Sample records for longer breakeven payback

  1. Energy Payback for Energy Systems Ensembles During Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutowski, Timothy G.

    During periods of growth, the energy payback performance of new energy generating technologies deviates substantially from the usual static measures of energy return on investment (EROI), and time to breakeven (tB) for ...

  2. Impact of Motor Failures on Payback Periods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheek, K. F.; Pillay, P.; Dudley, K. J.

    This paper uses MotorMaster and Vaughen's Complete Price Guide to determine payback periods for different motor failure scenarios. Some scenarios considered are rewinds, reconditions, and replacement of bearings. Prices for these repairs...

  3. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  4. PV vs. Solar Water Heating- Simple Solar Payback

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar energy systems hang their hats on payback. Financial payback is as tangible as money in your bank account, while other types of payback—like environmental externalities—are not usually calculated in dollars. There’s no doubt that photovoltaic (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems will pay you back. Maybe not as quickly as you’d like, but all systems will significantly offset their cost over their lifetimes. Here we’ll try to answer: Which system will give the quickest return on investment (ROI)?

  5. Overcoming Conservative Payback Rules for Energy Efficiency Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Fontaine, A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    other organizations to emulate or replicate Challenge Partners’ successful energy-savings strategies. Showcase projects and implementation models also enable DOE to better understand the challenges faced by companies in the market and how... strategies that enable them to fund more energy efficiency projects internally. These strategies can serve as models for other companies seeking to work around conservative payback thresholds and other financing barriers. Nissan: Payback Period...

  6. Breakeven Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "Break-even cost" for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this presentation, we introduce an analysis of PV break-even costs for residential customers in the United States, including an evaluation of some of the key drivers of PV breakeven both regionally and over time. This presentation includes our methodology and presents results for both near-term residential breakeven costs(2009) and future market sensitivities of break-even costs (2015). See also the the report "Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities". Presentation for NREL/TP-6A2-45991.

  7. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  8. Break-even Costs for Cow/Calf Producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, L. R.

    1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    $400 90/600 540 $0.19 $0.37 $0.56 $0.74 90/500 450 $0.22 $0.44 $0.66 $0.89 90/400 360 $0.28 $0.56 $0.83 $1.11 90/300 270 $0.37 $0.74 $1.11 $1.48 80/600 480 $0.21 $0.42 $0.63 $0.83 80/500 400 $0.25 $0.50 $0.75 $1.00 80/400 320 $0.31 $0.63 $0.94 $1.25 80.../300 240 $0.42 $0.83 $1.25 $1.67 70/600 420 $0.24 $0.48 $0.71 $0.95 70/500 350 $0.29 $0.57 $0.86 $1.14 70/400 280 $0.36 $0.71 $1.07 $1.43 70/300 210 $0.48 $0.95 $1.43 $1.90 Table 1 shows break-even costs for 12 production scenarios and four annual cash...

  9. Simple Payback: The Wrong Tool for Energy Project Analysis?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will want to know the risk of losing their investment, or at least the risk of failing to invest in more valuable alternatives. Here?s how payback measures can frustrate energy management efforts. The greater the investor?s concern with investment loss..., or paying the cost to avoid it. The energy at-risk concept is depicted here: Figure 1: Energy At-Risk Annual energy use, current application in-place Annual energy use, energy-efficient alternative Energy consumption avoided...

  10. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Break-Even Turnkey Cost of Residential Wind Systems in theaggregate installed cost of a small wind system that couldand wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions

  11. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  12. Energy Conservation Recommendations, Implementation Costs, and Projected Paybacks for Georgia's Targeted Schools and Hospitals Conservation Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M. L.; Moore, D. M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clock 4.4 3 Convert to Fluorescent Lighting 6.4 4 Electronic Ballasts 8.5 5 Increase Roof Insulation 8.9 6 Storm Windows 9.1 7 Replace Window 10.8 The top two measures were energy man- agement systems and electronic time clocks. The complete EMS... sign replacement, cleaning air conditioning filters, and reducing temperature set- points. Though these measures have a low cost and short payback, they afford much less total energy savings. ber of reports it occurred in and the percent of total...

  13. Analysis of fuel options for the breakeven core configuration of the Advanced Recycling Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauff, N.E.; Klim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Fiorina, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Franceschini, F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC., Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A trade-off study is performed to determine the impacts of various fuel forms on the core design and core physics characteristics of the sodium-cooled Toshiba- Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR). The fuel forms include oxide, nitride, and metallic forms of U and Th. The ARR core configuration is redesigned with driver and blanket regions in order to achieve breakeven fissile breeding performance with the various fuel types. State-of-the-art core physics tools are used for the analyses. In addition, a quasi-static reactivity balance approach is used for a preliminary comparison of the inherent safety performances of the various fuel options. Thorium-fueled cores exhibit lower breeding ratios and require larger blankets compared to the U-fueled cores, which is detrimental to core compactness and increases reprocessing and manufacturing requirements. The Th cores also exhibit higher reactivity swings through each cycle, which penalizes reactivity control and increases the number of control rods required. On the other hand, using Th leads to drastic reductions in void and coolant expansion coefficients of reactivity, with the potential for enhancing inherent core safety. Among the U-fueled ARR cores, metallic and nitride fuels result in higher breeding ratios due to their higher heavy metal densities. On the other hand, oxide fuels provide a softer spectrum, which increases the Doppler effect and reduces the positive sodium void worth. A lower fuel temperature is obtained with the metallic and nitride fuels due to their higher thermal conductivities and compatibility with sodium bonds. This is especially beneficial from an inherent safety point of view since it facilitates the reactor cool-down during loss of power removal transients. The advantages in terms of inherent safety of nitride and metallic fuels are maintained when using Th fuel. However, there is a lower relative increase in heavy metal density and in breeding ratio going from oxide to metallic or nitride Th fuels relative to the U counterpart fuels. (authors)

  14. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  15. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -344-3957, vmf5@columbia.edu 2 Center for Life Cycle Analysis, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA 3 SunLIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE Vasilis Fthenakis1,2 , Rick Betita2 , Mark Shields3 , Rob

  16. Output Performance and Payback Analysis of a Residential Photovoltaic System in Colorado: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, S.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost of installation and ownership of a 9.66-kilowatt (kW) residential photovoltaic system is described, and the performance of this system over the past 3 years is shown. The system is located in Colorado at 40 degrees latitude and consists of arrays on two structures. Two arrays are installed on a detached garage, and these are each composed of 18 Kyocera 130-W modules strung in series facing south at an angle of 40 degrees above horizontal. Each 18-panel array feeds into a Xantrex/Schneider Electric 2.8-kW inverter. The other two arrays are installed on the house and face south at an angle of 30 degrees. One of these arrays has twelve 205-W Kyocera panels in series, and the other is made up of twelve 210-Kyocera panels. Each of these arrays feeds into Xantrex/Schneider Electric 3.3-kW inverters. Although there are various shading issues from trees and utility poles and lines, the overall output resembles that which is expected from PVWatts, a solar estimate program. The array cost, which was offset by rebates from the utility company and federal tax credits, was $1.17 per watt. Considering measured system performance, the estimated payback time of the system is 9 years.

  17. Scientific Breakeven for Fusion Energy For the past 40 years, the IFE fusion research community has adopted: achieving a fusion gain of 1 as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scientific Breakeven for Fusion Energy For the past 40 years, the IFE fusion research community has as fusion energy produced divided the external energy incident on the fusion reaction chamber. Typical fusion power plant design concepts require a fusion gain of 30 for MFE and 70 for IFE. Fusion energy

  18. Net Energy Payback and CO{sub 2} Emissions from Three Midwestern Wind Farms: An Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Scott W. [University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey (United States)], E-mail: whites@kgs.ku.edu

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO{sub 2} analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO{sub 2} analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data.A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data.The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO{sub 2} emissions, in tonnes of CO{sub 2} per GW{sub e}h, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively.

  19. Break-even investment in a wind-energy-conversion system for an irrigated farm on the Texas High Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, D.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of using a wind energy system for irrigation. The value of wind energy was estimated on both a static basis (where the annual value of wind power was assumed to be constant over the life of the machine) and on a temporal basis (where the annual value of wind power was estimated recursively). The model for static analysis contained two components which applied consecutively. The first was a linear programming (LP) model for the High Plains region. Production activities were included that allowed both optimal and non-optimal timing of post-plant irrigations, giving the producer added flexibility in the employment of limiting water resources. For the temporal analysis, a FORTRAN subroutine was added to the LP model to operate the model recursively over the life of the wind system and to account for the annual decline of the aquifer. Both fixed and variable costs were included. Two wind machines were analyzed, with rated outputs of 40 and 60 kilowatts (kW). Each was applied to the Northern and Southern Texas High Plains over a range of land and water resources situations. Break-even investiment was estimated at discount rates of 3, 5, and 10%. Results indicate that, at least in the future when wind-system costs decrease and stabilize, wind-assisted irrigation could be an economically viable alternative for Texas High Plains producers.

  20. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: capture more wind with longer rotors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capture more wind with longer rotors New Material Tests Show Biaxial Laminate Creep Is Important for Large Wind-Turbine Blades On April 1, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events,...

  2. Comparative life-cycle energy payback analysis of multi-junction a-SiGe and nanocrystalline/a-Si modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the publicity of nanotechnologies in high tech industries including the photovoltaic sector, their life-cycle energy use and related environmental impacts are understood only to a limited degree as their production is mostly immature. We investigated the life-cycle energy implications of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV designs using a nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) bottom layer in the context of a comparative, prospective life-cycle analysis framework. Three R and D options using nc-Si bottom layer were evaluated and compared to the current triple-junction a-Si design, i.e., a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe. The life-cycle energy demand to deposit nc-Si was estimated from parametric analyses of film thickness, deposition rate, precursor gas usage, and power for generating gas plasma. We found that extended deposition time and increased gas usages associated to the relatively high thickness of nc-Si lead to a larger primary energy demand for the nc-Si bottom layer designs, than the current triple-junction a-Si. Assuming an 8% conversion efficiency, the energy payback time of those R and D designs will be 0.7-0.9 years, close to that of currently commercial triple-junction a-Si design, 0.8 years. Future scenario analyses show that if nc-Si film is deposited at a higher rate (i.e., 2-3 nm/s), and at the same time the conversion efficiency reaches 10%, the energy-payback time could drop by 30%.

  3. PURDUE EXTENSION Estimating Breakeven Sales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , packaging, and energy costs (fuel, electricity, natural gas) associated with #12;2 Purdue Extension, based on price and sales forecasts? · How low must fixed costs be to break even? · How sensitive and special offers) by the number of units you expect to sell. If you have created a sales forecast as part

  4. Moderate threat causes longer lasting disruption to processing in anxious individuals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Sonia

    Moderate threat causes longer lasting disruption to processing in anxious individuals Sophie: Forster S, Castle E, Nunez-elizalde AO and Bishop SJ(2014) Moderate threat causes longer lasting in anxiety1 Moderate threat causes longer lasting disruption to processing2 in anxious individuals.3 Sophie

  5. Duke Health Briefs: Positive Outlook Linked to Longer Life in Heart Patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, David

    Duke Health Briefs: Positive Outlook Linked to Longer Life in Heart Patients keywords : CardiologyMinute. Here's some health advice to take to heart: if you want to live longer, stay happy. A recent Duke study of more than 800 heart patients found that those who reported experiencing more positive emotions

  6. Living Longer on Less THe neW economic (in)securiTy of seniors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snider, Barry B.

    Living Longer on Less THe neW economic (in)securiTy of seniors INSTITUTE ON ASSETS & SOCIAL POLICY to measuring economic security applied in this report builds on previous work on middle class economic security for Social Policy and Manage- ment at Brandeis University, is dedicated to the economic well-being and social

  7. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  8. Residential GSHPs: Efficiency With Short Payback Periods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooperman, Alissa; Dieckmann, John; Brodrick, James

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for residential application as an alternative to conventional HVAC systems. A listing of current space heating energy sources are presented which are then followed by a technology overview as advances have made GSHPs more efficient. The article concludes with potential energy savings offered by GSHPs and a brief market overview.

  9. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-Lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Burns, Douglas Edward

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone’s back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

  10. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

  11. Brain necrosis after fractionated radiation therapy: Is the halftime for repair longer than we thought?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, Edward T. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To derive a radiobiological model that enables the estimation of brain necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy rates for a variety of fractionation schemes, and to compare repair effects between brain and spinal cord. Methods: Sigmoidal dose response relationships for brain radiation necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy are derived from clinical data using nonlinear regression. Three different repair models are considered and the repair halftimes are included as regression parameters. Results: For radiation necrosis, a repair halftime of 38.1 (range 6.9-76) h is found with monoexponential repair, while for spinal cord myelopathy, a repair halftime of 4.1 (range 0-8) h is found. The best-fit alpha beta ratio is 0.96 (range 0.24-1.73)Conclusions: A radiobiological model that includes repair corrections can describe the clinical data for a variety of fraction sizes, fractionation schedules, and total doses. Modeling suggests a relatively long repair halftime for brain necrosis. This study suggests that the repair halftime for late radiation effects in the brain may be longer than is currently thought. If confirmed in future studies, this may lead to a re-evaluation of radiation fractionation schedules for some CNS diseases, particularly for those diseases where fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is used.

  12. THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF CAFFEINE Everything you need to know to think faster, exercise harder, and live longer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockery, Shawn

    to let you know it's time to turn off Conan and recharge your batteries. Adenosine accomplishes, and live longer By Lauren Russell Griffin, Photo Illustrations by Eddie Guy By now you'd think scientists

  13. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

  14. Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trap location, service, manufacturer, model, steam pressures, pipe size, type of connect ion, associated valves, strainer, and insulation. The condition in which each trap was found in the plant was reported and summarized as in Table 1. Other... leaks and any unsafe situations were also noted. Of the 5,000 surveyed traps, approximately 20% had failed open or were in another failure mode where live steam was leaking, 5% were found plugged, and 10% were found not losing steam but needing...

  15. ENERGY PAYBACK OPTIMIZATION OF THERMOELECTRIC POWER GENERATOR SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficiency, have had limited applications such as in wrist watch [1], vehicle exhaust [2], extraterrestrial ship [3] and autonomous sensors on the body [4]. In rare case, it is also observed for electronics

  16. Carbon and energy payback of variable renewable generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomson, Rachel Camilla

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The continued drive to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in order to mitigate climate change has led to an increase in demand for low-carbon energy sources, and the development of new technologies to harness the ...

  17. Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    actual price you pay per gallon of oil, kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity, gallon of propane, or therm (or per one hundred cubic feet ccf) of natural gas by the Btu content per...

  18. Community Wind Handbook/Calculate Simple Payback | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin UrbanCityCoatedCommunity Electric Coop JumpProject | Open

  19. PV modules, with a life measured in decades, will typically be in place longer than the outdoor unit of a HVAC system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    PV modules, with a life measured in decades, will typically be in place longer than the outdoor and repaired promptly. PV systems suffer gradual degradation that is often not monitored, and the PV array may with copper conductors. On the other hand, PV systems have numerous modules (tens to thousands) and mounting

  20. Technical Note: Survivor treatment selection bias and all that The article about Oscar winners living longer mentioned lead time bias and sur-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Nancy

    living longer mentioned lead time bias and sur- vivor treatment selection bias. Both of these are usually some more. Here is a list, with abbreviated definitions. lead time bias (also called length/time bias this 'lead time' from the survival times of the screened patients. Redelmeier and Singh describe

  1. Vehicle engine use when no longer in transit; exceptions -Vehicle idling gets zero miles per gallon; unnecessary idling wastes fuel and pollutes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Robert

    Vehicle engine use when no longer in transit; exceptions - Vehicle idling gets zero miles per, no University vehicle or piece of equipment is to be idled in a non-emergency situation. The operator of the vehicle/equipment is to turn-off the unit and the keys are to be removed from the ignition. EXEMPTIONS

  2. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  3. A BreakEven Formulation for Evaluating Branch Predictor Energy Efficiency #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Co, Michele

    demonstrated that a better branch pre­ dictor can increase the energy­efficiency of the system, even if the new a simple, effective metric for eval­ uating the tradeoff between processor energy­efficiency and branch and an energy­efficiency target, we are able to evaluate the energy­efficiency of several existing branch

  4. Results of 2001 Groundwater Sampling in Support of Conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the Vicinity of the INTEC at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meachum, Teresa Ray

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of sampling five groundwater monitoring wells in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in 2001. Information on general sampling practices, quality assurance practices, parameter concentrations, representativeness of sampling results, and cumulative cancer risk are presented. The information is provided to support a conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  5. Results of 2001 Groundwater Sampling in Support of Conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the Vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meachum, T.R.

    2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of sampling five groundwater monitoring wells in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in 2001. Information on general sampling practices, quality assurance practices, parameter concentrations, representativeness of sampling results, and cumulative cancer risk are presented. The information is provided to support a conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  6. Children's Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mapping of the Human Brain. NeuroImage, Sendai, Japan.2005). Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: areso- nance imaging of brain development in premature and

  7. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    needed. In all three cases, today's batteries simply do not hold enough charge. Replacing lithium with other metals with multiple charges could greatly increase battery capacity....

  8. Children's Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poggi Davis 1,2 *, Claudia Buss 1 , L. Tugan Muftuler 3,4 ,2011. Citation: Davis EP, Buss C, Muftuler LT, Head K, HassoCopyright © 2011 Davis, Buss, Muftuler, Head, Hasso, Wing,

  9. Children's Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poggi Davis 1,2 *, Claudia Buss 1 , L. Tugan Muftuler 3,4 ,2011. Citation: Davis EP, Buss C, Muftuler LT, Head K, HassoCopyright © 2011 Davis, Buss, Muftuler, Head, Hasso, Wing,

  10. Sleepless in Seattle No Longer Joshua Reich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    ­ a significant waste of both energy and money. Indeed, potential savings can amount to millions of dollars per have been proposed, few have been evaluated via real deployments. We have built and deployed a light lightweight approach effected significant energy savings by allowing user machines to sleep (most sleeping

  11. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomassUniversityNuclear Security

  12. QUANTIFYING RESIDENTIAL PV ECONOMICS IN THE US PAYBACK vs. CASH FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    Plains, NY, in the greater New York City metro area. Without any incentives such a system should cost ENERGY VALUE Richard Perez ASRC, The University at Albany 251 Fuller Road Albany, NY 12203 perez parallel, the paper addresses another aspect of economic feasibility: the value of energy produced

  13. Payback Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pump Retrofits Using eQuest Modeling Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahlers, Drake

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been much research and analysis done on the performance and potential energy savings related to installing a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. Much of this research has been dedicated to the new construction industry, and focused on a...

  14. Energy Conservation Recommendations, Implementation Costs, and Projected Paybacks for Georgia's Targeted Schools and Hospitals Conservation Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M. L.; Moore, D. M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past year the Georgia Tech Research Institute performed technical assistance studies on over 100 school and hospital buildings under a program funded by the Governor's Office of Energy Resources. This program is known as the Targeted...

  15. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Baseline Efficient Air Conditioners . . . . . . 28 AverageEfficient Air Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Btu/h Commercial Air Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  16. Autonomic Materials for Smarter, Safer, Longer-Lasting Batteries (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael (Director, Center for Electrical Energy Storage); CEES Staff

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    'Autonomic Materials for Smarter, Safer, Longer-Lasting Batteries' was submitted by the Center for Electrical Energy Storage (CEES) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CEES, an EFRC directed by Michael Thackery at Argonne National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from three institutions: ANL (lead), Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Electrical Energy Storage is 'to acquire a fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena controlling electrochemical processes that will enable dramatic improvements in the properties and performance of energy storage devices, notable Li ion batteries.' Research topics are: electrical energy storage, batteries, battery electrodes, electrolytes, adaptive materials, interfacial characterization, matter by design; novel materials synthesis, charge transport, and defect tolerant materials.

  17. LED Light Fixture Project FC1 Director's Conference Room: Life Cycle Cost and Break-even Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    . A light-emitting diode (LED) is a solid-state lighting source that switches on instantly, is readily

  18. A Break-Even Formulation for Evaluating Branch Predictor Energy Michele Co, Dee A.B. Weikle, and Kevin Skadron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Co, Michele

    demonstrated that a better branch pre- dictor can increase the energy-efficiency of the system, even if the new a simple, effective metric for eval- uating the tradeoff between processor energy-efficiency and branch and an energy-efficiency target, we are able to evaluate the energy-efficiency of several existing branch

  19. Break-Even Investment in a Wind Energy Conversion System for an Irrigated Farm on the Texas High Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, D. C.; Lacewell, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of using a wind energy system for irrigation. The value of wind energy was estimated on both a static basis (where the annual value of wind power was assumed to be constant over the life...

  20. Break-Even Investment in a Wind Energy Conversion System for an Irrigated Farm on the Texas High Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, D. C.; Lacewell, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of using a wind energy system for irrigation. The value of wind energy was estimated on both a static basis (where the annual value of wind power was assumed to be constant over the life...

  1. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials FindAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More

  2. Nissan: Automaker improves energy performance 7.2% with a four-month payback using Superior Energy Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletter Newsletter BetterEnergyDepartment of USA,

  3. Nissan: Automaker improves energy performance 7.2% with a four-month payback using Superior Energy Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletter Newsletter BetterEnergyDepartment of

  4. MAUI: Making Smartphones Last Longer with Code Offload Eduardo Cuervo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    the tremendous size of the mobile handset market, solving the energy impediment has quickly become the mobile-grained energy-aware offload of mobile code to the infrastructure. Previous approaches to these problems either the best of both worlds: it supports fine-grained code offload to maximize energy savings with minimal

  5. Integrated Design: Because Nothing Lasts Longer Than Bad Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westbrook, P.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    amount of exhaust and subsequent make up air . . . – 650,000 cfm (307 m3/sec) = 2 Macy’s Kermit balloons per second • Combined with the need to recirculate a large volume of air through the filters for cleanliness . . . – 4,400,000 cfm (2077 m3/sec...

  6. Integrated Design: Because Nothing Lasts Longer Than Bad Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westbrook, P.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption meant that I would need a smaller on-site energy generation system • When solar photovoltaic (PV) prices dropped in 2012 I installed a system • I only needed a 3.3kW array (expanded in 2014 to 3.75kW) – Produces more electricity than I need for 3... Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Technology vs Fuel Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy are technologies Fossil Fuels are fuel $ Technology generally improves in performance and falls in price over time. Extraction becomes more difficult...

  7. Stronger and (now) Longer Synthetic Collagen Ronald T. Raines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    -type (PPII) helix (which is left-handed), are wound around a common axis to form a triple helix (which is right-handed) (Figure 1A). The packing of this coiled-coil structure requires that every third residue-hydroxyproline (Hyp). In human type I collagen, which is the most abundant form, 28% of the Xaa residues are Pro

  8. Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let usNucleartearingLongTerm

  9. NDMV - Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Permit Application | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to:MuskingumMyers-4Information NDMV -

  10. Effect of lower feedstock prices on economics of MTBE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, F.; Hamid, S.H.; Ali, M.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic evaluation of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) complex was carried out starting from n-butane and by captive production of methanol from natural gas. The processing steps consist of isomerization of n-butane to isobutane, dehydrogenation of isobutane to make isobutene, and finally, the reaction of isobutene with methanol to produce MTBE. Two different plant sizes were considered, and the effect of 30% lower feedback prices on profitability was studied. It was found that the raw materials cost is a dominant component, composing about 55% of the total production cost. An internal rate of return of 19% could be realized for 500,000 tons per annum MTBE complex based on economic data in mid-1993. The payback period estimated at this capacity was 3.8 years, and the break-even capacity was 36.6%.

  11. Demonstration project in Energy Management Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Management Plan of the campuses developed under this project showed that there were a number of low-cost Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECO's) with a payback of under one year, (Short term Opportunities, STO). There were also other ECO's identified that had paybacks of more than one year. By combining these ECO's into one contract with the ESCO and paying for the costs of the ECO's by the savings resulting in the reduced energy bills, the University enhanced it's ability to carry out its mission of providing higher educational opportunities without spending money on non-educational activities. The low cost projects subsidize'' or provide leverage for the capital intensive, longer payback projects, to make an overall package that lends itself to innovative financing. JC Smith's contract also guarantees that the annual energy levels will not be increased.

  12. Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, 14:179-190, 2006 Energy Pay-Back and Life Cycle CO2 Emissions of the BOS in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Electricity from the PV modules is used to power the 10-MWac-el water pump load at the Springerville coal-fired

  13. Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

  14. Mixing Appropriations and Private Financing to Meet Federal Energy Management Goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compares several strategies for mixing appropriations and private financing in a typical federal agency that has identified $100 million in required energy conservation measures (ECMs) at its facilities. The analysis shows that in order to maximize savings and minimize overall life-cycle cost, the best strategy for the agency is to use private financing to fund as many of the ECMs as possible within the statutory maximum 25-year project term, beginning with the ECMs with the shortest paybacks. Available appropriations should either be applied to a privately financed project as a one-time payment from savings (i.e., as a buydown ) or used to directly fund longer-payback ECMs that cannot be included in the privately financed project.

  15. Imagination Made Tangible Aspiring designers at NJSOA are no longer limited to two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieber, Michael

    and heavy paper, 3D printers that build objects from layers of plaster, and a CNC Router that can mill of their digital work. Above, Garber displays a detailed model made with the 3D printer. the challenge: Establish the FABLAB's laser cutter, CNC Router and 3D printer to build a model of Atlantic City circa 1952

  16. 1982 Annual Energy Review. [1960 to 1982; in some cases for a longer period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total energy consumption in the United States equaled 70.9 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1982, a decline of 4.1% compared to 1981. Depressed economic activity was a major factor in reducing total energy demand. However, conservation also played a role as energy consumption per dollar of GNP continued to fall. Most of the decline in energy use involved petroleum and natural gas. Reduced petroleum demand translated into a 21.7% reduction in net petroleum imports. Natural gas demand and production fell, prompted by reduced economic activity and a substantial increase in prices. Crude oil prices fell for the first time in more than a decade. Weakened market conditions adversely affected the rate of domestic oil and gas exploration and development activities. Nonetheless, domestic crude oil production rose 1.2%. International activities were highlighted by a decline in crude oil production, especially by members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a decrease in crude oil prices, and a substantial increase in electricity production by nuclear-powered utility plants in non-Communist countries. Energy production in the United States in 1982 remained essentially unchanged from that of 1981, as small gains in hydroelectric power and nuclear power production were offset by losses in natural gas production. For the third straight year, energy consumption in the United States declined. Whereas declines in 1980 and 1981 resulted primarily from consumer response to higher prices and conservation, the 1982 decline reflected primarily an economic slowdown, especially in industry. Annual per capita consumption fell to 306 million Btu, the lowest level since 1967. Changes in energy prices in 1982 were mixed. Whereas most petroleum prices declined, prices of natural gas, coal, and electricity rose.

  17. Saccadic suppression during reading activity : is the spill-over effect weaker after a longer saccade? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yatabe, Kiyomi

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it has generally thought that the duration of saccades should be subtracted from the reading time in eye movement research, Irwin (1998) has demonstrated that lexical processing such as word recognition is not ...

  18. www.compoundingworld.com June 2012 | compounding world 45 Biodegradability no longer dominates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    the bioplastics marketplace. Chris Smith takes a look at the changing face of the bio-based polymers industry for trade association European Bioplastics predicted global bioplastics production capacity will reach 1 a consid- erable change in the structure of the bioplastics industry, with traditional biodegradable

  19. Research Reports Humorous Coping and Serious Reappraisal: Short-Term and Longer-Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, James J.

    with negative experiences (Kuiper, Martin, & Olinger, 1993; Kuiper, McKenzie, & Belanger, 1995). Furthermore

  20. 22 APPLIED NEUROLOGY April 2006 www.appneurology.com and to have a much longer half-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Riyi

    than ROS.13 Thus, acrolein may be a key factor in perpetuat- ing oxidative stress, and it may represent an effective target for therapeutic treatments. This review presents evidence that acrolein toxicity occurs present preliminary data suggesting that an acrolein-trapping agent may significantly enhance viability

  1. ASPIRING DESIGNERS ARE NO LONGER LIMITED to two-dimensional expressions of their ideas on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieber, Michael

    for acrylic and heavy paper, 3-D printers that build objects from layers of plaster, and a CNC router that can, the FABLAB provides a range of hardware that is computer numerically controlled (CNC) -- laser cutters, the machines translate students' concepts into three- dimensional prototypes or models. "Our CNC tools have

  2. High Speed Pumps Are No Longer Limited to Low Flow Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, P. Y.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impellers of the Francis design and full emission volutes and vaned diffusers. In addition to the advantages of the previous low flow design, energy efficient operation in various boiler feed water, paper shower, and hydrocarbon and chemical services has...

  3. adiposity offaster longer-distanced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    separated by a coiled 1 km optical fiber, with a total loss of 8.9 dB (87%). A. J. Bennet; D. A. Evans; D. J. Saunders; C. Branciard; E. G. Cavalcanti; H. M. Wiseman; G. J....

  4. High Speed Pumps Are No Longer Limited to Low Flow Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, P. Y.

    Historically, the high-speed centrifugal pump was developed prior to World War II for rocket engine fuel pump applications for its advantages of light weight, compactness and dry running capability. Industrial derivatives were introduced in the 60’s...

  5. allowing a longer period of infection within an individual host and by facilitating re-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    T cells and neutralizing antibodies. It augments viral load and thus accelerates the destruc- tion of CD4 cells. There is a highly dynamic balance of power between HIV and the immune system, which is slowly, dis- cussing genetic differences among hosts in theirimmuneresponsesandimmunemem- ory profiles

  6. Destroy thIs repon when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Laboratory foe. AOORESS (City, Stlltt', lind liP Cod~) 7b. ADDRESS (CIty, 511ltt'. lind lIP Cod~) PO Box 631.NTlFICATlQN NUM8ER ORGANIZATION Of .ppiic.b/~) US Army Corps of Engineers DAEN-CW 8e. ADDRESS (CIty, SIIItt'. lind Macrophyte Growth and Sediment Nutrient Availability 12. PERSONAL AUTtiOR(S) Barko, John w.; Smart, R

  7. Eos,Vol. 84, No. 14, 8 April 2003 Oceanography may no longer be only an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    of its thick atmosphere,but cooled by the"nuclear winter"anti-greenhouse blocking effect of the organic

  8. ARCHIVED MATERIAL This page is no longer being reviewed/updated.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    specific measures for cases of non-compliance, such as the Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (NWFZ) treaties, such as with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the U.N. is the depository of the treaty. In the Millennium Declaration. Article 12 in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) indicates procedures to be followed in case of non

  9. Making Routers Last Longer with ViAggre Hitesh Ballani, Paul Francis, Tuan Cao and Jia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    Problem Space [MapEncap'96] [GSE, ID'97] [Atoms, '04] [CRIO, ICNP'06] [LISP, ID'07] [SIRA, ID'07] [TRRP;Routing Scalability Problem Space [MapEncap'96] [GSE, ID'97] [Atoms, '04] [CRIO, ICNP'06] [LISP, ID'07] [GSE, ID'97] [Atoms, '04] [CRIO, ICNP'06] [LISP, ID'07] [SIRA, ID'07] [TRRP, '07] [APT, ID'07] [Six

  10. Cheminformatics at Scale: Bigger, Longer, and Uncut Imran S. Haque1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    , Virginia, USA. Copyright 2009 ACM 978-1-60558-452-2/09/03 ...$5.00. competition between the need to open up

  11. Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximatelyBoostingandDOEBreaking Up (Hydrogen)

  12. U.S. No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved: 5-13-14 FEDERALAmericaAdministrationLastNATIONAL NUCLEAR For

  13. Fact #656: January 3, 2011 Consumers Hold onto Vehicles Longer | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of EnergyEnergyWesternof Energy 6: January

  14. Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJune 17,Agenda AgendaDepartmentOregonApril 8, 2014Bobby

  15. Design and Evaluation of a High Temperature Burner Duct Recuperator System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, W. P.; DeBellis, C. L.; Kneidel, K.

    savings of 41% for an unrecuperated furnace. A simple payback analysis indicated acceptable payback for installation in unrecuperated furnaces but unacceptable payback for recuperated furnaces at today's low gas prices."...

  16. The economics of photovoltaics in the commercial, institutional and industrical sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Alan J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the application of a model which computes system break-even capital costs, array break-even capital costs and profits from photovoltaic investments in the industrial, commercial and institutional ...

  17. An Analysis of the Retail and Lifecycle Cost of Battery-Powered Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the retail cost and break-even gasoline price, becauseof the retail cost and the break-even gasoline price, foreven gasoline prices at least double, and initial retail

  18. 11 September 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to estimate fuel cost savings, capital investment, and payback. Checklists for assessing opportunities

  19. Evolution of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HVAC retrofits. In contrast, median payback time for lighting only Breakdown of industry revenues by market

  20. Clean Cities Offers Fleets New Tool to Evaluate Benefits of Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The AFLEET Tool allows fleets to calculate payback periods and emissions benefits of alternative fuel vehicles.

  1. Dimethyl ether fuel proposed as an alternative to LNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Aoki, Ichizo [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    To cope with the emerging energy demand in Asia, alternative fuels to LNG must be considered. Alternative measures, which convert the natural gas to liquid fuel, include the Fischer-Tropsch conversion, methanol synthesis, and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis. Comparisons are evaluated based on both transportation cost and feed-gas cost. The analysis will show that DME, one alternative to LNG as transportation fuel, will be more economical for longer distances between the natural-gas source and the consumer. LNG requires a costly tanker and receiving terminal. The break-even distance will be around 5,000--7,000 km and vary depending on the transported volume. There will be risk, however, since there has never been a DME plant the size of an LNG-equivalent plant [6 million metric tons/year (mty)].

  2. A Time-Variant Probabilistic Model for Predicting the Longer-Term Performance of GFRP Reinforcing Bars Embedded in Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeongjoo

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    to changes in the stress transfer efficiency between fibers and resin matrix (Abbasi and Hogg, 2005). As most mechanical properties of GFRP are governed by the fibers, if the fibers are not deteriorated, durability can be maintained (Uomoto 2001...

  3. The nature of biodiversity has long been a central focus in biology. This may not seem the case any longer,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    restricted set of organisms--the house mouse (Mus musculus), the fruit fly (Drosophila spp.), the nematode of diversity is, in a sense, provided by"adaptation"to an "ecological niche." Adaptation results from the force of selection; and the notion of the ecological niche,to which the organism adapts,remains obscure and poorly

  4. Finding a Humana Physician Printed Physician Directories are no longer available. If you are enrolling in the HMO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " 4. The search default is Employer Group Plan. Leave this as is and enter the zip code of the address "Go." 6. Under the "Search by Address" section you can select a distance surrounding your location to search from, or by state and county. Select the method for your search and click "Go." Please check box

  5. Improving performance and rotordynamic characteristics of injection compressors via much longer balance-piston and division-wall seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues Rodrigues, Margarita

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    [F/L] k Cross-coupled Stiffness [F/L] K eff Effective Stiffness [F/L] L Seal Length [L] N Rpm [1/T] P Pressure [F/L 2 ] R Gas Constant [FL/(MT)] T Temperature [?] X,Y Displacement Directions [L] ?? YX..., Velocities [L/T] m& Mass Flow Rate [M/T] ? Gamma Factor [-] ? Absolute Viscosity [F.T/L 2 ] ? Density of Gas [M/L 3 ] ? Excitation Frequency [1/T] ? Running Speed [1/T] critical ? Critical Speed [1/T] Contractions...

  6. SMALL, ABOUT 5/S" OR SHORTER MEDIUM TO LARGE, LONGER THAN 5/S INCH IPRONOTUM WITH PRONOTUIII ABSENT,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NEARLY ALL OF ABDOMEN PRONOTUM OF ABDOMEN OR EXTENDING ORIENTAL COCKROACH WOOD ROACH ABOUT 1/4 INCH WIDE CON~CUOUS BROWN-BANDED COCKROACH (s..IIt1 .","cfilium) I I iWOOD ROACH PRONOTUM SOLI) DARK COLOR

  7. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity of faster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    depend upon the sample percentile of the BMI or body1 shows that the 90 th percentile of BMI declines morevelocity than lower BMI percentiles, a phenomenon also

  8. longer be a region of uncertainty near the centre of the cable. Further improvements are still possible. Cooling a photo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    faces. Measurements under illumination were done at 25°C with an AM 1 solar simulator calibrated at l-p+ BIFACIAL B.S.F. SOLAR CELLS BY ION IMPLANTATION Indexing terms: Doping, Solar cells, Ion implantation High-low junctions of n+ -p-p+ bifacial back surface field solar cells have been fabricated by B 1 I + implantation

  9. Education no longer deferred: the possibilities of educating urban african american males in a single gender school.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Marlon C.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the emerging school culture of Excel Academy for Boys [Pseudonym] located in the Southwestern region of the United States, and how it contributes to the social and academic development of urban African...

  10. 2 MARCH 2007 VOL 315 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org1224 he world may no longer face a serious

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    (4). India and Pakistan, for instance, have previously tested nuclear weapons and are now thought of global nuclear warfare, but regional conflicts continue. Within this milieu, acquiring nuclear weapons). Eight nations are known to have nuclear weapons. In addition, North Korea may have a small, but growing

  11. Color No Longer A Sign of Bondage: Race, Identity and the First Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry Regiment (1862-1865)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ringquist, John Paul

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    of Fremont’s Proclamation, Lincoln modified it, but not before large numbers of Missouri slaves flooded the Union lines, and crossed into Kansas. Lane, who was campaigning in Missouri as part of Fremont’s forces, eagerly distributed copies of Fremont... arguments of black timidity and cowardice in the face of white soldiers, as well as the racist demon of black savagery and danger of bloody slave uprisings. John Brown’s ghost haunted Americans on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line, and the possibility...

  12. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  13. The feasibility of applying geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunis, B.C.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Lienau, P.J. (Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center); Spencer, F.J. (International Management Services (United States)); Nitschke, G.F. (Nitschke (George F.) (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study concludes that direct use technologies, especially desalinated water production, can contribute significantly to the value added process and the overall economic viability in developing a geopressured resource. Although agriculture and aquaculture applications are marginal projects when they are the only use of a geopressured well, the small margin of profitability can contribute to improving the overall economics of the direct use development. The added complexity from a technical and management aspect may add to the overall risk and unpredictability of the project. Six combination of direct uses received economic evaluation that resulted in 15% discounted payback periods ranging from 4 to over 10 years. Many other combinations are possible depending on the resource and market variables. Selection of appropriate technologies and sizes of applications will be established by the developer that engages in geopressured resource utilization. Currently, many areas of the country where geopressured resources are located also have surplus electrical capacity and generation, thus power utilities have been selling power for less than 2 cents per kWH, well below a reasonable breakeven value for geopressured produced electricity. However, when the energy demand of the integrated geopressured facility is large enough to install power generation equipment, operating expenses can be reduced by not paying the 10 to 12 cents per kWH utility rate. The study includes an analysis of a geothermal turbine unit installed with a desalination and an agriculture/aquaculture facility, taking advantage of the cascading energy values. Results suggest that this scenario becomes profitable only where the market price for electricity exceeds five cents per kWH.

  14. Impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Incorporated under the Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Dixon, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system (RCS) recently installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Inc. (Vitamilk) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The RCS installation at Vitamilk uses microcomputer- based controls to automate refrigeration equipment previously controlled manually. This impact evaluation assessed how much electricity is being saved at Vitamilk as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. On a unit savings basis, this project will save 9.7 kWh/tonne (8-8 kWh/ton) of milk and ice cream produced, based on the product mix for June 1992 through May 1993, representing a 28% reduction in energy consumption. The project was installed in 1992 for a total cost of $129,330, and Vitamilk received payment of $62,974 from Bonneville in 1993 for the acquisition of energy savings. The real levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville is 8.5 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars) over the project`s assumed 15-year life, and the real levelized cost to the region is 17.9 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars), not including transmission and distribution effects. Based on the expected project installation costs and energy savings benefits, the RCS would not have been implemented by Vitamilk without the E$P acquisition payment. The expected acquisition payment reduced the estimated payback period from 7.0 to 2.8 years. Although Vitamilk would generally require an energy conservation project to have a payback period of two years or less, the slightly longer payback period was accepted in this case.

  15. Waste to Energy and Absorption Chiller: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolpert, J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All measured performance characteristics corresponded well to manufacturer's specifications or were within the expected range for this type of incinerator. The simplified economic analysis showed a payback of period 4.5 years. An optimized payback...

  16. SFU Library Annual Report 2008-09 1 SFU Library Annual Report 2008-09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and through a year-end infusion of one-time funding, leaving us at a breakeven point at yearend. Part

  17. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the gasoline-equivalent fuel retail price, excluding exciseprice is the full retail price of gasoline, including allon the retail cost and break-even gasoline price, because

  18. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and payback. bawebinardentzandconlin111814.pdf More Documents & Publications Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Building America...

  19. Financial Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first step in financing a street lighting retrofit is a detailed financial analysis. Because street lighting systems are designed to last ten or twenty years, or even longer, all aspects of first costs, ongoing expenses, and long-term savings are important. While a preliminary or first-level analysis can be used to determine such things as simple payback, rate of return, and cost of light, the results may neglect a number of important economic considerations, such as the time value of money, additional savings and expenses and their relative timing, and future energy price escalations. Hence a first-level analysis does not typically provide the end user with sufficient details to make a fully informed decision. For this reason, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) recommends a full life cycle cost/benefit analysis (LCCBA).

  20. Evaluating state markets for residential wind systems: Results from an economic and policy analysis tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market for small wind systems in the United States, often defined as systems less than or equal to 100 kW that produce power on the customer side of the meter, is small but growing steadily. The installed capacity of domestic small wind systems in 2002 was reportedly 15-18 MW, though the market is estimated to be growing by as much as 40 percent annually (AWEA, 2002). This growth is driven in part by recent technology advancements and cost improvements and, perhaps more importantly, by favorable policy incentives targeted at small wind systems that are offered in several states. Currently, over half of all states have incentive policies for which residential small wind installations are eligible. These incentives range from low-interest loan programs and various forms of tax advantages to cash rebates that cover as much as 60 percent of the total system cost for turbines 10 kW or smaller installed in residential applications. Most of these incentives were developed to support a ran ge of emerging renewable technologies (most notably photovoltaic systems), and were therefore not specifically designed with small wind systems in mind. As such, the question remains as to which incentive types provide the greatest benefit to small wind systems, and how states might appropriately set the level and type of incentives in the future. Furthermore, given differences in incentive types and levels across states, as well as variations in retail electricity rates and other relevant factors, it is not immediately obvious which states offer the most promising markets for small wind turbine manufacturers and installers, as well as potential residential system owners. This paper presents results from a Berkeley Lab analysis of the impact of existing and proposed state and federal incentives on the economics of grid-connected, residential small wind systems. Berkeley Lab has designed the Small Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT) to compare system economics under current incentive structures a cross all 50 states. SWAT reports three metrics to characterize residential wind economics in each state and wind resource class: (1) Break-Even Turnkey Cost (BTC): The BTC is defined as the aggregate installed system cost that would balance total customer payments and revenue over the life of the system, allowing the customer to ''break-even'' while earning a specified rate of return on the small wind ''investment.'' (2) Simple Payback (SP): The SP is the number of years it takes a customer to recoup a cash payment for a wind system and all associated costs, assuming zero discount on future revenue and payments (i.e., ignoring the time value of money). (3) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE): The LCOE is the levelized cost of generating a kWh of electricity over the lifetime of the system, and is calculated assuming a cash purchase for the small wind system and a 5.5 percent real discount rate. This paper presents SWAT results for a 10 kW wind turbine and turbine power production is based on a Bergey Excel system. These results are not directly applicable to turbines with different power curves and rated outputs, especially given the fact that many state incentives are set as a fixed dollar amount, and the dollar per Watt amount will vary based on the total rated turbine capacity.

  1. U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slide 1 U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy Wally Tyner #12;Slide 2 Breakeven Corn and Crude Prices with Ethanol Priced on Energyand PremiumBases plus Ethanol Subsidy 0.00 10.00 20.00 30 #12;Slide 3 Breakeven Corn and Crude Prices with Ethanol Priced on Energyand PremiumBases plus

  2. Mapping molecular flexibility of spin labeled proteins on the nanosecond and longer time scales via CW lineshape analysis and osmolyte-perturbation EPR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López, Carlos Javier

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unfolded proteins and protein folding studied by NMR. Chem.resonance as a probe for protein folding/unfolding of the C-and implications for protein folding. Nat. Struc. Biol. 5:

  3. "This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible."

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    been suggested to enhance large interconnected power systems dynamic performance. Because of the nature Transformation (LFT). 1. INTRODUCTION The general configuration of a modern power system is that power sources-input wide area power system stabilizer using gain scheduling method," IEEE Power Engineering Society General

  4. The file below has been archived for historical reference purposes only. The content and links are no longer maintained and may be outdated. See the OER Public Archive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Department of Commerce Department of State Agency AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1260 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 15 CFR Part 14 DEPARTMENT, Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Commerce, Department

  5. The file below has been archived for historical reference purposes only. The content and links are no longer maintained and may be outdated. See the OER Public Archive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    , including time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining will be found in the Federal agency's grant regulations or in the terms and conditions of the award. You may. Self-explanatory. Enter the Employer Identification Number (EIN) assigned by the U.S. Internal Revenue

  6. Making the Case For Safe Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel For Extended Periods of Time: Combining Near-Term Experiments and Analyses with Longer-Term Confirmatory Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Ken B.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for extended storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing globally as disposition schedules for used fuel are pushed further into the future. This is creating a situation where dry storage of used fuel may need to be extended beyond normal regulatory licensing periods. While it is generally accepted that used fuel in dry storage will remain in a safe condition, there is little data that demonstrate used fuel performance in dry storage environments for long periods of time. This is especially true for high burnup used fuel.

  7. 1. Are you aware of manure sampling and testing procedures? 2. Do you store livestock waste for longer than 90 days on your property?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    *Professor and Extension Soils Specialist; Research Scientist, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station; Extension Associate-Water Quality, The Texas A&M University System. Texas Agricultural Extension Service and wastewater) should be stored in an environmentally sound manner until they can be applied to land

  8. This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible p 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and industrial robots. However, this method requires the joint force/torque and position measurements prototypes and industrial robots [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14

  9. "This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible."

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    components on the severity of power quality distur- bances. The effects of disturbances on the system components, such as transformers, distribution lines and load models, are analyzed. It is shown that when, J. Blevins, K. Koellner, K. Kittredge, M. Chandler, "The propagation of disturbances in power

  10. Lesson Learned from Technical and Economic Performance Assessment and Benefit Evaluation of CHP-FCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Brooks, Kriston P.; Srivastava, Viraj; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent efforts and interest in combined heat and power (CHP) have increased with the momentum provided by the federal government support for penetration of CHP systems. Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and utilize the heat normally wasted in power generation for useful heating or cooling with lower emissions compared to alternative sources. A recent study investigated the utilization of CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50KWe in various commercial building types and geographic locations. Electricity, heating, and water heating demands were obtained from simulation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial reference building models for various building types. Utility rates, cost of equipment, and system efficiency were used to examine economic payback in different scenarios. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, CHP-FCSs are more expensive than alternative technologies, and the high capital cost of the CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than is typically acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, the installation of these units as on-site power generators also provide several other benefits that make them attractive to building owners and operators. The business case for CHP-FCSs can be made more financially attractive through the provision of government incentives and when installed to support strategic infrastructure, such as military installations or data centers. The results presented in this paper intend to provide policy makers with information to define more customized incentives and tax credits based on a sample of building types and geographic locations in order to attract more business investment in this new technology.

  11. Financing an EnergySmart School

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to improve the energy performance of existing facilities. An Energy Services Company (ESCO) and the school district contractually agree to a set payback period and annual...

  12. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have lower operational costs per kWh produced. There is alsoper kWh of energy, the energy payback time (EPBT), the cost

  13. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2012: Executive Summary Portuguese version NONE Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio...

  14. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Star Residential Water Heaters: Final criteria analysis.gas furnaces and water heaters in US new constructioncondensing furnace and water heater and the pay-back period

  15. advanced technology solar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UMore Park Overview 4 Solar Optimization 7 Passive Solar 8 Solar Technologies 10 District Solar Energy 13 Optimal Solar Layout 14 Payback & State Incentives 15 UMore Park...

  16. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    complete an in-depth energy audit and analysis to baselineof measures identified in the energy audit with a payback ofon energy management, energy audits and analysis, routines

  17. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SolFocus Concentrating Photovoltaics 6.1 Metrics DevelopmentConcentrator Solar Photovoltaics . . Analysis Using Carnegieand E. Alsema, “Photovoltaics energy payback times,

  18. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alstone, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Alsema, E. , 2006. Photovoltaics Energy Payback Times,early 2005 status. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andRydh and Sanden 2005 Photovoltaics CIS (laminated assembly,

  19. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of pv systems. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andand Alsema, E. (2006). Photovoltaics energy payback times,emissions from photovoltaics. Environmental Science and

  20. A Cradle to Grave Framework for Environmental Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts and costs of photovoltaic systems: Current state ofEnergy Payback Time for Photovoltaic Modules,” ProceedingsLife-cycle assessment of photovoltaic modules: Comparison of

  1. Leveraging Manufacturing for a Sustainable Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dornfeld, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    payback time Carbon footprint Efficiency improvement (forin embedded energy, carbon footprint, etc. ) would be moreenergy consumption or carbon footprint in operation of the “

  2. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHP enabled fuel cell adoption, demonstrating how sensitive the results are to investment costs,costs, and payback periods for investments have been performed. The most optimistic CHP

  3. Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Create significant financial leverage, gain superior ROI and reduced payback periods for Solar PV utility-scale arrays utilizing known technologies with a novel process...

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    confirmed that installation of renewable energy generating projects (wind and large scale solar photovoltaic) is not financially viable as payback realization would take greater...

  5. Evaluating the costs and benefits of increased funding for public transportation in Chicago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Mark L., 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) off-peak ridership, is at or slightly below break-even with respect to net benefits if the CTA cost structure and tax source of subsidy remains unchanged. In order to justify any significant additional long-term ...

  6. Grid Parity for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Clark, N.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that electricity price rather than technical parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  7. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  8. SPECIFIC AIMS: The Maxwell M. Wintrobe Research Building has served as a central research building for the University of Utah School of Medicine for nearly 30 years. However, the current facilities no longer meet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc, Robert E.

    modern research needs. The labs are outdated and the infrastructure (HVAC, electrical, computer network efficient and ecologically responsible while simultaneously stimulating the local construction job market is to modernize the entire building infrastructure, including HVAC, plumbing, electrical and communications, thus

  9. Project 4: Predicting Price (50 pts; due Monday 4/26 at the beginning of class) You have attained new status at Umbridge and Associates; the company no longer wants you to focus on single

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolverton, Steve

    Project 4: Predicting Price (50 pts; due Monday 4/26 at the beginning of class) You have attained and design townhouse projects. Given your experience with the Anytown USA townhome development, your dataset is a logical starting point for developing a model of factors that can be used to predict price. 1) Using your

  10. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

  11. KORT // Voor vorst, voor vrijheid en voor recht. Er zijn veel droeve dingen gebeurd sinds de laatste Schamper. Wij worden daar heel erg ver-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rasverraders geu- rend stuk Germaans staal, kom gerust een kijkje nemen. Neem opa en oma mee. Zij zullen het stuk zeker kunnen smaken. "De Repressie, part 2: It's Payback Time" wordt een pareltje. * Zelf gefaald

  12. PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2006; 14:275280

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2006; 14 COMMUNICATION: ACCELERATED PUBLICATION Photovoltaics Energy Payback Times, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and External University, The Netherlands Life cycle assessments and external cost estimates of photovoltaics have been

  13. Promoting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for Multifamily Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    run utility data and estimate paybacks. This paper describes the software and provides case studies of CHP installed in multi-family housing (e.g. Cambridge, Mass.; Danbury,...

  14. Case Study - The Challenge: Saving Energy at a Sewage Lift Station...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    With a total implementation cost of 16,000, the project yielded a simple payback of 5.4 years. Case Study - The Challenge: Saving Energy at a Sewage Lift Station Through Pump...

  15. Department of Commerce - Honolulu, Hawaii | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    provide funding for research, and help fund additional staff. Initial investment: 18,000 Payback period: 5 years Cost savings: 3,600 Energy savings: 32,725 kWhyear (at 0.11kWH...

  16. Solar Power Purchase Agreements

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Manager, City of Minneapolis Direct Ownership * Financial: Even at 3kW installed cost, simple payback is 18 years (initial electricity cost of 0.10kWh and 3%year...

  17. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

  18. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Charles

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unimproved. After the ESPC payback period, the governmentbefore, during, and after the ESPC. Figure B2: Agency's CashText APPENDIX B– History of ESPC in Federal Buildings EISA

  19. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Quick-Service Restaurants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jian; Schrock, D. W.; Fisher, D. R.; Livchak, A.; Zabrowski, D. A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Document describing PNNL's project to develop a package of energy efficiency measures that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a 50% energy savings for quick-service restaurants with a simple payback of 5 years or less.

  20. IRS Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Reduces Annual Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Kansas City, Missouri. The retrofit resulted in annual energy savings of 2 million kWh, annual cost savings of over 122,000, and a simple payback of 2.5 years....

  1. General Assembly Meeting: February 10, 2013 Disclaimer: Meeting minutes are not official until approved by the General Assembly. While every attempt is made

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    Fund? 1. Andrew Trexler: Hopefully more money from donors. Also, the savings from green projects would a financial payback. ii. Sam Usdan: Help me out with solar panels! f. OEAC i. ITC #12;ii. Martin Malabanan

  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health NIH Division of Loan Repayment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Center The Year in Review 1 The Five Extramural Loan Repayment Programs 2 Applications, Awards of the NRSA Payback Service Center 18 The Year in Review 19 #12;U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  3. Energy Information: The Key to Cost-Effective Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBride, J. R.; Flanagan, D. E.

    This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness- simple payback, Net Present Value (NPV) and Return on Investment (ROI) -of permanently installed energy consumption monitoring equipment used as the basis for applying value-added engineering services...

  4. Office Building Uses Ice Storage, Heat Recovery, and Cold-Air Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tackett, R. K.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1-1/2 year simple payback. The system reduces operating costs by over $0.16 per square foot each year, yet it increased the net HVAC budget by only $0.22 per square foot....

  5. Engineering, Financial and Net Energy Performance, and Risk Analysis for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Jun

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrating solar power plant. A set of engineering performance, financial and net energy models were developed as tools to predict a plant’s engineering performance, cost and energy payback. The models were validated by comparing the predicted results...

  6. Post Production Heavy Oil Operations: A Case for Partial Upgrading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Taher

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    ; these savings not only offset operational costs but provide short payback periods on capital expenditures. Additionally, the lower gravity blend resulting from visbreaking can also bring about energy and cost savings in pipeline transportation and positively...

  7. The Technical and Economic Potential for Electricity Energy Efficiency in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, A. H. W.; Golden, J. W.; Zarnikau, J. W.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the group replacement with high efficiency motors, adjustable speed drive motors, and high efficiency lighting would yield paybacks of less than 3 years. However, the end-of-useful life replacement with high efficiency motors for abatement of exhaust...

  8. Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures on Implementing Houston Amendments to Single-Family Residential Buildings in Houston Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Liu, Z.; Malhotra, M.; Kota, S.; Blake, S.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    individual measures from the four categories whose combined savings are more than 15% above the base case. The cost of the implementation of the individual, as well as group measures was also calculated along with simple payback period. Photovoltaic options...

  9. Engineering, Financial and Net Energy Performance, and Risk Analysis for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Jun

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrating solar power plant. A set of engineering performance, financial and net energy models were developed as tools to predict a plant’s engineering performance, cost and energy payback. The models were validated by comparing the predicted results...

  10. Improved performance and stability in quantum dot solar cells through band alignment engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G.

    Solution processing is a promising route for the realization of low-cost, large-area, flexible and lightweight photovoltaic devices with short energy payback time and high specific power. However, solar cells based on ...

  11. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a coal, wood, and waste fired boiler system to serve two plants. This case history will document payback periods of less than three years; return on investments of 20% plus; benefits of North Carolina and federal investment tax credits; EPA...

  12. Fort Collins- Green Building Requirement for City-Owned Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To control the construction and design costs associated with new buildings meeting this standard, the goal of Gold can be reduced to Silver for projects where the payback period for earning Gold...

  13. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alstone, Peter; Mills, Evan; Jacobson, Arne

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuel-based lighting are substantial given the paltry levels of lighting service provided to users, leading to a great opportunity for GHG mitigation byencouraging the switch from fuel-based to rechargeable LED lighting. However, as with most new energy technology, switching to efficient lighting requires an up-front investment of energy(and GHGs) embedded in the manufacture of replacement components. We studied a population of off-grid lighting users in 2008-2009 in Kenya who were given the opportunity to adopt LEDlighting. Based on their use patterns with the LED lights and the levels of kerosene offset we observed, we found that the embodied energy of the LED lamp was"paid for" in only one month for grid charged products and two months for solar charged products. Furthermore, the energyreturn-on investment-ratio (energy produced or offset over the product's service life divided by energy embedded) for off-grid LED lighting ranges from 12 to 24, which is on par with on-gridsolar and large-scale wind energy. We also found that the energy embodied in the manufacture of a typical hurricane lantern is about one-half to one-sixth of that embodied in the particular LEDlights that we evaluated, indicating that the energy payback time would be moderately faster if LEDs ultimately displace the production of kerosene lanterns. As LED products improve, weanticipate longer service lives and more successful displacement of kerosene lighting, both of which will speed the already rapid recovery of embodied energy in these products. Our studyprovides a detailed appendix with embodied energy values for a variety of components used to construct off-grid LED lighting, which can be used to analyze other products.

  14. The federal market for ESCO services: How does it measure up?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Birr, Dave

    2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The federal market has been a source of strong energy service company (ESCO) industry growth over the last decade as traditional MUSH markets municipal/state governments, universities, schools and hospitals have matured. Federal alternative financing programs Utility Energy Services Contracts (UESC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Super, Army and Air Force Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC) have enabled this growth, but recent events threaten the ESPC programs. We compare the federal and MUSH markets by analyzing {approx} ;1550 completed projects and interviewing ESCO representatives. Federal ESPC market activity is estimated at {approx} ;$1.6 billion (B) over 10-15 years; activity in 2002 was {approx} ;$230 million (M). MUSH markets have produced {approx} ; $12-16B in projects over 20 years, and {approx} ;$0.8-1.0B in 2002. Federal sector projects have longer average contract terms than MUSH (14 vs. 9.5 years respectively). Federal projects are larger (median costs are $1.85M vs. $0.98M for MUSH), but costs per square foot are lower (median costs are $2.08/ft2 vs. $2.93/ft2 for MUSH), and annual energy savings are higher (18 vs. 14 kBtu/ft2). Non-energy savings are more often counted in federal projects (58 percent vs. 35 percent of MUSH projects) but when counted represent a higher proportion of savings in MUSH projects. Median payback times in the federal market are shorter than MUSH (7.7 vs. 8.8 years) and calculated net economic benefits of 214 federal projects amount to {approx} ;$550M, compared to {approx} ;$1.2B for 965 MUSH projects.

  15. Forest Products Supply Chain --Availability of Woody Biomass in Indiana for Bioenergy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Products Supply Chain -- Availability of Woody Biomass in Indiana for Bioenergy Production or wood waste biomass · Map Indiana's wood waste for each potential bioenergy supply chain · Develop break-even analyses for transportation logistics of wood waste biomass Isaac S. Slaven Abstract: The purpose

  16. > REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

    . Index Terms-- Flexible Optical Networking, Optical OFDM, Energy Efficiency, Cost Analysis I are essential to achieve cost and energy efficiency. Additionally, the break-even cost of the flexible E the vision of spectrum-and-rate flexible networking. In [5] an excellent overview of the drivers

  17. Palkopoulou et al. VOL. 4, NO. 11/NOVEMBER 2012/J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW. B1 Quantifying Spectrum, Cost, and Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

    . Index Terms--Cost analysis; Energy efficiency; Flexible optical networking; Optical OFDM. I, and Energy Efficiency in Fixed-Grid and Flex-Grid Networks [Invited] E. Palkopoulou, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis to achieve cost and energy efficiency. Additionally, the break-even cost of flexible orthogonal frequency

  18. nature physics | VOL 4 | JANUARY 2008 | www.nature.com/naturephysics books & arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    ?' and `what is my breakeven?' He also encourages risk managers to use the tools of bayesian analysis, decision PLIGHT OF THE FORTUNE TELLERS: WHY WE NEED TO MANAGE FINANCIAL RISK DIFFERENTLY bY RICCARDO REb when first approached. We in financial risk management were, and remain, very busy given the current

  19. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost and the marginal fuel savings (assuming a base case of ten cents per kWhper kWh, which would bring it in line with the break-even costcost per mile: electricity vs. gasoline PRICE OF ELECTRICITY ($/kWh)

  20. Asymmetric Information in Common-Value Auctions and Contests: Theory and Experiments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rentschler, Lucas Aaren

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    on the signal ................................... 94 Figure 11 Equilibrium bid functions and observed bids for contests ......... 98 Figure 12 SAP and Uninforrmed AAP cumulative distribution (all periods...) ............................................................................... 98 Figure 13 SAP and Uninforrmed AAP cumulative distribution (periods 1-10 and c21-30) .......................................................... 101 Figure 14 The difference between observed bids and break-even bids for SAP...

  1. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  2. What is a business plan? A business plan is a tool used to organize a business idea, resources, management and clients. The tool is meant to plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    at by investors very carefully. It should detail costs, expenses, capital, break-even analysis, estimated cash1 What is a business plan? A business plan is a tool used to organize a business idea, resources do you get the product to your client(s)? What are the costs to make the product? What should

  3. The cost of agriculturally based greenhouse gas offsets in the Texas High Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandrasena, Rajapakshage Inoka Ilmi

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    as shown in equation (2), (2) ) NR is the net revenue ($ per acre), TR is the total revenue ($ per acre), TVC is the total variable cost ($ per acre), and TFC is the total fixed cost ($ per acre). 21 3.1.2 Calculation of Breakeven Carbon Price (BCP...

  4. Affordable Near-Term Burning-Plasma Experiments Dale M. Meade and Robert D. Woolley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the proposed fusion ignition experiment with existing power plants The cost of existing coal plants with an operating coal power plant. Therefore, power producing fusion systems must be sought in the few $B range the break-even regime of Q~1 using power plant D-T fuel [1, 2]. However, the nET parameter achieved so far

  5. Carbon Capture by Fossil Fuel Power Plants: An Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    working paper "CO2 Regulations and Electricity Prices: Cost Estimates for Coal-Fired Power Plants." We capabilities at new coal-fired power plants. The corresponding break-even values for natural gas plants source of CO2 emissions. For the U.S. alone, coal-fired and natural gas power plants contributed more

  6. Ten Myths of ICT4D (And One Key Lesson)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    development and the modernization of farming? Where would the break-even point come? Where would the saving;Technology X will save the world. Wasn't true for X = radio, TV, or landline phone, despite initial ­ E.g., health insurance "Poverty premium" exists for a reason. Poor populations are... ­ Harder

  7. Ten Myths of ICT4D Kentaro Toyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    end global poverty?" "The Internet should be a human right in and of itself." "Kids in the developing? Where would the break-even point come? Where would the saving in rate of change catch up: The Role of Information in the Developing Countries. Pp. 231 #12;Technology X will save the world. Wasn

  8. Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    2011 Keywords: Wind power Offshore wind power Levelized cost of energy Breakeven priceQ1 a b s t r a c other new renewable energy technologies, though it is more costly than land-based wind power and most: www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol Energy Policy Energy Policy ] (

  9. THE BIVALVE BULLETIN Pilot Clam Crop Insurance Program Extended

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    . This transfers risk from the producer to another for a price ­ the insurance premium. Government policy makers. Commodity markets, such as the clam market, respond decisively to these projections. Both a clam farmer and wholesaler must also be aware of respective break-even prices and market prices received in all growing areas

  10. Policy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    perspectives in comparison to current subsidies. It was found that the private breakeven price of electricityPolicy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects: Analysis of Net Private and Social Benefits P A U gas also has the potential to be used to generate electricity.In1994,the

  11. An integrated biogeochemical and economic analysis of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Atul K.

    -specific economic analysis of breakeven prices of bioenergy crop production to assess the biophysical and economicAn integrated biogeochemical and economic analysis of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United potential of biofuel production in the Midwestern United States. The bioenergy crops considered

  12. Here is the list of names of people from the class of 1982 for whom we have no contact details. We are aware that sadly some of these people will no longer be alive, but we have not yet had this confirmed. We would be grateful if

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yi

    Van Barthold Pascale Bigley Sian Birch Gillian Ruth Blake Suzanne Janet Carne Kamjin Chan Richard Lesley Williamson Gary Michael Willrad A T Wilson June Anne Wright Parvin Yavari Karen Joy Young #12 Ancient History and Classical Civilisation Paul Gregory Ayres Kim Blake David Neil Cato Kathryn Mary Cole

  13. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  14. Partnerships for Industrial Productivity Through Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W. E.

    of myself as a gold miner. Some 75% to 85% of my studies and efforts ended in failure. The remaining 15% was worth the gold mine, and HAVE produced such savings as: A An average of 15% to 18% of the total energy usage of all the facilities surveyed..., with a 2 year payback or less. If the payback period could have been 3 to 4 years the average would have been between 25% and 35% B. Over 4.0 megawatts oC demand in one year C. Over S8OO,OOO per year in one facility D. Over 55% of the energy...

  15. LoanSTAR Energy Auditing: Update and Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Athar, A.; Britton, A. J.; Nutter, D. W.; Stuewe, C.

    that more lucrative, shorter payback projects were most often selected for accomplishment in the early days. AUDIT RESULTS During the recent five-month period between July 31 and December 31, 1991, 15 detailed audit reports covering 10.9 million square... $ Annual Savings, million $/yr Payback, yrs ECRMs 46.1 13.7 3.4 M&Os negligible 0.2 0.1 Combined 46.1 13.9 3.3 A total of 58 LoanSTAR detailed audit reports covering 28.3 million square feet and 425 buildings have been accepted. The total includes...

  16. Economics of cool storage for electric load leveling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asbury, J.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Dougherty, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment and methods for cold storage in commercial buildings to effect reduced summer peak load demands for electric utilities are described and the economics of this load leveling means is examined using the Potomac Electric Power Co. (PEPCO) studies and data. This examination reveals that investments in this technology can offer attractive paybacks (3 to 5 y) in new building applications. Partial storage, because of chiller-capacity savings, offers faster payback than full-storage systems. Estimates of its market potential indicate that cool storage will play an important role in PEPCO's Energy Use Management Plan. (LCL)

  17. Wind system value analysis for electric utilities: a comparison of four methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, J.; Percival, D.; Flaim, T.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been several studies of how much Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) are worth to electric utilities. When attempting to compare the different results of these studies, questions arose concerning the effect of the different methodologies and models on the determined WECS values. This paper will report on the only known effort that used more than a single methodology for the value analysis of WECS to a specific utility. This paper will present and compare the WECS utility value analysis methodologies of Aerospace Corp., JBF Scientific Corp., and the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). Results of the application of these three methodologies were found for two large utilities. Breakeven values (the amount a utility can pay for a wind turbine over its lifetime and still breakeven economically) were found to be from $1600 to $2400 per kW of wind capacity in 1980 dollars. The reasons for variation in the results are discussed.

  18. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  19. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ? 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  20. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  1. Evaluation of Northern Illinois Residential Retrofit Delivery Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, P.; Kerr, R.; Brand, L.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a detailed BEopt analysis, PARR has developed packages of measures following a 'loading order' appropriate for cold climates at increasing levels of savings. Packages of measures to provide 'good, better, best' energy savings were determined based on predicted source energy savings, safety issues, program costs and simple payback for customers.

  2. 3DEP in Oregon by the Numbers Expected annual benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    total cost (quality level 2) $32.41 million Payback 0.7 years Quality level 1 buy-up estimate $203DEP in Oregon by the Numbers Expected annual benefits (quality level 2) $45.73 million Estimated resource management; forest resources management; water supply and quality; infrastructure and construction

  3. Case Studies of High Efficiency Electric Motor Applicability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.

    addresses the problems of limited time and missing data, and suggests ways for quickly filling in data gaps. The motors in the studies spanned a range of 7.5 to 250 hp. The prioritization was performed primarily on the basis of simple payback. The study...

  4. Texas Tech University Energy Savings Program July 2007 Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    Texas Tech University Energy Savings Program July 2007 Update The Texas Tech Energy Savings Update Performance Contract - $560,000 with a 6 year payback. c. Perform a minimum of 1 detailed energy audit per Agencies. Energy numbers come from the Energy Report filed with SECO semi-annually. Texas Tech may

  5. Texas Tech University Energy Savings Program October 2007 Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    Texas Tech University Energy Savings Program October 2007 Update The Texas Tech Energy Savings,000 with a 6 year payback. b. Perform a minimum of 1 detailed energy audit per month beginning with the largest consumers of energy. 1) To date we have completed 10 detailed audits. 2. Fleet Management a. The Texas Tech

  6. Application of motor capacitors to improve facility power usage in the industrial setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillhouse, William Jeffrey

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    and duty cycle???????.. 40 16 Payback as a function of capacitor size and cost per KWH?????? 41 17 Constant vs. irregular loading conditions????????????? 46 18 Measurement point, where only load supplied??...????????. 47 19 Project survey... LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Basic power parameters??...??????????????..?? 1 2 Line resistance values[6]??????????..??.??????. 17 3 Circuit resistance for Condenser Fan 1????.?????????. 27 4 Total harmonic current...

  7. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting at T.J.Maxx in Manchester, NH Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A report describing the process and results of replacing existing parking lot lighting, looking at a LED option with occupancy sensors, and conventional alternates. Criteria include payback, light levels, occupant satisfaction. This report is Phase I of II. Phase I deals with initial installation.

  8. The Cost-Effectiveness of Continuous Commissioning® Over the Past Ten Years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, J.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Wei, G.

    for the data set is $0.51/(ft2a) ($5.52/(m2a)) with an average annual energy cost savings of 14%. The average cost of commissioning is $0.43/(ft2a) ($4.60/(m2a)) resulting in an average simple payback of 1.6 years. Just over half of the measures implemented...

  9. Creating and Organizing an Energy Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theising, T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    presentations I have shown the how-to of an audit and the details of tracking the “finished product”, the findings. The methods I have developed have allowed me to maintain an 11% of energy spending annual savings average with one-year payback opportunities...

  10. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production of large- scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback

  11. Viability study of photo-voltaic systems added to terrestrial electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rippel, W.E.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the following computer study is to determine the set of necessary conditions under which the addition of photo-voltaic (PV) cells to electric vehicles provides a net utility or economic benefit. Economic benefits are given the primary focus and are evaluated in terms of a payback period.

  12. ENGINEERINGNEWS B Y M I K E V A R G O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    a modest-sized all-electric home with a full array of solar roof panels and related gear can cost around $50,000. Although one then begins to save money by getting free electricity from sunlight, the payback8 ENGINEERINGNEWS B Y M I K E V A R G O Solar for Everyone Erik Ydstie has a vision. This past

  13. Texas Facilities Commission's Facility Management Strategic Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, J. A.

    , Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 Facility Strategic Plan ?High Performance Building Approach ? Envelope ? Load Reduction ? (Re)Design ? Advanced Tactics ?Building Automation ? Sub-metering ? Controls ?Commissioning ? Assessment ? Continuous ?Facility... International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 Commissioning Assessment ?30 buildings ?CC Opportunities ?O&M Improvements ?Energy/Capital Improvement Opportunities ?Quick Payback Implementation ?Levering DM...

  14. Heat Recovery Boilers for Process Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.; Rentz, J.; Flanagan, D.

    of the use of heat recovery due primarily to process considerations. On the other hand, cost and payback are main considerations in the case of gas turbine and incineration plants, where large quantities of gases are exhausted at temperatures varying from 800...

  15. Industrial Insulation: Protects the Environment, Improves Efficiency and Saves More Money Than You Can Imagine!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brayman, W. J.

    Annual Fuel Inflation Rate 6.0% alum. Annual Hours of Operation 8320 hrs. Wind Speed 0 mph Emittance of Existing Surface 0.80 Reference Thickness for Payback Calculations 0.0 in. Insulation Material ASTM C547-95 Type II 158 ESL-IE-98...

  16. MEASURED WINTER PERFORMANCE OF STORM WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem. From existing data (U. S. Department of Energy 2002) one can estimate that 90% of the present payback of energy savings. Certainly, given the present spectrum of available products, it is difficult. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation. Introduction Over the past

  17. Energy and Society GSI Section Notes Week of October 6, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    representations of costs Important terms and concepts: Present value P The value of any past, future or current1 Energy and Society GSI Section Notes ­ Week of October 6, 2014 Content: 1. Economic Analysis 2 payback Converting between present and future values Converting between NPV and annualized

  18. LoanSTAR Energy Conservation Audits: January 1989 - August 1990

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Britton, A. J.; Muraya, N. K.; Heffington, W. M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost is $5,566,000 for an overall simple payback of 3.0 years. The ECRMs and M&Os have been categorized as well as the types of buildings involved. The cost for auditing the 5.2 million square feet was $0.054 per square foot. Problems associated...

  19. Performance Optimization of a Fan System- Overcoming Impacts of Modified Design Criteria Due to Regulatory Requirements and Changed Operating Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wroblewski, R. G.; Preis, F.; Smith, R.

    that was applied to address fan inefficiency. Energy savings from optimizing the system are estimated to be 338 kW, nearly half of the original measured input power of 678 kW. The project is currently being implemented and will have a payback period of less than 8...

  20. Introduction Mining is based on the minerals on or buried

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    . Mining involves large risks, while requiring heavy capital investment with relatively long payback, such as the length of time and the cost not only to obtain the necessary permits, but also for the actual development that there is no compre- hensive projection of the possible relevant variables, one is therefore obliged to estimate

  1. 2012 Site Environmental Report Brookhaven National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    ­ Waste Generation #12;Chapter 2 ­ Energy Management & Conservation 2012 Statistics 278 million kilowatt lbs. of industrial, sanitary, hazardous, and rad waste Funds invested in FY 2012 = $13,500 8 proposals submitted, 3 funded Annual cost savings ~ $179,000 from new projects Average payback ~ 1 month

  2. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY BERKELEY DAVIS IRVINE LOS ANGELES RIVERSIDE SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SANTA BARBARA SANTA CRUZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    ://socrates.berkeley.edu/~rael/outreach.html), an investment in the clean energy industry will likely have dramatic payback in the creation of high FRANCISCO· · · · · · SANTA BARBARA SANTA CRUZ· ENERGY AND RESOURCES GROUP DANIEL M. KAMMEN 310 BARROWS HALL PROFESSOR OF ENERGY AND SOCIETY UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PROFESSOR OF PUBLIC POLICY BERKELEY, CA 94720

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  4. Proposition 39 Guideline Revisions Below is a summary of the major changes to the Proposition 39 Guidelines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : · 85% of planning funds may be used for screening and energy audits · 15% for Proposition 39 as they choose from the four approved activity categories: 1) Energy Audit/Energy Surveys/Data Analytics 2: · Each energy measure must have a simple payback either within the remaining period of the "lease

  5. Climate change -a drying up of hydropower investment? Dr Gareth Harrison and Professor Bert Whittington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    Climate change - a drying up of hydropower investment? Dr Gareth Harrison and Professor Bert capital may not favour hydropower given that hydro capital costs are relatively high and payback periods financial return than the public sector, traditionally the main source of funds for hydropower development

  6. Rank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,370.00 0.32 72 ft3 solid rad waste; 35 gal of mixed waste; 108 gal of haz waste; 324 ft3 of rad DIS waste 6Rank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div and POC Cost Savings Payback (Years) Waste Reduction 1 waste 2 Replacement of Mercury Thermometers Basic Energy Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics & Material

  7. Global Change: Solutions? Combating climate change is local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    5% annual finance charge #12;Alternative Energy: Solar Photovoltaic Energy companies are targeting;Alternative Energy: Solar Photovoltaic Current electricity costs Cost of solar averaged over 20 years Includes residential and commercial buildings #12;Household Electricity: Solar Thermal ~5-10 year payback time #12

  8. Process Design and Optimization of Biorefining Pathways 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Buping

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of the various techniques developed in this work. The result shows 1, the optimal pathway based on minimum payback period for cost efficiency is pathway through alcohol fermentation and oligomerized to gasoline as 11.7 years with 1620 tonne/day of feedstock...

  9. Refinery Energy Conservation Experience with Enhanced Surface Reboilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragi, E. G.; O'Neill, P. S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    savings was $719, 000 with less than one month payback. (3) A large existing propane-propylene splitter underwent a major conversion to reduce energy consumption. By replacing the existing reboilers with High Flux and converting the system to a vapor...

  10. In the July 2011 PE magazine article "Why We Need Rational Selection of Energy Projects," the author stated that "photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ," the author stated that "photovoltaic electricity generation cannot be an energy source for the future" because photovoltaics require more energy than they produce (during their lifetime), thus their "Energy Payback Times The life cycle of photovoltaics starts from the extraction of raw mate- rials (cradle

  11. Energy efficient HVAC system features thermal storage and heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bard, E.M. (Bard, Rao + Athanas Consulting Engineering Inc., Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes a HVAC system designed to efficiently condition a medical center. The topics of the article include energy efficient design of the HVAC system, incentive rebate program by the local utility, indoor air quality, innovative design features, operations and maintenance, payback and life cycle cost analysis results, and energy consumption.

  12. Moving Towards Net-Zero Energy of Existing Building in Hot Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .5% of the building consumption. The second phase yields further reduction of the building energy consumption by about 55.4%. The average payback period of most energy conservation measures is about half year. In the third phase, approximately 27% of the total energy...

  13. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2009 DOE Building Energy Data Book) 50 mi 40 mi 30 mi 20 mi 10 mi 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 30 20 10 Payback Years Distance Miles Large (46,320 m2500,000 ft2) Medium (23,160 m2...

  14. How to Sell GSHP Systems A Quick Guide to Making the Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    their maximum efficiencies years ago EPA Report 430-R-93-004 #12;Did You Say "Geothermal.geoexchange.org Environmental Bene ts #12;! Mechanically Reliable · Long service life o 20-30 years Payback w/ GSHPs: 6-10 years without incen30+ years without

  15. The Effect of Wind Speed and Electric Rates On Wind Turbine Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    The Effect of Wind Speed and Electric Rates On Wind Turbine Economics Economics of wind power depends mainly on the wind speeds and the turbine make and model. Definition: Simple Payback The "Simple period of a small wind power project. All the figures are per turbine, so it can be used for a one, two

  16. Analysis of the Double Window in Saving Energy and Economical Efficiency in Nanjing in the Winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.; He, J.; Gao, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steel window can save energy by 37.68% is reached. As part of the economical efficiency analysis, an investment payback period is analyzed using the methods of static state and dynamic state. The analysis shows that by using single frame-double plastic...

  17. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recommendations to increase steam system effic iency. Steam System Opportunities ]n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a O.4-year payback. 75...

  18. Rank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    waste 2 Motion Lights Energy Sciences & Technology, EENS (Dave Elling) $3,200 $7,000.00 0.46 Energy Light Source, NSLS (John Aloi) $1,500 $5,200.00 0.29 200 gallons corrosive waste 6 Electronic RecyclingRank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div and POC Cost Savings Payback (Years) Waste Reduction 1

  19. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This case study describes how the J.R. Simplot company's Don Plant in Pocatello, Idaho, achieved annual savings of $335,000 and 75,000 MMBtu, with a simple payback of 6.5 months, after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment.

  20. Lighting energy efficiency opportunities at Cheyenne Mountain Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J.C.; Rozo, A.J.; Sarles, J.K.; Haffenden, R.A.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Cavallo, J.D.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CMAS is an intensive user of electricity for lighting because of its size, lack of daylight, and 24-hour operating schedule. Argonne National Laboratory recently conducted a lighting energy conservation evaluation at CMAS. The evaluation included inspection and characterization of existing lighting systems, analysis of energy-efficient retrofit options, and investigation of the environmental effects that these lighting system retrofits could have when they are ready to be disposed of as waste. Argonne devised three retrofit options for the existing lighting systems at various buildings: (1) minimal retrofit--limited fixture replacement; (2) moderate retrofit--more extensive fixture replacement and limited application of motion detectors; and (3) advanced retrofit--fixture replacement, reduction in the number of lamps, expansion of task lighting, and more extensive application of motion detectors. Argonne used data on electricity consumption to analyze the economic and energy effects of these three retrofit options. It performed a cost analysis for each retrofit option in terms of payback. The analysis showed that lighting retrofits result in savings because they reduce electricity consumption, cooling load, and maintenance costs. The payback period for all retrofit options was found to be less than 2 years, with the payback period decreasing for more aggressive retrofits. These short payback periods derived largely from the intensive (24-hours-per-day) use of electric lighting at the facility. Maintenance savings accounted for more than half of the annual energy-related savings under the minimal and moderate retrofit options and slightly less than half of these savings under the advanced retrofit option. Even if maintenance savings were excluded, the payback periods would still be impressive: about 4.4 years for the minimal retrofit option and 2 years for the advanced option. The local and regional environmental impacts of the three retrofit options were minimal.

  1. Economics of selected WECS dispersed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawiec, S.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An economic analysis for distributed Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) was conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Solar Commercial Readiness Assessment task at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The major objective of the study is to analyze: the cost of electricity generated by selected wind energy systems in residential and agricultural applications; the breakeven cost of wind systems able to compete economically with conventional power sources in dispersed applications; and the impact of major economic factors on the cost performance index.

  2. FEDSOL: program user's manual and economic optimization guide for solar federal building projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, J.W.; Rodgers, R.C., Jr.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A user's manual for the FEDSOL computer program is provided. The FEDSOL program determines the economically optimal size of a solar energy system for a user-specified building, location, system type, and set of economic conditions it conducts numerous breakeven and sensitivity analyses and it calculates measures of economic performance as required under the Federal Rules. The economic model in the program is linked with the SLR (solar load ratio) design method developed to predict the performance of active systems. The economics portion of the program can, however, be used apart from the SLR method, with performance data provided by the user.

  3. Geothermal loan guaranty cash flow model: description and users' manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keimig, M.A.; Rosenberg, J.I.; Entingh, D.J.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the users guide for the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Cash Flow Model (GCFM). GCFM is a Fortran code which designs and costs geothermal fields and electric power plants. It contains a financial analysis module which performs life cycle costing analysis taking into account various types of taxes, costs and financial structures. The financial module includes a discounted cash flow feature which calculates a levelized breakeven price for each run. The user's guide contains descriptions of the data requirements and instructions for using the model.

  4. Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, N. M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motors’ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

  5. Monitored performance of residential geothermal heat pumps in central Texas and Southern Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes measured performance of residential geothermal heat pumps (GHP`s) that were installed in family housing units at Ft. Hood, Texas and at Selfridge Air National Guard base in Michigan. These units were built as part of a joint Department of Defense/Department of Energy program to evaluate the energy savings potential of GHP`s installed at military facilities. At the Ft. Hood site, the GHP performance was compared to conventional forced air electric air conditioning and natural gas heating. At Selfridge, the homes under test were originally equipped with electric baseboard heat and no air conditioning. Installation of the GHP systems at both sites was straightforward but more problems and costs were incurred at Selfridge because of the need to install ductwork in the homes. The GHP`s at both sites produced impressive energy savings. These savings approached 40% for most of the homes tested. The low cost of energy on these bases relative to the incremental cost of the GHP conversions precludes rapid payback of the GHP`s from energy savings alone. Estimates based on simple payback (no inflation and no interest on capital) indicated payback times from 15 to 20 years at both sites. These payback times may be reduced by considering the additional savings possible due to reduced maintenance costs. Results are summarized in terms of 15 minute, hourly, monthly, and annual performance parameters. The results indicate that all the systems were working properly but several design shortcomings were identified. Recommendations are made for improvements in future installations at both sites.

  6. Solar/performance goals for solar and ground-coupled heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost goals for combined solar/heat pump systems are developed. Three methods of analysis are used: simple payback, positive cash flow, and life cycle costing. The goals are parameterized on system energy efficiency, with the air-to-air heat pump as the conventional system which is used as a basis for comparison. Cost goals for nine systems are determined in three generic climates.

  7. Process Improvement at Army Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northrup, J.; Smith, E. D.; Lin, M.; Baird, J.

    recommendations are for the Fill and Press line where most of the Level I focused LESSONS LEARNED On completion of the project, the researchers assessed the results and some of the 198 ESL-IE-97-04-31 Proceedings from the Nineteenth Industrial Energy.... Finally, the energy issues included initiate an energy team; install energy efficient lighting; and decommission unused steam lines. After the first cost, savings, and simple payback time was calculated for all of the proposed improvements, a...

  8. Technical and economic evaluations of cogeneration systems using computer simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fennell, Steven Rush

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , an 8 to 12 megawatt gas turbine utilizing absorption chillers was recommended, with paybacks of less than 6 years, and a net present value of greater than $18 million. These results were obtained using Houston Lighting & Power's gas and electric.... . . . , . 83 . . . . . 86 . 99 . . . 100 . . . 124 . . . 136 . . . 139 vut LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Gas turbine topping cycle schematic Steam turbine bottoming cycle schematic. Power vs. fuel...

  9. Wastewater recycling and heat reclamation at the Red Lion Central Laundry, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garlick, T.F.; Halverson, M.A.; Ledbetter, M.R.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses water, energy, and cost savings that can be achieved in a commercial laundry through the use of a wastewater recycling and heat recovery system. Cost savings are achieved through reductions in water use, reduction in sewage charges, reductions in water heating energy, and potential reductions in water treatment chemicals. This report provides an economic analysis of the impact of capital investment, daily consumption, and local utility rates on the payback period.

  10. Developing Solutions for the Energy and Environmental Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMullan, A. S.; Pretty, B. L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , • marginal utility costing, • capital cost estimation tools As project development proceeds, the individual project concepts will be subjected to normal criteria for acceptance i.e. technical feasibility, safety and operability and payback..., VA 20166 ABSTRACT As management focuses on reducing energy costs and CO 2 emissions and allocates resources to addressing these issues, questions about where and how to use the resources most effectively are raised. This paper...

  11. Upgrade Your Lighting & Open the Door to Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houcek, J. K.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrade Your Lighting & Open the Door to Energy Savings John K. Houcek, Energy Monitoring & Analysis Services The purpose of this paper is to convince the reader that the time has come to take a close look at the lighting energy usage... savings as well as payback periods. There is no single lighting upgrade solution that covers such a wide variety of facility types. Next, a methodology is presented that describes the lighting audit process from the initial survey to the final report...

  12. Advantages of Financing Continuous Commissioning® as an Energy Conservation Retrofit Measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Verdict, M.; Martinez, J. T.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a major obstacle as they attempt to replace aging ESL-IC-10/05-14 2 infrastructure through energy savings alone. Since the average payback of most CC projects performed by the Energy Systems Laboratory as a stand alone energy improvement... building automation system (BAS), allowing control strategies to be implemented quickly to reduce peak electric demand and electricity and gas usage. Major CC Activities Major CC activities are outlined below with a brief description of each measure...

  13. Electrical Analysis Tool Suite for Inductrial Energy Audits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20-23, 2014 AGENDA Current Available Tools Analysis Tools Demand Visualization Weather Disaggregation Demand Aberrations Photovoltaic Optimization Demand Scheduling Automatic Report Generation Demonstration ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings of the Thrity... Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Photovoltaic Optimization Solar Tracking TMY3 Surface Radiation Data Radiative Power Model Cost Optimization Photovoltaic Array Size PV Array Cost Expected Power Savings Payback Period ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings...

  14. Increase Your Boiler Pressure to Decrease Your Electric Bill: The True Cost of CHP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit of clean, low cost and reliable onsite power production. Introduction What if plant designers could create a payback on a replacement or new boiler? Operators still get the heat for the process, but now instead of a large capital investment... is not complicated and produces real savings. For our analysis, a company is examining the economic and operating variables inherit with replacing their current 65 psig low pressure boiler with a high pressure 400 psig boiler. They still only require 65 psig...

  15. Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, N. M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motors’ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

  16. Energy Conservation Through Heating/Cooling Retrofits in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saman, N.; Eggebrecht, J.

    .1O/MCF). The estimated implementation cost is $6524 resulting in a simple payback period of 2.2 years. 2- HVAC Controls and Operations Manual thermostats were suggested to be replaced by programmable thermostats at different industrial plants... office areas. We will discuss three examples that involve plants manufacturing drill bits for the petroleum industry, soft drinks and soft drink syrups, and newspaper industries [7,8,9]. For the drill bits industry, none of the several thermostats...

  17. Electrical Analysis Tool Suite for Inductrial Energy Audits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20-23, 2014 AGENDA Current Available Tools Analysis Tools Demand Visualization Weather Disaggregation Demand Aberrations Photovoltaic Optimization Demand Scheduling Automatic Report Generation Demonstration ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings of the Thrity... Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Photovoltaic Optimization Solar Tracking TMY3 Surface Radiation Data Radiative Power Model Cost Optimization Photovoltaic Array Size PV Array Cost Expected Power Savings Payback Period ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings...

  18. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM MONITORING HP Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption... Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Walkway Lighting at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center, in Atlantic City, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of a collaborative project to demonstrate a solid state lighting (SSL) general illumination product in an outdoor area walkway application. In the project, six light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires were installed to replace six existing high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires mounted on 14-foot poles on a set of exterior walkways and stairs at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, during December, 2007. The effort was a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SSL Technology Gateway Demonstration that involved a collaborative teaming agreement between DOE, FAA and Ruud Lighting (and their wholly owned division, Beta LED). Pre- and post-installation power and illumination measurements were taken and used in calculations of energy savings and related economic payback, while personnel impacted by the new lights were provided questionnaires to gauge their perceptions and feedback. The SSL product demonstrated energy savings of over 25% while maintaining illuminance levels and improving illuminance uniformity. PNNL's economic analysis yielded a variety of potential payback results depending on the assumptions used. In the best case, replacing HPS with the LED luminaire can yield a payback as low as 3 years. The new lamps were quite popular with the affected personnel, who gave the lighting an average score of 4.46 out of 5 for improvement.

  20. Energy analysis of facade-integrated photovoltaic systems applied to UAE commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhi, Hassan [Architectural Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in the design and manufacture of photovoltaic cells have recently been a growing concern in the UAE. At present, the embodied energy pay-back time (EPBT) is the criterion used for comparing the viability of such technology against other forms. However, the impact of PV technology on the thermal performance of buildings is not considered at the time of EPBT estimation. If additional energy savings gained over the PV system life are also included, the total EPBT could be shorter. This paper explores the variation of the total energy of building integrated photovoltaic systems (BiPV) as a wall cladding system applied to the UAE commercial sector and shows that the ratio between PV output and saving in energy due to PV panels is within the range of 1:3-1:4. The result indicates that for the southern and western facades in the UAE, the embodied energy pay-back time for photovoltaic system is within the range of 12-13 years. When reductions in operational energy are considered, the pay-back time is reduced to 3.0-3.2 years. This study comes to the conclusion that the reduction in operational energy due to PV panels represents an important factor in the estimation of EPBT. (author)

  1. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; King, Thomas F [ORNL

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic operation in response to local or system operators. There are no known distributed energy asset owners currently receiving compensation for reactive power supply or capability. However, there are some cases where small generators on the generation and transmission side of electricity supply have been tested and have installed the capability to be dispatched for reactive power support. Several concerns need to be met for distributed energy to become widely integrated as a reactive power resource. The overall costs of retrofitting distributed energy devices to absorb or produce reactive power need to be reduced. There needs to be a mechanism in place for ISOs/RTOs to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where distributed energy resides. Novel compensation methods should be introduced to encourage the dispatch of dynamic resources close to areas with critical voltage issues. The next phase of this research will investigate in detail how different options of reactive power producing DE can compare both economically and functionally with shunt capacitor banks. Shunt capacitor banks, which are typically used for compensating reactive power consumption of loads on distribution systems, are very commonly used because they are very cost effective in terms of capital costs. However, capacitor banks can require extensive maintenance especially due to their exposure to lightning at the top of utility poles. Also, it can be problematic to find failed capacitor banks and their maintenance can be expensive, requiring crews and bucket trucks which often requires total replacement. Another shortcoming of capacitor banks is the fact that they usually have one size at a location (typically sized as 300, 600, 900 or 1200kVAr) and thus don't have variable range as do reactive power producing DE, and cannot respond to dynamic reactive power needs. Additional future work is to find a detailed methodology to identify the hidden benefit of DE for providing reactive power and the best way to allocate the benefit among customers, utilities, transmission companies or RTOs.

  3. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study. . Health and Wellness Center; and the: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study. Stockbridge Munsee Community. Mohican Family Center.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRocher, Andy; Barrnett, Michael

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study of Stockbridge Munsee Community’s Health and Wellness Center (HWC) indicate that a variety of renewable energy options and energy conservation measures (ECMs) exist for the facility. A requirement of the Request for Proposal for this study was to assess renewable energy options that could offset 30 to 100 percent of the HWC’s energy use. This study identifies that a geothermal system is the most cost effective renewable energy option available to decrease the HWC’s energy consumption by 30 to 100 percent. Currently the HWC performs in the lowest 8 percent of buildings in its building category, as scored in the EPA portfolio manager benchmarking tool. Multiple ECM opportunities have been identified with paybacks of less than five years to yield an estimated 25?percent decrease in annual energy consumption. The ECMs within this payback period are estimated to save $26,800 per year with an implementation cost of just $4,650 (0.2 year payback). For the Mohican Family Center document: The results of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study of Stockbridge Munsee Community’s Mohican Family Center (MFC) indicate that a variety of renewable energy options and energy conservation measures (ECMs) exist for the facility. A requirement of the Request for Proposal for this study was to assess renewable energy options that could offset 30 to 100 percent of the MFC’s energy use. This study identifies that a geothermal system is the most cost effective renewable energy option available to decrease the MFC’s energy consumption by 30 to 100 percent. Currently the MFC performs better than 80 percent of buildings in its building category, as scored in the EPA portfolio manager benchmarking tool. Multiple ECM opportunities have been identified with short term paybacks to yield an estimated 13?percent decrease in energy consumption. The ECMs within this payback period are estimated to save $3,100 per year with an implementation cost of under $20,000.

  4. Comparative analysis of thorium and uranium fuel for transuranic recycle in a sodium cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Fiorina; N. E. Stauff; F. Franceschini; M. T. Wenner; A. Stanculescu; T. K. Kim; A. Cammi; M. E. Ricotti; R. N. Hill; T. A. Taiwo; M. Salvatores

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper compares the reactor physics and transmutation performance of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (FRs) for TRansUranic (TRU) burning with thorium (Th) or uranium (U) as fertile materials. The 1000 MWt Toshiba-Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) conceptual core has been used as benchmark for the comparison. Both burner and breakeven configurations sustained or started with a TRU supply, and assuming full actinide homogeneous recycle strategy, have been developed. State-of-the-art core physics tools have been employed to establish fuel inventory and reactor physics performances for equilibrium and transition cycles. Results show that Th fosters large improvements in the reactivity coefficients associated with coolant expansion and voiding, which enhances safety margins and, for a burner design, can be traded for maximizing the TRU burning rate. A trade-off of Th compared to U is the significantly larger fuel inventory required to achieve a breakeven design, which entails additional blankets at the detriment of core compactness as well as fuel manufacturing and separation requirements. The gamma field generated by the progeny of U-232 in the U bred from Th challenges fuel handling and manufacturing, but in case of full recycle, the high contents of Am and Cm in the transmutation fuel impose remote fuel operations regardless of the presence of U-232.

  5. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  6. Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Cepda; Pashler, Harold; Vul, Ed; Wixted, John; Rohrer, Douglas

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    size magnitude: lag (longer ISIs increased effect size),episodes are presented, the ISIs may be equal (“fixed”),She concluded that longer ISIs facilitate learning of verbal

  7. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  8. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  9. Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code (ASHRAE 90.1-2001 and 2007) Restaurant Buildings in the City of Arlington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the improvement, #1; simple payback calculations, and #1; emissions savings. 2 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Methodology 3 #1; ESL simulation model based on the DOE-2.2 of ASHRAE 90.1- 2001 and 2007 code-compliant, restaurant building for Tarrant County #1; A... for unoccupied periods 70F Heating 75 F Cooling Setback during unoccupied hours. Optimal start control one hour before occupied hours. 65F Heating 80 F Cooling ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Methodology 5 #1; 5,500 ft2, one- story, building – Dining space modeled (4...

  10. Fuel Cells on Bio-Gas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Fuel cells operating on bio-gas offer a pathway to renewable electricity generation; (2) With federal incentives of $3,500/kW or 30% of the project costs, reasonable payback periods of less than five years can be achieved; (3) Tri-generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen offers an alternative route to solving the H{sub 2} infrastructure problem facing fuel cell vehicle deployment; and (4) DOE will be promoting bio-gas fuel cells in the future under its Market Transformation Programs.

  11. Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment – Development and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a user’s manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

  12. Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Single Family Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhotra, M.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Liu, B.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    .5 43 200 600 4.7 14 DHW System Measures for Electric / Gas Building RESULTS Energy Savings square4 Tankless ? 9.3% square4 Solar Water Heater ? 15.2% square4 Removal of Pilot Light ? 5.5% Payback Period square4 Tankless Water Heater ? 13... TS RESULTS Energy Use Savings from Individual Measures for All-Electric Building Base Case Tankless Solar DHW Unit & Ducts in Cond. Improved Duct Sealing Increase Air Tightness Shading Overhang Shading & Redstrn. Window Perform. SEER...

  13. 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Buildings in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    Emissions Savings (lbs/year) Combined Estimated Cost ($) Simple Estimated Payback (yrs) 0.025 11.1 30.1- Combined Ozone Season Period NOx Emissions Savings (lbs/day) 28.5-16.3 6.7 - 34.9 ESL-TR-07-08-02 Energy Systems Laboratory - August 2007 7... individual measures above for specific savings * Energy Cost: Electricity cost = $0.15/kWh Natural gas cost = $1.00/therm 4. Savings depend on fuel mix used. See detailed writeup (Building Description) * Building type: Residential * Gross area: 2...

  14. Five Common Energy Conversion Projects in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Britton, A. J.; Heffington, W. M.; Nutter, D. W.

    characteristic of many air leaks have smaller coefficients. In general, accuracy may suffer considerably in application of the above method. However this method does have the advantage of identifying the location (or at least the general vicinity) of each leak... operating 50,000 lbm/hr steam boiler to 300 ?F would raise the temperature of 16,000 lbm/hr of feedwater by 96 ?F. This decreased the energy required to boil the feed water by 10,600 MCF/yr worth $23,100/yr, and had a payback of 1.5 years. Combustion air...

  15. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 281 Solar Hot Water Application Assessment for U.S. Army IMCOM-Southeast Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Chvala, William D.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires installations (EISA) to install solar systems of sufficient capacity to provide 30% of service hot water in new construction and renovations where cost-effective. However, installations are struggling with how to implement solar hot water, and while several installations are installing solar hot water on a limited basis, paybacks remain long. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to address this issue to help determine how best to implement solar hot water projects. This documents discusses the results of that project.

  16. Development of Methodology for Determination of Energy efficient and Cost effective Measures in Existing Single-family Residential Buildings using Easy-to-use Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K.H; Haberl, J.S.

    by estimating the 1 Corresponding author. Tel.: +82-10-4642-6290; Email address: keehankim@outlook.com (K.H. Kim) ESL-PA-14-07-02 2 energy savings and cost effectiveness of each measure [2... of the potential ECMs, which includes a calculation of annual energy savings and pay-back period of the potential ECMs. At first, in order to model a standard house that is compliant with the 2009 IECC using the DDP, the performance path alternative provided...

  17. Energy Conservation Through Industrial Cogeneration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solt, J. C.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    illustrates potential savings. Assume that we have a business with a given thermal requirement. Assume further that it is possible to fill this requirement by recovering exhaust heat from a gas turbine which also powers an electric generator. Fuel....021 - 0.013 = 0.008 kWh ? Annual Saving/Kilowatt Installed = $72/kW CD Simple Payback: 266 --;- 72 = 3. 69 years @ Rate of Return = 15% Conclusion Solar has used gas turbine engines to provide site-generated electric power in almost every...

  18. Chapter 16: Retrocommissioning Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retrocommissioning (RCx) is a systematic process for optimizing energy performance in existing buildings. It specifically focuses on improving the control of energy-using equipment (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment and lighting) and typically does not involve equipment replacement. Field results have shown proper RCx can achieve energy savings ranging from 5% to 20%, with a typical payback of 2 years or less. A study conducted on behalf of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory analyzed data from 11 utilities operating RCx programs across the United States. The dataset included 122 RCx projects and more than 950 RCx measures.

  19. Progressive Powder Coating: New Infrared Curing Oven at Metal Finishing Plant Increases Production by 50%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progressive Powder Coating in Mentor, Ohio, is a metal finishing plant that uses a convection oven in its manufacturing process. In an effort to save energy and improve production, the company installed an infrared oven in between the powder coating booth and the convection oven on its production line. This installation allowed the plant to increase its conveyor line speed and increase production by 50 percent. In addition, the plant reduced its natural gas consumption, yielding annual energy savings of approximately$54,000. With a total project cost of$136,000, the simple payback is 2.5 years.

  20. Chapter 1.19: Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Thin Film: CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chapter reviews the history, development, and present processes used to fabricate thin-film, CdTe-based photovoltaic (PV) devices. It is intended for readers who are generally familiar with the operation and material aspects of PV devices but desire a deeper understanding of the process sequences used in CdTe PV technology. The discussion identifies why certain processes may have commercial production advantages and how the various process steps can interact with each other to affect device performance and reliability. The chapter concludes with a discussion of considerations of large-area CdTe PV deployment including issues related to material availability and energy-payback time.

  1. Quality In-Plant Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petzold, M. A.

    of ventilated air during the heating season. This requi~e? merlt by itself would increase total ene~gy use by 20%. This seemS cont~adictory to the co~po~ate goal of 2% actual energy ~eduction pe~ year, for the period of 1985 th~ough 1990. Howeve...~, integration of several concepts and utilizing waste energy f~om available sou~ces provides the oppor tunity to meet and exceed both goals in a cost effective manner, with an excellent payback. The presentation quantifies the excess ene~gy available...

  2. Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code (ASHRAE 90.1-2001 and 2007) Restaurant Buildings in the City of Arlington 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the improvement, #1; simple payback calculations, and #1; emissions savings. 2 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Methodology 3 #1; ESL simulation model based on the DOE-2.2 of ASHRAE 90.1- 2001 and 2007 code-compliant, restaurant building for Tarrant County #1; A... for unoccupied periods 70F Heating 75 F Cooling Setback during unoccupied hours. Optimal start control one hour before occupied hours. 65F Heating 80 F Cooling ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Methodology 5 #1; 5,500 ft2, one- story, building – Dining space modeled (4...

  3. Managing Energy in San Antonio Public Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al R etr ofi ts: Im pac t Pro jec ts c om ple ted /un der wa y ( 5 y ear s) Total Projects 398 Total Facility Sites Improved 180 Capital Investment $36,127,097 Avoided Cost, $/yr $4,219,509 Rebates Received $5,427,701 Simple Payback, years 8... PC Energy Mgmnt • Software solution • 6,500 devices • $200K annual savings Pool Pump Control • Stop over-circulating • 24 Public Pools • $70K annual savings LED Street Lighting • Replace high wattage fixt. • 25,000 fixtures • $, kWh annually Chillers...

  4. Get to the Savings NOW!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, J. C.

    .15 year payback with no impact on production. The savings was a combination of reduced electrical consumption on several high static pressure, high horsepower (1500HP) fans along with reduced fuel consumption to maintain 1000 deg F. as opposed... Calculation W inter Eco no mizer Summer W inter Econ omizer Summer Assembly 2630 HP 2630 HP 2630 HP 2630 HP 2630 HP 2630 HP Body Shop 1300 HP 1300 HP 1300 HP 1300 HP 1300 HP 1300 HP HP totals 3930 HP 3930 HP 3930 HP 3930 HP 3930 HP 3930 HP load hrs/year fact...

  5. Integrated Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heins, S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6 Customer Story Bemis Manufacturing Sheboygan Falls, WI Before After Energy & Financial Impacts Annual Energy Savings $317,897 Maintenance Savings $63,579 Payback Period Less than 2 years Annual Displaced Energy 6,300,289 kWh Displaced Capacity 731... 10 Off The Grid Sensor Integration Natural Daylight Base and Peak Energy Reduction 11 Lowest Cost Renewable Solar Integrated Lighting $1.0 million/MW $6 – 9 million/MW Wind $1.3 - 1.9 million/MW Biomass $1.5 – 2.5 million/MW Geothermal $1.6 million...

  6. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  7. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  8. Tax credit for tight-sands gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schugart, G.L.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a $3 per barrel tax credit, which is tied to crude oil prices, in the Windfall Profits Tax (WPT) for producing fuels from certain unconventional sources. Concentrating on the tight gas formations section of qualifying fuels, the author examines the tax credit and certain factors natural gas producers may want to consider in deciding on whether to choose the tax credit or the incentive prices of the Natural Gas Policy Act. The decline in oil prices is significant enough to provide some producers an opportunity to take advantage of the tax credit. They should do some tax planning by calculating the estimated break-even point for NGPA incentive prices and the nonconventional gas production tax credit.

  9. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  10. Instability Control in a Staged Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. WESSEL

    2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A \\Staged Z-Pinchâ?ť is a fusion-energy concept in which stored-electric energy is first converted into plasma-liner-kinetic energy, and then transferred to a coaxialtarget plasma [H. U. Rahman, F. J. Wessel, and N. Rostoker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, p. 714(1996)]. Proper choice of the liner and target materials, and their initial radii and mass densities, leads to dynamic stabilization, current amplification, and shock heating of the target. Simulations suggest that this configuration has merit as a alternative inertial-confinement-fusion concept, and may provide an energy release exceeding thermonuclear break-even, if tested on one of many newer pulsed power systems, for example those located at Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. Iron production maintenance effectiveness system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augstman, J.J. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

  12. Preliminary Neutronic Study of D2O-cooled High Conversion PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a preliminary neutronics analysis of tight-pitch D2O-cooled high-conversion PWRs loaded with MOX fuel aiming at high Pu conversion and negative void coefficient. SCALE6.1 has been exclusively utilized for this study. The analyses are performed in two separate parts. The first part of this paper investigates the performance of axial and internal blankets and seeks break-even or near-breeder core even without the presence of radial blankets. The second part of this paper performs sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected systems in order to analyze the characters of this high-conversion PWR from different aspects.

  13. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  14. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  15. THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

  16. Complementarity And Firewalls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard Susskind

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been withdrawn because the author no longer believes the firewall argument is correct.

  17. Building America Spring 2012 Stakeholder Meeting Report - Austin, Texas: February 29 - March 2, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is no longer available. Please contact Cheryn.Metzger@nrel.gov for further information.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Energy Recovery Ventilators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosar, D.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is no longer available. Please contact Stacey.Rothgeb@nrel.gov for further information.

  19. Multimodel Ensemble Reconstruction of Drought over the Continental United States AIHUI WANG* AND THEODORE J. BOHN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Hurricane Andrew combined (Ross and Lott 2003). Historically, droughts of decadal length or longer

  20. Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is no longer available. Please contact Michael.Gestwick@nrel.gov for further information.

  1. Joint International Conference on Multibody System Dynamics Asian Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leyendecker, Sigrid

    of electrical drives and portable batteries, they are far from being autarkic for longer times. Furthermore

  2. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Europe to other regions. Longer term opportunities requiring more advanced technology include new biomass

  3. Residential Ground Source Heat Pumps with Integrated Domestic Hot Water Generation: Performance Results from Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stecher, D.; Allison, K.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is no longer available. Please contact Michael.Gestwick@nrel.gov for further information.

  4. Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2010 - 2011 Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon, C.; Parker, D.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is no longer available. Please contact Stacey.Rothgeb@nrel.gov for further information.

  5. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is no longer available. Please contact Cheryn.Metzger@nrel.gov for further information.

  6. Roof and Attic Design Guidelines for new and retrofit Construction of Homes in Hot and Coild Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; LaFrance, Marc [International Energy Agency] [International Energy Agency

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some guidelines for improving the energy efficiency of roofs and attics are presented and are based on the research of the DOE Building Technology. The results of combined analytical and experimental studies were used to benchmark computer tools, which in turn, were used to simulate homes in hot and cold climates. Adding floor and roof insulation, above deck ventilation, radiant barriers, cool color shingle, metal or tile roofs, sealing the attic floor, sealing the duct system and sealing the attic were simulated to compute the cost of energy savings. Results are prioritized to help building owners make an informed economic decision when contemplating roof and attic retrofits. Sealing the attic floor is a top retrofit option. The sealed attic approach and a new prototype roof assembly an insulated and ventilated roof are good options for retrofit work but have paybacks ranging from 15 to 25 years. A new sealed attic concept was simulated and computations show its simple payback is about 10 to 12 years in hot and cold climates; its first cost is significantly reduced from that of a spray foam approach. For new construction the best option is to keep the ducts out of the attic, make sure the attic floor is sealed and add at least code level of insulation to the ceiling.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. R. Zirker; J. E. Francfort; J. J. Fielding

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation final report documents the feasibility of using oil bypass filters on 17 vehicles in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) fleet during a 3-year test period. Almost 1.3 million test miles were accumulated, with eleven 4-cycle diesel engine buses accumulating 982,548 test miles and six gasoline-engine Chevrolet Tahoes accumulating 303,172 test miles. Two hundred and forty oil samples, taken at each 12,000-mile bus servicing event and at 3,000 miles for the Tahoes, documented the condition of the engine oils for continued service. Twenty-eight variables were normally tested, including the presence of desired additives and undesired wear metals such as iron and chrome, as well as soot, water, glycol, and fuel. Depending on the assumptions employed, the INL found that oil bypass filter systems for diesel engine buses have a positive payback between 72,000 and 144,000 miles. For the Tahoes, the positive payback was between 66,000 and 69,000 miles.

  8. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation - Third Quarterly Report, April--June 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurence R. Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Third Quarterly report details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the PuraDYN Corporation. The reported engine lubricating oil-filtering capability (down to 0.1 microns) and additive package of the bypass filter system is intended to extend oil-drain intervals. To validate the extended oil-drain intervals, an oil-analysis regime monitors the presence of necessary additives in the oil, detects undesirable contaminants and engine wear metals, and evaluates the fitness of the oil for continued service. The eight buses have accumulated 185,000 miles to date without any oil changes. The preliminary economic analysis suggests that the per bus payback point for the oil bypass filter technology should be between 108,000 miles when 74 gallons of oil use is avoided and 168,000 miles when 118 gallons of oil use is avoided. As discussed in the report, the variation in the payback point is dependant on the assumed cost of oil. In anticipation of also evaluating oil bypass systems on six Chevrolet Tahoe sport utility vehicles, the oil is being sampled on the six Tahoes to develop an oil characterization history for each engine.

  9. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  10. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conings, B.; Baeten, L.; Jacobs, T.; Dera, R.; D’Haen, J.; Manca, J.; Boyen, H.-G. [Instituut voor Materiaalonderzoek, Universiteit Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450?°C), which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ?150?°C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO{sub 2} layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO{sub 2} layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3-x}Cl{sub x}poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Ag architecture.

  11. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  12. Productivity genefits from new energy technology: A case study of a paint manufacturing company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghunathan, P.; Capehart, B.L.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many cases, implementing new energy efficiency technologies not only helps facilities reduce their energy costs, but it also creates greater profits by increasing productivity. These added benefits from productivity improvements can sometimes be greater than the energy cost savings, and can result in an attractive overall payback period for implementing the new technology. This paper presents a case study of productivity improvement at a paint manufacturing company as a result of implementing new energy efficiency technology. During an industrial energy assessment, it was noted that the company had experienced frequent failures of motor belts and sheaves on five paint mixers resulting in significant replacement costs and labor costs. In addition, a bigger loss was being suffered due to lost potential profit associated with the frequent work stoppages. The IAC recommendation was to install motor soft starters (also known as motor voltage controllers) on the five mixing machines. Installation of soft starters would have the following benefits: lower energy costs, lower replacement costs for transmission components, lower labor costs, and higher production levels and increased profits. The total annual benefits were estimated at $122,659, of which the benefits from increased productivity were nearly $67,000. The overall simple payback period for installing the soft starters was less than 2 months.

  13. Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

  14. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Wipke, K. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

  15. Costs and benefits from utility-funded commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the costs and savings of commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings. A total of 46 EEMs were commissioned for all 16 buildings and 73 deficiencies were corrected. On average, commissioning was marginally cost effective on energy savings alone, although the results were mixed among all 16 buildings. When considered as a stand-alone measure, the median simple payback time of 6.5 years under the low energy prices in the Pacific Northwest. Under national average prices the median payback time is about three years. In estimating the present value of the energy savings from commissioning we considered low and high lifetimes for the persistence of savings from deficiency corrections. Under the low- lifetime case the average present value of the energy savings ($0. 21/ft{sup 2}) were about equal to the average commissioning costs ($0. 23/ft{sup 2}). Under the high-lifetime case the savings ($0.51/ft{sup 2}) were about twice the costs. Again, the savings would be about twice as large under national average prices. The results are subject to significant uncertainty because of the small sample size and lack of metered data in the evaluation. However, the findings suggest that investments in commissioning pay off. Building owners want buildings that work as intended, and are comfortable, healthy, and efficient. It is likely that the non-energy benefits, which are difficult to quantify, are larger than the energy-savings benefits.

  16. July 19

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Incidents: The 713 maintenance ended up taking longer than scheduled due to some server issues. The power upgrade took longer than expected so there wasn't time for the...

  17. Carlos R. Montalto Cruz' Old Web Page

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I am no longer at Purdue University, I am now working at the University of Washington in Seattle. The link to my new webpage is HERE. I will no longer support ...

  18. Investigation of the Performance of D2O-Cooled High-Conversion Reactors for Fuel Cycle Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents FY13 activities for the analysis of D2O cooled tight-pitch High-Conversion PWRs (HCPWRs) with U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores aiming at break-even or near breeder conditions while retaining the negative void reactivity. The analyses are carried out from several aspects which could not be covered in FY12 activities. SCALE 6.1 code system is utilized, and a series of simple 3D fuel pin-cell models are developed in order to perform Monte Carlo based criticality and burnup calculations. The performance of U-Pu fueled cores with axial and internal blankets is analyzed in terms of their impact on the relative fissile Pu mass balance, initial Pu enrichment, and void coefficient. In FY12, Pu conversion performances of D2O-cooled HCPWRs fueled with MOX were evaluated with small sized axial/internal DU blankets (approximately 4cm of axial length) in order to ensure the negative void reactivity, which evidently limits the conversion performance of HCPWRs. In this fiscal year report, the axial sizes of DU blankets are extended up to 30 cm in order to evaluate the amount of DU necessary to reach break-even and/or breeding conditions. Several attempts are made in order to attain the milestone of the HCPWR designs (i.e., break-even condition and negative void reactivity) by modeling of HCPWRs under different conditions such as boiling of D2O coolant, MOX with different 235U enrichment, and different target burnups. A similar set of analyses are performed for Th-U fueled cores. Several promising characteristics of 233U over other fissile like 239Pu and 235U, most notably its higher fission neutrons per absorption in thermal and epithermal ranges combined with lower ___ in the fast range than 239Pu allows Th-U cores to be taller than MOX ones. Such an advantage results in 4% higher relative fissile mass balance than that of U-Pu fueled cores while retaining the negative void reactivity until the target burnup of 51 GWd/t. Several other distinctions between U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores are identified by evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of keff, mass balance, and void coefficient. The effect of advanced iron alloy cladding (i.e., FeCrAl) on the performance of Pu conversion in MOX fueled cores is studied instead of using standard stainless-steel cladding. Variations in clad thickness and coolant-to-fuel volume ratio are also exercised. The use of FeCrAl instead of SS as a cladding alloy reduces the required Pu enrichment and improves the Pu conversion rate primarily due to the absence of nickel in the cladding alloy that results in the reduction of the neutron absorption. Also the difference in void coefficients between SS and FeCrAl alloys is nearly 500 pcm over the entire burnup range. The report also shows sensitivity and uncertainty analyses in order to characterize D2O cooled HCPWRs from different aspects. The uncertainties of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected reactor cores are evaluated at different burnup points in order to find similarities and trends respect to D2O-HCPWR.

  19. The Ethics of Coexistence: Can I Learn to Stop Worrying and Love the Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aycock, John

    ]; attackers switch to phishing and keylogging to steal pass- words, attacks that can no longer be detected

  20. Impact of Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures on interannual and decadal variations of GRACE land water storage in tropical South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Linage, Caroline; Kim, Hyungjun; Famiglietti, James S; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stress, i.e. , the ground water storage [Toomey et al. ,and longer time scales, as ground water storage multidecadal

  1. Effects of hemi-joint culture on biomechanical and biochemical properties of articular cartilage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rone, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    However, with prolonged cold storage longer than ~7 days,significant improvement over cold storage conditions used in

  2. Delegation Order No. 0204-60 to the Governor of the State of Kentucky

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Rescinded by: 57 FR 23932, effective June 3, 1992 – The statutory bases for this regulation no longer exist.

  3. Delegation Order No. 0204-40 to the Government of the State of Arizona

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Rescinded by: 57 FR 23932, effective June 3, 1992 – The statutory bases for this regulation no longer exist.

  4. Delegation Order No. 0204-56 to the Governor of the State of Maine

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Rescinded by: 57 FR 23932, effective June 3, 1992 – The statutory bases for this regulation no longer exist.

  5. Delegation Order No. 0204-58 to the Governor of the State of South Carolina

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Rescinded by: 57 FR 23932, effective June 3, 1992 – The statutory bases for this regulation no longer exist.

  6. Delegation Order No. 0204-59 to the Governor of the State of Wisconsin

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Rescinded by: 57 FR 23932, effective June 3, 1992 – The statutory bases for this regulation no longer exist.

  7. Coulomb energy spacing is 50 meV (assum-ing that the oxide layer between the dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Steven G.

    can be held much longer than the current 5 s. The SEMM should be investigated more thoroughly before

  8. Quantum Information Science: Emerging No More

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlton M. Caves

    2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Short history of quantum information science. The chief message is that the field is no longer emerging. It has arrived.

  9. Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of Cations in Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cation degradation insights obtained by computational modeling could result in better performance and longer lifetime for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  10. University of Extremadura International Office's Information Sheet. Full legal name of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Samuel

    longer with fax CÁCERES AND PLASENCIA CAMPUS: ESMERALDA FOLLECO e-mail: esmeraldafc@unex.es Phone: 0034

  11. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Summary. To study the transport and recovery of injected SiO2 nanoparticles through a longer flow path.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF A LARGE NONCIRCULAR RFP (Poster presented at 1987 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    not sustained, the magnetic equilibria decay time was longer than ideal HHO instabil1ty tlmesoales, and detailed

  13. Energy-aware Cross-layer Burst Buffering for Wireless Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy-efficient hardware and batteries in the longer run, we believe there is still a need for carefully

  14. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C8, Suppl6ment au no 12, Tome 49, d6cembre 1988

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    consistent and reliable re- sults. The quality and efficiencyof ZnO films decreases with longer sputtering

  15. Renewable Energy Grant Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: This program is no longer accepting applications. See the program web site for information regarding future solicitations. '''''

  16. Persons with any of the following risk factors are candidates for either Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA), unless a previous positive test has been documented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    : o Cough (especially if lasting for 3 weeks or longer) with or without sputum production o Coughing

  17. Job announcements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    www.biogeography.org/  To post jobs, advertisements, or long, or longer form).    job announcements  Associate/Full 

  18. Oumelbanine Zhiri, Literature Department Chair of the Building Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    and ventilation systems, in order to determine that the new conditions no longer subject the workers to cancer

  19. City of Detroit- SmartBuildings Detroit Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: This program is no longer accepting applications. Check the program web site for information regarding future solicitations.'''''...

  20. City of Detroit- SmartBuildings Detroit Green Fund Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: This program is no longer accepting applications. Check the program web site for information regarding future solicitations.'''''...

  1. Early Detection Saves Lives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Former Department of Energy (DOE) workers tell how medical screening helped them lead healthier and longer lives.

  2. Essays on International Finance and Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exogeneity assumption on oil prices may no longer beassumption that the structural breaks in the relations between oil

  3. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Energy and Innovative Technologies; NEC Laboratories America Inc.; Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Bozchalui, Mohammed C.; Sharma, Ratnesh; Marnay, Chris; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  4. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. combustion industry is among the most productive, efficient, and technologically sophisticated in the world and remains vital to the nation’s economic competitiveness and national security. As the industry looks forward, it confronts tremendous growth opportunities but also significant technical and market challenges. Future industry success will depend on the industry's ability to respond to competitive pressures as well as public expectations for a clean and sustainable industry. Much progress has been made in understanding the fundamental science of combustion; however, much more is needed as regulatory and competitive forces push the industry to develop combustion equipment with better performance, lower environmental impact, and greater flexibility. Immense opportunities exist for companies to develop and apply new technology responding to these needs. Unfortunately, few companies can accept the high technical and financial risk required for the research if the technology is not adopted widely enough to provide a payback on their investment.

  5. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  6. Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Bing

    2004-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.

  7. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  8. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  9. Solar Energy System Economic Evaluation. Final report for Elam-Tempe, Tempe, Arizona and Elcam-San Diego, San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic analysis of the solar energy systems that were installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California, is developed for these and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-Chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. The results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  10. Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Single Family Residences 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhotra, M.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Liu, B.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    15 TOTAL 63.7 62.7 56.7 58.2 60.6 62.5 61.3 60.5 61.6 61.1 SAVINGS% 1.5 10.9 8.7 4.8 1.8 3.7 5.0 3.3 4.1 Energy Systems Laboratory @2007 RESULTS IN TR O D UC TI O N BA SE CA SE CO N CL US IO N EE M ?S R ES UL TS $0 $1... Hot Water System 10.9% 13 Years Most Effective Individual Measures Combination 1 ENERGY SAVINGS PAYBACK Solar Hot Water System 15.7% 7.6 ? 13.5 Years Improved Duct Sealing Energy Systems Laboratory @2007 ESL CONTACT INFORMATION minimalhotra...

  11. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF SIMULATION TECHNIQUES FOR DAYLIGHT RESPONSIVE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Doulos; A. Tsangrassoulis; F. Topalis

    * corresponding author Application of lighting control technologies has increased the public interest. Although these technologies have been promoted during the last years their successful use in buildings has been accomplished in a small percentage of new projects. One reason is the difficulty in quantifying the energy savings and thus the subsequent payback period. The majority of existing simulation tools (which are embedded in building energy codes) –needed during initial design- are based on the estimation of the potential energy savings due to daylight. The paper focus on the limitations of current simulation approaches comparing their results, in order to assess their accuracy. For this, special test cases have been developed exploiting their domain of validity.

  12. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 5.1:Expand the Number of Faculty Working in Wind Energy: Wind Energy Supply Chain and Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY Wind as a source of energy has gained a significant amount of attention because it is free and green. Construction of a wind farm involves considerable investment, which includes the cost of turbines, nacelles, and towers as well as logistical costs such as transportation of oversized parts and installation costs such as crane-rental costs. The terrain effects at the project site exert considerable influence on the turbine assembly rate and the project duration, which increases the overall installation cost. For higher capacity wind turbines (>3MW), the rental cost of the cranes is significant. In this study, the impact of interest rate, sales price of electricity, terrain effects and availability of cranes on the duration of installation and payback period for the project is analyzed. Optimization of the logistic activities involved during the construction phase of a wind farm contributes to the reduction of the project duration and also increases electricity generation during the construction phase.

  13. Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.

  14. Zinc extraction from EAF dust with EZINEX{reg_sign} process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olper, M. [Engitec Impianti S.p.A., Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Italian company Engitec Impianti has developed a new electrochemical technology for the treatment of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) flue dust generated in steel mini-mills. This process is based on a new and completely different concept from the Waeltz technology applied at present and allows, due to its modular nature, for an erection on the steel producer`s site. Engitec Impianti spent US $700.000 constructing a 500 t/y throughput pilot plant at Pittini Group`s Ferriere Nord mini-mill in Osoppo, Italy in order to demonstrate the process capabilities and obtain the data for a commercial plant design. The paper describes the pilot plant performances and the engineering criteria for a commercial unit of 10.000 t/y throughput. The feasibility study demonstrates a pay-back period of 3--4 years for the commercial plant.

  15. Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

  16. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce its peak day heat transfer by almost 85 percent of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibits attic air temperatures that do not exceed the maximum daily outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the roof deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to gauge the cost of energy savings and potential payback.

  17. MotorMaster database of three-phase electric motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Selecting the right motor for a new or replacement application used to be a daunting task. Making an intelligent choice involved a search through a stack of motor catalogs for information on efficiency, voltage, speed, horsepower, torque, service factor, power factor, frame type, and cost. The MotorMaster software package, available from the Washington State Energy Office, takes the drudgery out of motor selection by enabling rapid analysis of the most efficient and cost-effective single-speed three-phase induction motors. It has a built-in motor database, easy to use comparison and analysis features, and can calculate utility rebates and simple paybacks. By speeding the selection process and providing comprehensive economic justification for the final equipment choice, software tools like MotorMaster can become an important component of utility DSM programs. And as a bonus, wide use of such software may lead to more systematic and consistent use of energy efficient equipment.

  18. Energy-conservation opportunities in lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies and techniques which can be employed by your existing personnel - without the need for consultants - to reduce your lighting costs by as much as 70% are discussed. Four basic steps to reduce energy costs and improve the effectiveness of the lighting system discussed are: get acquainted with some of the basic terminology and energy efficient lamps and fixtures which are on the market; conduct a survey of the building to determine where and how much energy and money can be saved in the process; implement the simple, low-cost or no-cost measures immediately; and calculate the payback period for capital investment modifications, and implement those which make economic sense. Case studies are used to illustrate the recommendations. (MCW)

  19. Black Bear Prep plant replaces high-frequency screens with fine wire sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, C.J.; Nottingham, J.

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Black Bear prep plant (near Wharncliffe, WV, USA) the clean coal from the spirals traditionally reported to high-frequency screens, which removed high-ash clay fines. Screens have inherent inefficiencies that allow clean coal to report to the screen underflow. The goal of this project was to capture the maximum amount of spiral clean coal while still removing the high-ash clay material found in the spiral product. The reduction of the circulating load and plant downtime for unscheduled maintenance were projected as additional benefits. After the plant upgrade, the maintenance related to the high frequency screens was eliminated and an additional 2.27 tons per hour (tph) of fine coal was recovered, which resulted in a payback period of less than one year. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal Prep 2007 in April 2007, Lexington, KY, USA. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Development of technology in the production of fertilizers in ammoniation-granulation plants. Progress report No. 12, September 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work conducted to demonstrate procedures and equipment to conserve about 83% of fuel oil used for drying and generating steam in the ammoniation-granulation plants is reported. The general mechanism of granulation is examined. Conventional ammoniation-granulation plants are described and the new pipe-cross reactor system is described and schematics of their design are presented. Results of some demonstration tests reveal that an average of 785,000 Btu's per ton of production is eliminated with the installation of the TVA pipe-cross reactor process. It also reduces atmospheric emissions. Data on investment cost and payback period of the installation of a pipe-cross reactor in an existing TVA granulation fertilizer plant are presented.

  1. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  2. Continuous Commissioning®

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culp, C.; Claridge, D. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 08 Jan -0 9 M ar -0 9 M ay -0 9 Ju l-0 9 S ep -0 9 C um ul at iv e S av in gs ChW Elect Gas Example ? Austin City Hall ? CC? Results Post-CC? $ 112K Implementation Phase 17% Energy Savings Payback ~ 2 years $0... $20,000 $40,000 $60,000 $80,000 $100,000 $120,000 M ay -0 8 Ju l-0 8 S ep -0 8 No v- 08 Jan -0 9 M ar -0 9 M ay -0 9 Ju l-0 9 S ep -0 9 C um ul at iv e S av in gs ChW Elect Gas Example ? Austin City...

  3. Potential for a cycling steam power plant with TES to supply district heating in Washington DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobson, M.J.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Office of the District of Columbia is planning the conversion of a 1500 TPD incinerator for district heating and the generation of electric power for sale to the local utility, PEPCO. This paper records a preliminary evaluation of whether hot water storage would be appropriate at the heat source plant to maximize power sales and improve the reliability of the district heat service. Hot water storage is being employed successfully at Herning, Denmark, in conjunction with a cogeneration plant heat source, and this concept is adapted to Washington D.C. area needs for heating and cooling service. Heat storage allows a 7% increase in power sales based on a simplified approach to daily load profiles and PEPCO's proposed avoided cost rates. Pressurized storage is uneconomic due to the high cost of containment, but atmospheric storage at 200F shows a simple payback of 5 years.

  4. QER- Comment of Tremolux

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Sirs, Despite what might have been your best intentions, your 2013 report on Low-E storm windows is Worthless! All of the careful calculations and measurements are Worthless if the actual price of low-E storms is 4X what you claim! Given that a high-quality low-E storm window costs over $220 each, including installation, the payback period is Absurd! Who the hell is responsible for this Bullshit? Go shopping for low-E storms ... we Dare You! You might find some very cheap, plain grey, aluminum units ... but even those will be 3X the price that you claim. Don't you understand what we're saying? Your entire Cost/Benefit analysis is a FRAUD! Time to wake up! Tremolux

  5. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break-even selling price for the baseline assumption is about $11/GJ, however it may be possible to reduce this value by 20-30% depending on other factors evaluated in the non-baseline scenarios. Assuming a value for the char co-product improves the analysis. Significantly lower break-even costs are possible in an international setting, as labor is the dominant production cost.

  6. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  7. Resource engineering and economic studies for direct application of geothermal energy. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of utilizing geothermal energy at a selected plant in New York State was studied. Existing oil and gas records suggests that geothermal fluid is available in the target area and based on this potential. Friendship Dairies, Inc., Friendship, NY, was selected as a potential user of geothermal energy. Currently natural gas and electricity are used as its primary energy sources. Six geothermal system configurations were analyzed based on replacement of gas or oil-fired systems for producing process heat. Each system was evaluated in terms of Internal Rate of Return on Investment (IRR), and simple payback. Six system configurations and two replaced fuels, representative of a range of situations found in the state, are analyzed. Based on the potential geothermal reserves at Friendship, each of the six system configurations are shown to be economically viable, compared to continued gas or oil-firing. The Computed IRR's are all far in excess of projected average interest rates for long term borrowings: approximately 15% for guarantee backed loans or as high as 20% for conventional financing. IRR is computed based on the total investment (equity plus debt) and cash flows before financing costs, i.e., before interest expense, but after the tax benefit of the interest deduction. The base case application for the Friendship analysis is case B/20 yr-gas which produces an IRR of 28.5% and payback of 3.4 years. Even better returns could be realized in the cases of oil-avoidance and where greater use of geothermal energy can be made as shown in the other cases considered.

  8. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  9. Prospects for the recovery of uranium from seawater. Final report. [URPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, F.R.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer program entitled URPE (Uranium Recovery Performance and Economics) has been developed for analysis of a plant recovering uranium from seawater. The conceptual system design consists of a floating oil-rig type platform, using seawater forced through hydrous titanium oxide. Uranium is recovered from the seawater by adsorption and eluted later. The equilibrium isotherm and the diffusion constant for the uranyl-HTO system, which are needed for bed performance calculations, have been calculated. The URPE program has been benchmarked against previous studies by ORNL and Exxon, and found to make comparable performance and economic estimates. The URPE code was then used to identify optimum bed operating conditions. Thin beds of small, thinly-coated particles are the preferred bed configuration, and actively pumped systems outperform current driven units. Based on URPE, the minimum expected costs of uranium recovered from seawater would be no lower than approx. 316 (1979$)/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ for state-of-the-art adsorber material (capacity equal to 210 mg U/kg Ti), but might be reduced to the level of breakeven attractiveness of approx. 150 (1979$)/lb U/sub 3/U/sub 8/ if at least a four-fold increase in adsorption capacity could be achieved.

  10. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  11. Results of gas-fired flash-smelting tests. Phase 1-3. Topical technical report, November 1987-April 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusateri, J.F.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A natural gas-fired burner for the HRD FLAME REACTOR Process was designed and successfully tested on over 450 tons of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust, and over a wide range of operating conditions. The coal/coke-fired FLAME REACTOR Process has already been demonstrated as an efficient and economic means of recovering zinc from EAF dust as a salable oxide product, and a salable nonhazardous, iron-rich slag product. The results of the work indicate that the natural gas-fired process has a higher zinc capacity for a given reactor size, with zinc recoveries 5-10 percentage points higher than coal/coke processing at high throughputs. Gas-fired capital costs are about 15% less than coal for a 20,000 STPY EAF dust plant. Smaller plants show even higher break-even costs. Net processing costs are about $100/ton of EAF dust, which is extremely competitive with land-filling and other recycling options.

  12. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  13. FEDSOL: economic optimization guide for solar federal buildings projects. Model-simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, J.W.; Rodgers, R.C. Jr.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FEDSOL program determines the economically optimal size of a solar energy system for a user-specified building, location, system type, and set of economic conditions; it conducts numerous breakeven and sensitivity analyses; and it calculates measures of economic performance as required under the Federal Rules. The economic model in the program is linked with the SLR (Solar Load Ratio) design method developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to predict the performance of active systems. The economics portion of the program can, however, be used apart from the SLR method, with performance data provided by the user. An environmental data file for 243 U.S. cities is included in the program. Highly user oriented, the FEDSOL program is intended as a design and sizing tool for use by architects, engineers, and facilities managers in developing plans for Federal solar energy projects...Software Description: The program is written in the BASIC programming language for implementation on a CYBER 170/720 computer using the NOS Level 531 operating system. 47K bytes of core storage are required to operate the model.

  14. Accelerator breeders: will they replace liquid metal fast breeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grand, P.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of accelerator breeders at Brookhaven National Laboratory indicate that the AB-LWR fuel cycle is economically competitive with the LMFBR fuel cycle. The same can be said about the accelerator breeder-High Temperature Gas Reactor symbiosis. This system appears to be very competitive with the added real advantage of superior safety and proliferation resistance. This discussion would be incomplete if the real competitor to accelerator breeding was not mentioned, namely Fusion Hybrid Breeding (FHB). Fusion Hybrid Breeding is a nearer option than pure fusion, as the breakeven Q value requirements are much more modest. Fusion Hybrid Breeding, if successful and practical, has the potential for highly efficient fissile fuel breeding, leading to cheaper fuel. The system, however, has yet to be demonstrated scientifically and to be shown commercially feasible. This is in contrast with the AB system which is an extension of proven, state-of-the-art technology with implementation possible within twenty years. 25 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Advancements in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) for Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Robert [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Yang Yang; Miley, G.H. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-- Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mead, F.B. [AFRL/PRSP, 10 E. Saturn Blvd., Edwards AFB CA 93524-7680 (United States)

    2005-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a dense plasma focus (DPF) propulsion device using p-11B is described. A propulsion system of this type is attractive because of its high thrust-to-weight ratio capabilities at high specific impulses. From a fuel standpoint, p-11B is advantageous because of the aneutronic nature of the reaction, which is favorable for the production of thrust since the charged particles can be channeled by a magnetic field. Different fusion mechanisms are investigated and their implication to the p-11B reaction is explored. Three main requirements must be satisfied to reach breakeven for DPF fusion: a high Ti/Te ratio ({approx}20), an order of magnitude higher pinch lifetime, and the reflection and absorption of at least 50% radiation. Moreover, a power re-circulation method with high efficiency must be available for the relatively low Q value of the DPF fusion reactor. A possible direct energy conversion scheme using magnetic field compression is discussed. DPF parameters are estimated for thrust levels of 1000 kN and 500 kN, and possible propulsion applications are discussed, along with developmental issues.

  16. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting in Leavenworth, KS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Curry, Ku'uipo

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a commercial parking lot lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting Technology GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The parking lot is for customers and employees of a Walmart Supercenter in Leavenworth, Kansas and this installation represents the first use of the LED Parking Lot Performance Specification developed by the DOE’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance. The application is a parking lot covering more than a half million square feet, lighted primarily by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Metal halide wall packs were installed along the building facade. This site is new construction, so the installed baseline(s) were hypothetical designs. It was acknowledged early on that deviating from Walmart’s typical design would reduce the illuminance on the site. Walmart primarily uses 1000W pulse-start metal halide (PMH) lamps. In order to provide a comparison between both typical design and a design using conventional luminaires providing a lower illuminance, a 400W PMH design was also considered. As mentioned already, the illuminance would be reduced by shifting from the PMH system to the LED system. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) provides recommended minimum illuminance values for parking lots. All designs exceeded the recommended illuminance values in IES RP-20, some by a wider margin than others. Energy savings from installing the LED system compared to the different PMH systems varied. Compared to the 1000W PMH system, the LED system would save 63 percent of the energy. However, this corresponds to a 68 percent reduction in illuminance as well. In comparison to the 400W PMH system, the LED system would save 44 percent of the energy and provide similar minimum illuminance values at the time of relamping. The LED system cost more than either of the PMH systems when comparing initial costs. However, when the life-cycle costs from energy and maintenance were factored into the scenario, the LED system had lower costs at the end of a 10-year analysis period. The LED system had a 6.1 year payback compared to the 1000W PMH system and a 7.5 year payback versus the 400W PMH system. The costs reflect high initial cost for the LED luminaire, plus more luminaires and (subsequently) more poles for the LED system. The other major issue affecting cost effectiveness was that Leavenworth, Kansas has very low electricity costs. The melded rate for this site was $0.056 per kWh for electricity. However, if the national electricity rate of $0.1022/kWh was used the payback would change to between four and five years for the LED system. This demonstration met the GATEWAY requirements of saving energy, matching or improving illumination, and being cost effective. The project also demonstrated that the Commercial Building Energy Alliance (CBEA) specification works in practice. Walmart appreciated having an entire site lighted by LEDs to gain more experience with the technology. Walmart is reviewing the results of the demonstration as they consider their entire real estate portfolio.

  17. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights in the Lane County Tour of Homes, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 2008 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a light emitting diode (LED) residential lighting demonstration project for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies, as part of DOE’s Solid State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Gateway Program. Two lighting technologies, an LED replacement for downlight lamps (bulbs) and an LED undercabinet lighting fixture, were tested in the demonstration which was conducted in two homes built for the 2008 Tour of Homes in Eugene, Oregon. The homes were built by the Lane County Home Builders Association (HBA), and Future B Homes. The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO) also participated in the demonstration project. The LED downlight product, the LR6, made by Cree LED Lighting Solutions acts as a screw-in replacement for incandescent and halogen bulbs in recessed can downlights. The second product tested is Phillips/Color Kinetics’ eW® Profile Powercore undercabinet fixture designed to mount under kitchen cabinets to illuminate the countertop and backsplash surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light performance and electrical power usage were taken at each site before and after initially installed halogen and incandescent lamps were replaced with the LED products. Energy savings and simple paybacks were also calculated and builders who toured the homes were surveyed for their responses to the LED products. The LED downlight product drew 12 Watts of power, cutting energy use by 82% compared to the 65W incandescent lamp and by 84% compared to the 75W halogen lamp. The LED undercabinet fixture drew 10 watts, cutting energy use by 83% to 90% compared to the halogen product, which was tested at two power settings: a low power 60W setting and a high power 105W setting. The LED downlight consistently provided more light than the halogen and incandescent lamps in horizontal measurements at counter height and floor level. It also outperformed in vertical illuminance measurements taken on the walls, indicating better lateral dispersion of the light. The undercabinet fixture’s light output was midway between the low and high power halogen undercabinet fixture light outputs (35.8 foot candle versus 13.4 fc and 53.4 fc) but it produced a more uniform light (max/min ratio of 7.0 versus 10.8). The color correlated temperature (CCT, the blue or yellowness) of the LED light correlated well with the halogen and incandescent lights (2675 K vs 2700 K). The color rendering of the LED downlight also correlated well at 92 CRI compared to 100 CRI for the halogen and incandescent lamps. The LED undercabinet fixture had measures of 2880 K CCT and 71 CRI compared to the 2700 K and 100 CRI scores for the halogen undercabinet fixture. Builders who toured the homes were surveyed; they gave the LED downlight high marks for brightness, said the undercabinet improved shadows and glare and said both products improved overall visibility, home appearance, and home value. Paybacks on the LED downlight ranged from 7.6 years (assuming electricity cost of 11 c/kWh) to 13.5 years (at 5C/kWh). Paybacks on the LED undercabinet fixture in a new home ranged from 4.4 years (11c/kWh electricity) to 7.6 years (5c/kWh) based on product costs of $95 per LED downlight and $140 per LED undercabinet fixture at 3 hrs per day of usage for the downlight and 2 hrs per day for the undercabinet lighting.

  18. Privatization's Progeny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaels, Jon D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    things, traditional service contracts are costly to monitor;we no longer need service contracts to mask the bitter tastethat the traditional service contract is not a perfect

  19. Full Issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UCLA, Law School

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    things, traditional service contracts are costly to monitor;we no longer need service contracts to mask the bitter tastethat the traditional service contract is not a perfect

  20. MASS TRANSFER CONTROLLED REACTIONS IN PACKED BEDS AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Peter S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in electro- j . The kinetic expression chemical reactionreaction only in the kinetic expression. Gould (36) haveIn this case, the kinetic expression is no longer necessary,

  1. animal use alternatives: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may someday allow surgeons to rehearse procedures in a patient-specific operating environment. Replacing animals with simulators in medical training is limited no longer by...

  2. Improving energy storage devices | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy storage devices Improving energy storage devices Released: April 15, 2014 Lithium-sulfur batteries last longer with nanomaterial-packed cathode A new PNNL-developed...

  3. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    greater FTE and cost allocation to the transactional processes, inconsistent automation self- service and longer days to fill open positions. - Effectiveness scores are 1...

  4. ammonoids crioceratitinae hauterivian: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnification. However, there is a lower limit of scale measurements below which the fractal behavior of the curve no longer holds, and the perimeter lengthstep size...

  5. InsideIllinoisAug. 19, 2010 Vol. 30, No. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Jennifer

    funding may need decade or longer to recover By Phil Ciciora News Editor W ith the economy mired in a deep

  6. Understanding Drooping Light Emitting Diodes CEEM | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Impact Understanding "droop" may result in cheaper, more efficient LEDs; LEDs are more energy efficient, smaller, and longer-lived than incandescent lamps or fluorescent...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrogen fuel cell and infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    advanced hydrogen storage systems that will enable longer driving ranges and help make fuel-cell systems competitive for different platforms and vehicle sizes. These advances in...

  8. US DRIVE Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for longer-lasting and more cost-effective electric drive vehicle batteries. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Advanced energy storage devices, such as lithium- based...

  9. ACCESS Magazine Spring 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sir Peter; Kammen, Daniel M.; Landis, John; Morris, Eric; Nemet, Gregory F.; Shoup, Donald

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    school buses as well as hybrid cars and light rail; we canhybrid technology; in the medium or longer term, either fuel cells or the all-electric car,

  10. Microsoft Word - TYSP 2015 Limited Update Final-2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    System, Radiation Alarm Monitoring System (RAMS), PIDAS, and HE Synthesis process control equipment have notified Pantex that the systems are or soon will be no longer...

  11. Recovery Act State Memos Indiana

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    outdoor products in its production facility. Lighting fixtures including light-emitting diode (LED) technologies dramatically reduce energy consumption due to longer product...

  12. Data:79b547e6-1954-4ec1-b9ef-a8aea3bcfac7 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the point of delivery and may be required to enter into a written contract for five (5) years or longer. Source or reference: http:www.avistautilities.comservices...

  13. Wealth Inequality in the “Land of the Fee”: A Conversation with Devin Fergus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Carolina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Controlthis longer history of deregulation is important for myrather than deregulation and abusive financial practices—as

  14. Action Codes Table | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    acknowledgement W, Z E - Receiver's independent measurement or determination W, Z I - Inventory difference explanation data *Historical - Reporting no longer used na J -...

  15. ITP Chemicals: Technology Roadmap for Computational Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    software, coupled with user-friendly graphical user interfaces, access to high performance computing is becoming available to a much broader community of users. In the longer...

  16. U. S, Sovernment purposes. Introduction Quadrupole Magnet Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    geometry for the measurements of the magnetic center, quadrupole fields and multipole coefficients of quadrupole magnets. The active length of the coil is longer than the...

  17. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer,...

  18. California’s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M; Hwang, Roland; Sperling, Daniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International Energy Agency (IEA). (2008). Energy Technologyand U.S. fleet average (IEA 2008b) Because fuel is a majorwinglets and longer wingspans) (IEA 2008, Schäfer 2009) and

  19. Scaling analyses of forcings and outputs of a simplified Last1 Millennium climate model2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    with the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis method as 34 well as the effect of certain data pretreatments. 35 This suggests that at centennial and longer scales, new slow climate

  20. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    weight. Increasing electric drive vehicles' efficiency allows them to have longer all-electric ranges with smaller batteries -- reducing cost, decreasing fuel use and improving...

  1. Climate VISION: PrivateSector Initiatives: Oil and Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    longer-term effort to reduce or sequester GHG emissions. Current areas of effort include energy efficiency, alternative energy technologies, and carbon capture and sequestration...

  2. Notices Safety Commission, 4330 East West

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    material, evaluate additional alternatives, and no longer consider in detail one alternative identified'' in the 2007 NOI (75 FR 41850; July 19, 2010). 1 The 2007 NOI and...

  3. Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    near-term (2015) and longer-term (2025) cost projections for eight solar thermochemical hydrogen production reaction cycles. Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High...

  4. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    often much longer and more complex. Even in the case of emergency replacements, temporary heatingcooling solutions businesses exist to provide time for buyers to evaluate their...

  5. Integrating environmental considerations in technology selections under uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yue (Yue Nina)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Competition requires companies to make decisions that satisfy multiple criteria. Considering profitability alone is no longer sufficient. Ignoring environmental considerations will not only expose a company to potential ...

  6. How the rich world can help Africa help itself By Glenn Denning and Jeffrey Sachs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , village-based clinics, rural electrification, rural roads and other infrastructure critical for long agriculture to longer-term rural economic transformation. This year the government's subsidy programme

  7. Microsoft Word - ASC_FY11-16_PPlan_DP1 _Reeta 12-20-2010_.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the requirements of the program at an acceptable cost. CSSE's longer- term efforts in applied research and development will support the exascale level performance, as stated in...

  8. Aerospace Applications for OLED Lighting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2015 Boeing. All rights reserved. Export Controlled ECCN: 9E991 NLR Aerospace economics drive long development cycles and even longer product lifecycles * Development of a...

  9. atlas beam pick-up: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of magnitude longer beam pulses, the new sensor is operated in current mode. The transformers drive transresistance amplifiers (TRA), converting transformer currents into...

  10. The Value of Energy Performance and Green Attributes in Buildings: A Review of Existing Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Australia that were conducted to determine the extent to which energy efficiencyand Australia for longer. Such certifications and ratings can make energy efficiency

  11. Clean Energy Program Policy Brief. The Value of Energy Performance and Green Attributes in Buildings: Review of Existing Literature and Recommendations for Future Research.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Australia that were conducted to determine the extent to which energy efficiencyand Australia for longer. Such certifications and ratings can make energy efficiency

  12. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borglin, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas collection for energy production. Some landfills areflared or used for energy production Page | 13 Landfills areand is not longer usable for energy production. Substantial

  13. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    publicly owned utility power purchase agreement Productionhave signed or proposed power purchase agreements with termsbe seeking longer- term power purchase contracts in order to

  14. Microsoft Word - MPR-3181 Survey of HTGR Process Energy Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    process, coal gasification, electricity and steam for steel mills and aluminum refining, district heating and desalination. 3. For the longer term, GA has studied methanol...

  15. Balanced High Availability in Layered Distributed Computing Systems Carsten Trinitis and Max Walter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    architecture with its monolithic, vertically integrated design therefore does not any longer adequately fit, 12, 16]): · Monolithic system architecture, · static, often proprietary and specialized hardware

  16. Shedding new light on LEDs | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diodes, are the secret behind your iPhone screen, flatscreen TVs, Christmas lights and crosswalk signals. They can last longer and save more energy than traditional...

  17. Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the current lithium-ion-based car batteries are at the forefront of the automotive industry's research agenda-manufacturers want to build cars with longer battery...

  18. PNNL-21407 Dynamic Processes in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of days, months, and years, the molecular- and atomic-scale mechanisms, such as protein folding and electron transfer processes that influence these longer scale behaviors,...

  19. University of Utah Green Living Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feschotte, Cedric

    and last longer than lCd monitors. Choose an energy-efficient computer. ePeat Gold certified computers meet

  20. EIS-0238: Withdrawal of Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and alfalfa processing facilities. After careful review of this proposed biopower gasification project, DOE has determined that it will no longer participate in the cooperative...

  1. aging accommodating phakic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    longer latent period, and slowed near Glasser, Adrian 3 Phakic Intraocular Lenses, ICL & PRL : silmnsisiset piilolinssit ja niiden tuottamat tulokset. Open Access Theses and...

  2. Semiotics and Advanced Vehicles: What Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Mean and Why it Matters to Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    haul merchandise, but he no longer played a role in the business, and the truck’s 20 MPG fuel economy

  3. acceptance product specifications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    longer the exception; they are the rule in many application areas such as avionics, the automotive industry, traffic systems, sensor networks, and medical devices. Formal DES...

  4. Independent Oversight Review of the Emergency Management Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    that ammonia is no longer stored onsite and is appropriately excluded from the hazards survey, indicating that the NETL emergency management program could be an OE base program....

  5. Humboldt Bay Initiative: Adaptive Management in a Changing World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, Susan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    survey (BMI) Strategy F Support Integrated Forest Management This strategy will promote better environmental outcomes and economic efficiency through longer term forest plans

  6. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waveguides to form a „bowtie?, joined by a SOE in thewe see visually depict the bowtie configuration and theb). As described, the bowtie concentrator no longer complies

  7. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 3803 www.advmat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokkoli, Efie

    loading a drug into nanoparticles, the fate of the drug is no longer dictated by its own intrinsic profiles of the dru

  8. The Electrochemical Flow Capacitor: A New Concept for Rapid Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 1000 longer lifetimes at a poten- tially lower cost. However, current supercapacitor technology suffers from low energy density ( 20 lower than batteries) and...

  9. aqueous carbonate process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acid rain, ground water pollution, depletion of stratospheric ozone and concerns over global warming have become issues that can no longer be ignored. With the increasing...

  10. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OLEDs with longer lifetimes. Recipient: Sandia National Laboratories Title: Semi-polar GaN Materials Technology for High IQE Green LEDs Funding Source: American Recovery and...

  11. By losing their shape, material fails batteries | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    longer lasting materials for rechargeable batteries in devices including cell phones and electric cars. The international team of scientists worked at EMSL, and their findings...

  12. agents uv radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gyr. The steep source spectra and existing data on UVA and longer-wavelength radiation damage in terrestrial organisms suggest that the mutational effects may operate even on...

  13. Secretary Chu, Governor Patrick Announce $25 Million for Massachusetts...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More research and development into longer blades will quicken the creation of large-scale offshore wind power facilities. The facility will attract companies to design,...

  14. The Expression of P-Responsive Genes is Related to Root Hair Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bremer, Melanie; Schenk, Manfred K.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    formation of longer root hairs which has been well studied,resulting in enhanced root hair length elicited by the lackpattern along the root hair differentiation stages. Results

  15. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    initial and life cycle costs of the battery. This paper hasbattery chemistries have the potential for longer cycle life which on a life cycle cost

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from the Process Buildings that are no longer required for support of uranium enrichment activities. The proposed action would take place at DOEPORTS at Piketon, Ohio....

  17. Evolution of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a “top-down” approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a “bottom-up” analysis of a database of -3,265 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of an economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7% per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues are relatively small compared to total U.S. energy expenditures (about $4.1 billion in 2008), but ESCOs anticipated accelerated growth through 2011 (25% per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated -$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20% of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated -$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. We found that nearly 85% of all public and institutional projects met or exceeded the guaranteed level of savings. We estimated that a typical ESCO project generated $1.5 dollars of direct benefits for every dollar of customer investment. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is responding to customer demand by installing more comprehensive and complex measures—including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance—but this evolution has significant implications for customer project economics, especially at K-12 schools. We found that the median simple payback time has increased from 1.9 to 3.2 years in private sector projects since the early-to-mid 1990s and from 5.2 to 10.5 years in public sector projects for the same time period.

  18. U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a ?top-down? approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a ?bottom-up? analysis of a database of ~;;3,250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7percent per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25percent per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated ~;;$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20percent of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ~;;$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures?including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance?but this evolution has significant implications for customer project economics, especially at K-12 schools. We found that the median simple payback time has increased from 1.9 to 3.2 years in private sector projects since the early-to-mid 1990s and from 5.2 to 10.5 years in public sector projects for the same time period.

  19. Market trends in the U.S. ESCO industry: Results from the NAESCO database project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Osborn, Julie G.; Hopper, Nicole C.; Singer, Terry E.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry is often cited as the most successful model for the private sector delivery of energy-efficiency services. This study documents actual performance of the ESCO industry in order to provide policymakers and investors with objective information and customers with a resource for benchmarking proposed projects relative to industry performance. We have assembled a database of nearly 1500 case studies of energy-efficiency projects-the most comprehensive data set of the U.S. ESCO industry available. These projects include $2.55B of work completed by 51 ESCOs and span much of the history of this industry. We estimate that the ESCO industry completed $1.8-2.1B of projects in 2000. The industry has grown rapidly over the last decade with revenues increasing at a 24% annualized rate. We summarize and compare project characteristics and costs and analyze energy savings, including the relationship between predicted and actual savings. ESCOs typically invested about $2.30/ft{sup 2} per project in various energy efficiency improvements, although there is large variation in project costs within and across market segments. We find that lighting-only projects report median electricity savings of 47% of targeted equipment consumption; the median for lighting-&-non-lighting projects is 23% of the total electric bill baseline. We examine project economics, including project net benefits, benefit/cost ratio and simple payback time. Median simple payback time is seven years for institutional sector projects and three years in the private sector. We estimate direct economic benefits of $1.62 billion for the 1080 projects in our database with both cost and savings data. The median benefit/cost ratio is 2.1 for 309 private sector projects and 1.6 for 771 institutional sector projects. We discuss the role of policies and programs adopted by state/federal legislatures and agencies that have played an important role in stimulating ESCO activity in various markets. Finally, we estimate the overall size and growth of the energy-efficiency services industry over the last ten years based on a survey of 63 ESCOs.

  20. DOE/AHAM advanced refrigerator technology development project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.K.; Linkous, R.L.; Hardin, C.V.; Bohman, R.H.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the effort to improve residential energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse emissions from power plants, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed domestic refrigerator-freezer. The program goal was to reduce the energy consumption of a 20-ft{sup 3} (570-L) top-mount refrigerator-freeze to 1.00 kWh/d, a 50% reduction from the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard. The options--such as improved cabinet and door insulation, a high-efficiency compressor, a low-wattage fan, a large counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control--were incorporated into prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinets and refrigeration systems. The refrigerant HFC-134a was used as a replacement for CFC-12. The baseline energy performance of the production refrigerator-freezers, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The project consisted of three main phases: (1) an evaluation of energy-efficient design options using computer simulation models and experimental testing, (2) design and testing of an initial prototype unit, and (3) energy and economic analyses of a final prototype. The final prototype achieved an energy consumption level of 0.93 kWh/d--an improvement of 45% over the baseline unit and 54% over the 1993 NAECA standard for 20-fg{sup 3} (570-L) units. The manufacturer`s cost for those improvements was estimated at $134; assuming that cost is doubled for the consumer, it would take about 11.4 years to pay for the design changes. Since the payback period was thought to be unfeasible, a second, more cost-effective design was also tested. Its energy consumption level was 1.16 kWh/d, a 42% energy savings, at a manufacturer`s cost increase of $53. Again assuming a 100% markup, the payback for this unit would be 6.6 years.

  1. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could sufficiently develop this technology to impact the water heater market in the near term.

  2. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: NE Cully Boulevard Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Tuenge, Jason R.

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new roadway lighting demonstration project was initiated in late 2010, which was planned in conjunction with other upgrades to NE Cully Boulevard, a residential collector road in the northeast area of Portland, OR. With the NE Cully Boulevard project, the Portland Bureau of Transportation hoped to demonstrate different light source technologies and different luminaires side-by-side. This report documents the initial performance of six different newly installed luminaires, including three LED products, one induction product, one ceramic metal halide product, and one high-pressure sodium (HPS) product that represented the baseline solution. It includes reported, calculated, and measured performance; evaluates the economic feasibility of each of the alternative luminaires; and documents user feedback collected from a group of local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) members that toured the site. This report does not contain any long-term performance evaluations or laboratory measurements of luminaire performance. Although not all of the installed products performed equally, the alternative luminaires generally offered higher efficacy, more appropriate luminous intensity distributions, and favorable color quality when compared to the baseline HPS luminaire. However, some products did not provide sufficient illumination to all areas—vehicular drive lanes, bicycle lanes, and sidewalks—or would likely fail to meet design criteria over the life of the installation due to expected depreciation in lumen output. While the overall performance of the alternative luminaires was generally better than the baseline HPS luminaire, cost remains a significant barrier to widespread adoption. Based on the cost of the small quantity of luminaires purchased for this demonstration, the shortest calculated payback period for one of the alternative luminaire types was 17.3 years. The luminaire prices were notably higher than typical prices for currently available luminaires purchased in larger quantities. At prices that are more typical, the payback would be less than 10 years. In addition to the demonstration luminaires, a networked control system was installed for additional evaluation and demonstration purposes. The capability of control system to measure luminaire input power was explored in this study. A more exhaustive demonstration and evaluation of the control system will be the subject of future GATEWAY report(s).

  3. A feasibility study of solar ponds for Wisconsin industrial process heat applications -- Impact of lining material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, M.A.; Reid, R.L. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An economic feasibility study of a salinity gradient solar pond for providing industrial process heat (IPH) in the state of Wisconsin is presented. A survey of current low temperature energy load demands of several companies within Wisconsin was completed. The data obtained was analyzed using a microcomputer based program to assess feasibility. Economic feasibility and thermal performance depends upon area. The area of the pond would determine the corresponding quantities of excavation, salt and lining material required to establish a salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP). The cost of the lining material also has a large impact upon the economic feasibility of a SGSP. The results of the economic feasibility study of a SGSP based on the selection of four types of liners is presented. These liners are a high density polyethylene (HDPE) liner, two forms of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a chemical and weather resistant polymer coated polyester fabric liner (XR-5). For a load of 10,000 GJ/month on an annual operating schedule for the most favorable economic performance resulted from a geosynthetic clay liner with a high density polyethylene backing. For a 10,000 m{sup 2} pond a payback of 8.4 years can be obtained with a unit cost of $43.20/m{sup 2}. It was also determined that if a larger load was demanded and the corresponding optimal area was provided the economic feasibility of a SGSP increased greatly. For a load of 100,000 GJ/Month on an annual operating schedule, using the same lining material, the optimal pond area was found to be 35,800 m{sup 2}, with a discounted payback of 3.8 years and a unit cost of $35.40/ms{sup 2}. Similar results were obtained for the other materials. From these findings it appears that a SGSP using a geosynthetic clay liner with HDPE backing will be economically feasible for a load of 10,000 GJ/month. The economic feasibility improves with increased thermal load and the corresponding optimal pond area.

  4. Essential Power Systems Workshop - OEM Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Gouse

    2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In California, idling is largely done for climate control. This suggests that climate control devices alone could be used to reduce idling. Line-haul truck drivers surveyed require an average of 4-6 kW of power for a stereo, CB radio, light, refrigerator, and climate control found in the average truck. More power may likely be necessary for peak power demands. The amount of time line-haul trucks reported to have stopped is between 25 and 30 hours per week. It was not possible to accurately determine from the pilot survey the location, purpose, and duration of idling. Consulting driver logs or electronically monitoring trucks could yield more accurate data, including seasonal and geographic differences. Truck drivers were receptive to idling alternatives. Two-thirds of truck drivers surveyed support a program to reduce idling. Two-thirds of drivers reported they would purchase idling reduction technologies if the technology yielded a payback period of two years or less. Willingness to purchase auxiliary power units appears to be higher for owner-operators than for company drivers. With a 2-year payback period, 82% of owner- operators would be willing to buy an idle- reducing device, while 63% of company drivers thought their company would do the same. Contact with companies is necessary to discern whether this difference between owner- operators and companies is true or simply due to the perception of the company drivers. Truck stops appear to be a much more attractive option for electrification than rest areas by a 48% to 21% margin. Much of this discrepancy may be due to perceived safety problems with rest areas. This survey did not properly differentiate between using these areas for breaks or overnight. The next, full survey will quantify where the truck drivers are staying overnight, where they go for breaks, and the duration of time they spend at each place. The nationwide survey, which is in progress, will indicate how applicable the results are to the US in general. In addition to the survey, we believe data loggers and focus groups will be necessary to collect the idling duration and location data necessary to compare auxiliary power units to truck stop electrification. Focus groups are recommended to better understand the driver response to APUs and electrification. The appearance and perception of the new systems will need further clarification, which could be accomplished with a demonstration for truck drivers.

  5. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - First Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Tomlinson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired)

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Until now the heat pump water heater (HPWH) has been a technical success but a market failure because of its high initial cost. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. ORNL was also tasked to verify the technical feasibility of the cost saving opportunities where necessary and appropriate. The objective was to retain most of the HPWH s energy saving performance while reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. Several cost saving opportunities were found. Immersing the HPWH condenser directly into the tank allowed the water-circulating pump to be eliminated and a standard electric resistance storage water heater to be used. In addition, designs could be based on refrigerator compressors. Standard water heaters and refrigerator compressors are both reliable, mass produced, and low cost. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water heater tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. The sleeve contour causes the bayonet-style condenser to helix while being pushed into the tank, enabling a condenser of sufficient heat transfer surface area to be inserted. Based on this design, ORNL fabricated the first laboratory prototype and completed preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the DOE Simulated Use Test Procedure. Hardening during double-wall condenser fabrication was not overcome, so the prototype is single-walled with a liner. The prototype unit was found to have an energy factor of 2.02, verifying that the low-cost design retains most of the HPWH s energy saving performance. Industry involvement is being sought to resolve the fabrication issue and quantify progress on reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. This report provides information on the design, prototype construction, laboratory test data, and analyses of this HPWH.

  6. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  7. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  8. Preliminary neutronic study of D{sub 2}O-Cooled high conversion PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiruta, Hikaru; Youinou, G. [Idaho National Laboratory: 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a preliminary neutronics analysis of tight-pitch D{sub 2}O-cooled high-conversion pressurised water reactors (HPWR) loaded with MOX fuel aiming at high Pu conversion and negative void coefficient. SCALE6.1 code has been exclusively utilized for this study. The analyses are performed in two separate parts. The first part of this paper investigates the performance of axial and internal blankets and seeks break-even or near-breeder core even without the presence of radial blankets. The analyses showed that the relative Pu mass balance was effectively increased by the addition of the axial blanket. The addition of only 4 cm of blanket resulted in the 4000 pcm increase in the void coefficient. Thus, the presence of the axial blanket made the void coefficient hardly negative. The second part of this paper performs sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of integral parameters (k{sub eff} and void coefficient) for selected systems in order to analyze the characters of this high-conversion PWR from different aspects. The uncertainty analysis of k{sub eff} showed that its breakup contributions for D{sub 2}O-HPWR were very similar to other fast systems (SFR and H{sub 2}O-HPWR) such that the key contributors were {sup 238}U inelastic and {sup 239}Pu ?-bar. However, breakup uncertainties of void coefficients showed that while those of D{sub 2}O-HPWR resembled to H{sub 2}O-HPWR, Na elastic became the significant contributor of the void coefficient uncertainty of SFR. Also sensitivity profiles of {sup 238}U inelastic and {sup 239}Pu ?-bar to the void coefficient revealed that those of SFR were quite dissimilar to both HPWRs. The study also found that while the absolute values of void coefficient uncertainty for D{sub 2}O-HPWR were invariant through the burnup, its percentage uncertainty was significantly increased.

  9. Searching for the Optimal Mix of Solar and Efficiency in Zero Net Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zero net energy (ZNE) buildings employ efficiency to reduce energy consumption and solar technologies to produce as much energy on site as is consumed on an annual basis. Such buildings leverage utility grids and net-metering agreements to reduce solar system costs and maintenance requirements relative to off-grid photovoltaic (PV)-powered buildings with batteries. The BEopt software was developed to efficiently identify cost-optimal building designs using detailed hour-by-hour energy simulation programs to evaluate the user-selected options. A search technique identifies optimal and near-optimal building designs (based on energy-related costs) at various levels of energy savings along the path from a reference building to a ZNE design. In this paper, we describe results based on use of the BEopt software to develop cost-optimal paths to ZNE for various climates. Comparing the different cases shows optimal building design characteristics, percent energy savings and cash flows at key points along the path, including the point at which investments shift from building improvements to purchasing PV, and PV array sizes required to achieve ZNE. From optimizations using the BEopt software for a 2,000-ft{sup 2} house in 4 climates, we conclude that, relative to a code-compliant (IECC 2006) reference house, the following are achievable: (1) minimum cost point: 22 to 38% source energy savings and 15 to 24% annual cash flow savings; (2) PV start point: 40 to 49% source energy savings at 10 to 12% annual cash flow savings; (3) break-even point: 43 to 53% source energy savings at 0% annual cash flow savings; and (4) ZNE point: 100% source energy savings with 4.5 to 8.1 kW{sub DC} PV arrays and 76 to 169% increase in cash flow.

  10. Descriptive analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, R.W.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) was examined. A key to ATESs attractiveness is its simplicity of design and construction. The storage device consists of two ordinary water wells drilled into an aquifer, connected at the surface by piping and a heat exchanger. During the storage cycle water is pumped out of the aquifer, through the heat exchanger to absorb thermal energy, and then back down into the aquifer through the second well. The thermal storage remains in the aquifer storage bubble until required for use, when it is recovered by reversing the storage operation. For many applications the installation can probably be designed and constructed using existing site-specific information and modern well-drilling techniques. The potential for cost-effective implementation of ATES was investigated in the Twin Cities District Heating-Cogeneration Study in Minnesota. In the study, ATES demonstrated a net energy saving of 32% over the nonstorage scenario, with an annual energy cost saving of $31 million. Discounting these savings over the life of the project, the authors found that the break-even capital cost for ATES construction was $76/kW thermal, far above the estimated ATES development cost of $23 to 50/kW thermal. It appears tht ATES can be highly cost effective as well as achieve substantial fuel savings. ATES would be environmentally beneficial and could be used in many parts of the USA. The existing body of information on ATES indicates that it is a cost-effective, fuel-conserving technique for providing thermal energy for residential, commercial, and industrial users. The negative aspects are minor and highly site-specific, and do not seem to pose a threat to widespread commercialization. With a suitable institutional framework, ATES promises to supply a substantial portion of the nation's future energy needs. (LCL)

  11. Physics of advanced tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, T.S.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant reductions in the size and cost of a fusion power plant core can be realized if simultaneous improvements in the energy replacement time, {tau}{sub E}, and the plasma pressure or beta, {beta}{sub T} = 2 {micro}{sub 0}

    /B{sup 2} can be achieved in steady-state conditions with high self-driven, bootstrap current fraction. Significant recent progress has been made in experimentally achieving these high performance regimes and in developing a theoretical understanding of the underlying physics. Three operational scenarios have demonstrated potential for steady state high performance, the radiative improved (RI) mode, the high internal inductance or high {ell}{sub i} scenario, and the negative central magnetic shear, NCS (or reversed shear, RS) scenario. In a large number of tokamaks, reduced ion thermal transport to near neoclassical values, and reduced particle transport have been observed in the region of negative or very low magnetic shear: the transport reduction is consistent with stabilization of microturbulence by sheared E x B flow. There is strong temporal and spatial correlation between the increased sheared E x B flow, the reduction in the measured turbulence, and the reduction in transport. The DIII-D tokamak, the JET tokamak and the JT-60U tokamak have all observed significant increases in plasma performance in the NCS operational regime. Strong plasma shaping and broad pressure profiles, provided by the H-mode edge, allow high beta operation, consistent with theoretical predictions; and normalized beta values up to {beta}{sub T}/(I/aB) {equivalent_to} {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 4.5%-m-T/MA simultaneously with confinement enhancement over L-mode scaling, H = {tau}/{tau}{sub ITER-89P} {approximately} 4, have been achieved in the DIII-D tokamak. In the JT-60U tokamak, deuterium discharges with negative central magnetic shear, NCS, have reached equivalent break-even conditions, Q{sub DT} (equiv) = 1.

  12. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  13. Environmental impacts of lighting technologies - Life cycle assessment and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welz, Tobias; Hischier, Roland, E-mail: Roland.Hischier@empa.ch; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With two regulations, 244/2009 and 245/2009, the European Commission recently put into practice the EuP Directive in the area of lighting devices, aiming to improve energy efficiency in the domestic lighting sector. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment comparison of four different lighting technologies: the tungsten lamp, the halogen lamp, the conventional fluorescent lamp and the compact fluorescent lamp. Taking advantage of the most up-to-date life cycle inventory database available (ecoinvent data version 2.01), all life cycle phases were assessed and the sensitivity of the results for varying assumptions analysed: different qualities of compact fluorescent lamps (production phase), different electricity mixes (use phase), and end-of-life scenarios for WEEE recycling versus municipal solid waste incineration (disposal phase). A functional unit of 'one hour of lighting' was defined and the environmental burdens for the whole life cycle for all four lamp types were calculated, showing a clearly lower impact for the two gas-discharge lamps, i.e. the fluorescent and the compact fluorescent lamp. Differences in the product quality of the compact fluorescent lamps reveal to have only a very small effect on the overall environmental performance of this lamp type; a decline of the actual life time of this lamp type doesn't result in a change of the rank order of the results of the here examined four lamp types. It was also shown that the environmental break-even point of the gas-discharge lamps is reached long before the end of their expected life-span. All in all, it can be concluded that a change from today's tungsten lamp technology to a low-energy-consuming technology such as the compact fluorescent lamp results in a substantial environmental benefit.

  14. ORNL home to new battery manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    that will allow automobiles to travel longer distances on a single charge." ORNL has a dozen contracts with eight closer to creating a battery that will allow automobiles to travel longer distances on a single charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fred Vaslow stretches 70 years of science history. . . . .2 Service anniversaries . . . . . .3 RAP

  15. Ritual elements : a cemetery in Montana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefers, Kathleen Marie

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "As pines keep the shape of the wind even when the wind has fled and is no longer there So walls guard the shape of man even when man has fled and is no longer there. " -- George Seferis. The walls we make are the culmination ...

  16. Orphan Prefixes and the Grammaticalization of Aspect in South Slavic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickey, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preposition iz is no longer used in the spatial meaning ‘out of.’ The most extreme case is Bulgarian po-, which no longer shares the spatial meaning of SURFACE CONTACT with the preposition po to any significant degree. Another important case is the hybrid...

  17. Harvest Your 1. Your retirement income needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    to live longer than previous generations You're going to have a longer retirement (retire early, and liveHarvest Your Savings #12;Agenda 1. Your retirement income needs 2. Where will your retirement money come from? 3. Retirement accounts and products 4. Sun Life Financial's retirement services #12;Income

  18. Harvest Your Retirement income options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    previous generations You're going to have a longer retirement (retire early, and live longer) YouHarvest Your Savings Retirement income options using your SFU Group LIF/RRIF #12;Agenda 1. Your retirement income needs 2. Where will your retirement money come from? 3. Retirement accounts and products 4

  19. RECORD RETENTION FOR UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTS Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    .odl.state.ok.us/oar/recordsmgt/grds-education.htm. It has been prepared by the State Archives and Records Commission - Records Management Division be destroyed when superseded or no longer required for administrative purposes. The Records Management superseded or no longer required for administrative purposes. Records Management Coordinator The Office

  20. The effects of Bovine Somatotropin on milk production and milk composition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Meredith Dianne

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    composition. However, parity and days in milk are also significant variables affecting milk. Treated cows did produce milk longer on average than non-treated cows. However, it is not certain whether the longer length of lactation was due to BST. Therefore...

  1. Notes on the PMC Journal List CSV file This CSV file, available from the Journal List page on the PMC site, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    Notes on the PMC Journal List CSV file This CSV file, available from the Journal List page on the PMC site, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ journals/, is a list of journals that currently deposit in PMC. It includes journals that are no longer in publication or no longer deposit material in PMC

  2. Keep the West Vibrant with a Strong Climate Change Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    and local. The heavily populated coastal regions of the eastern United States will have to deal with rapid? Clearly, action is needed, but what form should it take? The longer we wait to act, the more carbon dioxide will remain in the atmosphere for decades, centuries, and longer, and the more future warming

  3. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  4. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  7. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  8. The Cost-Effectiveness of Investments to Meet the Guiding Principles for High-Performance Sustainable Buildings on the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Judd, Kathleen S.

    2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    As part its campus sustainability efforts, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has invested in eight new and existing buildings to ensure they meet the U.S. Department of Energy’s requirements for high performance sustainable buildings (HPSB) at DOE sites. These investments are expected to benefit PNNL by reducing the total life-cycle cost of facilities, improving energy efficiency and water conservation, and making buildings safer and healthier for the occupants. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of the implementing measures that meet the criteria for HPSBs in 3 different types of buildings on the PNNL campus: offices, scientific laboratories, and data centers. In each of the three case studies examined the investments made to achieve HPSB status demonstrated a high return on the HPSB investments that have taken place in these varied environments. Simple paybacks for total investments in the three case study buildings ranged from just 2 to 5 years; savings-to-investment ratios all exceeded the desirable threshold of 1; and the net present values associated with these investments were all positive.

  9. Appraisal of the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.T.; Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.

    1981-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An appraisal of the use of geothermal energy for space heating requirements for selected state-owned buildings in six communities in Colorado is presented. The appraisal addresses several components of a feasibility study for geothermal applications, including resource assessment, pipeline rights-of-way, well design and drilling program, conceptual engineering designs for retrofits of building heating systems, evaluations of economic feasibility, institutional requirements, and environmental considerations. Economic feasibility is determined from evaluation of four economic measures: a simple payback period in years; twenty-year annualized system costs (geothermal system versus conventional system); total twenty-year undiscounted energy savings; and total twenty-year present value energy savings. The results of the analyses of each feasibility component are finally ranked, using a weighting system, to arrive at an order ranking of the eleven state-owned buildings for overall feasibility. The relative total feasibility rankings and the absolute evaluations of economic competitiveness with the existing conventional-fuel heating systems show that several of the state facilities are likely candidates for conversion to geothermal hot water heating systems. The best candidate by far is the Colorado State Reformatory at Buena Vista. The geothermal resource at Buena Vista (Cottonwood Canyon and Chalk Creek) is a high quality resource with high water temperatures and a water quality adequate for direct flow through the building heating units.

  10. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

  11. Cost Analysis of Plug-In Hybred Electric Vehicles Using GPS-Based Longitudinal Travel Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xing [Lamar University] [Lamar University; Dong, Jing [Iowa State University] [Iowa State University; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using spatial, longitudinal travel data of 415 vehicles over 3 18 months in the Seattle metropolitan area, this paper estimates the operating costs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) of various electric ranges (10, 20, 30, and 40 miles) for 3, 5, and 10 years of payback period, considering different charging infrastructure deployment levels and gasoline prices. Some key findings were made. (1) PHEVs could help save around 60% or 40% in energy costs, compared with conventional gasoline vehicles (CGVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), respectively. However, for motorists whose daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) is significant, HEVs may be even a better choice than PHEV40s, particularly in areas that lack a public charging infrastructure. (2) The incremental battery cost of large-battery PHEVs is difficult to justify based on the incremental savings of PHEVs operating costs unless a subsidy is offered for largebattery PHEVs. (3) When the price of gasoline increases from $4/gallon to $5/gallon, the number of drivers who benefit from a larger battery increases significantly. (4) Although quick chargers can reduce charging time, they contribute little to energy cost savings for PHEVs, as opposed to Level-II chargers.

  12. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  13. Amplifying Real Estate Value through Energy&WaterManagement: From ESCO to 'Energy Services Partner'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan

    2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy service company (ESCO) business model could become significantly more effective by integrating the energy-efficiency purveyor and their capital into the underlying building ownership and operation partnership, rather than the current model in which the ESCO remains an outsider with higher transaction costs and limited interest and participation in the value created by the cost savings. Resource conservation advocates rarely use the language of real estate to articulate the cost effectiveness of capital improvements aimed at reducing utility costs in commercial and residential income properties. Conventional methods that rely on rarefied academic notions of simple payback time or a narrow definition of return on investment fail to capture a significant component of the true market value created by virtue of reduced operating expenses. Improvements in energy and water efficiency can increase the fundamental profitability of real estate investments by raising Net Operating Income (NOI), and hence returns during the holding period, and, ultimately, proceeds at time of sale. We introduce the concept of an Energy Services Partner, who takes an equity interest in a real estate partnership in exchange for providing the expertise and capital required to reduce utility operating costs. Profit to all partners increases considerably as a result. This approach would also help to address a crisis facing ESCOs today stemming from their considerable liabilities (through guaranteed savings) and negligible offsetting assets.

  14. Design and Analysis of Hybrid Solar Lighting and Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhs, J.D.

    2001-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a systems-level design and analysis of a new approach for improving the energy efficiency and affordability of solar energy in buildings, namely, hybrid solar lighting and full-spectrum solar energy systems. By using different portions of the solar spectrum simultaneously for multiple end-use applications in buildings, the proposed system offers unique advantages over other alternatives for using sunlight to displace electricity (conventional topside daylighting and solar technologies). Our preliminary work indicates that hybrid solar lighting, a method of collecting and distributing direct sunlight for lighting purposes, will alleviate many of the problems with passive daylighting systems of today, such as spatial and temporal variability, glare, excess illumination, cost, and energy efficiency. Similarly, our work suggests that the most appropriate use of the visible portion of direct, nondiffuse sunlight from an energy-savings perspective is to displace electric light rather than generate electricity. Early estimates detailed in this paper suggest an anticipated system cost of well under $2.0/Wp and 5-11 {cents}/kWh for displaced and generated electricity in single-story commercial building applications. Based on a number of factors discussed in the paper, including sunlight availability, building use scenarios, time-of-day electric utility rates, cost, and efficacy of the displaced electric lights, the simple payback of this approach in many applications could eventually be well under 5 years.

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  16. Energy efficient low-income housing demonstration with Houston Habitat for Humanity. Final status report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Using DOE grant funds, the Alliance to Save Energy developed and managed an award-winning low-income housing demonstration in cooperation with Houston Habitat for Humanity at the 1996 and 1997 annual NAHB Builders Show in Houston, Texas. Using a unique group of over 30 national, state and local partners, the energy design of Houston Habitat houses was permanently upgraded to the Energy Star Homes Program threshold. Meeting Energy Star Homes Program criteria, the partner design team increased the level of efficiency approximately 30% over the 1992 Model Energy Code. This innovative design using commercially available materials added approximately $1,400 in cost-effective energy upgrades with an estimated payback of less than 8 years. The 30 public-private partners successfully demonstrated energy and resource efficient housing techniques to the 65,000 NAHB home show attendees and the over 3,000 Habitat affiliates. This project resulted in the Houston Habitat affiliate becoming the nation`s first low-income Energy Star Homes Program home builder. By the year 2000, Houston Habitat anticipates building over 500 homes to this new level of efficiency as well as set an example for other Habitat affiliates nationwide to follow. The 1997 demonstration house utilized an all-women volunteer builders team to construct a 3 bedroom home in Houston Habitat`s Woodglen Subdivision. Energy consumption was remotely metered by Texas A and M.

  17. Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

  18. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  19. Desiccant-based, heat-actuated cooling assessment for DHC (District Heating and Cooling) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based, heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that such desiccant-based cooling (DBC) systems are generally applicable to District Heating (DH) systems. Since the DH system only has to supply hot water (or steam) to its customers, systems that were designed as conventional two-pipe DH systems can now be operated as DHC systems without major additional capital expense. Desiccant-based DHC systems can be operated with low-grade DH-supplied heat, at temperatures below 180{degree}F, without significant loss in operating capacity, relative to absorption chillers. During this assessment, a systems analysis was performed, an experimental investigation was conducted, developmental requirements for commercializing DBC systems were examined, and two case studies were conducted. As a result of the case studies, it was found that the operating cost of a DBC system was competitive with or lower than the cost of purchasing DHC-supplied chilled water. However, because of the limited production volume and the current high capital costs of desiccant systems, the payback period is relatively long. In this regard, through the substitution of low-cost components specifically engineered for low-temperature DHC systems, the capital costs should be significantly reduced and overall economics made attractive to future users. 17 figs.

  20. ARE660 Wind Generator: Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Preus; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is for the design of a wind turbine that can generate most or all of the net energy required for homes and small businesses in moderately windy areas. The purpose is to expand the current market for residential wind generators by providing cost effective power in a lower wind regime than current technology has made available, as well as reduce noise and improve reliability and safety. Robert W. Preus’ experience designing and/or maintaining residential wind generators of many configurations helped identify the need for an improved experience of safety for the consumer. Current small wind products have unreliable or no method of stopping the wind generator in fault or high wind conditions. Consumers and their neighbors do not want to hear their wind generators. In addition, with current technology, only sites with unusually high wind speeds provide payback times that are acceptable for the on-grid user. Abundant Renewable Energy’s (ARE) basic original concept for the ARE660 was a combination of a stall controlled variable speed small wind generator and automatic fail safe furling for shutdown. The stall control for a small wind generator is not novel, but has not been developed for a variable speed application with a permanent magnet alternator (PMA). The fail safe furling approach for shutdown has not been used to our knowledge.

  1. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  2. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Anglani, Norma; Einstein, Dan; Krushch, Marta; Price, Lynn

    2001-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reductions potential of the U.S. pulp and paper industry, one of the largest energy users in the U.S. manufacturing sector. We examined over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures. The measures were characterized, and then ordered on the basis of cost-effectiveness. The report indicates that there still exists significant potential for energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in this industry. The cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement is defined as having a simple pay-back period of three years or less. Not including increased recycling the study identifies a cost-effective savings potential of 16% of the primary energy use in 1994. Including increased recycling leads to a higher potential for energy savings, i.e. a range of cost-effective savings between 16% and 24% of primary energy use. Future work is needed to further elaborate on key energy efficiency measures identified in the report including barriers and opportunities for increased recycling of waste paper.

  3. JV Task 75 - Lignite Fuel Enhancement via Air-Jigging Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Lamb; Steven Benson; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several North Dakota lignite coals from the Falkirk Mine were processed in a 5-ton-per-hour dry coal-cleaning plant. The plant uses air-jigging technology to separate undesirable ash constituents as well as sulfur and mercury. The results of this study indicate average ash, sulfur, and mercury reductions on a weight basis of 15%, 22%, and 28%, respectively. The average heating value was increased by 2% on a Btu/lb basis. Two computer models were used to understand the impact of a cleaned fuel on boiler performance: PCQUEST{reg_sign} and Vista. The PCQUEST model indicated improvements in slagging and fouling potential when cleaned coals are used over feed coals. The Vista model was set up to simulate coal performance and economics at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station. In all cases, the cleaned fuel performed better than the original feed coal, with economic benefits being realized for all fuels tested. The model also indicated that one fuel considered to be unusable before cleaning was transformed into a potentially salable product. While these data indicate full-scale implementation of air-jigging technology may be beneficial to the mine and the plant, complete economic analysis, including payback period, is needed to make the final decision to implement.

  4. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  5. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  6. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  7. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  8. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  9. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  10. Ducts Sealing Using Injected Spray Sealant, Raleigh, North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques - manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  11. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a rationale for why this data should be collected, a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and specific data recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of operating wind turbines. This report is intended to help develop a basic understanding of the data needed for reliability analysis from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems. The report provides a rationale for why this data should be collected, a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and analysis and reporting needs. The 'Motivation' section of this report provides a rationale for collecting and analyzing field data for reliability analysis. The benefits of this type of effort can include increased energy delivered, decreased operating costs, enhanced preventive maintenance schedules, solutions to issues with the largest payback, and identification of early failure indicators.

  12. Deployment of pollution prevention during design -- a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, pollution prevention (P2) assessments have been performed on existing facilities and ongoing operations, well after the completion of design and construction. It has been theorized that more success can be achieved by moving P2 upstream into the design process, where an estimated 70% of a project`s total life cycle costs are initially fixed. Decisions made during design to prevent or minimize the amount of waste generated can reap benefits for many years to come. This is especially true when designing systems for handling hazardous and radioactive wastes for treatment, storage, and disposal. P2 assessments performed during design of such projects can uncover significant savings to be reaped during project construction, operations, and/or decommissioning. However, many project managers are still reluctant to include some type of P2 review or assessment as part of the design effort, because the immediate payback to the design entity is difficult to quantify. This paper presents the results of a P2 assessment performed on a design project at Hanford which identified close to $500,000 in construction savings while minimizing low-level and mixed radioactive waste generation. This paper describes the process used to per-form the assessment, discusses its results, and provides lessons-learned for future P2 design assessments.

  13. Review of U.S. ESCO industry market trends: An empirical analysis of project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Hopper, Nicole C.; Osborn, Julie G.; Singer, Terry E.

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article summarizes a comprehensive empirical analysis of U.S. Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry trends and performance. We employ two parallel analytical approaches: a comprehensive survey of firms to estimate total industry size and a database of {approx}1500 ESCO projects, from which we report target markets and typical project characteristics, energy savings and customer economics. We estimate that industry investment for energy-efficiency related services reached US $2 billion in 2000 following a decade of strong growth. ESCO activity is concentrated in states with high economic activity and strong policy support. Typical projects save 150-200 MJ/m2/year and are cost-effective with median benefit/cost ratios of 1.6 and 2.1 for institutional and private sector projects. The median simple payback time is 7 years among institutional customers; 3 years is typical in the private sector. Reliance on DSM incentives has decreased since 1995. Preliminary evidence suggests that state enabling policies have boosted the industry in medium-sized states. ESCOs have proven resilient in the face of restructuring and will probably shift toward selling ''energy solutions,'' with energy efficiency part of a package. We conclude that a private sector energy-efficiency services industry that targets large commercial and industrial customers is viable and self-sustaining with appropriate policy support both financial and non-financial.

  14. Energy conservation technology selection: An agent-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBaillie, L.P.; Nemeth, R.J.; Case, M.P.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter presents an automation model designed to manage the required data and the calculation of technology ranking criteria such as investment payback, energy savings, and pollution abatement on a national level. The model is under development at the United States Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) in MicroSoft Windows 3.1 on a personal computer using Designer Software, an agent-based and object-oriented modeling environment. Small rule-based systems called agents evaluate each technology based upon information contained in a shared database called a blackboard. The blackboard contains data such as installation fuel prices, building data, and weather information. Each agent represents a particular energy conservation technology and evaluates the potential of that technology based upon this shared data. The model is constructed in a modular fashion to facilitate the modification and addition of new technologies by adding or modifying agents. A rule-based system applies each agent`s heuristics (rules-of-thumb) and algorithms to produce analysis results. A spreadsheet data link has been implemented to input external data or to output analysis results.

  15. Building America Case Study: Meeting DOE Challenge Home Program Certification, Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate integrated packages of advanced measures in individual test homes to assess their performance with respect to Building America Program goals, specifically compliance with the DOE Challenge Home Program. BSC consulted on the construction of five test houses by three Cold Climate production builders in three separate US cities. BSC worked with the builders to develop a design package tailored to the cost-related impacts for each builder. Therefore, the resulting design packages do vary from builder to builder. BSC provided support through this research project on the design, construction and performance testing of the five test homes. Overall, the builders have concluded that the energy related upgrades (either through the prescriptive or performance path) represent reasonable upgrades. The builders commented that while not every improvement in specification was cost effective (as in a reasonable payback period), many were improvements that could improve the marketability of the homes and serve to attract more energy efficiency discerning prospective homeowners. However, the builders did express reservations on the associated checklists and added certifications. An increase in administrative time was observed with all builders. The checklists and certifications also inherently increase cost due to: 1. Adding services to the scope of work for various trades, such as HERS Rater, HVAC contractor. 2. Increased material costs related to the checklists, especially the EPA Indoor airPLUS and EPA WaterSense Efficient Hot Water Distribution requirement.

  16. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

  17. Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home Program Certification of Production Builders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.; Loomis, H.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate integrated packages of advanced measures in individual test homes to assess their performance with respect to Building America Program goals, specifically compliance with the DOE Challenge Home Program. BSC consulted on the construction of five test houses by three Cold Climate production builders in three separate US cities. BSC worked with the builders to develop a design package tailored to the cost-related impacts for each builder. Therefore, the resulting design packages do vary from builder to builder. BSC provided support through this research project on the design, construction and performance testing of the five test homes. Overall, the builders have concluded that the energy related upgrades (either through the prescriptive or performance path) represent reasonable upgrades. The builders commented that while not every improvement in specification was cost effective (as in a reasonable payback period), many were improvements that could improve the marketability of the homes and serve to attract more energy efficiency discerning prospective homeowners. However, the builders did express reservations on the associated checklists and added certifications. An increase in administrative time was observed with all builders. The checklists and certifications also inherently increase cost due to: 1. Adding services to the scope of work for various trades, such as HERS Rater, HVAC contractor; 2. Increased material costs related to the checklists, especially the EPA Indoor airPLUS and EPA WaterSense(R) Efficient Hot Water Distribution requirement.

  18. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide (AERG): Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Healthcare Facilities (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Shekhar, D.; Pless, S.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Healthcare Facilities is part of a series of retrofit guides commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as detailed descriptions and financial payback metrics for the most important and relevant energy efficiency measures (EEMs), the guides provide a practical roadmap for effectively planning and implementing performance improvements in existing buildings. The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) are intended to address key segments of the U.S. commercial building stock: retail stores, office buildings, K-12 schools, grocery stores, and healthcare facilities. The guides' general project planning considerations are applicable nationwide; the energy and cost savings estimates for recommended EEMs were developed based on energy simulations and cost estimates for an example hospital tailored to five distinct climate regions. These results can be extrapolated to other U.S. climate zones. Analysis is presented for individual EEMs, and for packages of recommended EEMs for two project types: existing building commissioning projects that apply low-cost and no-cost measures, and whole-building retrofits involving more capital-intensive measures.

  19. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Podorson, D.; Alaigh, K.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 PHAs across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in ten housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16-20% and duct leakage reductions averaged 38%. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of unit per year nationally.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.