National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for longwave radiative transfer

  1. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    1993-09-01

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  2. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  3. Broadband Longwave Radiative Cooling Rates in Inhomogeneous Stratocumulus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Longwave Radiative Cooling Rates in Inhomogeneous Stratocumulus Clouds M. Ovtchinnikov and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington D. B. Mechem and Y. L. Kogan Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma R. F. Cahalan National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico R. G. Ellingson and E.

  4. Multi-Dimensional Effects in Longwave Radiative Forcing of PBL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 1. Introduction Numerical cloud models nearly universally employ one-dimensional (1D) treatments of radiative transfer (RT). ...

  5. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  6. Clear Skies A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models-an Update R. G. Ellingson and F. Baer Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Introduction to compare calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data. The differences we find will lead to the development of new models to be tested with new data. Similarly. our GCM studies will use existing GCMs to study the radiation

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of PBL Stratocumulus: Comparison of Multi-Dimensional and IPA Longwave Radiative Forcing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large-Eddy Simulation of PBL Stratocumulus: Comparison of Multi-Dimensional and IPA Longwave Radiative Forcing D. B. Mechem and Y. L. Kogan Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma M. Ovtchinnikov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico R. R. Cahalan National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland E. E. Takara and R. G. Ellingson

  8. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered

  9. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  10. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    narrowband radiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband radiance The rate at which radiant energy in the longwave portion of the spectrum is emitted in narrow wavelength bands in a particular direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  11. ARM - Measurement - Longwave spectral radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectral radiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave spectral radiance The rate at which the spectrally resolved radiant energy in the longwave portion of the spectrum is emitted in a particular direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  12. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband net irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    net irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband net irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling broadband longwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  13. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    narrowband brightness temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband brightness temperature A descriptive measure of radiation in terms of the temperature of a hypothetical black body emitting an identical amount of radiation in the same narrow band of wavelengths. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the

  14. ARM - Measurement - Longwave spectral brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectral brightness temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave spectral brightness temperature A descriptive measure of radiation in terms of the temperature of a hypothetical black body emitting an identical amount of radiation at the same spectrally resolved wavelengths. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the

  15. Posters Comparison of Stochastic Radiation Transfer Predictions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    models for estimating the effects of broken cloud on radiative transfer in the context of a general circulation model (GCM). These schemes are required to be very fast and...

  16. Simulation of solar radiative transfer in cumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    This work presents a 3-D model of radiative transfer which is used to study the relationship between the spatial distribution of cumulus clouds and fluxes (albedo and transmittance) of visible solar radiation.

  17. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  18. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  19. Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... with difluence and sinking motion during cyclogenesis over ... How is the greater baroclinicity generated? Radiative ... The similar time structure of the water averages between the ...

  20. Improvements to the SHDOM Radiative Transfer Modeling Package

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improvements to the SHDOM Radiative Transfer Modeling Package K. F. Evans University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado W. J. Wiscombe National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction The spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method (SHDOM) is an algorithm and FORTRAN computer code for three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer modeling (Evans 1998). The optical properties (extinction, single scattering albedo, and phase function)

  1. A study of Monte Carlo radiative transfer through fractal clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautier, C.; Lavallec, D.; O`Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.

    1996-04-01

    An understanding of radiation transport (RT) through clouds is fundamental to studies of the earth`s radiation budget and climate dynamics. The transmission through horizontally homogeneous clouds has been studied thoroughly using accurate, discreet ordinates radiative transfer models. However, the applicability of these results to general problems of global radiation budget is limited by the plane parallel assumption and the fact that real clouds fields show variability, both vertically and horizontally, on all size scales. To understand how radiation interacts with realistic clouds, we have used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute the details of the photon-cloud interaction on synthetic cloud fields. Synthetic cloud fields, generated by a cascade model, reproduce the scaling behavior, as well as the cloud variability observed and estimated from cloud satellite data.

  2. NNSA Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System to China

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Customs | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System to China Customs January 13, 2015 SHANGHAI, CHINA - Today, the Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Principal Assistant Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN), David Huizenga, participated in a ceremony commemorating the transition of a radiation detection system at the Port of Yangshan to the General Administration of Customs of China (GACC). This

  3. Fractional integration and radiative transfer in a multifractal atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naud, C.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    1996-04-01

    Recently, Cess et al. (1995) and Ramathan et al. (1995) cited observations which exhibit an anomalous absorption of cloudy skies in comparison with the value predicted by usual models and which thus introduce large uncertainties for climatic change assessments. These observation raise questions concerning the way general circulation models have been tuned for decades, relying on classical methods, of both radiative transfer and dynamical modeling. The observations also tend to demonstrate that homogeneous models are simply not relevant in relating the highly variable properties of clouds and radiation fields. However smoothed, the intensity of cloud`s multi-scattered radiation fields reflect this extreme variability.

  4. Coupling radiative heat transfer in participating media with other heat transfer modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tencer, John; Howell, John R.

    2015-09-28

    The common methods for finding the local radiative flux divergence in participating media through solution of the radiative transfer equation are outlined. The pros and cons of each method are discussed in terms of their speed, ability to handle spectral properties and scattering phenomena, as well as their accuracy in different ranges of media transport properties. The suitability of each method for inclusion in the energy equation to efficiently solve multi-mode thermal transfer problems is discussed. Lastly, remaining topics needing research are outlined.

  5. Calibrating Pyrgeometers Outdoors Independent from the Reference Value of the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Hickey, J. R.; Grobner, J.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.

    2006-08-01

    In this article, we describe a method for the calibration of thermopile pyrgeometers in the absence of a reference for measurement of atmospheric longwave irradiance. This is referred to as the incoming longwave irradiance in this article. The method is based on an indoor calibration using a low-temperature blackbody source to obtain the calibration coefficients that determine the pyrgeometer's radiation characteristics. From these coefficients the outgoing irradiance of the pyrgeometer can be calculated. The pyrgeometer is then installed outdoors on an aluminum plate that is connected to a circulating temperature bath. By adjusting the temperature bath to the approximate value of the effective sky temperature, the pyrgeometer's body temperature is lowered changing the pyrgeometer's thermopile output. If the incoming longwave irradiance is stable, the slope of the outgoing irradiance versus the pyrgeometer's thermopile output is the outdoor net irradiance responsivity (RSnet), independent of the absolute value of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. The indoor calibration coefficients and the outdoor RSnet are then used in the pyrgeometer equation to calculate the incoming longwave irradiance. To evaluate this method, the calculated irradiance using the derived coefficients was compared to the irradiance measured using a pyrgeometer with direct traceability to the World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This is maintained at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, Switzerland. Based on results from four pyrgeometers calibrations, this method suggests measurement agreement with the WISG to within +/- 3 W/m2 for all sky conditions.

  6. Application of Stochastic Radiative Transfer Theory to the ARM Cloud-Radiative Parameterization Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veron, Dana E

    2009-03-12

    This project had two primary goals: 1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and 2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed below.

  7. Application of Stochastic Radiative Transfer Theory to the ARM Cloud-Radiative Parameterization Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana E. Veron

    2012-04-09

    This project had two primary goals: (1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and (2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, climatology of cloud properties was developed at the ARM CART sites, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed in the final report.

  8. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  9. Fire Intensity Data for Validation of the Radiative Transfer Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.

    2016-01-01

    A set of experiments and test data are outlined in this report that provides radiation intensity data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. The experiments were performed with lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuels that yielded fully turbulent fires 2 m diameter). In addition, supplemental measurements of air flow and temperature, fuel temperature and burn rate, and flame surface emissive power, wall heat, and flame height and width provide a complete set of boundary condition data needed for validation of models used in fire simulations.

  10. Present and Future Computing Requirements Radiative Transfer of Astrophysical Explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Radiative Transfer of Astrophysical Explosions Daniel Kasen (UCB/LBNL) SciDAC computational astrophysics consortium Stan Woosley, Ann Almgren, John Bell, Haitao Ma, Peter Nugent, Rollin Thomas, Weiquin Zhang, Adam Burrows, Jason Nordhaus, Louis Howell, Mike Zingale topics and open questions * thermonuclear supernova: What are the progenitors: 1 or 2 white dwarfs? How does the nuclear runaway ignite and develop? How regular are these "standard candles" for cosmology? * core

  11. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy, at wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  12. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    narrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance The total radiant energy, in a narrow band of wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments.

  13. A comparison of cloudiness measures derived from longwave measurements...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A comparison of cloudiness measures derived from longwave measurements and shortwave sky imagers Takara, Ezra Florida State University Ellingson, Robert Florida State University...

  14. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION TRANSFER IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, B. A.; Honor, J.; Robitaille, T. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Dong, R.; Wolff, M. J.; Wood, K.

    2013-08-15

    We have updated our publicly available dust radiative transfer code (HOCHUNK3D) to include new emission processes and various three-dimensional (3D) geometries appropriate for forming stars. The 3D geometries include warps and spirals in disks, accretion hotspots on the central star, fractal clumping density enhancements, and misaligned inner disks. Additional axisymmetric (2D) features include gaps in disks and envelopes, ''puffed-up inner rims'' in disks, multiple bipolar cavity walls, and iteration of disk vertical structure assuming hydrostatic equilibrium (HSEQ). We include the option for simple power-law envelope geometry, which, combined with fractal clumping and bipolar cavities, can be used to model evolved stars as well as protostars. We include non-thermal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains, and external illumination from the interstellar radiation field. The grid structure was modified to allow multiple dust species in each cell; based on this, a simple prescription is implemented to model dust stratification. We describe these features in detail, and show example calculations of each. Some of the more interesting results include the following: (1) outflow cavities may be more clumpy than infalling envelopes. (2) PAH emission in high-mass stars may be a better indicator of evolutionary stage than the broadband spectral energy distribution slope; and related to this, (3) externally illuminated clumps and high-mass stars in optically thin clouds can masquerade as young stellar objects. (4) Our HSEQ models suggest that dust settling is likely ubiquitous in T Tauri disks, in agreement with previous observations.

  16. Test plan for validation of the radiative transfer equation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen Joseph; Grasser, Thomas W.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jernigan, Dann A.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-09-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide soot volume fraction/temperature data and heat flux (intensity) data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. In addition, a complete set of boundary condition measurements will be taken to allow full fire predictions for validation of the entire fire model. The experiments will be performed with a lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuel fire in the fully turbulent scale range (2 m diameter).

  17. Posters Radiation Impacts on Global Climate Models F. Baer, N...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Posters Radiation Impacts on Global Climate Models F. Baer, N. Arsky, and K. Rocque ... Heating Rates Generated from Longwave Radiation Algorithms LWR algorithms calculate ...

  18. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer and GeneralRelativistic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCRETION DISKS; BLACK HOLES; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MORPHOLOGY; OSCILLATIONS; RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER; SYNCHROTRONS; VISIBILITY Astrophysics,ASTRO, SYNCHRAD...

  19. Initial stages of ICRCCM3: Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models for clouds in the longwave Initial stages of ICRCCM3: Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models for clouds in the longwave Ellingson, Robert Florida State University Gu, Jiujing Florida State University Takara, Ezra Florida State University Category: Radiation This is a continuation of the Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) for longwave and shortwave clear sky and ICRCCM2 for clouds in the shortwave. ICRCCM3 will be for clouds in the longwave.

  20. Mathematical modeling of sulfide flash smelting process. Part 2; Quantitative analysis of radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Y.B. ); Sohn, H.Y. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on a mathematical model developed to describe the rate processes in an axisymmetric copper flash smelting furnace shaft. A particular feature of the model is the incorporation of the four-flux model to describe the radiative heat transfer by combining the absorbing, emitting, and anisotropic scattering phenomena. The importance of various subprocesses of the radiative heat transfer in a flash smelting furnace has been studied. Model predictions showed that the radiation from the furnace walls and between the particles and the surrounding is the dominant mode of heat transfer in a flash smelting furnace.

  1. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) Upwelling shortwave (reflected) Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  2. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG.

  3. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  4. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2014-06-23

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  5. Validation of the Poisson Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model Against Cloud Cascade Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poisson Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model Against Cloud Cascade Models T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia A. Marshak National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Background Starting from a very simple stochastic cloud model by Mullamaa et al. (1972), several different stochastic models have been developed to describe radiative transfer regime in single-layer broken clouds (Kargin 1984; Titov 1990; Malvagi and

  6. Cloudy Sky RRTM Shortwave Radiative Transfer and Comparison to the Revised ECMWF Shortwave Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloudy Sky RRTM Shortwave Radiative Transfer and Comparison to the Revised ECMWF Shortwave Model M. J. Iacono, J. S. Delamere, E. J. Mlawer, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Lexington, Massachusetts J.-J. Morcrette European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reading, United Kingdom Introduction An important step toward improving radiative transfer codes in general circulation models (GCMs) is their thorough evaluation by comparison to measurements directly, or

  7. Comparison of Methods for Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Abbate, M J

    2012-01-19

    Various approximations for calculating radioactive heat transfer between parallel surfaces are evaluated. This is done by applying the approximations based on total emissivities to a special case of known spectral emissivities, for which exact heat transfer calculations are possible. Comparison of results indicates that the best approximation is obtained by basing the emissivity of the receiving surface primarily on the temperature of the emitter. A specific model is shown to give excellent agreement over a very wide range of values.

  8. Parameterization and analysis of 3-D radiative transfer in clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varnai, Tamas

    2012-03-16

    This report provides a summary of major accomplishments from the project. The project examines the impact of radiative interactions between neighboring atmospheric columns, for example clouds scattering extra sunlight toward nearby clear areas. While most current cloud models don't consider these interactions and instead treat sunlight in each atmospheric column separately, the resulting uncertainties have remained unknown. This project has provided the first estimates on the way average solar heating is affected by interactions between nearby columns. These estimates have been obtained by combining several years of cloud observations at three DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites (in Alaska, Oklahoma, and Papua New Guinea) with simulations of solar radiation around the observed clouds. The importance of radiative interactions between atmospheric columns was evaluated by contrasting simulations that included the interactions with those that did not. This study provides lower-bound estimates for radiative interactions: It cannot consider interactions in cross-wind direction, because it uses two-dimensional vertical cross-sections through clouds that were observed by instruments looking straight up as clouds drifted aloft. Data from new DOE scanning radars will allow future radiative studies to consider the full three-dimensional nature of radiative processes. The results reveal that two-dimensional radiative interactions increase overall day-and-night average solar heating by about 0.3, 1.2, and 4.1 Watts per meter square at the three sites, respectively. This increase grows further if one considers that most large-domain cloud simulations have resolutions that cannot specify small-scale cloud variability. For example, the increases in solar heating mentioned above roughly double for a fairly typical model resolution of 1 km. The study also examined the factors that shape radiative interactions between atmospheric columns and

  9. A hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer in absorbing and scattering media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger, M.; Caliot, C.; Crouseilles, N.; Coelho, P.J.

    2014-10-15

    A new multi-scale hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer is proposed in order to improve the efficiency of the calculations close to the diffusive regime, in absorbing and strongly scattering media. In this model, the radiative intensity is decomposed into a macroscopic component calculated by the diffusion equation, and a mesoscopic component. The transport equation for the mesoscopic component allows to correct the estimation of the diffusion equation, and then to obtain the solution of the linear radiative transfer equation. In this work, results are presented for stationary and transient radiative transfer cases, in examples which concern solar concentrated and optical tomography applications. The Monte Carlo and the discrete-ordinate methods are used to solve the mesoscopic equation. It is shown that the multi-scale model allows to improve the efficiency of the calculations when the medium is close to the diffusive regime. The proposed model is a good alternative for radiative transfer at the intermediate regime where the macroscopic diffusion equation is not accurate enough and the radiative transfer equation requires too much computational effort.

  10. Effective-medium model of wire metamaterials in the problems of radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirmoosa, M. S. Nefedov, I. S. Simovski, C. R.; Rüting, F.

    2014-06-21

    In the present work, we check the applicability of the effective medium model (EMM) to the problems of radiative heat transfer (RHT) through so-called wire metamaterials (WMMs)—composites comprising parallel arrays of metal nanowires. It is explained why this problem is so important for the development of prospective thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems. Previous studies of the applicability of EMM for WMMs were targeted by the imaging applications of WMMs. The analogous study referring to the transfer of radiative heat is a separate problem that deserves extended investigations. We show that WMMs with practically realizable design parameters transmit the radiative heat as effectively homogeneous media. Existing EMM is an adequate tool for qualitative prediction of the magnitude of transferred radiative heat and of its effective frequency band.

  11. Technical Sessions A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... is to use scanning lidars and cloud imagery to develop empirical probability statistics. ... The observed probability statistics will be compared with those calcu- lated from simple ...

  12. Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed.

  13. A 20-year data set of surface longwave fluxes in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer Francis

    2004-06-15

    Creation of 20-year data set of surface infrared fluxes from satellite measurements. A reliable estimate of the surface downwelling longwave radiation flux (DLF) is a glaring void in available forcing data sets for models of Arctic sea ice and ocean circulation. We have developed a new method to estimate the DLF from a combination of satellite sounder retrievals and brightness temperatures from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which has flown on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites continuously since late 1979. The overarching goal of this project was to generate a 20-year data set of surface downwelling longwave flux measurements from TOVS data over the Arctic Ocean. Daily gridded fields of DLF were produced with a spatial resolution of (100 km){sup 2} north of 60{sup o}N for 22.5 years rather than only 20. Surface measurements from the field station at Barrow, AK--part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program --and from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) were used to validate the satellite-derived fluxes and develop algorithm improvements for conditions that had resulted in systematic errors in early versions of the algorithm. The resulting data set has already been sent to two other investigators for incorporation into their research, and we will soon complete preparations to send the products to the National Snow and Ice Data Center and ARM data archive, where it can be disseminated to the scientific community.

  14. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. II. RADIATIVE TRANSFER VIA THE TWO-STREAM APPROXIMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin; Mendonça, João M.; Lee, Jae-Min E-mail: joao.mendonca@csh.unibe.ch

    2014-11-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior), and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically underdetermined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We concoct recipes for implementing two-stream radiative transfer in stand-alone numerical calculations and general circulation models. We use our two-stream solutions to construct toy models of the runaway greenhouse effect. We present a new solution for temperature-pressure profiles with a non-constant optical opacity and elucidate the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the optical and infrared. We derive generalized expressions for the spherical and Bond albedos and the photon deposition depth. We demonstrate that the value of the optical depth corresponding to the photosphere is not always 2/3 (Milne's solution) and depends on a combination of stellar irradiation, internal heat, and the properties of scattering in both the optical and infrared. Finally, we derive generalized expressions for the total, net, outgoing, and incoming fluxes in the convective regime.

  15. The Radiative Transfer Of CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} Plasma Arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benallal, R.; Liani, B.

    2008-09-23

    Any physical modelling of a circuit-breaker arc therefore requires an understanding of the radiated energy which is taken into account in the form of a net coefficient. The evaluation of the net emission coefficient is performed by the knowledge of the chemical plasma composition and the resolution of the radiative transfer equation. In this paper, the total radiation which escapes from a CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} plasma is calculated in the temperature range between 5000 and 30000K on the assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium and we have studied the nitrogen effect in the hydrocarbon plasmas.

  16. Very large radiative transfer over small distances from a black body for thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, J.L.; Choy, H.K.H.; Fonstad, C.G. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The maximum amount of radiated heat intensity which can be transferred from a black body of refractive index n{sub BB} to an object of refractive index n{sub OBJ} located a short distance away is shown to be n{sup 2}{sub smaller} times the free space Planck distribution, where n{sub smaller} is the smaller of n{sub BB} and n{sub OBJ}, and where n{sub BB} and n{sub OBJ} are assumed greater than unity. The implication is that the radiative power spectral density within a thermophotovoltaic cell could be designed to be much greater than the free space Planck distribution. The maximum radiative intensity transferred occurs when the index of the black body matches that of the object at wavelengths where the Planck distribution is sizeable. A simple expression is found for the transferred radiative intensity as a function of the refractive indices of, and the distance separating, the black body and the object. The expression is interpreted in terms of the specific black body modes which are evanescent in the space between the black body and the object and which make the largest contribution to the transmission of radiation. The black body, the object, and the gap region are all modeled as lossless dielectrics.

  17. Indium tin oxide nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for near-field radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta Wang, Liping

    2015-02-07

    We investigate near-field radiative heat transfer between Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowire arrays which behave as type 1 and 2 hyperbolic metamaterials. Using spatial dispersion dependent effective medium theory to model the dielectric function of the nanowires, the impact of filling fraction on the heat transfer is analyzed. Depending on the filling fraction, it is possible to achieve both types of hyperbolic modes. At 150?nm vacuum gap, the heat transfer between the nanowires with 0.5 filling fraction can be 11 times higher than that between two bulk ITOs. For vacuum gaps less than 150?nm the heat transfer increases as the filling fraction decreases. Results obtained from this study will facilitate applications of ITO nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for energy systems.

  18. An asymptotic preserving unified gas kinetic scheme for gray radiative transfer equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wenjun; Jiang, Song; Xu, Kun

    2015-03-15

    The solutions of radiative transport equations can cover both optical thin and optical thick regimes due to the large variation of photon's mean-free path and its interaction with the material. In the small mean free path limit, the nonlinear time-dependent radiative transfer equations can converge to an equilibrium diffusion equation due to the intensive interaction between radiation and material. In the optical thin limit, the photon free transport mechanism will emerge. In this paper, we are going to develop an accurate and robust asymptotic preserving unified gas kinetic scheme (AP-UGKS) for the gray radiative transfer equations, where the radiation transport equation is coupled with the material thermal energy equation. The current work is based on the UGKS framework for the rarefied gas dynamics [14], and is an extension of a recent work [12] from a one-dimensional linear radiation transport equation to a nonlinear two-dimensional gray radiative system. The newly developed scheme has the asymptotic preserving (AP) property in the optically thick regime in the capturing of diffusive solution without using a cell size being smaller than the photon's mean free path and time step being less than the photon collision time. Besides the diffusion limit, the scheme can capture the exact solution in the optical thin regime as well. The current scheme is a finite volume method. Due to the direct modeling for the time evolution solution of the interface radiative intensity, a smooth transition of the transport physics from optical thin to optical thick can be accurately recovered. Many numerical examples are included to validate the current approach.

  19. Modulation and amplification of radiative far field heat transfer: Towards a simple radiative thermal transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-03-30

    We show in this article that phase change materials (PCM) exhibiting a phase transition between a dielectric state and a metallic state are good candidates to perform modulation as well as amplification of radiative thermal flux. We propose a simple situation in plane parallel geometry where a so-called radiative thermal transistor could be achieved. In this configuration, we put a PCM between two blackbodies at different temperatures. We show that the transistor effect can be achieved easily when this material has its critical temperature between the two blackbody temperatures. We also see that the more the material is reflective in the metallic state, the more switching effect is realized, whereas the more PCM transition is stiff in temperature, the more thermal amplification is high. We finally take the example of VO{sub 2} that exhibits an insulator-metallic transition at 68 °C. We show that a demonstrator of a radiative transistor could easily be achieved in view of the heat flux levels predicted. Far-field thermal radiation experiments are proposed to back the results presented.

  20. Differential total absorptivity solution to the radiative transfer equation for mixtures of combustion gases and soot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bressloff, N.W.; Moss, J.B.; Rubini, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The differential total absorptivity (DTA) solution to the radiative transfer equation, originally devised for combustion gases in the discrete transfer radiation model, is extended to mixtures of gaseous combustion products and soot. The method is compared to other solution techniques for representative mixtures across single lines of sight and across a layer bounded by solid walls. Intermediate soot loadings are considered such that the total radiance is not dominated by either the gaseous or soot components. The DTA solution is shown to yield excellent accuracy relative to a narrow-band solution, with a considerable saving in computational cost. Thus, explicit treatment of the source temperature dependence of absorption is successfully demonstrated without the need for spectral integration.

  1. Evaluation of cloudless-sky periods detected by shortwave and longwave algorithms using lidar measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Long, Charles N.

    2008-05-30

    Identifying cloud-free period is an important task as they are common references in cloud and aerosol radiative forcing studies. Their identification requires precise methods to distinguish condensed water from other aerosols (eg mineral or moist hydrophyle aerosols). In this study we combine analyses of wide field of view shortwave and longwave irradiances and lidar backscatter measurements to explore situations that are considered neither completely clear nor cloudy. We find that cloud-free periods detected by analysis of the broadband measurements are also identified as cloud free by the lidar in more than 60% of situations. Residual occurrences are composed of 90% high-altitude cirrus clouds, partitioned equally between subvisible and semi-transparent optical thickness classes.

  2. Radiation Heat Transfer in 3 Dimensions for Semi-Transparent Materials....

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-02

    The RAD3D software solves the critical heat transfer mechanisms that occur in production glass furnaces. The code includes state-of-the-art solution algorithms for efficient radiant interaction of the heating elements, furnace walls and internal furnace components. The code specifically solves the coupled radiative and conductive heating of semi-transparent materials such as glass to calculate the temperature distribution in the glass during processing.

  3. Non-contact pumping of light emitters via non-radiative energy transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klimov, Victor I.; Achermann, Marc

    2010-01-05

    A light emitting device is disclosed including a primary light source having a defined emission photon energy output, and, a light emitting material situated near to said primary light source, said light emitting material having an absorption onset equal to or less in photon energy than the emission photon energy output of the primary light source whereby non-radiative energy transfer from said primary light source to said light emitting material can occur yielding light emission from said light emitting material.

  4. Estimating Three-Dimensional Cloudy Radiative Transfer Effects from Time-Height Cross Sections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimating Three-Dimensional Cloudy Radiative Transfer Effects from Time-Height Cross Sections C. Hannay and R. Pincus National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Diagnostics Center Boulder, Colorado K. F. Evans Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction Clouds in the atmosphere are finite in extent and variable in every direction and in time. Long data sets from ground-based profilers, such as lidars or cloud radars, could

  5. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterials coated with silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Soumyadipta Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-19

    In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC. By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial, it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonances for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

  6. Effects of radiative heat transfer on the turbulence structure in inert and reacting mixing layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Friedrich, Rainer

    2015-05-15

    We use large-eddy simulation to study the interaction between turbulence and radiative heat transfer in low-speed inert and reacting plane temporal mixing layers. An explicit filtering scheme based on approximate deconvolution is applied to treat the closure problem arising from quadratic nonlinearities of the filtered transport equations. In the reacting case, the working fluid is a mixture of ideal gases where the low-speed stream consists of hydrogen and nitrogen and the high-speed stream consists of oxygen and nitrogen. Both streams are premixed in a way that the free-stream densities are the same and the stoichiometric mixture fraction is 0.3. The filtered heat release term is modelled using equilibrium chemistry. In the inert case, the low-speed stream consists of nitrogen at a temperature of 1000 K and the highspeed stream is pure water vapour of 2000 K, when radiation is turned off. Simulations assuming the gas mixtures as gray gases with artificially increased Planck mean absorption coefficients are performed in which the large-eddy simulation code and the radiation code PRISSMA are fully coupled. In both cases, radiative heat transfer is found to clearly affect fluctuations of thermodynamic variables, Reynolds stresses, and Reynolds stress budget terms like pressure-strain correlations. Source terms in the transport equation for the variance of temperature are used to explain the decrease of this variance in the reacting case and its increase in the inert case.

  7. Improving computer simulations of heat transfer for projecting fenestration products: Using radiation view-factor models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, B.; Tuerler, D.; Arasteh, D.K.; Curcija, D.

    1998-10-01

    The window well formed by the concave surface on the warm side of skylights and garden windows can cause surface heat-flow rates to be different for these projecting types of fenestration products than for normal planar windows. Current methods of simulating fenestration thermal conductance (U-factor) use constant boundary condition values for overall surface heat transfer. Simulations that account for local variations in surface heat transfer rates (radiation and convection) may be more accurate for rating and labeling window products whose surfaces project outside a building envelope. This paper, which presents simulation and experimental results for one projecting geometry, is the first step in documenting the importance of these local effects. A generic specimen, called the foam garden window, was used in simulations and experiments to investigate heat transfer of projecting surfaces. Experiments focused on a vertical cross section (measurement plane) located at the middle of the window well on the warm side of the specimen. The specimen was placed between laboratory thermal chambers that were operated at American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) winter heating design conditions. Infrared thermography was used to map surface temperatures. Air temperature and velocity were mapped throughout the measurement plane using a mechanical traversing system. Finite-element computer simulations that directly modeled element-to-element radiation were better able to match experimental data than simulations that used fixed coefficients for total surface heat transfer. Air conditions observed in the window well suggest that localized convective effects were the reason for the difference between actual and modeled surface temperatures. U-value simulation results were 5% to 10% lower when radiation was modeled directly.

  8. Investigation of Radiation and Chemical Resistance of Flexible HLW Transfer Hose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Skidmore; Billings, K.; Hubbard, M.

    2010-03-24

    A chemical transfer hose constructed of an EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) outer covering with a modified cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) lining was evaluated for use in high level radioactive waste transfer applications. Laboratory analysis involved characterization of the hose liner after irradiation to doses of 50 to 300 Mrad and subsequent exposure to 25% NaOH solution at 93 C for 30 days, simulating 6 months intermittent service. The XLPE liner mechanical and structural properties were characterized at varying dose levels. Burst testing of irradiated hose assemblies was also performed. Literature review and test results suggest that radiation effects below doses of 100 kGy are minimal, with acceptable property changes to 500 kGy. Higher doses may be feasible. At a bounding dose of 2.5 MGy, the burst pressure is reduced to the working pressure (1.38 MPa) at room temperature. Radiation exposure slightly reduces liner tensile strength, with more significant decrease in liner elongation. Subsequent exposure to caustic solutions at elevated temperature slightly increases elongation, suggesting an immersion/hydrolytic effect or possible thermal annealing of radiation damage. This paper summarizes the laboratory results and recommendations for field deployment.

  9. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  10. AN ALGORITHM FOR RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS BASED ON SOLVING THE TIME-DEPENDENT TRANSFER EQUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2014-07-01

    We describe a new algorithm for solving the coupled frequency-integrated transfer equation and the equations of magnetohydrodynamics in the regime that light-crossing time is only marginally shorter than dynamical timescales. The transfer equation is solved in the mixed frame, including velocity-dependent source terms accurate to O(v/c). An operator split approach is used to compute the specific intensity along discrete rays, with upwind monotonic interpolation used along each ray to update the transport terms, and implicit methods used to compute the scattering and absorption source terms. Conservative differencing is used for the transport terms, which ensures the specific intensity (as well as energy and momentum) are conserved along each ray to round-off error. The use of implicit methods for the source terms ensures the method is stable even if the source terms are very stiff. To couple the solution of the transfer equation to the MHD algorithms in the ATHENA code, we perform direct quadrature of the specific intensity over angles to compute the energy and momentum source terms. We present the results of a variety of tests of the method, such as calculating the structure of a non-LTE atmosphere, an advective diffusion test, linear wave convergence tests, and the well-known shadow test. We use new semi-analytic solutions for radiation modified shocks to demonstrate the ability of our algorithm to capture the effects of an anisotropic radiation field accurately. Since the method uses explicit differencing of the spatial operators, it shows excellent weak scaling on parallel computers.

  11. Transfers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transfer means a change of an employee, from one Federal government branch (executive, legislative, judicial) to another or from one agency to another without a break in service of 1 full work day. 

  12. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2} lower than that

  13. Residual Monte Carlo high-order solver for Moment-Based Accelerated Thermal Radiative Transfer equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willert, Jeffrey Park, H.

    2014-11-01

    In this article we explore the possibility of replacing Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) transport sweeps within a Moment-Based Accelerated Thermal Radiative Transfer (TRT) algorithm with a Residual Monte Carlo (RMC) formulation. Previous Moment-Based Accelerated TRT implementations have encountered trouble when stochastic noise from SMC transport sweeps accumulates over several iterations and pollutes the low-order system. With RMC we hope to significantly lower the build-up of statistical error at a much lower cost. First, we display encouraging results for a zero-dimensional test problem. Then, we demonstrate that we can achieve a lower degree of error in two one-dimensional test problems by employing an RMC transport sweep with multiple orders of magnitude fewer particles per sweep. We find that by reformulating the high-order problem, we can compute more accurate solutions at a fraction of the cost.

  14. A path to practical Solar Pumped Lasers via Radiative Energy Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reusswig, Philip D.; Nechayev, Sergey; Scherer, Jennifer M.; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Baldo, Marc. A.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2015-10-05

    The optical conversion of incoherent solar radiation into a bright, coherent laser beam enables the application of nonlinear optics to solar energy conversion and storage. Here, we present an architecture for solar pumped lasers that uses a luminescent solar concentrator to decouple the conventional trade-off between solar absorption efficiency and the mode volume of the optical gain material. We report a 750-μm-thick Nd 3+ -doped YAG planar waveguide sensitized by a luminescent CdSe/CdZnS (core/shell) colloidal nanocrystal, yielding a peak cascade energy transfer of 14%, a broad spectral response in the visible portion of the solar spectrum, and an equivalent quasi-CW solar lasing threshold of 23 W-cm-2, or approximately 230 suns. The efficient coupling of incoherent, spectrally broad sunlight in small gain volumes should allow the generation of coherent laser light from intensities of less than 100 suns.

  15. A path to practical Solar Pumped Lasers via Radiative Energy Transfer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reusswig, Philip D.; Nechayev, Sergey; Scherer, Jennifer M.; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Baldo, Marc. A.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2015-10-05

    The optical conversion of incoherent solar radiation into a bright, coherent laser beam enables the application of nonlinear optics to solar energy conversion and storage. Here, we present an architecture for solar pumped lasers that uses a luminescent solar concentrator to decouple the conventional trade-off between solar absorption efficiency and the mode volume of the optical gain material. We report a 750-μm-thick Nd 3+ -doped YAG planar waveguide sensitized by a luminescent CdSe/CdZnS (core/shell) colloidal nanocrystal, yielding a peak cascade energy transfer of 14%, a broad spectral response in the visible portion of the solar spectrum, and an equivalent quasi-CWmore » solar lasing threshold of 23 W-cm-2, or approximately 230 suns. The efficient coupling of incoherent, spectrally broad sunlight in small gain volumes should allow the generation of coherent laser light from intensities of less than 100 suns.« less

  16. Grey transport acceleration method for time-dependent radiative transfer problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, E.

    1988-10-01

    A new iterative method for solving hte time-dependent multifrequency radiative transfer equations is described. The method is applicable to semi-implicit time discretizations that generate a linear steady-state multifrequency transport problem with pseudo-scattering within each time step. The standard ''lambda'' iteration method is shown to often converge slowly for such problems, and the new grey transport acceleration (GTA) method, based on accelerating the lambda method by employing a grey, or frequency-independent transport equation, is developed. The GTA method is shown, theoretically by an iterative Fourier analysis, and experimentally by numerical calculations, to converge significantly faster than the lambda method. In addition, the GTA method is conceptually simple to implement for general differencing schemes, on either Eulerian or Lagrangian meshes. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  17. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud

  18. A grey diffusion acceleration method for time-dependent radiative transfer calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, P.F.

    1991-07-01

    The equations of thermal radiative transfer describe the emission, absorption and transport of photons in a material. As photons travel through the material they are absorbed and re-emitted in a Planckian distribution characterized by the material temperature. As a result of these processes, the material can change resulting in a change in the Planckian emission spectrum. When the coupling between the material and radiation is strong, as occurs when the material opacity or the time step is large, standard iterative techniques converge very slowly. As a result, nested iterative algorithms have been applied to the problem. One algorithm, is to use multifrequency DSA to accelerate the convergence of the multifrequency transport iteration and a grey transport acceleration (GTA) followed by a single group DSA. Here we summarize a new method which uses a grey diffusion equation (GDA) to directly solve the multifrequency transport (S{sub N}) problem. Results of Fourier analysis for both the continuous and discretized equations are discussed and the computational efficiency of GDA is compared with the DSA and GTA nested algorithms. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Simulating 3-D Radiative Transfer Effects over the Sierra Nevada Mountains using WRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Yu; Liou, K. N.; Lee, W- L.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2012-10-30

    A surface solar radiation parameterization based on deviations between 3-D and conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer models has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to understand the solar insolation over mountain/snow areas and to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on land-surface processes. Using the Sierra-Nevada in the western United States as a testbed, we show that mountain effect could produce up to ?50 to + 50Wm?2 deviations in the surface solar fluxes over the mountain areas, resulting in a temperature increase of up to 1 C on the sunny side. Upward surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are modulated accordingly to compensate for the change in surface solar fluxes. Snow water equivalent and surface albedo both show decreases on the sunny side of the mountains, indicating more snowmelt and hence reduced snow albedo associated with more solar insolation due to mountain effect. Soil moisture increases on the sunny side of the mountains due to enhanced snowmelt, while decreases on the shaded side. Substantial differences are found in the morning hours from 8-10 a.m. and in the afternoon around 3-5 p.m., while differences around noon and in the early morning and late afternoon are comparatively smaller. Variation in the surface energy balance can also affect atmospheric processes, such as cloud fields, through the modulation of vertical thermal structure. Negative changes of up to ?40 gm?2 are found in the cloud water path, associated with reductions in the surface insolation over the cloud region. The day-averaged deviations in the surface solar flux are positive over the mountain areas and negative in the valleys, with a range between ?12~12Wm?2. Changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface skin temperature follow the solar insolation pattern. Differences in the domain-averaged diurnal variation over the Sierras show that the mountain

  20. Lyalpha RADIATIVE TRANSFER WITH DUST: ESCAPE FRACTIONS FROM SIMULATED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laursen, Peter; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Anja C. E-mail: jslarsen@astro.ku.d

    2009-10-20

    The Lyalpha emission line is an essential diagnostic tool for probing galaxy formation and evolution. Not only is it commonly the strongest observable line from high-redshift galaxies, but from its shape detailed information about its host galaxy can be revealed. However, due to the scattering nature of Lyalpha photons increasing their path length in a nontrivial way, if dust is present in the galaxy, the line may be severely suppressed and its shape altered. In order to interpret observations correctly, it is thus of crucial significance to know how much of the emitted light actually escapes the galaxy. In the present work, using a combination of high-resolution cosmological hydrosimulations and an adaptively refinable Monte Carlo Lyalpha radiative transfer code including an environment dependent model of dust, the escape fractions f {sub esc} of Lyalpha radiation from high-redshift (z = 3.6) galaxies are calculated. In addition to the average escape fraction, the variation of f {sub esc} in different directions and from different parts of the galaxies is investigated, as well as the effect on the emergent spectrum. Escape fractions from a sample of simulated galaxies of representative physical properties are found to decrease for increasing galaxy virial mass M {sub vir}, from f {sub esc} approaching unity for M {sub vir} approx 10{sup 9} M {sub sun} to f {sub esc} less than 10% for M {sub vir} approx 10{sup 12} M {sub sun}. In spite of dust being almost gray, it is found that the emergent spectrum is affected nonuniformly, with the escape fraction of photons close to the line center being much higher than of those in the wings, thus effectively narrowing the Lyalpha line.

  1. Analysis of light scattering by two-dimensional inhomogeneities in paper using general radiative transfer theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nukala, Madhuri; Mendrok, Jana

    2014-12-10

    Lateral light scattering simulations of printed dots are analyzed using general radiative transfer theory. We investigated the appearance of a printed paper in relation to the medium parameters like thickness of the paper sample, its optical properties, and the asymmetry factor. It was found that the appearance of a print greatly depends on these factors making it either brighter or darker. A thicker substrate with higher single scattering albedo backed with an absorbing surface makes the dots brighter due to increased number of scattering events. Additionally, it is shown that the optical effects of print also depend on illuminating and viewing angles along with the depth of ink penetration. A larger single scattering angle implies less intensity and the dots appear much blurred due to the shadowing effect prominent when viewed from sides. A fully penetrated dot of the same extinction coefficient as a partial penetrated one is darker due to increased absorption. These results can be used in applications dealing with lateral light scattering.

  2. Parallel-plate submicron gap formed by micromachined low-density pillars for near-field radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Kota; Miura, Atsushi; Iizuka, Hideo; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2015-02-23

    Near-field radiative heat transfer has been a subject of great interest due to the applicability to thermal management and energy conversion. In this letter, a submicron gap between a pair of diced fused quartz substrates is formed by using micromachined low-density pillars to obtain both the parallelism and small parasitic heat conduction. The gap uniformity is validated by the optical interferometry at four corners of the substrates. The heat flux across the gap is measured in a steady-state and is no greater than twice of theoretically predicted radiative heat flux, which indicates that the parasitic heat conduction is suppressed to the level of the radiative heat transfer or less. The heat conduction through the pillars is modeled, and it is found to be limited by the thermal contact resistance between the pillar top and the opposing substrate surface. The methodology to form and evaluate the gap promotes the near-field radiative heat transfer to various applications such as thermal rectification, thermal modulation, and thermophotovoltaics.

  3. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-15

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  4. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  5. Final Report for "Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A New Parameterization for Frost Flower Aerosol Salt Emissions" (DESC0006679) for 9/15/2011 through 9/14/2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Report for "Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects. A New Parameterization for Frost Flower Aerosol Salt Emissions" (DESC0006679) for 9/15/2011 through 9/14/2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report for "Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects. A New

  6. Accounting for sub-pixel variability of clouds and/or unresolved spectral variability, as needed, with generalized radiative transfer theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Xu, Feng; Collins, William D.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric hyperspectral VNIR sensing struggles with sub-pixel variability of clouds and limited spectral resolution mixing molecular lines. Our generalized radiative transfer model addresses both issues with new propagation kernels characterized by power-law decay in space.

  7. Physics-based dimension reduction in uncertainty quantification for radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hetzler, A. C.; Adams, M. L.; Stripling Iv, H. F.; Hawkins, W. D.

    2013-07-01

    We present a physics-based methodology for quantifying the uncertainty in a given quantity of interest (QOI) that is contributed by uncertainties in opacities in radiation transport problems. Typically, opacities are tabulated as a function of density, temperature, and photon energy group. The size of this table makes a study of uncertainties at this level challenging because of the well-known 'curse of dimensionality.' We address this by studying uncertain parameters in the underlying physical model that generates the opacity tables. At this level, there are fewer uncertain parameters but still too many to analyze directly through computationally expensive radiation transport simulations. In order to explore this large uncertain parameter space, we develop two simplified radiation transport problems that are much less computationally demanding than the target problem of interest. An emulator is created for each QOI for each simplified problem using Bayesian Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (BMARS). This emulator is used to create a functional relationship between the QOIs and the uncertain parameters. Sensitivity analysis is performed using the emulator to determine which parameters contribute significantly to the uncertainty. This physics-based screening process reduces the dimension of the parameter space that is then studied via the computationally expensive radiation transport calculation to generate distributions of quantities of interest. Results of this research demonstrate that the QOIs for the target problem agree for varying screening criteria determined by the sensitivity analysis, and the QOIs agree well for varying Latin Hypercube Design (LHD) sample sizes for the uncertain space. (authors)

  8. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W. -L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H. -H.

    2014-12-15

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) global model with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D - PP (plane-parallel)] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization.more » We show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  9. Posters Monte Carlo Simulation of Longwave Fluxes Through Broken Scattering Cloud Fields

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Posters Monte Carlo Simulation of Longwave Fluxes Through Broken Scattering Cloud Fields E. E. Takara and R. G. Ellingson University of Maryland College Park, Maryland To simplify the analysis, we made several assumptions: the clouds were cuboidal; they were all identically sized and shaped; and they had constant optical properties. Results and Discussion The model was run for a set of cloud fields with clouds of varying optical thickness and scattering albedo. The predicted effective cloud

  10. A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into cloud radiative transfer parameterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Dong; Liu, Yangang

    2014-12-18

    Subgrid-scale variability is one of the main reasons why parameterizations are needed in large-scale models. Although some parameterizations started to address the issue of subgrid variability by introducing a subgrid probability distribution function for relevant quantities, the spatial structure has been typically ignored and thus the subgrid-scale interactions cannot be accounted for physically. Here we present a new statistical-physics-like approach whereby the spatial autocorrelation function can be used to physically capture the net effects of subgrid cloud interaction with radiation. The new approach is able to faithfully reproduce the Monte Carlo 3D simulation results with several orders less computational cost, allowing for more realistic representation of cloud radiation interactions in large-scale models.

  11. A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into cloud radiative transfer parameterizations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Dong; Liu, Yangang

    2014-12-18

    Subgrid-scale variability is one of the main reasons why parameterizations are needed in large-scale models. Although some parameterizations started to address the issue of subgrid variability by introducing a subgrid probability distribution function for relevant quantities, the spatial structure has been typically ignored and thus the subgrid-scale interactions cannot be accounted for physically. Here we present a new statistical-physics-like approach whereby the spatial autocorrelation function can be used to physically capture the net effects of subgrid cloud interaction with radiation. The new approach is able to faithfully reproduce the Monte Carlo 3D simulation results with several orders less computational cost,moreallowing for more realistic representation of cloud radiation interactions in large-scale models.less

  12. Monte Carlo simulation methods in moment-based scale-bridging algorithms for thermal radiative-transfer problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Densmore, J.D.; Park, H.; Wollaber, A.B.; Rauenzahn, R.M.; Knoll, D.A.

    2015-03-01

    We present a moment-based acceleration algorithm applied to Monte Carlo simulation of thermal radiative-transfer problems. Our acceleration algorithm employs a continuum system of moments to accelerate convergence of stiff absorption–emission physics. The combination of energy-conserving tallies and the use of an asymptotic approximation in optically thick regions remedy the difficulties of local energy conservation and mitigation of statistical noise in such regions. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the developed method. We also compare directly to the standard linearization-based method of Fleck and Cummings [1]. A factor of 40 reduction in total computational time is achieved with the new algorithm for an equivalent (or more accurate) solution as compared with the Fleck–Cummings algorithm.

  13. FESTR: Finite-Element Spectral Transfer of Radiation spectroscopic modeling and analysis code

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hakel, Peter

    2016-06-16

    Here we report on the development of a new spectral postprocessor of hydrodynamic simulations of hot, dense plasmas. Based on given time histories of one-, two-, and three-dimensional spatial distributions of materials, and their local temperature and density conditions, spectroscopically-resolved signals are computed. The effects of radiation emission and absorption by the plasma on the emergent spectra are simultaneously taken into account. This program can also be used independently of hydrodynamic calculations to analyze available experimental data with the goal of inferring plasma conditions.

  14. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2015-05-19

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model – CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-D–PP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance atmore » the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  15. Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    The development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems is described. LWIR fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of trace chemical detection systems based in the 8 to 12 micron region. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow waveguide technology geared specifically for LWIR spectroscopy, including a reduction in both the length dependent loss and the bending loss while maintaining relatively high beam quality. Results will be presented from tests conducted with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

  16. Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, David C; Turner, David D; Knuteson, Robert O

    2013-01-02

    This project had two general objectives. The first is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. The second is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, with emphasis on ensuring that the parameterization of the radiative transfer is consistent and accurate across the spectrum. Both of these objectives are important for understanding the radiative processes in the mid-to-upper troposphere. The research on this project primarily involved analysis of data from the First and Second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns, RHUBC-I and II. This included a climate model sensitivity study using results from RHUBC-I. The RHUBC experiments are ARM-funded activities that directly address the objectives of this research project. A secondary effort was also conducted that investigated the trends in the long-term (~14 year) dataset collected by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. This work, which was primarily done by a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin – Madison under Dr. Turner’s direction, uses the only NIST-traceable instrument at the ARM site that has a well-documented calibration and uncertainty performance to investigate long-term trends in the downwelling longwave radiance above this site.

  17. TH-C-17A-02: New Radioluminescence Strategies Based On CRET (Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer) for Imaging and Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volotskova, O; Sun, C; Pratx, G; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov photons are produced when charged particles, emitted from radionuclides, travel through a media with a speed greater than that of the light in the media. Cerenkov radiation is mostly in the UV/Blue region and, thus, readily absorbed by biological tissue. Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) is a wavelength-shifting phenomenon from blue Cerenkov light to more penetrating red wavelengths. We demonstrate the feasibility of in-depth imaging of CRET light originating from radionuclides realized by down conversion of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs, a novel particle composed of few atoms of gold coated with serum proteins) in vivo. Methods: Bovine Serum Albumin, Human Serum Albumin and Transferrin conjugated gold nanoclusters were synthesized, characterized and examined for CRET. Three different clinically used radiotracers: 18F-FDG, 90Y and 99mTc were used. Optical spectrum (440–750 nm) was recorded by sensitive bioluminescence imaging system at physiological temperature. Dose dependence (activity range from 0.5 up to 800uCi) and concentration dependence (0.01 to 1uM) studies were carried out. The compound was also imaged in a xenograft mouse model. Results: Only β+ and β--emitting radionuclides (18F-FDG, 90Y) are capable of CRET; no signal was found in 99mTc (γ-emitter). The emission peak of CRET by AuNCs was found to be ∼700 nm and was ∼3 fold times of background. In vitro studies showed a linear dependency between luminescence intensity and dose and concentration. CRET by gold nanoclusters was observed in xenografted mice injected with 100uCi of 18F-FDG. Conclusion: The unique optical, transport and chemical properties of AuNCs (gold nanoclusters) make them ideal candidates for in-vivo imaging applications. Development of new molecular imaging probes will allow us to achieve substantially improved spatiotemporal resolution, sensitivity and specificity for tumor imaging and detection.

  18. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Gero, P. Johnathan; Torn, Margaret S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2015-02-25

    The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing1, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth’s radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m-2 (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations—the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska—are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra3 together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations4. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m-2 per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m-2 per decade and ±0.07 W m-2 per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1–0.2 W m-2. This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation5, 6, 7. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.

  19. HYDRODYNAMIC AND RADIATIVE MODELING OF TEMPORAL H{alpha} EMISSION V/R VARIATIONS CAUSED BY DISCONTINUOUS MASS TRANSFER IN BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadima, Pavel; Harmanec, Petr; Wolf, Marek; Firt, Roman; Ruzdjak, Domagoj; Bozic, Hrvoje; Koubsky, Pavel

    2011-07-15

    H{alpha} emission V/R variations caused by discontinuous mass transfer in interacting binaries with a rapidly rotating accreting star are modeled qualitatively for the first time. The program ZEUS-MP was used to create a non-linear three-dimensional hydrodynamical model of a development of a blob of gaseous material injected into an orbit around a star. It resulted in the formation of an elongated disk with a slow prograde revolution. The LTE radiative transfer program SHELLSPEC was used to calculate the H{alpha} profiles originating in the disk for several phases of its revolution. The profiles have the form of a double emission and exhibit V/R and radial velocity variations. However, these variations should be a temporal phenomenon since imposing a viscosity in the given model would lead to a circularization of the disk and fading-out of the given variations.

  20. A WRF Simulation of the Impact of 3-D Radiative Transfer on Surface Hydrology over the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, K. N.; Gu, Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lee, W- L.; Fovell, R. G.

    2013-12-03

    We investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, applied at a 30 km grid resolution, is used in conjunction with a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008, during which abundant snowfall occurred. A comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes, and on the consequent elevation dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-DPP, in which PP denotes the plane-parallel approach) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to the earlier morning. Over mountaintops higher than 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40-60Wm?2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, which leads to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, positive SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Overall, this study shows that deviations of SWE due to 3-D radiation effects range from an increase of 18%at the lowest elevation range (1.5-2 km) to a decrease of 8% at the highest elevation range (above 3 km). Since lower

  1. Inhibition of human peripheral blood lymphocyte function by protoporphyrin and longwave ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, K.E.; Yen, A.; Montisano, D.; Gigli, I.; Bigby, T.D.

    1994-10-01

    Modulation of immunologic effector cells by exogenous photoactive substances has been advanced as an underlying mechanism for the efficacy of various photochemotherapeutic regimens. It is also possible that endogenous photosensitizers, such as protoporphyrin, could similarly modify the function of immune cell types. The authors examined the effects of protoporphyrin plus longwave UV light on the ability of human PBL to proliferate in response to mitogens. Noncytotoxic dosages of protoporphyrin plus UV light suppressed PHA-stimulated proliferation of both PBMC and enriched T cells. CD8{sup +} cells were more sensitive to this inhibitory effect than CD4{sup +} cells. The inhibitory effect was also observed when proliferation was induced by the combination of a phorbol ester and ionomycin. Inhibition of PBMC proliferation was associated with inhibition of IL-2 secretion but proliferation was not restored with exogenous IL-2. Instead, the effect of protoporphyrin plus UV light may be on IL-2R. Cells treated with protoporphyrin and UV light did not display the increase in CD25 and {beta}-chain of the IL-2R induced by PHA in control cells. In contrast to the effects of protoporphyrin and UV light on IL-2 and IL-2R {alpha}-chain protein expression, the accumulation of mRNA for these proteins induced by PHA was unaffected. None of the effects of protoporphyrin plus UV light on lymphocytes were observed in control experiments where cells were treated with either protoporphyrin or UV light alone. They conclude that biologically relevant dosages of protoporphyrin and UV light modify the function of circulating lymphocytes. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Statistical characteristics of cloud variability. Part 2: Implication for parameterizations of microphysical and radiative transfer processes in climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Dong; Liu, Yangang

    2014-09-27

    The effects of subgrid cloud variability on grid-average microphysical rates and radiative fluxes are examined by use of long-term retrieval products at the Tropical West Pacific, Southern Great Plains, and North Slope of Alaska sites of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. Four commonly used distribution functions, the truncated Gaussian, Gamma, lognormal, and Weibull distributions, are constrained to have the same mean and standard deviation as observed cloud liquid water content. The probability density functions are then used to upscale relevant physical processes to obtain grid-average process rates. It is found that the truncated Gaussian representation results in up to 30% mean bias in autoconversion rate, whereas the mean bias for the lognormal representation is about 10%. The Gamma and Weibull distribution function performs the best for the grid-average autoconversion rate with the mean relative bias less than 5%. For radiative fluxes, the lognormal and truncated Gaussian representations perform better than the Gamma and Weibull representations. The results show that the optimal choice of subgrid cloud distribution function depends on the nonlinearity of the process of interest, and thus, there is no single distribution function that works best for all parameterizations. Examination of the scale (window size) dependence of the mean bias indicates that the bias in grid-average process rates monotonically increases with increasing window sizes, suggesting the increasing importance of subgrid variability with increasing grid sizes.

  3. Statistical characteristics of cloud variability. Part 2: Implication for parameterizations of microphysical and radiative transfer processes in climate models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Dong; Liu, Yangang

    2014-09-27

    The effects of subgrid cloud variability on grid-average microphysical rates and radiative fluxes are examined by use of long-term retrieval products at the Tropical West Pacific, Southern Great Plains, and North Slope of Alaska sites of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. Four commonly used distribution functions, the truncated Gaussian, Gamma, lognormal, and Weibull distributions, are constrained to have the same mean and standard deviation as observed cloud liquid water content. The probability density functions are then used to upscale relevant physical processes to obtain grid-average process rates. It is found that the truncated Gaussian representation results inmoreup to 30% mean bias in autoconversion rate, whereas the mean bias for the lognormal representation is about 10%. The Gamma and Weibull distribution function performs the best for the grid-average autoconversion rate with the mean relative bias less than 5%. For radiative fluxes, the lognormal and truncated Gaussian representations perform better than the Gamma and Weibull representations. The results show that the optimal choice of subgrid cloud distribution function depends on the nonlinearity of the process of interest, and thus, there is no single distribution function that works best for all parameterizations. Examination of the scale (window size) dependence of the mean bias indicates that the bias in grid-average process rates monotonically increases with increasing window sizes, suggesting the increasing importance of subgrid variability with increasing grid sizes.less

  4. Induction and Persistence of Large ?H2AX Foci by High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in DNA-Dependent protein kinaseDeficient Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Ibaez, Irene L.; Molinari, Beatriz; Palmieri, Mnica; Kreiner, Andrs; Valda, Alejandro; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the cell response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), an essential protein of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway, lacks kinase activity. Methods and Materials: CHO10B2, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and its derived radiosensitive mutant cell line, irs-20, lacking DNA-PKcs activity, were evaluated after 0 to 3 Gy of ?-rays, plateau and Bragg peak protons, and lithium beams by clonogenic assay, and as a measurement of double-strand breaks, phosphorylated H2AX (?H2AX) foci number and size were quantified by immunocytofluorescence. Results: Irs-20 exhibited greater radiosensitivity and a higher amount of ?H2AX foci than CHO10B2 at 6 hours after irradiation for all types of radiations. Remarkably, CHO10B2 and irs-20 maintained their difference in radiosensitivity after high-LET radiation. Six hours after low-LET radiations, irs-20 did not reach basal levels of ?H2AX at high doses, whereas CHO10B2 recovered basal levels for all doses. After high-LET radiation, only CHO10B2 exhibited a reduction in ?H2AX foci, but it never reached basal levels. Persistent foci in irs-20 confirmed a repair deficiency. Interestingly, after 30 minutes of high-LET radiation both cell lines exhibited large foci (size >0.9 ?m{sup 2}) related to the damage nature, whereas at 6 hours irs-20 showed a higher amount of large foci than CHO10B2, with a 7-fold increase at 3 Gy, that could also be associated to radiosensitivity. Conclusions: We demonstrated, for the first time, an association between deficient DNA-PKcs activity and not only high levels of H2AX phosphorylation but also persistence and size increase of ?H2AX foci after high-LET irradiation.

  5. Using Narrow and Wide Field of View Instruments to Evaluate Longwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E. E. Takara and R. G. Ellingson Department of Meteorology Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida Introduction Full blown three-dimensional (3D) radiation calculations for ...

  6. Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low-Dose, Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-11-03

    We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to accomplish the following specific aims of this project: 1) determine if low dose, low LET radiation affects skeletal remodeling at structural, cellular and molecular levels and 2) determine if low dose, low LET radiation modulates skeletal health during aging via oxidative mechanisms. A third aim is supported by NASA supplement to this DOE grant focusing on the influence of high LET radiation on bone. A series of experiments were conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven, NSRL-BNL, using iron (56Fe) or a sequential exposure to protons / iron / protons, and separate experiments at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) using 137Cs. The following provides a summary of key findings. (1) Exposure of nine-week old female mice to priming doses of gamma radiation (10cGy x 5) did not significantly affect bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) or microarchitecture as analyzed by 3D microcomputed tomography. As expected, exposure to the challenge dose of 2 Gy gamma irradiation resulted in significant decreases in BV/TV. The priming dose combined with the 2Gy challenge dose had no further effect on BV/TV compared to challenge dose alone, with the sole exception of the Structural Model Index (SMI). SMI reflects the ratio of rods-to-plates in cancellous bone tissue, such that higher SMI values indicate a tendency toward a weaker structure compared to lower SMI values. Mice treated with both priming and challenge dose had 25% higher SMI values compared to sham-irradiated controls and 7% higher values compared to mice treated with the challenge dose alone. Thus, although this priming regimen had relatively modest effects on cancellous tissue, the difference in SMI suggests this fractionated priming doses have adverse, rather than beneficial, effects on bone structure. (2) In 10-week old male mice, a single exposure to 100cGy of 137Cs reduces trabecular bone number and connectivity density by 20% and 36% respectively one

  7. A 20-Year Dataset of Downwelling Longwave Flux at the Arctic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    when there is little or no solar radiation in the central Arctic basin, the surface energy budget is dominated by the ... surface- based, reanalysis, and satellite-retrieved datasets. ...

  8. Linear Energy Transfer Painting With Proton Therapy: A Means of Reducing Radiation Doses With Equivalent Clinical Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fager, Marcus; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Kirk, Maura; Dolney, Derek; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Vapiwala, Neha; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET{sub d}) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (D{sub RBE}) to the target the same. Methods and Materials: The target is painted with LET{sub d} by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LET{sub d} within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the D{sub RBE} the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]). Results: The LET{sub d} increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LET{sub d} led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the DRBE at 90% of the volume (DRBE, 90) constant to FTP. Conclusions: LET{sub d} painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment.

  9. Handbook of heat transfer fundamentals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohsenow, W.M.; Hartnett, J.P.; Ganic, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is on the fundamentals of heat transfer. It provides coverage on conduction, convection, and radiation and on thermophysical properties of materials.

  10. ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Oklahoma Univ. of Oklahoma 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative transfer, Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative transfer, The...

  11. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  12. Fast All-sky Radiation Models for Solar applications (FARMS)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Fast All-sky Radiation Models for Solar applications ... Radiative transfer (RT) models simulating broadband solar radiation have been widely used ...

  13. Gas Phase Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the long-wave IR using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2006-12-31

    A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

  14. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. ... Our result can find applications in radiative thermal management. Authors: Ding, Ding 1 ...

  15. Data Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transfer Data Transfer DQ2 is an ATLAS tool for defining and handling datasets and transferring the datasets on the grid. It was developed as part of the ATLAS Distributed...

  16. Transferring Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transferring Data to and from NERSC Yushu Yao 1 Tuesday, March 8, 2011 Overview 2 * Structure of NERSC Systems and Disks * Data Transfer Nodes * Transfer Data fromto NERSC - scp...

  17. Transferring Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transferring Data Advice and Overview NERSC provides many facilities for storing data and performing analysis. However, transferring data - whether over the wide area network ...

  18. Near-field thermal radiative transfer and thermoacoustic effects from vapor plumes produced by pulsed CO{sub 2} laser ablation of bulk water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Lyon, Kevin; Allen, S. D.

    2006-12-15

    Submillimeter deep heating of bulk water by thermal radiation from ablative water plumes produced by a 10.6 {mu}m transversely excited atmospheric CO{sub 2} laser and the related acoustic generation has been studied using a contact time-resolved photoacoustic technique. Effective penetration depths of thermal radiation in water were measured as a function of incident laser fluence and the corresponding plume temperatures were estimated. The near-field thermal and thermoacoustic effects of thermal radiation in laser-ablated bulk water and their potential near-field implications are discussed.

  19. Technology Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology transfer Technology Transfer Since 1974, the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer has recognized scientists and engineers at federal government and research centers for their "uncommon creativity and initiative in conveying innovations from their facilities to industry and local government." Scientists and engineers from more than 650 federal government laboratories and research centers compete for the 30 awards presented each year.

  20. Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. ...

  1. The whitehouse effect: shortwave radiative forcing of climate by anthropogenic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Increases in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other infrared active gases over the industrial period are thought to have increased the average flux of longwave (thermal infrared) radiation between the surface of the earth and the lower atmosphere, leading to an increase in global mean temperature. Over the same period it is though that concentrations of aerosol particles in the troposphere have similarly increased as a consequence of industrial emissions and that these increased concentrations of particles have increased the earth`s reflectivity of shortwave (solar) radiation incident on the planet both directly, by scattering radiation, and indirectly, by increasing the reflectivity of clouds. The term ``whitehouse effect`` is introduced to refer to this increased scattering of shortwave radiation by analogy to the term ``greenhouse effect,`` which refers to the enhanced trapping of longwave radiation resulting from increased concentrations of infrared active gases. Each of these phenomena is referred to as a ``forcing`` of the earth`s climate, that is a secular change imposed on the system; such a forcing is to be distinguished from a ``response`` of the system, such as a change in global mean temperature or other index of global climate. The forcing due to the direct and indirect effects induced by anthropogenic aerosols has been estimated to be comparable in global- average magnitude to that due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, but it is of opposite direction, that is exerting a cooling influence. The shortwave radiative influence of anthropogenic aerosols may thus be considered to be offsetting some, perhaps a great fraction, of the longwave radiative influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases.

  2. Section 49

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cm &1 cm &1 cm &1 cm &1 Session Papers 207 Comparisons of Surface Longwave Radiance Between Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program R. G. Ellingson and S. Shen University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Abstract Observed surface downward longwave radiances from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) were compared with line-by-line radiative transfer

  3. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of an Improved Longwave Radiative Transfer Model on the NCAR Community Climate Model M. J. Iacono, E. J. Mlawer, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts Introduction The effect of introducing a new longwave (LW) radiation parameterization, rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM), on the energy budget and thermodynamic properties of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM3) is described. RRTM is a rapid

  4. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USFs PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  5. iacono-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Effects of a Validated Longwave Radiation Model, RRTM, on GCM Simulations M. J. Iacono, E. J. Mlawer, and S. A. Clough, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts J.-J. Morcrette European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Reading, United Kingdom Introduction An improved, longwave radiation model, rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997), developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has been incorporated into two general

  6. Constraining the physical conditions in the jets of ?-ray flaring blazars using centimeter-band polarimetry and radiative transfer simulations. I. Data and models for 0420014, OJ 287, and 1156+295

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aller, M. F.; Hughes, P. A.; Aller, H. D.; Latimer, G. E.; Hovatta, T.

    2014-08-10

    To investigate parsec-scale jet flow conditions during GeV ?-ray flares detected by the Fermi Large Angle Telescope, we obtained centimeter-band total flux density and linear polarization monitoring observations from 2009.5 through 2012.5 with the 26 m Michigan radio telescope for a sample of core-dominated blazars. We use these data to constrain radiative transfer simulations incorporating propagating shocks oriented at an arbitrary angle to the flow direction in order to set limits on the jet flow and shock parameters during flares temporally associated with ?-ray flares in 0420014, OJ 287, and 1156+295; these active galactic nuclei exhibited the expected signature of shocks in the linear polarization data. Both the number of shocks comprising an individual radio outburst (3 and 4) and the range of the compression ratios of the individual shocks (0.5-0.8) are similar in all three sources; the shocks are found to be forward-moving with respect to the flow. While simulations incorporating transverse shocks provide good fits for 0420014 and 1156+295, oblique shocks are required for modeling the OJ 287 outburst, and an unusually low value of the low-energy cutoff of the radiating particles' energy distribution is also identified. Our derived viewing angles and shock speeds are consistent with independent Very Long Baseline Array results. While a random component dominates the jet magnetic field, as evidenced by the low fractional linear polarization, to reproduce the observed spectral character requires that a significant fraction of the magnetic field energy is in an ordered axial component. Both straight and low pitch angle helical field lines are viable scenarios.

  7. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Program Research Improves Longwave Radiative Transfer Models Submitter: Turner, D. D., ... resolution infrared radiance. D.D. Turner, D.C. Tobin, S.A. Clough, P.D. Brown, ...

  8. delamere(2)-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible, Longwave Radiative Transfer (FLRT) in Clear and Cloudy Atmospheres J. S. Delamere and K. Stamnes Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska E. J. Mlawer and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts Introduction This paper introduces a flexible, longwave radiative transfer tool (FLRT), which can be used to create a correlated-k, multiple-scattering model for inhomogeneous atmospheres. The spectral bandwidths can be

  9. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  10. Collaborative Project. 3D Radiative Transfer Parameterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    out by means of the multiple linear regression analysis associated with topographic ... We derived five regression equations with high statistical correlations for flux ...

  11. Electron Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Pierre Kennepohl1,2 and Edward Solomon1* 1Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Electron transfer, or the act of moving an electron from one place to another, is amongst the simplest of chemical processes, yet certainly one of the most critical. The process of efficiently and controllably moving electrons around is one of the primary regulation mechanisms in biology. Without stringent control of electrons in living organisms, life could simply not exist. For example,

  12. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    404-NOV. 1, 2000 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER COMMERCIALIZATION ACT OF 2000 VerDate 11-MAY-2000 04:52 Nov 16, 2000 Jkt 089139 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL404.106 APPS27 PsN: PUBL404 114 STAT. 1742 PUBLIC LAW 106-404-NOV. 1, 2000 Public Law 106-404 106th Congress An Act To improve the ability of Federal agencies to license federally owned inventions. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT

  13. Accelerating the transfer in Technology Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerating the transfer in Technology Transfer Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: Dec. 2015-Jan. 2016...

  14. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer

  15. Section 27

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NF o N e ' f (N,$,Zb,h,8,u,<) Session Papers 117 (1) (2) A Test of the Validity of Cumulus Cloud Parameterizations for Longwave Radiation Calculations D. Han and R.G. Ellingson Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Introduction Longwave radiative transfer under broken cloud conditions is often treated as a problem in cloud bulk geometry, especially for cumulus clouds, because individual clouds are nearly black. However, climate models ignore cloud geometry

  16. Section 8

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N F o F c F o N e N e N e Z b N e Session Papers 27 A Test of the Validity of Cumulus Cloud Parameterizations for Longwave Radiation Calculations D. Han and R. G. Ellingson Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Introduction Longwave radiative transfer under broken cloud conditions is primarily a problem in cloud bulk geometry for liquid water cumulus clouds because individual clouds are nearly black. However, climate models ignore cloud geometry and approxi-

  17. Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave radiation, thus preventing long-wave...

  18. Beta Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells ...

  19. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. themore » different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.« less

  20. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.

  1. Data Transfer Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfer » Data Transfer Nodes Data Transfer Nodes A redirector page has been set up without anywhere to redirect to. Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:12

  2. Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Accomplishments of the Instantaneous Radiative Flux (IRF) Working Group August 2006 AERI Observations at Southern Great Plains Improve Infrared Radiative Transfer Models Turner et al., JAS, 2004 * AERI observations used to evaluate clear sky IR radiative transfer models * Long-term comparisons have improved - Spectral line database parameters - Water vapor continuum absorption models * Reduced errors in computation of downwelling radiative IR flux by approx 4; current uncertainty is on

  3. Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wari, M. N.; Pujar, G. H.; Inamdar, S. R.

    2015-06-24

    In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process.

  4. NREL: Technology Transfer - Ombuds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Transfer Ombuds NREL's Technology Transfer Ombuds offers an informal process to help resolve issues and concerns regarding the laboratory's technology partnership,...

  5. Bandwidth and Transfer Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average. Graphs for the last 8 days. Historical yearly peak days. Daily Storage Concurrency Transfer Activity This graph shows the number of transfers to the storage systems...

  6. Data Transfer Examples

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transfer Examples Data Transfer Examples Moving data to Projectb Projectb is where data should be written from jobs running on the cluster or Gpints. There are intermediate ...

  7. Optimizing Data Transfer Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimizing Data Transfer Nodes using Packet Pacing Nathan Hanford University of California ... An important performance problem that we foresee with Data Transfer Nodes (DTNs) in the ...

  8. Estimation of total cloud cover from solar radiation observations at Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Han, Boping

    2010-03-15

    The DYRESM-CAEDYM model is a valuable tool for simulating water temperature for biochemical studies in aquatic ecosystem. The model requires inputs of surface short-wave radiation and long-wave radiation or total cloud cover fraction (TC). Long-wave radiation is often not measured directly so a method to determine TC from commonly measured short-wave solar irradiance (E{sub 0}) and theoretical short-wave solar irradiance under a clear sky (E{sub c}) has broad application. A more than 17-year (15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009) hourly solar irradiance data set was used to estimate the peak solar irradiance for each ordinal date over one year, which was assumed to be representative of solar irradiance in the absence of cloud. Comparison between these daily observed values and the modelled clear-sky solar radiation over one year was in close agreement (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.995 and root mean squared error, RMSE = 12.54 W m{sup -2}). The downloaded hourly cloudiness measurements from 15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009 was used to calculate the daily values for this period and then the calculated daily values over the 17 years were used to calculate the average values for each ordinal date over one year. A regression equation between (1 - E{sub 0}/E{sub c}) and TC produced a correlation coefficient value of 0.99 (p > 0.01, n = 71). The validation of this cloud cover estimation model was conducted with observed short-wave solar radiation and TC at two sites. Values of TC derived from the model at the Lake Rotorua site gave a reasonable prediction of the observed values (RMSE = 0.10, r = 0.86, p > 0.01, n = 61). The model was also tested at Queenstown (South Island of New Zealand) and it provided satisfactory results compared to the measurements (RMSE = 0.16, r = 0.67, p > 0.01, n = 61). Therefore the model's good performance and broad applicability will contribute to the DYRESM-CAEDYM accuracy of water temperature simulation when long-wave radiation

  9. Data Transfer Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transfer Nodes Data Transfer Nodes PDSF has dedicated nodes for grid services and data transfers named pdsfdtn1.nersc.gov and pdsfdtn2.nersc.gov. Both nodes have 10 Gb/s network connections to the NERSC network. Please avoid using the interactive nodes for bulk data transfer. Not only can it be disruptive to other users but the network connection is only 1 Gb/s so it will take longer. For transfers using /project and/or HPSS use the NERSC data transfer nodes - see the NERSC data transfer

  10. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER COORDINATORS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Mark Hartney, Director of the Office of Strategic Planning, SLAC, discussed technology transfer at SLAC. Bob Hwang, Director, Transportation Energy Center, Combustion Research Facility, SNL presented on technology transfer at SNL. Elsie Quaite-Randall, Chief Technology Transfer Officer, Innovation and Partnerships Office, LBNL, presented on technology transfer at LBNL. Richard A. Rankin, Director, Industrial Partnerships Office and Economic Development Office (Interim), LLNL, presented on technology transfer at LLNL.

  11. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  12. mlawer-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Developments in the Water Vapor Continuum E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and P. D. Brown Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts D. C. Tobin University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Introduction A key development in the understanding of radiative transfer in the longwave was the introduction of the CKD continuum model (Clough et al. 1989), the success of which effectively ended speculation that there is significant longwave continuum absorption due to water

  13. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  14. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  15. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  16. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.; Schertz, William W.

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  17. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  18. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  19. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  20. NETL: Tech Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Licensing & Technology Transfer Technology transfer is the process of transferring new technologies from the laboratory to the marketplace, transforming research into new products and companies so inventions benefit the greatest number of people as quickly and efficiently as possible. At NETL, researchers work every day to develop technology solutions to difficult problems. NETL Technology Transfer works with entrepreneurs, companies, universities and the public sector to move federally

  1. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping

  2. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Home MSDS Search MSDS Help Safety Training and Tests Contact Links LSU Campus Safety Glossary Radiation Safety Manual Radiation Safety Test NOTE: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ONLY! **Please allow two weeks for your badge to be processed.** Regulations and Hierarchy The CAMD Safety Officer reports to two separate individuals regarding safety. These are the Radiation Safety Officer for the University, and the Campus Safety Officer in all other matters. Thus safety

  3. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  4. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  5. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  6. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  7. NREL: Technology Transfer - Commercialization Programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    303-275-3051. Printable Version Technology Transfer Home About Technology Transfer Technology Partnership Agreements Licensing Agreements Nondisclosure Agreements...

  8. Fuel transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  9. Fuel transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  10. Definition of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of ...

  11. Technology Transfer - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PAZ0004_v2.jpg Technology Transfer Who We Are JCAP Mission JCAP At A Glance Fact Sheets Organizational Chart Recent Science Technology Transfer Awards & Honors Senior Management Scientific Leadership Researchers Governance & Advisory Boards Operations & Administration Who we are Overview JCAP Mission JCAP At A Glance Fact Sheets Organizational Chart Our Achievements Recent Science Technology Transfer Awards & Honors Our People Senior Management Scientific Leadership Researchers

  12. Material Transfer Agreements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Transfer Agreements Material Transfer Agreements Enables the transfer of tangible consumable research materials between two organizations, when the recipient intends to use the material for research purposes Contact thumbnail of Marcus Lucero Head of Licensing Marcus Lucero Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-6569 Email Overview The ability to exchange materials freely and without delay is an important part of a healthy scientific laboratory. Los Alamos National

  13. NREL: Technology Transfer - Contacts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    you may have about NREL's technology transfer opportunities. Partnering with NREL Anne Miller, 303-384-7353 Licensing NREL Technologies Eric Payne, 303-275-3166 Printable Version...

  14. Bandwidth and Transfer Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Bandwidth and Transfer Activity Data Rate vs. File Size The graph below shows the bandwidth for individual file transfers for one day. The graph also gives a quick overview of the traffic and maximum bandwidth and file size for a given day. Historical yearly peak days. Daily Rate vs. Size Aggregate Transfer Bandwidth This graph shows the aggregate transfer rate to the storage systems as a function of time of day. The red line is the peak bandwidth observed within each one minute

  15. Data Transfer Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transfer Nodes HPSS Data Archive IO Resources for Scientific Applications at NERSC Optimizing IO performance on the Lustre file system IO Formats Science Databases Sharing ...

  16. Facility Survey & Transfer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As DOE facilities become excess, many that are radioactively and/or chemically contaminated will become candidate for transfer to DOE-EM for deactivation and decommissioning.

  17. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  18. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  19. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  20. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  1. MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

    2010-07-18

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not

  2. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchand, RT; Protat, A; Alexander, SP

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  3. Transfer Activity Last 8 Days

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Last 8 Days Transfer Activity Last 8 Days These graphs show the transfer activity statistics for the past eight days with the most recent day shown first. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Transfers started/in progress (Both Systems) Transfers started/in progress (Both Systems) Transfers started/in progress (Both Systems) Transfers started/in progress (Both Systems) Transfers started/in progress (Both Systems)

  4. Validation of the RRTM Shortwave Radiation Model and Comparison to GCM Shortwave Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation of the RRTM Shortwave Radiation Model and Comparison to GCM Shortwave Models M. J. Iacono, E. J. Mlawer, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Lexington, Massachusetts Introduction An important step toward improving radiative transfer codes in general circulation models (GCMs) is to thoroughly evaluate them either by comparison to measurements directly or by comparing them to other data-validated radiation models. The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM)

  5. SWAMI II technology transfer plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, C.R.; Peterson, K.D.; Harpring, L.J.; Immel, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    Thousands of drums of radioactive/hazardous/mixed waste are currently stored at DOE sites throughout US; they are stored in warehouse facilities on an interim basis, pending final disposition. Recent emphasis on anticipated decommissioning of facilities indicates that many more drums of waste will be generated, requiring additional storage. Federal and state regulations dictate that hazardous waste covered by RCRA be inspected periodically for container degradation and to verify inventories. All known DOE waste storage facilities are currently inspected manually. A system to perform robotic inspection of waste drums is under development by the SRTC Robotics Group of WSRC; it is called the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI). The first version, SWAMI I, was developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as a proof of principle system for autonomous inspection of drums in a warehouse. SWAMI I was based on the Transitions Research Corporation (TRC) HelpMate mobile robot. TRC modified the Helpmate to navigate in aisles of drums. SRTC added subsystems to SWAMI I to determine its position in open areas, read bar code labels on the drums up to three levels high, capture images of the drums and perform a radiation survey of the floor in the aisles. The radiation survey was based on SRTC patented technology first implemented on the Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON). The radiation survey is not essential for the inspection of drums, but is an option that can increase the utility and effectiveness of SWAMI in warehouses with radioactive and/or mixed waste. All the sensors on SWAMI I were fixed on the vehicle. From the success of SWAMI I, a second version, SWAMI II, was developed; it will be evaluated at Fernald and tested with two other mobile robots. Intent is to transfer the technology developed for SWAMI I and II to industry so that it can supply additional units for purchase for drum inspection.

  6. Technology transfer 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  7. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  8. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSON RL

    2008-07-18

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel.

  9. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  10. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  11. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  12. TRIDEC Land TRIDEC Land Transfer REQUEST Transfer REQUEST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Area TRIDEC Land TRIDEC Land Transfer REQUEST Transfer REQUEST 300 Acres 300 Acres Additional Lands Additional Lands Identified for Identified for EA Analysis EA Analysis 2,772...

  13. NREL: Technology Transfer - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webmaster To report any problems on or ask a question about the NREL Technology Transfer Web site, you may contact the Webmaster using the online form below. If you have a question...

  14. Technology Transfer Ombudsman Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Technology Transfer Commercialization Act of 2000, Public Law 106-404 (PDF) was enacted in November 2000.  Pursuant to Section 11, Technology Partnerships Ombudsman, each DOE national...

  15. Data Transfer Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to data transfer of some form or fashion. Examples of intended usage would be running python scripts to download data from a remote source, running client software to load data...

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: ARM Radiative...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SA, Shephard MW, Mlawer EJ, Delamere JS, Iacono MJ, Cady-Pereira K, Boukabara S, Brown PD. Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Modeling: a Summary of the AER Codes. J Quant Spectrosc...

  17. Inverse Energy Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverse Energy Transfer by Near-Resonant Interactions with a Damped-Wave Spectrum P.W. Terry Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA (Received 12 January 2004; published 1 December 2004) The interaction of long-wavelength anisotropic drift waves with the plasma turbulence of electron density advection is shown to produce the inverse energy transfer that condenses onto

  18. Ombuds Services for Technology Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ombuds Program Tech Transfer Ombuds Ombuds Services for Technology Transfer Committed to the fair and equitable treatment of all employees, contractors, and persons doing...

  19. Transferring Data from Batch Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transferring Data from Batch Jobs Transferring Data from Batch Jobs Examples Once you are set up for automatic authentication (see HPSS Passwords) you can access HPSS within batch...

  20. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Covey, Debra

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  1. Source storage and transfer cask: Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Speir, L.G.; Garcia, D.C.

    1985-04-01

    The storage and shield cask for the dual californium source is designed to shield and transport up to 3.7 mg (2 Ci) of /sup 252/Cf. the cask meets Department of Transportation (DOT) license requirements for Type A materials (DOT-7A). The cask is designed to transfer sources to and from the Flourinel and Fuel Storage (FAST) facility delayed-neutron interrogator. Californium sources placed in the cask must be encapsulated in the SR-CF-100 package and attached to Teleflex cables. The cask contains two source locations. Each location contains a gear box that allows a Teleflex cable to be remotely moved by a hand crank into and out of the cask. This transfer procedure permits sources to be easily removed and inserted into the delayed-neutron interrogator and reduces personnel radiation exposure during transfer. The radiation dose rate with the maximum allowable quantity of californium (3.7 mg) in the cask is 30 mR/h at the surface and less than 2 mR/h 1 m from the cask surface. This manual contains information about the cask, californium sources, describes the method to ship the cask, and how to insert and remove sources from the cask. 28 figs.

  2. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  3. Technology Transfer Reporting Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transfer Reporting Form Technology Transfer Reporting Form PDF icon Technology Transfer Reporting Form More Documents & Publications Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles,...

  4. radiation.p65

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that ...

  5. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Protection and Safety Training (3 hrs) Instructors: John Seaman and Neil Miller ... with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. ...

  6. BWR Core Heat Transfer Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-04-27

    Version 00 MOXY is used for the thermal analysis of a planar section of a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel element during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The code emplyoys models that describe heat transfer by conduction, convection, and thermal radiation, and heat generation by metal-water reaction and fission product decay. Models are included for considering fuel-rod swelling and rupture, energy transport across the fuel-to-cladding gap, and the thermal response of the canister. MOXY requires thatmore » time-dependent data during the blowdown process for the power normalized to the steady-state power, for the heat-transfer coefficient, and for the fluid temperature be provided as input. Internal models provide these parameters during the heatup and emergency cooling phases.« less

  7. CROSS VALIDATION OF SATELLITE RADIATION TRANSFER MODELS DURING...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is qualified according to BSRN 5 criteria and are available at each minute interval. The ground site at Caic is this small city located in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian...

  8. SGPGET: AN SBDART Module for Aerosol Radiative Transfer (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of California, Santa Barbara, California; Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado (US) Sponsoring Org: ...

  9. SGPGET: AN SBDART Module for Aerosol Radiative Transfer (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of California, Santa Barbara, California; Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado (US) Sponsoring Org: ...

  10. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer and GeneralRelativistic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    emission where the magnetic field roughly aligns with the line-of-sight in the co-moving frame. The features move back and forth as the accretion flow evolves, but their...

  11. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming; Wang, Jin

    2011-07-26

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  12. VOLUNTARY LEAVE TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    VOLUNTARY LEAVE TRANSFER PROGRAM (Eligible employees are listed at the end of this narrative) Under the Voluntary Leave Transfer Program you can apply, based on a medical emergency, to receive annual leave donated by other employees. A medical emergency is generally defined as a medical condition of the employee or family member that is likely to keep you (the employee) away from work and cause a loss of pay of at least 24 hours. You are required to submit an Office of Personnel Management (OPM)

  13. Transfer Activity Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Historical Yearly Peak Transfer Activity Historical Yearly Peak The plots below show the yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for the current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In

  14. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  15. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  16. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contacts Hirohito Ogasawara, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Dennis Nordlund, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Anders Nilsson, Stanford Synchrotron ...

  17. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation ...

  18. Boiler heat transfer modeling using CEMS data with application to fouling analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zibas, S.J.; Idem, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical boiler heat transfer simulation for coal-fired plants is described. Required model input includes boiler geometry, fuel composition, and limited CEMS data that are typically available. Radiation heat transfer in the furnace is calculated using curve-fits to the Hottel charts. The model employs empirical heat transfer coefficient correlations to evaluate convection heat transfer to various boiler component surfaces. Fouling/slagging can be accounted for by including fouling resistance in the calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient of each component. Model performance predictions are compared to cases available in the literature. Results from parametric studies are presented.

  19. Long-Wave Infrared | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    such as hand portable, truck mounted, airborne, or satellite.3 Physical Properties The electromagnetic spectrum.4 Best Practices Typically, LWIR imaging as a hydrothermal...

  20. (Validity of environmental transfer models)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Gardner, R.H.

    1990-11-07

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international cooperative study initiated in 1985 by the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection to test models designed to calculate the environmental transfer and bioaccumulation of radionuclides and other trace substances. The objective of the symposium and workshop was to synthesize results obtained during Phase 1 of BIOMOVS (the first five years of the study) and to suggest new directions that might be pursued during Phase 2 of BIOMOVS. The travelers were an instrumental part of the development of BIOMOVS. This symposium allowed the travelers to present a review of past efforts at model validation and a synthesis of current activities and to refine ideas concerning future development of models and data for assessing the fate, effect, and human risks of environmental contaminants. R. H. Gardner also visited the Free University, Amsterdam, and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven to confer with scientists about current research in theoretical ecology and the use of models for estimating the transport and effect of environmental contaminants and to learn about the European efforts to map critical loads of acid deposition.

  1. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clear Sky, Longwave, Radiative Transfer at the North Slope of Alaska CART Site: A Mini QME Delamere, J.S.(a), Clough, S.A.(a), Mlawer, E.J.(a), Shephard, M.W.(a), and Stamnes, K.H.(b), Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (a), Stevens Institute of Technology (b) Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The AERI/LBLRTM and the Broadband Quality Measurement Experiments (QMEs) at the Southern Great Plains CART have extensively compared clear-sky longwave

  2. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance of Longwave Radiative Transfer Models for 3D Cloud Fields Download a printable PDF Submitter: Kablick III, G. P., University of Maryland Ellingson, R. G., Florida State University Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Kablick III GP, RG Ellingson, EE Takara, and J Gu. 2011. "Longwave 3D benchmarks for inhomogeneous clouds and comparisons with approximate methods." Journal of Climate, 24, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3752.1. The

  3. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  4. Decal transfer microfabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Childs, William Robert

    2004-10-19

    A method of making a microstructure includes forming a pattern in a surface of a silicon-containing elastomer, oxidizing the pattern, contacting the pattern with a substrate; and bonding the oxidized pattern and the substrate such that the pattern and the substrate are irreversibly attached. The silicon-containing elastomer may be removably attached to a transfer pad.

  5. The use of microdosimetric techniques in radiation protection measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.; Hsu, H.H.; Casson, W.H.; Vasilik, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    A major objective of radiation protection is to determine the dose equivalent for routine radiation protection applications. As microdosimetry has developed over approximately three decades, its most important application has been in measuring radiation quality, especially in radiation fields of unknown or inadequately known energy spectra. In these radiation fields, determination of dose equivalent is not straightforward; however, the use of microdosimetric principles and techniques could solve this problem. In this paper, the authors discuss the measurement of lineal energy, a microscopic analog to linear energy transfer, and demonstrate the development and implementation of the variance-covariance method, a novel method in experimental microdosimetry. This method permits the determination of dose mean lineal energy, an essential parameter of radiation quality, in a radiation field of unknown spectrum, time-varying dose rate, and high dose rate. Real-time monitoring of changes in radiation quality can also be achieved by using microdosimetric techniques.

  6. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  7. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, Robert M.; Mills, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  8. Wireless power transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  10. Plastic container bagless transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tibrea, Steven L.; D'Amelio, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Brent A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus are provided for transferring material from an isolated environment into a storage carrier through a conduit that can be sealed with a plug. The plug and conduit can then be severed to provide a hermetically sealed storage carrier containing the material which may be transported for storage or disposal and to maintain a seal between the isolated environment and the ambient environment.

  11. Transfer reactions at ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Services » Transactions, Technology and Contractor Human Relations Transactions, Technology and Contractor Human Relations Transactions, Technology and Contractor Human Relations Offices of the Deputy General Counsel for Transactions, Technology and Contractor Human Resources Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Procurement and Financial Assistance (GC-61) Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property (GC-62) Office of the Assistant

  12. Efficient Data Transfer Protocols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficient Data Transfer Protocols for Big Data Brian Tierney ∗ , Ezra Kissel † , Martin Swany † , Eric Pouyoul ∗ ∗ Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94270 † School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 Abstract-Data set sizes are growing exponentially, so it is important to use data movement protocols that are the most efficient available. Most data movement tools today rely on TCP over sockets, which limits flows to around 20Gbps

  13. 2006 Technology Transfer Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Transfer Awards Carrying on the tradition of world-changing innovation Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its

  14. 2007 Technology Transfer Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Technology Transfer Awards Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S.Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the Los

  15. 2008 Technology Transfer Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Technology Transfer Awards Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S.Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the Los

  16. 2009 Technology Transfer Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Technology Transfer Awards Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S.Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the Los

  17. Technology Transfer | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Transfer Through partnerships and licensing of its intellectual property rights, NREL seeks to reduce private sector risk in early stage technologies, enable investment in the adoption of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, reduce U.S. reliance on foreign energy sources, reduce carbon emissions, and increase U.S. industrial competitiveness. Text Version View a summary of our Fiscal Year 2015 technology partnership agreements. Learn more about our partnership

  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory technology transfer report, fiscal year 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    An increase in the activities of the Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA) is reported. Most of the additional effort has been directed to the regional electric utility initiative, but intensive efforts have been applied to the commercialization of a compact synchrotron storage ring for x-ray lithography applications. At least six laboratory technologies are reported as having been transferred or being in the process of transfer. Laboratory accelerator technology is being applied to study radiation effects, and reactor technology is being applied for designing space reactors. Technologies being transferred and emerging technologies are described. The role of the ORTA and the technology transfer process are briefly described, and application assessment records are given for a number of technologies. A mini-incubator facility is also described. (LEW)

  19. Nonlinear Heat Transfer 2d Structure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-09-01

    DOT-BPMD is a general-purpose, finite-element, heat-transfer program used to predict thermal environments. The code considers linear and nonlinear transient or steady-state heat conduction in two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric representations of structures. Capabilities are provided for modeling anisotropic heterogeneous materials with temperature-dependent thermal properties and time-dependent temperature, heat flux, convection and radiation boundary conditions, together with time-dependent internal heat generation. DOT-BPMD may be used in the evaluation of steady-state geothermal gradients as well as in themore » transient heat conduction analysis of repository and waste package subsystems. Strengths of DOT-BPMD include its ability to account for a wide range of possible boundary conditions, nonlinear material properties, and its efficient equation solution algorithm. Limitations include the lack of a three-dimensional analysis capability, no radiative or convective internal heat transfer, and the need to maintain a constant time-step in each program execution.« less

  20. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  1. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W.; Hegland, Joel E.; Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  2. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  3. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  4. QER- Comment of Energy Transfer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    From: Lee Hanse Executive Vice President Interstate Energy Transfer Mobile - 210 464 2929 Office - 210 403 6455

  5. Decal transfer lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Childs, William R.; Motala, Michael J.; Lee, Keon Jae

    2010-02-16

    A method of making a microstructure includes selectively activating a portion of a surface of a silicon-containing elastomer, contacting the activated portion with a substance, and bonding the activated portion and the substance, such that the activated portion of the surface and the substance in contact with the activated portion are irreversibly attached. The selective activation may be accomplished by positioning a mask on the surface of the silicon-containing elastomer, and irradiating the exposed portion with UV radiation.

  6. benner-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Inhomogeneous Cloud Properties on 2-D Longwave Radiative Transfer T. C. Benner, J. A. Curry, and K. F. Evans Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction Clouds have a profound influence on radiative fluxes, for both solar and infrared radiation. Inhomogeneous clouds, in particular, have complex effects on fluxes and can be challenging to parameterize. Killen and Ellingson (1994) showed the importance of cloud geometry and spatial

  7. Proton transfer in nucleobases is mediated by water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khistyaev, Kirill; Golan, Amir; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Orms, Natalie; Krylov, Anna I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2013-04-29

    Water plays a central role in chemistry and biology by mediating the interactions between molecules, altering energy levels of solvated species, modifying potential energy proles along reaction coordinates, and facilitating ecient proton transport through ion channels and interfaces. This study investigates proton transfer in a model system comprising dry and microhydrated clusters of nucleobases. With mass spectrometry and tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation, we show that water shuts down ionization-induced proton transfer between nucleobases, which is very ecient in dry clusters. Instead, a new pathway opens up in which protonated nucleo bases are generated by proton transfer from the ionized water molecule and elimination of a hydroxyl radical. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the shape of the potential energy prole along the proton transfer coordinate depends strongly on the character of the molecular orbital from which the electron is removed, i.e., the proton transfer from water to nucleobases is barrierless when an ionized state localized on water is accessed. The computed energetics of proton transfer is in excellent agreement with the experimental appearance energies. Possible adiabatic passage on the ground electronic state of the ionized system, while energetically accessible at lower energies, is not ecient. Thus, proton transfer is controlled electronically, by the character of the ionized state, rather than statistically, by simple energy considerations.

  8. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, James C.; Hoover, Mark A.; May, Kay W.; Ross, Maurice J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  9. ENERGY-TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thonemann, P.C.; Cowhig, W.T.; Davenport, P.A.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to the transfer of energy in a traveling electromagnetic wave to direct-current electrical energy in a gaseous medium. The traveling wave is generated by means of a radio-frequency oscillator connected across a capacitance-loaded helix wound around a sealed tube enclosing the gaseous medium. The traveling wave causes the electrons within the medium to drift towards one end of the tube. The direct current appearing across electrodes placed at each end of the tube is then used by some electrical means. (AEC)

  10. Polarization transfer NMR imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sillerud, Laurel O.; van Hulsteyn, David B.

    1990-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) image is obtained with spatial information modulated by chemical information. The modulation is obtained through polarization transfer from a first element representing the desired chemical, or functional, information, which is covalently bonded and spin-spin coupled with a second element effective to provide the imaging data. First and second rf pulses are provided at first and second frequencies for exciting the imaging and functional elements, with imaging gradients applied therebetween to spatially separate the nuclei response for imaging. The second rf pulse is applied at a time after the first pulse which is the inverse of the spin coupling constant to select the transfer element nuclei which are spin coupled to the functional element nuclei for imaging. In a particular application, compounds such as glucose, lactate, or lactose, can be labeled with .sup.13 C and metabolic processes involving the compounds can be imaged with the sensitivity of .sup.1 H and the selectivity of .sup.13 C.