percent during the cooling season, were measured. Work is underway to improve the performance of thermal storage.

  15. Solar and Wind Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State...

  16. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process...

  17. Vaillant Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 92075 Sector: Solar Product: California-based solar company specializing in solar water heating, solar pool heating and solar space heating systems for residential and...

  18. solar

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  19. NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heaters. Water heating energy use represents the second largest energy demand for homes nationwide, offering an opportunity for innovative solar water heating (SWH) technologies to offset energy use and costs. In the Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) outlined a strategy to expand the SWH market. Recognizing

  20. Solar-heated hot water instrumentation project for EPRI Headquarters complex, Palo Alto, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, H.T.; Ortiz, P.

    1981-01-01

    A data acquisition and analysis effort charted the performance of a solar-assisted, hot water preheat system supplying a portion of the service water needs at the EPRI Headquarters complex in Palo Alto, California. The project commenced in June of 1978, with active data acquisition transpiring over a 12-month period from December 1, 1978, to November 30, 1979. Detailed load and performance data for the system are presented, the merits of the data acquisition system employed are discussed, and recommendations for future monitoring efforts are provided.

  1. National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

  2. To develop a dynamic model of a collector loop for purpose of improved control of solar heating and cooling. Final technical report. [TRNSYS code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herczfeld, P R; Fischl, R

    1980-01-01

    The program objectives were to (1) assess the feasibility of using the TRNSYS computer code for solar heating and cooling control studies and modify it wherever possible, and (2) develop a new dynamic model of the solar collector which reflects the performance of the collector under transient conditions. Also, the sensitivity of the performance of this model to the various system parameters such as collector time constants, flow rates, turn-on and turn-off temperature set points, solar insolation, etc., was studied. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  3. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  4. Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuelmaking them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once theyre pumped out of the tank.

  5. Candidate for solar power : a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Andelman, Marc; Hightower, Michael M.; Sattler, Allan Richard

    2005-03-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U.S., as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This, coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands of these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness and energy requirements of each technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to driving the design of integrated PV-powered treatment systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Early laboratory studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise that at common CBM salinity levels, the technology may require less energy, is less susceptible to fouling, and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduces the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the results of these laboratory studies and extends these results to energy consumption and design considerations for field implementation of produced water treatment using photovoltaic systems.

  6. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  7. Customer Interface Document for the Molten Salt Test Loop at the NSTTF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Interface Document for the Molten Salt Test Loop at the NSTTF - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy

  8. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, John J.; Greer, Christopher B.; Carr, Adrianne E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  9. Environmental Evaluation for Installation of Solar Arrays at San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The purpose of this technical memorandum (TM) is to review the options to develop a potential solar array development (Project) within or adjacent to western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) habitat in the buffer lands that surround the San José/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and to determine if there is a ground-mounted solar photovoltaic (PV) configuration that would enable a workable co-existence between the burrowing owl habitat and the PV arrays.

  10. Modeling the performance of small capacity lithium bromide-water absorption chiller operated by solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saman, N.F.; Sa`id, W.A.D.K.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the performance of a solar operated small capacity (two-ton) Lithium Bromide-Water (LiBr-H{sub 2}O) absorption system is conducted. The analysis is based on the first law of thermodynamics with lithium bromide as the absorbent and water as the refrigerant. The effect of various parameters affecting the machine coefficient of performance under various operating conditions is reported. Coefficient of performance of up to 0.8 can be obtained using flat plate solar collectors with generator temperatures in the range of 80--95 C (176--203 F). Liquid heat exchangers with effectiveness based on an NTU of the order of one would be a good design choice. The chiller can save approximately 3,456 kWh/yr per a two-ton unit, and it will reduce emissions by 19 lb of NO{sub x}, 5,870 lb of CO{sub 2}, and 16 lb of SO{sub x} per year per machine.

  11. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 281 Solar Hot Water Application Assessment for U.S. Army IMCOM-Southeast Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Chvala, William D.

    2010-09-30

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires installations (EISA) to install solar systems of sufficient capacity to provide 30% of service hot water in new construction and renovations where cost-effective. However, installations are struggling with how to implement solar hot water, and while several installations are installing solar hot water on a limited basis, paybacks remain long. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to address this issue to help determine how best to implement solar hot water projects. This documents discusses the results of that project.

  13. Chemodynamical deuterium fractionation in the early solar nebula: The origin of water on earth and in asteroids and comets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albertsson, T.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.

    2014-03-20

    Formation and evolution of water in the solar system and the origin of water on Earth constitute one of the most interesting questions in astronomy. The prevailing hypothesis for the origin of water on Earth is by delivery through water-rich small solar system bodies. In this paper, the isotopic and chemical evolution of water during the early history of the solar nebula, before the onset of planetesimal formation, is studied. A gas-grain chemical model that includes multiply deuterated species and nuclear spin-states is combined with a steady-state solar nebula model. To calculate initial abundances, we simulated 1 Myr of evolution of a cold and dark TMC-1-like prestellar core. Two time-dependent chemical models of the solar nebula are calculated over 1 Myr: (1) a laminar model and (2) a model with two-dimensional (2D) turbulent mixing. We find that the radial outward increase of the H{sub 2}O D/H ratio is shallower in the chemodynamical nebular model than in the laminar model. This is related to more efficient defractionation of HDO via rapid gas-phase processes because the 2D mixing model allows the water ice to be transported either inward and thermally evaporated or upward and photodesorbed. The laminar model shows the Earth water D/H ratio at r ? 2.5 AU, whereas for the 2D chemodynamical model this zone is larger, r ? 9 AU. Similarly, the water D/H ratios representative of the Oort-family comets, ?2.5-10 10{sup 4}, are achieved within ?2-6 AU and ?2-20 AU in the laminar and the 2D model, respectively. We find that with regards to the water isotopic composition and the origin of the comets, the mixing model seems to be favored over the laminar model.

  14. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling. Final technical report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.; Mandeville, M.

    1980-09-01

    A history of the solar garden with the addition of the transparent water ceiling is presented, and a statement of the overall goals of the program is given. The objectives of the water ceiling grant are detailed. The rationale of the transparent water ceiling is developed and its implementation in the solar garden is described. The experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling has proven useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night after the water has been warmed during the day and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing non-flowering plants, such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants, such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan the water ceiling could be much more effective.

  15. Human-In-The-Loop Simulation in Support of Long-Term Sustainability of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that this analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are needed to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II&C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nations NPPs.

  16. Human-In-The-Loop Simulation in Support of Long-Term Sustainability of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that this analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are needed to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II&C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s NPPs.

  17. Human-In-The-Loop Simulation in Support of Long-Term Sustainability of Light Water Reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hallbert, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that this analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are neededmore » to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II&C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s NPPs.« less

  18. Accuracy of the European solar water heater test procedure. Part 1: Measurement errors and parameter estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.; Leide, B. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Collector and System Testing Group (CSTG) of the European Community has developed a procedure for testing the performance of solar water heaters. This procedure treats a solar water heater as a black box with input-output parameters that are determined by all-day tests. In the present study the authors carry out a systematic analysis of the accuracy of this procedure, in order to answer the question: what tolerances should one impose for the measurements and how many days of testing should one demand under what meteorological conditions, in order to be able to quarantee a specified maximum error for the long term performance The methodology is applicable to other test procedures as well. The present paper (Part 1) examines the measurement tolerances of the current version of the procedure and derives a priori estimates of the errors of the parameters; these errors are then compared with the regression results of the Round Robin test series. The companion paper (Part 2) evaluates the consequences for the accuracy of the long term performance prediction. The authors conclude that the CSTG test procedure makes it possible to predict the long term performance with standard errors around 5% for sunny climates (10% for cloudy climates). The apparent precision of individual test sequences is deceptive because of large systematic discrepancies between different sequences. Better results could be obtained by imposing tighter control on the constancy of the cold water supply temperature and on the environment of the test, the latter by enforcing the recommendation for the ventilation of the collector.

  19. City of Boulder - Solar Access Ordinance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Construction Local Government Residential Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Photovoltaics Program Info Sector Name...

  20. Solar and Wind Easements, Local Options, and Severability | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  1. Residential Solar Energy Property Tax Exemption | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Property Tax Exemption Residential Solar Energy Property Tax Exemption < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics...

  2. Beijing Sijimicoe Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sijimicoe Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Sijimicoe Solar Energy Place: Beijing, China Zip: 102200 Sector: Solar Product: Beijing-based solar water heating...

  3. Matla Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Matla Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Matla Solar Energy Place: East London, South Africa Sector: Solar Product: East London-based solar water geyser manufacturer....

  4. Acro Solar Lasers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Acro Solar Lasers Place: El Paso, Texas Zip: 79936 Sector: Solar Product: Makes solar water heating devices based on parabolic dish concentrators. References: Acro Solar...

  5. Solar-powered electrodialysis. Part 2. Design of a solar-powered, electrodialysis system for desalting remote, brackish water sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, J.E.; Socha, M.M.; Lynch, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    The critical components in the design of a solar-powered, electrodialysis (SPED) plant have been evaluated and technology developed to combine ED equipment with a photovoltaic (PV) array. The plant design developed in Part II is simplified from the Part I design in three areas. First, the system uses a flat-panel PV aray rather than PV concentrators. Second, the system voltage is maintained at the voltage corresponding to the peak power output of the array which is essentially independent of the level of solar insolation. The third simplification is in the flow diagram for the plant where the number of pumps and variable flow valves has been reduced to two of each. The proposed system is expected to provide a reliable supply of fresh water from a brackish water source with minimum maintenance. In certain applications where grid power is unavailable and fuel costs exceed $.40 per liter, the solar-powered plant is expected to provide lower cost water today.

  6. SolarIsland aka Yinghua Taian Dazheng Hengyuan Solar Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 271000 Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturer and exporter of solar passive water heating systems and PV-powered solar road lighting, torches and lamps. References:...

  7. Concentrating Solar Power and Water Issues in the U.S. Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, N.; Macknick, J.; Tovar-Hastings, A.; Komor, P.; Gerritsen, M.; Mehta, S.

    2015-03-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems utilize the sun's energy to create heat that is used to generate electrical power. CSP systems in the United States are installed primarily in the Southwest, with 92% of plants that are operational, under construction, or under development located in three western states--Arizona, California, and Nevada. This report provides an overview of CSP development in these states, or the 'Southwest' for the purposes of this discussion, with a particular focus on the water supply issues associated with CSP. The Western Governors' Association (WGA) commissioned staff from the Western States Water Council (WSWC) to collaborate with staff from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to prepare this report. The WGA has long supported the effective management of the West's water resources, as well as the development of a clean, diverse, reliable, and affordable energy supply consisting of traditional and renewable energy resources. This report is specifically intended to help inform these goals, especially as WGA continues to underwrite a Regional Transmission Expansion Planning project, undertaken by the WSWC and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), to better understand energy development within the existing and future water resource constraints of the West. This report builds upon earlier research conducted by NREL, the University of Colorado-Boulder, and Stanford University that was supported through the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) and presents information gathered through extensive research and literature reviews, as well as interviews and outreach with state water administrators and energy regulators, WECC and other experts familiar with CSP development in the Southwest.

  8. A rating procedure for solar domestic hot water systems based on ASHRAE-95 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnerly, B.V.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A rating method for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems is presented that provides site-specific annual performance estimates based on ASHRAE-95 test results. An overall loss and overall gain coefficient are estimated by lumping the entire thermal behavior of the actual system exhibited during the ASHRAE-95 test into the collector parameters of a simplified system model. The performance of the simplified model can then be predicted using either the F-chart or TRNSYS and presented as an estimate of the annual performance of the actual system. Experimental performance measurements taken from relevant literature as well as extensive simulations, indicate that this method is capable of predicting the annual performance of a wide range of SDHW system types to within 5%, independent of location.

  9. Solar Photo Catalytic Hydrogen Production from water using a dual bed photosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florida Solar Energy Center

    2003-03-30

    A body of work was performed in which the feasibility of photocatalytically decomposing water into its constituent elements using a dual bed, or modular photosystem, under solar radiation was investigated. The system envisioned consists of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which microscopic photocatalytic particles are immobilized. The photocatalysts absorb light, generating free electrons and lattice vacancy holes, which are capable of performing reductive and oxidative chemistry, respectively. The photocatalysts would be chosen as to whether they specifically promote H{sub 2} or O{sub 2} evolution in their respective containers. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers in order to transfer electron equivalents from one reaction to the other.

  10. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.