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1

Energy Payback for Energy Systems Ensembles During Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During periods of growth, the energy payback performance of new energy generating technologies deviates substantially from the usual static measures of energy return on investment (EROI), and time to breakeven (tB) for ...

Gutowski, Timothy G.

2

Payback | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7 7 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142281687 Varnish cache server Payback Dataset Summary Description Global PV grid parity and market potential. Data is courtesy of Sean Ong. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords grid Parity Payback photovoltaic price PV Residential Data text/csv icon globalgridparity.csv (csv, 4.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Creative Commons CCZero Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote

3

Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Payback Analysis of Design Options for Residential Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Payback Analysis of Design Options for Residential Water Heaters Title Payback Analysis of Design Options for Residential Water Heaters Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number...

5

Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Payback Period of Additional Insulation the Payback Period of Additional Insulation Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation June 24, 2012 - 1:17pm Addthis Adding insulation in the attic of an existing home often results in a favorable payback. | Photo courtesy of Lieko Earle, NREL PIX 19612. Adding insulation in the attic of an existing home often results in a favorable payback. | Photo courtesy of Lieko Earle, NREL PIX 19612. What does this mean for me? Even if you hire a contractor to do the work, adding insulation to your home will likely have an attractive payback. If you can gather the information and plug it into an equation, you can determine the payback of adding insulation to your home. Use the equation below to estimate the cost effectiveness of adding insulation in terms of the "years to payback" for savings in heating costs.

6

Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation June 24, 2012 - 1:17pm Addthis Adding insulation in the attic of an existing home often results in a favorable payback. | Photo courtesy of Lieko Earle, NREL PIX 19612. Adding insulation in the attic of an existing home often results in a favorable payback. | Photo courtesy of Lieko Earle, NREL PIX 19612. What does this mean for me? Even if you hire a contractor to do the work, adding insulation to your home will likely have an attractive payback. If you can gather the information and plug it into an equation, you can determine the payback of adding insulation to your home. Use the equation below to estimate the cost effectiveness of adding insulation in terms of the "years to payback" for savings in heating costs.

7

Ballast users plug life span, cooling savings into paybacks  

SciTech Connect

Energy-efficient ballasts are saving fluorescent lamp users energy expenses by reducing cooling as well as lighting costs and by extending bulb life. Retrofit calculations should include the cost of installing new ballasts with union labor. Three users describe their installations and their use of either simple payback or simple payback including replacement savings. (DCK)

Duffy, J.

1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

8

Breakeven Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities (Report Summary) (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

"Break-even cost" for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this presentation, we introduce an analysis of PV break-even costs for residential customers in the United States, including an evaluation of some of the key drivers of PV breakeven both regionally and over time. This presentation includes our methodology and presents results for both near-term residential breakeven costs(2009) and future market sensitivities of break-even costs (2015). See also the the report "Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities". Presentation for NREL/TP-6A2-45991.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary Air Conditioners Title Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary Air Conditioners Publication Type...

10

Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Breakeven costs of storage in optimized solar energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results are described of an analysis of the breakeven cost, or value, of energy storage to solar energy systems. It is shown that the value of storage depends strongly both on solar fraction of the solar energy system in which the storage is employed, and on the cost of the collectors used in the system. Various strategies for dealing with this ambiguity are presented, and it is shown that for a broad class of technically and economically practical solar energy systems, storage costs need only be low enough to make a system employing very small amounts of storage practical. Reductions in cost of collectors will thereafter produce greater reductions in the total system costs or provide greater fuel displacement at constant total system cost than will reductions in the cost of storage, within limits discussed. The analysis makes use of a simple, accurate representation of solar energy system performance which may prove useful in other contexts.

Leigh, R. W.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

PV FAQs: What Is the Energy Payback for PV?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

How long does a PV system have to operate to recover the energy-and the associated generation of pollution and CO2- that went into making the system? Energy paybacks for rooftop systems range from 1 to 4 years, depending on the system. Based on models and real data, the idea that PV cannot pay back its energy investment is simply a myth.

Not Available

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Chiller-heater unit nets building 2-yr payback  

SciTech Connect

A 500-ton double-absorption Hitachi Paraflow chiller-heater that switches from purchased steam to natural gas will reduce a Manhattan office building's energy costs by 55% and achieve a two-year payback. The new system replaces a steam-powered, single-stage absorption chiller. By reusing heat in a second-stage generator, the Hitachi unit uses only half as many Btus per ton as a conventional chiller. (DCK)

Duffy, J.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

14

PV FAQs: What is the Energy Payback for PV?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

How long does a PV system have to operate to recover the energy--and the associated generation of pollution and CO{sub 2}--that went into making the system? Energy paybacks for rooftop systems range from 1 to 4 years, depending on the system. Based on models and real data, the idea that PV cannot pay back its energy investment is simply a myth.

Not Available

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Q, Break-even and the n{tau{sub E}} Diagram for Transient Fusion Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Q, break-even and the Lawson diagram are well defined and understood for steady-state fusion plasma conditions. Since many fusion experiments are transient, it is necessary to clarify the definitions for instantaneous Q values and break-even so that the Lawson diagram can be interpreted for transient plasma conditions. This discussion shows that there are two mathematically correct methods to describe the Lawson diagram for a transient plasma: the Lawson/TFTR method and the JET/JT-60 method. These methods are discussed in detail in this paper.

Dale M. Meade

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Benchmarking european airports based on a profitability envelope: a break-even analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a simplified benchmarking methodology is presented. This new approach is based on the computation of a discrete envelope over distributed data points. Financial and operational data from 139 European airports in 10 countries was collected ... Keywords: airport benchmarking, break-even analysis, profit maximization

Branko Bubalo

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Energy Payback Optimization of Thermoelectric Power Generator Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytic model for optimizing thermoelectric power generation system is developed and utilized for parametric studies. This model takes into account the external thermal resistances with hot and cold reservoirs. In addition, the spreading thermal resistance in the module substrates is considered to find the impact of designing small fraction of thermo elements per unit area. Previous studies are expanded by a full optimization of the electrical and thermal circuits. The optimum condition satisfies both electrical load resistance match with the internal resistance and the thermal resistance match with the heat source and the heat sink. Thermoelectric element aspect ratio and fill factor are found to be key parameters to optimize. The optimum leg length and the maximum output power are determined by a simple formula. The output power density per mass of the thermoelectric material has a peak when thermo elements cover a fractional area of ~1%. The role of the substrate heat spreading for thermoelectric power generation is equally significant as thermoelement. For a given heat source, the co-optimization of the heat sink and the thermoelectric module should be performed. Active cooling and the design of the heat sink are customized to find the energy payback for the power generation system. The model includes both the air cooled heat sinks and the water cooled micro channels. We find that one can reduce the mass of thermoelement to around 3~10 % of that in commercial modules for the same output power, as long as the module and elements are designed properly. Also one notes that higher heat flux sources have significantly larger energy payback and reduced cost per output power.

Kazuaki Yazawa; Ali Shakouri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

09 09 December 2009 Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Paul Denholm, Robert M. Margolis, Sean Ong, and Billy Roberts National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-46909 December 2009 Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Paul Denholm, Robert M. Margolis, Sean Ong, and Billy Roberts Prepared under Task No. PVD9.1210 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

19

QUANTIFYING RESIDENTIAL PV ECONOMICS IN THE US PAYBACK vs. CASH FLOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

QUANTIFYING RESIDENTIAL PV ECONOMICS IN THE US --- PAYBACK vs. CASH FLOW DETERMINATION OF FAIR -- the paper discusses why payback may not be the most appropriate measure for residential PV applications. For residential applications, this value is currently set at residential net-metered retail rates. We present

Perez, Richard R.

20

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2030. Estimating future electricity rates is very difficult,payback, the required electricity rate is only for the yearcase, the year 2008. The electricity rate used in the PBP

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Break-even Cost for Residential Break-even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Hannah Cassard, Paul Denholm, and Sean Ong Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-48986 February 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Break-even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Hannah Cassard, Paul Denholm, and Sean Ong Prepared under Task No. SS10.2110 Technical Report

23

Scientific Breakeven for Fusion Energy For the past 40 years, the IFE fusion research community has adopted: achieving a fusion gain of 1 as  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NIF Project definition of Scientific Breakeven was given by the NIF Project Head Ed Moses when describing the NIF goal as : "..producing more energy than the energy in the laser pulse and achieving scientific breakeven." E. Moses, Status of the NIF Project, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report

24

LED Light Fixture Project FC1 Director's Conference Room: Life Cycle Cost and Break-even Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LED Light Fixture Project ­ FC1 Director's Conference Room: Life Cycle Cost and Break-even Analysis. #12;LED Light Fixture Project ­ FC1 Director's Conference Room: Life Cycle Cost and Break,812 Maintenance Cost $620 $0 $97 $0 Life Cycle Cost $1,787 $1,693 $2,980 $2,980 #12;LED Light Fixture Project ­ FC

Hofmann, Hans A.

25

LBNL-54244 Life-cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

44 44 Life-cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary Air Conditioners Greg Rosenquist, Katie Coughlin, Larry Dale, James McMahon, Steve Meyers Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 March 2004 This work was supported by the Office of Building Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. ii iii ABSTRACT This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results

26

Five rules for longer battery life  

SciTech Connect

The fundamentals of proper lead-acid battery care are given, including five basic maintenance rules, and the reasoning behind them, for longer battery life.

1971-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Break-Even Investment in a Wind Energy Conversion System for an Irrigated Farm on the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of using a wind energy system for irrigation. The value of wind energy was estimated on both a static basis (where the annual value of wind power was assumed to be constant over the life of the machine) and on a temporal basis (where the annual value of wind power was estimated recursively). The model for static analysis contained two components which were applied consecutively. The first was a linear programming (LP) model for the High Plains region. Production activities were included which allowed both optimal and non-optimal timing of post-plant irrigations, giving the producer added flexibility in the employment of limiting water resources. The optimal irrigation schedule determined by the LP solution was used as input to the second component. A simulation model matched stochastically generated estimates of wind power availability with irrigation fuel requirements (derived from the profit maximizing irrigation schedule) by three-hour time periods throughout a year. For the temporal analysis, a Fortran subroutine was added to the LP model to operate the model recursively over the life of the wind system and to account for the annual decline of the aquifer. Both fixed and variable costs were included. The basic LP model was applied to develop the benchmark case (i.e., without wind power). The farm operation with wind power was analyzed by applying the LP model with the monthly expectations of wind-generated electricity added. Two wind machines were analyzed, with rate outputs of 40 to 60 kilowatts (KW). Each was applied to the Northern and Southern Texas High Plains over a range of land and water resource situations. Breakeven investment was estimated at discount rates of three, five and ten percent. Cropping patterns on the Southern High Plains were dominated by irrigated cotton and were insensitive to changes in crop or electricity prices. On the Northern High Plains, irrigated corn and grain sorghum were the major crops, with acreage reverting to dryland wheat at the higher electricity prices. The cropping patterns in this area were impacted heavily by labor restrictions. Consideration of wind power had little effect in determining optimal cropping patterns. When wind power was applied to an irrigated farm on a static basis, the set of crop prices applied had little effect on the annual value of a wind system. Value of wind power was increased, but by smaller proportions than associated increases in the price of electricity. Each machine size had a greater value when operated on the larger of the two applicable land units (100 acres for the 40 KW machine and 144 acres for the 60 KW system). The 60 KW system was also tested on the 100 acre unit but returned less per KW than the 40 KW system. Available wind power in the temporal analysis was less than in the static analysis, thus temporal estimates of wind system value should be regarded as conservative. On the Southern High Plains, break-even investment was decreased slightly from the static analysis. However, in some situations on the Northern High Plains, break-even investment increased. This indicates that the value of wind power could increase as the aquifer declines in some situations. Break-even investment increased by up to 80 percent when the price of electricity was increased by $.005 per KWH per year. The most significant effect of wind power was that it allowed the maintenance of irrigation levels which, without wind power, had been made uneconomical. These results indicate that, at least in the future when wind system costs decrease and stabilize, wind-assisted irrigation could be an economically viable alternative for Texas High Plains producers. The results are limited by the need for future research regarding the effect of irrigation timing on crop yield as well as some of the long-term characteristics of wind system operation, such as durability and the requirements and costs for system repairs and maintenance.

Hardin, D. C.; Lacewell, R. D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Output Performance and Payback Analysis of a Residential Photovoltaic System in Colorado: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Cost of installation and ownership of a 9.66-kilowatt (kW) residential photovoltaic system is described, and the performance of this system over the past 3 years is shown. The system is located in Colorado at 40 degrees latitude and consists of arrays on two structures. Two arrays are installed on a detached garage, and these are each composed of 18 Kyocera 130-W modules strung in series facing south at an angle of 40 degrees above horizontal. Each 18-panel array feeds into a Xantrex/Schneider Electric 2.8-kW inverter. The other two arrays are installed on the house and face south at an angle of 30 degrees. One of these arrays has twelve 205-W Kyocera panels in series, and the other is made up of twelve 210-Kyocera panels. Each of these arrays feeds into Xantrex/Schneider Electric 3.3-kW inverters. Although there are various shading issues from trees and utility poles and lines, the overall output resembles that which is expected from PVWatts, a solar estimate program. The array cost, which was offset by rebates from the utility company and federal tax credits, was $1.17 per watt. Considering measured system performance, the estimated payback time of the system is 9 years.

Johnston, S.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Net Energy Payback and CO{sub 2} Emissions from Three Midwestern Wind Farms: An Update  

SciTech Connect

This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO{sub 2} analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO{sub 2} analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data.A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data.The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO{sub 2} emissions, in tonnes of CO{sub 2} per GW{sub e}h, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively.

White, Scott W. [University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey (United States)], E-mail: whites@kgs.ku.edu

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

GM and Amtrak opt for combined-cycle cogeneration: GM figures 2-year payback; electricity sell-back is gravy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General Motors anticipates a $2 million reduction in annual energy costs with a 10 MW gas-fired combined-cycle cogeneration system that will have a two-year payback. The system will provide about two-thirds of the plant's total power and one-third of its steam requirements. The revenues from selling power generated during weekends and off-shifts to Detroit Edison are not part of the calculations. This system includes two model 501-KB5 gas turbines and a 10 MW, air-cooled generator, with exhaust gases captured and sent to a waste heat recovery boiler that can produce up to 40,000 pph of high-pressure steam, which is fed to a steam turbine to boost capacity to 12 MW when steam loads are low. Low pressure steam contributes to the space heating system. The system will serve as a model for other GM facilities.

Barber, J.

1985-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

West Virginian No Longer Worried About Family's Safety | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Virginian No Longer Worried About Family's Safety Virginian No Longer Worried About Family's Safety West Virginian No Longer Worried About Family's Safety April 2, 2010 - 2:29pm Addthis Joshua DeLung When the mountain winters hit for the last 12 years, Michael Shepard and his family had only a wood stove in their house for heat, plus a few kerosene heaters when the stove didn't do the trick. Michael's diagnosis as a diabetic, coupled with a shoulder injury, left him disabled, resulting in his early retirement. Relying on a wood stove with a serious shoulder injury meant getting heat in Michael's Bluefield, W.Va., home was a struggle. "It was cold, just using wood heat, and my wife had to carry it in for me," he says. After applying for and receiving weatherization assistance from Community Action of South Eastern West Virginia last year, though, his lifestyle at

34

Improved Combustion Health Monitoring Techniques - Longer Life, Higher Availability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Health Combustion Health Monitoring Techniques Longer Life, Higher Availability Georgia Tech Jerry Seitzman SR102 * Modern Dry Low Emissions combustors have low emissions, but at a cost - significantly lower availability and reliability than "conventional" systems * The input data to the combustor monitor is pressure fluctuations, same as in currently available systems, but from this project the system analyzes the data differently, accounting for changes such as ambient temperature and doing analyses that show trends which indicate when planned maintenance should be performed to avoid an unplanned shut down. * Technology Transfer: Worked with 3 GT manufacturers. Method licensed to turbine monitoring company and installed at a number of power plants in the United States.

35

Copper in the Rotor for Lighter, Longer Lasting Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews the advantages of substituting die-cast copper for aluminum in the motor rotor. This advance in motor technology has been long sought by the motor industry but short die life due to the high melting point of copper frustrated attempts to manufacture by pressure die casting. The nickel-base alloy hot die technology developed to solve the manufacturing problem is briefly reviewed. Development work done prior to the present program and commercial motors derived from that work have focused on the increased electrical energy efficiency achievable by using copper with its higher electrical conductivity in the rotor. Performance characteristics of example industrial motors are presented. Modification of the conductor bar shape to control in-rush current and starting torque to accommodate copper in the rotor will be discussed. Modeling by motor manufacturers has shown that by using copper in the rotor, a lighter motor than an aluminum rotor motor at the same efficiency can be built. An example of weight savings calculated for a 15 Hp (11 kW) motor is presented. Data presented here show that motors with copper rotors run cooler. Industry experience shows that cooler operation translates to reduced maintenance costs, improved reliability and longer motor life.

C. Stark; J. G. Cowie; D. T. Peters; E. F. Brush

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

U.S. No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons | National Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency...

37

U.S. No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons | National Nuclear Security No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > U.S. No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons U.S. No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons May 10, 1992 Washington, DC U.S. No Longer Building Any Nuclear Weapons

38

IPv6 - No Longer Optional AND Implementing IPv6 at the American...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IPv6 - No Longer Optional AND Implementing IPv6 at the American Registry for Internet Numbers: An Experience Report Speaker(s): Matt Ryanczak Richard Jimmerson Date: November 12,...

39

Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do December 29, 2011 - 1:12pm Addthis Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently developed a process to improve the efficiency of producing hydrogen to run cars such as this prototype, which was developed at the Oakridge National Lab. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently developed a process to improve the efficiency of producing hydrogen to run cars such as this prototype, which was developed at the Oakridge National Lab. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What does this project do? Researchers have new insight into producing pure hydrogen -- a

40

Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do December 29, 2011 - 1:12pm Addthis Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently developed a process to improve the efficiency of producing hydrogen to run cars such as this prototype, which was developed at the Oakridge National Lab. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Researchers at Argonne National Lab have recently developed a process to improve the efficiency of producing hydrogen to run cars such as this prototype, which was developed at the Oakridge National Lab. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What does this project do? Researchers have new insight into producing pure hydrogen -- a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-Lived Surface Caps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someones back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Burns, Douglas Edward

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps  

SciTech Connect

Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing at the intermediate meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The emphasis on meso-scale (coupled) tests, accelerated effects testing, and dynamic modeling differentiates the project from other efforts, while simultaneously building on that body of knowledge. The performance of evapotranspiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers is being examined. To date, the project can report new approaches to the problem, building new experimental and modeling capabilities, and a few preliminary results.

Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

Effect of longer combination vehicles on the total logistic costs of truckload shippers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research described in this paper was to examine the effects of using longer and heavier tractor-trailer combinations from the standpoint of the individual firm or shipper rather than from the viewpoint of the motor carrier. The objective was to determine the effect of longer combination vehicles (LCVS) not only on shippers freight costs but on their inventory and other logistical costs as well. A sample of companies in selected industries provided data on their principal products, traffic flows, and logistics costs in a mail survey. These data were entered into a computer program called the Freight Transportation Analyzer (FTA) which calculated the component logistics costs associated with shipping by single trailers and by two alternative types of double trailer LCVS. A major finding of the study was that, given sufficient flows of a company`s product in a traffic lane, LCVs would in most cases greatly reduce the total logistics cost of firms that currently ship in single trailer truckload quantities. Annual lane volume, lane distance, and annual lane ton-mileage appeared to be good indicators of whether or not shipping by LCVs would benefit a company, whereas product value had surprisingly little influence on the cost-effectiveness of LCVS. An even better indicator was the ratio of current annual freight costs to current annual inventory carrying costs for a firm`s single trailer truckload shipments. Given the current trend toward maintaining small inventories and shipping in small quantities, it is not clear to what extent shippers will abandon single trailer transport to take advantage of the potential reduction in total logistics cost afforded by LCVS.

Middendorf, D.P.; Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jacoby, J. [Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Coyle, J.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

44

Screen payback on cogeneration-system options  

SciTech Connect

Presented here are charts that provide a quick look at the relationship among the primary variables that affect the viability of a cogeneration project. The graphs are not intended to be complete feasibility studies, but rather screening aids for understanding the important interrelationships. Use of the charts will enable engineers to compare the predominant system options: gas turbine with heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG), diesel engine with HRSG, and fired boiler with steam turbine. The three options are presented separately because of differing capital costs and heat balances.

Wilson, F.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

volume of 45-60 galday, depending on mains water temperature. For every simulation, a home was also modeled to quantify the interaction between the HPWH and the space heating...

46

Fusion energy development: Breakeven and beyond: Keynote address  

SciTech Connect

The scientific feasibility, technological inevitability, and economic necessity of fusion as an energy source are discussed.

Furth, H.P.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE April 16, 2013 NOTE: Change in BS CS Requirements beginning Fall 2013 the 1 unit BIOL 101 lab is no longer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2013 ­ the 1 unit BIOL 101 lab is no longer required, but has been replaced with the 1-unit mandatory and an efficient path to graduation. We recognized that the required 1-unit BIOL 101 Lab had become impacted to improve their system and tools skills. To correct this, we dropped the 1-unit BIOL 101 Lab from our CS BS

48

Heat recovery in laundry yields 18-month payback  

SciTech Connect

A heat exchanger used to preheat hot water in a commercial laundry paid for itself in 19 months, despite a 10% increase in local natural gas rates. The Aurora, Illinois hospital commercial laundry chose a water-to-water shell and tube heat reclaimer system. A programmed control panel opens and closes valves at the proper temperature. Dirty water from the laundry cycle is screened to remove particles and returned to the heat exchanger to preheat incoming city water. Dirty water from the exchanger is discharged into the city sewer.

Hines, V.

1985-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

49

Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In oil refineries and petrochemical plants large number of steam traps are used to discharge condensate from steam mains, tracers and process equipment. Early efforts on steam traps focused almost exclusively on their selection and sizing, and it was not until the 1973 oil embargo that a need for regular maintenance became recognized. Although relatively small pieces of equipment, traps are responsible for large quantities of steam losses, decreased equipment efficiency and high maintenance costs; e.g., a steam trap leaking 100 psig steam through a 1/8 inch orifice costs at least $2k/yr if steam is valued at $5/k lb. Typically, a steam trap survey identifies 20-60% of traps malfunctioning. Therefore, establishing an effective steam trap selection/maintenance program is not simple but can be extremely profitable. This paper will show how a successful checking/maintenance program can result in high returns by using a case study at an Exxon plant. The example also shows how a central engineering organization can interact with plant technicians/ maintenance personnel to help implement an effective steam trap maintenance program at competitive costs and high returns.

Garcia, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Hotel gets 1-yr. payback from propane-fired cogenerator  

SciTech Connect

A Philadelphia Ramada Inn recovered the costs of a $150,000 propane-fired cogenerator system within a year. The system reduced the energy consumed for hot water and air conditioning by 35% and reversed the high energy costs the hotel incurred when it was forced to shift from natural gas to electricity. The 170 horsepower system, which handles a variety of liquid and gaseous fuels as well as propane, replaces two boilers that were used to heat water. The hotel supplements cogenerated power with purchases from the utility. Waste heat is recaptured for space and water heating. The system's overall efficiency is 96%.

Barber, J.

1983-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

51

The potential for extending the spectral range accessible to the european X-ray free electron laser in the direction of longer wavelengths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The baseline specifications of European XFEL give a range of wavelengths between 0.1 nm and 2 nm. This wavelength range at fixed electron beam energy 17.5 GeV can be covered by operating the SASE FEL with three undulators which have different period and tunable gap. A study of the potential for the extending the spectral range accessible to the XFEL in the direction of longer wavelengths is presented. The extension of the wavelength range to 6 nm would be cover the water window in the VUV region, opening the facility to a new class of experiments. There are at least two possible sources of VUV radiation associated with the X-ray FEL; the "low (2.5 GeV) energy electron beam dedicated" and the " 17.5 GeV spent beam parasitic" (or "after-burner") source modes. The second alternative, "after-burner undulator" is the one we regard as most favorable. It is possible to place an undulator as long as 80 meters after 2 nm undulator. Ultimately, VUV undulator would be able to deliver output power approaching 100 GW. A b...

Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Results of 2001 Groundwater Sampling in Support of Conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the Vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of sampling five groundwater monitoring wells in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in 2001. Information on general sampling practices, quality assurance practices, parameter concentrations, representativeness of sampling results, and cumulative cancer risk are presented. The information is provided to support a conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

Meachum, T.R.

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

54

Energy Conservation Recommendations, Implementation Costs, and Projected Paybacks for Georgia's Targeted Schools and Hospitals Conservation Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the past year the Georgia Tech Research Institute performed technical assistance studies on over 100 school and hospital buildings under a program funded by the Governor's Office of Energy Resources. This program is known as the Targeted Schools and Hospitals Program because its objective is to involve facilities which have never participated in the traditional DOE funded Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) due to economic hardships. The program was specifically directed at non-participants by providing fully funded energy surveys on qualifying facilities. The energy surveys were conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute under contract with the Office of Energy Resources. This paper presents results on the range of energy conservation recommendations made and the number of occurrences in the total population as well as the typical percentage energy savings. This data can be used in forecasting the expected types of recommendations and energy reduction potential for a large population of institutional buildings.

Brown, M. L.; Moore, D. M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

LBNL-54244 Life-cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

costs (increased LCC). Moving towards the right on the axis, values greater than zero indicate reductions in LCC (LCC savings). LCC savings occur when increased total...

56

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

18 2.3.1 Electricity Price19 2.3.2 Electricity PriceELECTRICITY PRICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

37 RESULTS USING TARIFF-BASED ELECTRICITYHourly-based Electricity Price Models Tariff-based HourlyRESULTS USING TARIFF-BASED ELECTRICITY PRICES LCC Results

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prices Computed from Air Conditioning Load Reductions UsingRefrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE)/Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE),

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

PV FAQs: What Is the Energy Payback for PV? Solar Energy Technologies...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy is clean, abundant, reliable, and affordable Reaping the environmental benefits of solar energy requires spending energy to make the PV system. But as this graphic shows,...

60

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 1 filings. http://Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) website through Form 714annual data submitted to FERC from regulated utilities and

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Water restrictors yield high energy savings: users report paybacks under 6 months  

SciTech Connect

Flow restrictors can save heating and pumping energy costs as well as saving water costs by reducing consumption. Installed on shower heads, flow restrictors can pay for themselves in six months. The device can also be applied to faucets or in water-supply feed lines, but the savings will be less. Several model designs are on the market at a wide range of prices. The Radisson Hotel, Days Inn, and other chains report their experiences and savings. (DCK)

Fleming, J.

1982-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Hotel gets 9-month payback on HVAC project. [Midtown Holiday Inn, Richmond, VA  

SciTech Connect

The Midtown Holiday Inn at Richmond, Virginia, recovered its $45,200 investment in heating and cooling modifications in nine months by reducing energy consumption by 43%. Natural gas use was reduced 48% and electricity 25%, while comfort levels were improved. The retrofit involved replacing the old three-pipe design, which traditionally returns both heating and cooling water and is inefficient during fall and spring when both hot and chill water are needed. A new control strategy keeps the chiller and boiler from working simultaneously by alternating the two on 15-minute cycles. The chiller automatically cuts off when outside air goes below 55/sup 0/F, while the boiler shuts off at 75/sup 0/F. (DCK)

Deans, B.

1982-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

63

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

avoid bias in the electricity bill calculations, we assignedarrive at an annual electricity bill. The difference betweenbill and multiplied it by the ratio of the total air conditioning energy use to the total building electricity

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy expenses based upon electricity prices that customers may pay if electricity markets become deregulated. Electricity price trends:

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ground water source), electrically operated, unitary central air conditioners and central air conditioning heat pumps

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of ballast life-cycle cost and payback period  

SciTech Connect

The paper introduces an innovative methodology for evaluating the relative significance of energy-efficient technologies applied to fluorescent lamp ballasts. The method involves replacing the point estimates of life cycle cost of the ballasts with uncertainty distributions reflecting the whole spectrum of possible costs, and the assessed probability associated with each value. The results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses will help analysts reduce effort in data collection and carry on analysis more efficiently. These methods also enable policy makers to gain an insightful understanding of which efficient technology alternatives benefit or cost what fraction of consumers, given the explicit assumptions of the analysis.

McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin; Turiel, Ike; Hakim, Sajid; Fisher, Diane

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Autonomic Materials for Smarter, Safer, Longer-Lasting Batteries (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

'Autonomic Materials for Smarter, Safer, Longer-Lasting Batteries' was submitted by the Center for Electrical Energy Storage (CEES) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CEES, an EFRC directed by Michael Thackery at Argonne National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from three institutions: ANL (lead), Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Electrical Energy Storage is 'to acquire a fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena controlling electrochemical processes that will enable dramatic improvements in the properties and performance of energy storage devices, notable Li ion batteries.' Research topics are: electrical energy storage, batteries, battery electrodes, electrolytes, adaptive materials, interfacial characterization, matter by design; novel materials synthesis, charge transport, and defect tolerant materials.

Thackeray, Michael (Director, Center for Electrical Energy Storage); CEES Staff

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

higher average state electricity rates, which increase thethe average state retail electricity rate, meaning thatsensitivities on state retail electricity rates, O&M costs,

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-sitevariations in retail electricity rates and other factors, ita small surcharge on electricity rates. These states are

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Average statewide residential electricity rates were takenElectricity price escalation rates for the residentialelectricity rate that is 20% higher than the average statewide residential

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

project. References American Wind Energy Association (2002).The U.S. Small Wind Turbine Industry Roadmap. Clean Powerof Grid-Connected Small Wind Turbines in the Domestic

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

project. References American Wind Energy Association (2002).of the American Wind Energy Association WindPower 2002Washington, DC: American Wind Energy Association; 8 pp. ;

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

TABL Longer Hard Hat description-Sept 26.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hat Use and Inspection Hat Use and Inspection Hard hats are an important piece of personal protective equipment (PPE). Hard hats worn at Berkeley Lab must comply with the requirements of ANSI Z89.1 for impact protection and electrical performance. PPE can only be effective if it is used properly and the wearer understands its limitations, care, and maintenance. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.132 requires that PPE be maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition. Defective or damaged equipment should never be used. To inspect PPE, emp loyees should follow manufacturer's recommendations for specific inspection procedures. Hard Hat Inspection - Bullard Hard Hats Bullard 3000 hard hats are available at LBL Central Stores, located in B78. Bullard User Information provides detailed inspection procedures for all Bullard hard hats.

74

ATTENTION: Sage is no longer distributed as a VMware Virtual ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Download sage-vmware-3.0.zip 2. Extract it anywhere you want: (This will take about 15 minutes despite anything Windows tells you. Do *not* stop the extract...

75

Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Durst1 , Nozomi Nishimura2 , Angela W. Wong2 , Chris B. Schaffer2 , and Chris Xu1 1 School of Applied

Schaffer, Chris B.

76

Attention to maintenance is key to longer battery life  

SciTech Connect

A unique way for battery maintenance on electric truck is described. This system is involved in multi-shift operation entailing battery changing, charging, and programed maintenance.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

MAUI: Making Smartphones Last Longer with Code Offload Eduardo Cuervo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. be executed locally or remotely, and the proxies handle both con- trol and data transfer based burden on the programmer. MAUI decides at run- time which methods should be remotely executed, driven remotely. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.2.4 [Computer-Communication Networks]: Distributed Sys- tems

Anderson, Richard

78

GM and Amtrak opt for combined-cycle cogeneration: Amtrak sells 100% of electricity, expects 2. 8-year payback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A $4.2 million dual-fuel cogeneration system for an Amtrak maintenance facility will pay for itself in 2.8 years with revenues from selling all the generated electricity to the local utility at an average of 8 cents per kWh. The 5.3 MW system consists of a gas turbine, a 4.3 MW generator, and a waste heat recovery boiler. The facility will use all the steam for heating requirements, with excess steam running a steam turbine to generate an additional 1.25 MW. The dual-fuel feature provided leverage to avoid take-or-pay status with the gas supplier. The high sellback price is the results of a 20-year contract to sell 100% of electricity output.

Warrock, A.M.

1985-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

79

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY and other countries. Higher efficiencies are produced by innovative cell designs and material and energy% more electricity than average efficiency (i.e., 14%) c-Si PV modules. Keywords: Photovoltaic, energy

80

Energy Cost Control: How the Money Works  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Russell Russell Energy PathFINDER www.energypathfinder.com crussell@energypathfinder.com Energy Cost Control: How the Money Works (Copies of these slides to be provided by DOE-ITP) (c)2009 Energy Pathfinder Mangement Consulting, LLC www.energypathfinder.com 2 Samuel Goldwyn (1879-1974) "Spare no expense to save money on this one." (c)2009 Energy Pathfinder Mangement Consulting, LLC www.energypathfinder.com 3 OUTLINE A "money" perspective on energy Projects, payback Make-or-buy Annualized cost analysis Cost of doing nothing Break-even analysis Budget for additional analysis (c)2009 Energy Pathfinder Mangement Consulting, LLC www.energypathfinder.com 4 A print-on-demand publication www.lulu.com/content/2152882 About Christopher Russell

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Preliminary Design of an Industrial/Commercial Microwave Clothes Dryer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drying fabrics with microwave energy can reduce both the drying time and the drying temperature. This process provides a new level of fabric care to make all fabrics last longer and look better. The purpose of designing a 125-pound commercial/industrial microwave dryer was to perform cost exercises and calculate payback periods.

1997-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

Kulcinski, G.L.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, 14:179-190, 2006 Energy Pay-Back and Life Cycle CO2 Emissions of the BOS in an  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Hansen3 and H.C. Kim2 1 Solar Energy Campaign, 52 Columbia Street, Farmingdale, NY 11735, E such savings and lower emissions is timely. Previous life-cycle assessments of field and rooftop PV systems plants is much greater than the energy requirements in rooftop and facade installations.1

84

Assessing the impacts of feed in tariffs and metering configuration (gross or net), on the payback period for an average solar PV system in metropolitan Melbourne.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With an increasing customer focus on renewable energy and the perceived benefits from widespread solar photovoltaic (PV) generation there has been a rapid increase in (more)

Bailey, Darren

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Energy payback and CO{sub 2} gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

Kulcinski, G.L.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Cradle to Grave Framework for Environmental Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost corresponding to an increase in energy payback time ofEnergy Payback Times, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and External Costs:

Zhang, Teresa; Dornfeld, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

Sargent, S.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

List of issues for next dynamic window prototype/longer-term research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

075 075 A First-Generation Prototype Dynamic Residential Window Christian Kohler, Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh Windows and Daylighting Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley CA 94720 October 26, 2004 Abstract We present the concept for a "smart" highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available "off-the-shelf" components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size

89

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. ... State Energy Data System ...

90

NO LONGER THE 3 R's; IT'S NOW THE 3 S's: SKILLS, SYSTE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... employee retention, analysis of training investments, and ... So, too, can systematic and standardized ... hiring into a larger systemic approach to talent ...

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

91

ARCHIVED MATERIAL This page is no longer being reviewed/updated.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Nonproliferation Studies Site Search Home >About CNS > D.C. > Outreach > 2001 > Page CNS Branch Office: Washington, the CTBT refers to the U.N. more generally. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) does not contain

Sussex, University of

92

1982 Annual Energy Review. [1960 to 1982; in some cases for a longer period  

SciTech Connect

Total energy consumption in the United States equaled 70.9 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1982, a decline of 4.1% compared to 1981. Depressed economic activity was a major factor in reducing total energy demand. However, conservation also played a role as energy consumption per dollar of GNP continued to fall. Most of the decline in energy use involved petroleum and natural gas. Reduced petroleum demand translated into a 21.7% reduction in net petroleum imports. Natural gas demand and production fell, prompted by reduced economic activity and a substantial increase in prices. Crude oil prices fell for the first time in more than a decade. Weakened market conditions adversely affected the rate of domestic oil and gas exploration and development activities. Nonetheless, domestic crude oil production rose 1.2%. International activities were highlighted by a decline in crude oil production, especially by members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a decrease in crude oil prices, and a substantial increase in electricity production by nuclear-powered utility plants in non-Communist countries. Energy production in the United States in 1982 remained essentially unchanged from that of 1981, as small gains in hydroelectric power and nuclear power production were offset by losses in natural gas production. For the third straight year, energy consumption in the United States declined. Whereas declines in 1980 and 1981 resulted primarily from consumer response to higher prices and conservation, the 1982 decline reflected primarily an economic slowdown, especially in industry. Annual per capita consumption fell to 306 million Btu, the lowest level since 1967. Changes in energy prices in 1982 were mixed. Whereas most petroleum prices declined, prices of natural gas, coal, and electricity rose.

Not Available

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

LI-ION BATTERIESWITH LONGER LIFE, LOWER COST, AND BETTER SAFETY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials that include LiFePO4 for use in, but not limited to, electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries cathode manufacturing processes. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (ANL-IN-11 functionality for high power and high energy lithium batteries. The Invention A family of lithium iron composite

Kemner, Ken

94

Tobacco Policy Making in California 2001-2003: No Longer Finishing First  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

announces agreement with Exxon Mobil to curb tobacco salesreached an agreement with Exxon Mobil Corp. to implement newterms of the agreement with Exxon Mobil are almost identical

Ibrahim, Jennifer K. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration - EIA - Official Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government ... solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium.

96

Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future Longer Term and Global Context 8.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; synthetic fuels; biofuels including biogas, biodiesels, and alcohols--even syngas derived from sources

97

LIN Chapter 2 Proof AFTER CRASH WITH LONGER CAPTION + CORREX.indd  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 2012 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

98

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Financial market analysis and financial data for major ... collected in 2010 and 2011 and released in 2011 ... The average U.S. household consumed 11,320 ...

99

Rainfall Variability at Decadal and Longer Time Scales: Signal or Noise?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rainfall variability occurs over a wide range of temporal scales. Knowledge and understanding of such variability can lead to improved risk management practices in agricultural and other industries. Analyses of temporal patterns in 100 yr of ...

Holger Meinke; Peter deVoil; Graeme L. Hammer; Scott Power; Robert Allan; Roger C. Stone; Chris Folland; Andries Potgieter

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

For decades, space heating and cooling (space conditioning) accounted for more than half of all residential energy consumption. Estimates from the ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chapter 1.03: Solar Photovoltaics Technology: No Longer an Outlier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The status and future technology, market, and industry opportunities for solar photovoltaics are examined and discussed. The co-importance of both policy and technology investments for the future markets and competitiveness of this solar approach is emphasized. This paper underscores the technology side, with a comprehensive overview and insights to technical, policy, market, industry and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy economy. The requirement to venture from near-term and evolutionary approaches into disruptive and revolutionary technology pathways is argued for our needs in the mid-term (the next 10-15 years) and the long-term (beyond the first quarter of this century).

Kazmerski, L. L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Californias Economic Outlook: Short-term Recovery But Longer-term Uncertainties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Long-Term Demographic Outlook for California and LosCALIFORNIAS ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SHORT-TERM RECOVERY BUTCalifornias short-term outlook remains one of expansion,

Hurd, Joseph; Mitchell, Daniel J.B.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... more efficient windows, ... EIA - 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20585 About EIA Press Room Careers Feedback Contact Us. Sources & Uses Petroleum

104

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Consumption & Efficiency. Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Coal.

105

Heating and cooling no longer majority of U.S. home energy use ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Tools; Glossary All Reports ... Non-weather related energy use for appliances, electronics, water heating, and lighting now accounts for 52% of total consumption, ...

106

Fundamental difference of subpicosecond laser interaction compared to longer pulses for ultrahigh acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interaction of picosecond laser pulses above terawatt power with high density plasmas shows a nearly 100% conversion of the laser energy into directed acceleration of the electron cloud by nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces giving the ion cloud accelerations several orders of magnitude higher than comparable nanosecond interaction based on thermal pressure processes.

Foeldes, I. B.; Lalousis, P.; Moustaizis, S.; Hora, H. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics HAS, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Association EURATOM HAS, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser FORTH, Heraklion (Greece); Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

107

Tobacco Policy Making in California 2001-2003: No Longer Finishing First  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Campaign Scripts. Sacramento, CA: California Department ofBill Analysis: SB 312. Sacramento, CA: State Board ofBill Analysis: AB 2205. Sacramento, CA: State Board of

Ibrahim, Jennifer K. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Mixing Appropriations and Private Financing to Meet Federal Energy Management Goals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compares several strategies for mixing appropriations and private financing in a typical federal agency that has identified $100 million in required energy conservation measures (ECMs) at its facilities. The analysis shows that in order to maximize savings and minimize overall life-cycle cost, the best strategy for the agency is to use private financing to fund as many of the ECMs as possible within the statutory maximum 25-year project term, beginning with the ECMs with the shortest paybacks. Available appropriations should either be applied to a privately financed project as a one-time payment from savings (i.e., as a buydown ) or used to directly fund longer-payback ECMs that cannot be included in the privately financed project.

Shonder, John A [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Economic Analysis of Ilumex, A Project to Promote Energy-Efficient Residential Lighting in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A higher penetration of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for household lighting can reduce growth in peak electricity demand, reduce sales of subsidized electricity, and lessen environmental impacts. This paper describes an economic analysis of a project designed to promote high penetration rates of CFLs in two cities in Mexico. Our analysis indicates that the project will bring substantial net economic benefits to Mexico, the utility, and the average customer. In the absence of any subsidy to CFLs, most customers will see a payback period longer than two years. By sharing some of the anticipated net benefit, CFE, the utility company, can reduce the payback period to a maximum of two years for all customers. CFE's role is thus crucial to the successful implementation of the project. Expanding the Ilumex project to a Mexico-wide program would make a significant contribution towards meeting the planned addition of generation capacity by the year 2000.

Sathaye, Jayant A.; Friedmann, R.; Meyers, S.; de Buen, O.; Gadgil, A.J.; Vargas, E.; Saucedo, R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The economics of photovoltaics in the commercial, institutional and industrical sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the application of a model which computes system break-even capital costs, array break-even capital costs and profits from photovoltaic investments in the industrial, commercial and institutional ...

Cox, Alan J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Spezielle Managementfunktionen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

akquiriert werden, beispielsweise im Anlagenbau (Kraftwerke, Klranlagen,. Leitsysteme ..... Investitionen lsst sich der Break-even point trotz des grundstzlich.

112

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

payback time versus building size Project costs and energyPayback time (commissioning cost/annual energy savings) lessenergy payback time of 41 years, while the proper allocation of costs and

Mills, Evan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Monitoring Based Commissioning: Benchmarking Analysis of 24 UC/CSU/IOU Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy savings %, project costs, cost savings, and payback timesenergy cost savings were $0.25/sf, for a median simple payback timeenergy cost savings were $0.25/sf-year, for a median simple payback time

Mills, Evan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of Key Electrical Products: The Case of India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

operating cost (electricity bill), and DR is the consumerPrice $US Annual Electricity Bill Payback Period TotalRetail Price $US Annual Electricity Bill Payback Total Delta

McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert, Virginie; McMahon, James E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND PAYBACK PERIOD RESULTS USING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRICEPERIOD RESULTS USING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRICE SCENARIOS C.1and payback results using alternative energy price scenarios

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

A limited microbial consortium is responsible for longer-term biostimulation and bioreduction or uranium in a contaminated aquifer  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g., emulsified vegetable oil [EVO]) are thought to be a pragmatic alternative to using short-lived, labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within contaminated groundwater systems. Spatial and temporal dynamics of subsurface microbial communities during EVO amendment are unknown and likely differ significantly from those of populations stimulated by soluble substrates, such as ethanol and acetate. In this study, a one-time EVO injection resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations that remained below initial levels for approximately 4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in groundwater bacterial community richness and diversity after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group of taxa rather than a broad community stimulation. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for long-chain fatty acid oxidation to acetate, also dominated after EVO amendment. Acetate and H{sub 2} production during EVO degradation appeared to stimulate NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late to comprise over 25% of the total microbial community. Bacterial diversity rebounded after 9 months, although community compositions remained distinct from the preamendment conditions. These results demonstrated that a one-time EVO amendment served as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction and that subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction were likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

Gihring, Thomas [ORNL; Zhang, Gengxin [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Green, Stefan [Florida State University; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Overholt, Will [Florida State University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Yang, Zamin [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Longer-term domestic supply problems for nonrenewable materials with special emphasis on energy-related applications  

SciTech Connect

An examination is made on how materials are used in present and future energy production and use. Problem areas which are discussed include by-products production, import limitations, substitution and recycle, accelerated use, synthesis, and the adequacy of the data bases availability. (FS)

Goeller, H.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating Efficiency Enhancemen and Current Drive at Longer Wavelength on the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

High harmonic fast wave heating and current drive (CD) are being developed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1435 (2001)] for supporting startup and sustainment of the ST plasma. Considerable enhancement of the core heating efficiency (?) from 44% to 65% has been obtained for CD phasing of the antenna (strap-to-strap ? = -90o, k? = -8 m-1) by increasing the magnetic field from 4.5 kG to 5.5 kG. This increase in efficiency is strongly correlated to moving the location of the onset density for perpendicular fast wave propagation (nonset ? ?? k|| 2/w) away from the antenna face and wall, and hence reducing the propagating surface wave fields. RF waves propagating close to the wall at lower B? and k|| can enhance power losses from both the parametric decay instability (PDI) and wave dissipation in sheaths and structures around the machine. The improved efficiency found here is attributed to a reduction in the latter, as PDI losses are little changed at the higher magnetic field. Under these conditions of higher coupling efficiency, initial measurements of localized CD effects have been made and compared with advanced RF code simulations

J. Hosea, R. E. Bell, B.P. LeBlanc, C.K. Phillips, G. Taylor, E. Valeo, J.R. Wilson, E.F. Jaeger, P.M. Ryan, J. Wilgen, H. Yuh, F. Levinton, S. Sabbagh, K. Tritz, J. Parker, P.T. Bonoli, R. Harvey, and the NSTX Team

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

119

2 MARCH 2007 VOL 315 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org1224 he world may no longer face a serious  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

facto nuclear arms race has emerged in Asia between China, India, and Pakistan, which could expand] are relatively easy to build (1, 6). India and Pakistan, the smallest nuclear powers, probably have such arsenals (4). India and Pakistan, for instance, have previously tested nuclear weapons and are now thought

Robock, Alan

120

High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating Efficiency Enhancement and Current Drive at Longer Wavelength on the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High harmonic fast wave heating and current drive CD are being developed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1435 2001 for supporting startup and sustainment of the spherical torus plasma. Considerable enhancement of the core heating efficiency from 44% to 65% has been obtained for CD phasing of the antenna strap-to-strap = 90 , k= 8 m 1 by increasing the magnetic field from 4.5 to 5.5 kG. This increase in efficiency is strongly correlated to moving the location of the onset density for perpendicular fast wave propagation nonsetBk 2 / away from the antenna face and wall, and hence reducing the propagating surface wave fields. Radio frequency RF waves propagating close to the wall at lower B and k can enhance power losses from both the parametric decay instability PDI and wave dissipation in sheaths and structures around the machine. The improved efficiency found here is attributed to a reduction in the latter, as PDI losses are little changed at the higher magnetic field. Under these conditions of higher coupling efficiency, initial measurements of localized CD effects have been made and compared with advanced RF code simulations.

Hosea, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Phillips, Cynthia [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Valeo, Dr Ernest [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics; Levinton, F. [Fusion Physics and Technology; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Tritz, K. [Johns Hopkins University; Parker, J. [Cornell University; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Land ecosystems cover nearly 30% of the Earth's surface. The land surface changes over days, seasons, decades, and longer. Vegetation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

erupt. Activities of the growing human population cause or influence many of these changes. Terrestrial://hsb.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;Land Surface Observation Forcing ·Precipitation ·Wind ·Humidity ·Radiation ·Air Temperature ·Evapotranspiration ·Sensible Heat Flux ·Radiation ·Runoff ·Drainage Soil Moisture Snow, Ice, Rainfall Snow Vegetation

Li, Zhanqing

122

New three-phase electronic ballasts said to save 25-32%  

SciTech Connect

Triad-Utrad offers a three-phase electronic ballast for new commercial buildings that saves 25-32% in lighting costs and yields a payback of less than one year. The Triad B-27551208 at $44 can lower new construction costs 30% because it uses less expensive wiring and circuit breakers than single-phase circuits. Each ballast handles one or two standard fluorescent lamps, and saves energy by operating at a higher frequency than conventional ballasts to achieve the same light level. Service life should be 20% longer because the Triad ballast operates at about 20% cooler temperatures.

1985-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

123

The feasibility of applying geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study concludes that direct use technologies, especially desalinated water production, can contribute significantly to the value added process and the overall economic viability in developing a geopressured resource. Although agriculture and aquaculture applications are marginal projects when they are the only use of a geopressured well, the small margin of profitability can contribute to improving the overall economics of the direct use development. The added complexity from a technical and management aspect may add to the overall risk and unpredictability of the project. Six combination of direct uses received economic evaluation that resulted in 15% discounted payback periods ranging from 4 to over 10 years. Many other combinations are possible depending on the resource and market variables. Selection of appropriate technologies and sizes of applications will be established by the developer that engages in geopressured resource utilization. Currently, many areas of the country where geopressured resources are located also have surplus electrical capacity and generation, thus power utilities have been selling power for less than 2 cents per kWH, well below a reasonable breakeven value for geopressured produced electricity. However, when the energy demand of the integrated geopressured facility is large enough to install power generation equipment, operating expenses can be reduced by not paying the 10 to 12 cents per kWH utility rate. The study includes an analysis of a geothermal turbine unit installed with a desalination and an agriculture/aquaculture facility, taking advantage of the cascading energy values. Results suggest that this scenario becomes profitable only where the market price for electricity exceeds five cents per kWH.

Lunis, B.C.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Lienau, P.J. (Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center); Spencer, F.J. (International Management Services (United States)); Nitschke, G.F. (Nitschke (George F.) (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increasing stringency on sulfur content in petrodiesel, there is a growing tendency of broader usage of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) with sulfur content of 15 ppm. Refineries around the world should develop cost-effective and sustainable strategies to meet these requirements. The primary objective of this work is to analyze alternatives for producing ULSD. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, the option of blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is investigated. Blending petrodiesel with biodiesel is a potentially attractive option because it is naturally low in sulfur, enhances the lubricity of petrodiesel, and is a sustainable energy resource. In order to investigate alternatives for producing ULSD, several research tasks were undertaken in this work. Firstly, base-case designs of petrodiesel and biodiesel production processes were developed using computer-aided tools ASPEN Plus. The simulations were adjusted until the technical criteria and specifications of petrodiesel and biodiesel production were met. Next, process integration techniques were employed to optimize the synthesized processes. Heat integration for petrodiesel and biodiesel was carried out using algebraic, graphical and optimization methods to maximize the integrated heat exchange and minimize the heating and cooling utilities. Additionally, mass integration was applied to conserve material resources. Cost estimation was carried out for both processes. The capital investments were obtained from ASPEN ICARUS Process Evaluator, while operating costs were calculated based on the updated chemical market prices. The total operating costs before and after process integration were calculated and compared. Next, blending optimization was performed for three blending options with the optimum blend for each option identified. Economic comparison (total annualized cost, breakeven analysis, return on investment, and payback period) of the three options indicated that the blending of ULSD with chemical additives was the most profitable. However, the subsequent life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and safety comparisons demonstrated that the blending of ULSD with biodiesel was superior.

Wang, Ting

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

NREL: Technology Transfer - Events - National Renewable Energy ...  

Join NREL for the "Open PV Project Overview and Breakeven Analysis Demonstration" webinar. Because the solar photovoltaic (PV) market is the most diffuse of the large ...

126

Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

break-even point in a fusion reactor, or ignition, where theoriginal report on fusion reactors (initially classi?ed). [Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor and power plant

Heimbucher, Lynn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AND PAYBACK PERIOD RESULTS USING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRICEUSING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRICE SCENARIOS C.1 INTRODUCTION

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

GyroSol Harmonic Engine - Home - Energy Innovation Portal  

existing HVAC system Fuel efficiency ~ 90% Payback < 1 year . 19 GyroSol engine can save lives.

129

Recent eLetters to the Editor are available at radiology.rsnajnls .org. eLetters that are no longer posted under ``Recent eLet-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb attacks (as a newspaper summary of the au- thors' article reports), what examinations reported as having normal findings or only minor abnormalities, and (b) the work

Brenner, David Jonathan

130

"This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible."  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transformation (LFT). 1. INTRODUCTION The general configuration of a modern power system is that power sources-input wide area power system stabilizer using gain scheduling method," IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, July 2003, Toronto, Ontario. #12;- 2 - DESIGN OF DELAYED-INPUT WIDE AREA POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER

131

One-Up On L1: Can X-rays Provide Longer Advanced Warning of Solar Wind Flux Enhancements Than Upstream Monitors?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of strong solar wind proton flux correlations with ROSAT X-ray rates along with high spectral resolution Chandra observations of X-rays from the dark Moon show that soft X-ray emission mirrors the behavior of the solar wind. In this paper, based on an analysis of an X-ray event observed by XMM-Newton resulting from charge exchange of high charge state solar wind ions and contemporaneous neutral solar wind data, we argue that X-ray observations may be able to provide reliable advance warning, perhaps by as much as half a day, of dramatic increases in solar wind flux at Earth. Like neutral atom imaging, this provides the capability to monitor the solar wind remotely rather than in-situ. Key words: solar wind/magnetosphere interaction, solar wind charge exchange (SWCX), soft X-rays, space weather 1

M. R. Collier A; T. E. Moore A; S. L. Snowden B; K. D. Kuntz C

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

De.troy thl. r.port wh.n no longer n..d.d. Do not ..-turn It to the originator.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this artifact. [Mar63] MARQUARDT D. W.: An Algorithm for Least-Squares Estimation of Nonlinear Parameters. SIAM Levine of the National Park Service, and to Patrice Jeppson, Glen Muschio and his students at Drexel

US Army Corps of Engineers

133

Tell Barack Obama the Truth The Whole Truth Embers of election night elation will glow longer than any prior election. Glowing even  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) is a thorium reactor concept that uses a chemically-stable fluoride salt from being used in solid- fueled reactors. The fluid fuel in LFTR is also easy to process and to separate useful fission products, both stable and radioactive. LFTR also has the potential to destroy

Hansen, James E.

134

Tell Barack Obama the Truth The Whole Truth Embers of election night elation will glow longer than any prior election. Glowing even  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(LFTR) is a thorium reactor concept that uses a chemically-stable fluoride salt for the medium in which in solid- fueled reactors. The fluid fuel in LFTR is also easy to process and to separate useful fission products, both stable and radioactive. LFTR also has the potential to destroy existing nuclear waste

Hansen, James E.

135

Short-term dynamics of soil carbon, microbial biomass, and soil enzyme activities as compared to longer-term effects of tillage in irrigated row crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of soil microbial biomass and activity in conventional andPaul EA (1994) Microbial biomass. In: Weaver RW, Angle S,Owens LB (1988) Soil microbial biomass and organic component

Geisseler, Daniel; Horwath, William R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Longer-term Characterization of Mercury Partitioning and Re-emissions in a Full-scale Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Site 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from an EPRI project focused on understanding and enhancing how mercury is captured by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and how it partitions among the FGD liquor, fine solids, and bulk FGD solid byproduct. A second objective was to close a mercury balance around the host unit by determining what portion of the coal mercury exits the stack with the scrubbed flue gas and how much ends up in the fly ash, byproduct gypsum, and FGD wastewater. During t...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

137

The Waning of America's Higher Education Advantage: International Competitors Are No Longer Number Two and Have Big Plans in the Global Economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is Local, Higher Education Policy, forthcoming 2006. CSHEThe States and Public Higher Education Policy (Baltimore:Equity of American Higher Education, The Review of Higher

Douglass, John Aubrey

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Optimal Timing for Assessment of Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Patients With Rectal Cancer: Do All Patients Benefit From Waiting Longer Than 6 Weeks?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the metabolic activity of rectal cancers at 6 and 12 weeks after completion of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) by 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([{sup 18}FDG]PET/CT) imaging and correlate with response to CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal adenocarcinoma treated with long-course neoadjuvant CRT (54 Gy, 5-fluouracil-based) were prospectively studied ( (ClinicalTrials.org) identifier (NCT00254683)). All patients underwent 3 PET/CT studies (at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks from CRT completion). Clinical assessment was at 12 weeks. Maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor was measured and recorded at each PET/CT study after 1 h (early) and 3 h (late) from {sup 18}FDG injection. Patients with an increase in early SUVmax between 6 and 12 weeks were considered 'bad' responders and the others as 'good' responders. Results: Ninety-one patients were included; 46 patients (51%) were 'bad' responders, whereas 45 (49%) patients were 'good' responders. 'Bad' responders were less likely to develop complete clinical response (6.5% vs. 37.8%, respectively; P=.001), less likely to develop significant histological tumor regression (complete or near-complete pathological response; 16% vs. 45%, respectively; P=.008) and exhibited greater final tumor dimension (4.3 cm vs. 3.3 cm; P=.03). Decrease between early (1 h) and late (3 h) SUVmax at 6-week PET/CT was a significant predictor of 'good' response (accuracy of 67%). Conclusions: Patients who developed an increase in SUVmax after 6 weeks were less likely to develop significant tumor downstaging. Early-late SUVmax variation at 6-week PET/CT may help identify these patients and allow tailored selection of CRT-surgery intervals for individual patients.

Perez, Rodrigo O. [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil) [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Habr-Gama, Angelita, E-mail: gamange@uol.com.br [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sao Juliao, Guilherme P. [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sousa, Afonso H.S.; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; Imperiale, Antonio R. [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lynn, Patricio B.; Proscurshim, Igor [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nahas, Sergio Carlos [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ono, Carla Rachel; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil) [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Short-term dynamics of soil carbon, microbial biomass, and soil enzyme activities as compared to longer-term effects of tillage in irrigated row crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rates by tillage and crop rotation: a global data analysis.of tillage in irrigated row crops Daniel Geisseler & Williamthe cropping season in all crop sequences D. Geisseler (*) :

Geisseler, Daniel; Horwath, William R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Waste to Energy and Absorption Chiller: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All measured performance characteristics corresponded well to manufacturer's specifications or were within the expected range for this type of incinerator. The simplified economic analysis showed a payback of period 4.5 years. An optimized payback calculation based on a set of possible improvements to the waste-to-energy system showed a payback period of 3.8 years.

Wolpert, J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluating state markets for residential wind systems: Results from an economic and policy analysis tool  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The market for small wind systems in the United States, often defined as systems less than or equal to 100 kW that produce power on the customer side of the meter, is small but growing steadily. The installed capacity of domestic small wind systems in 2002 was reportedly 15-18 MW, though the market is estimated to be growing by as much as 40 percent annually (AWEA, 2002). This growth is driven in part by recent technology advancements and cost improvements and, perhaps more importantly, by favorable policy incentives targeted at small wind systems that are offered in several states. Currently, over half of all states have incentive policies for which residential small wind installations are eligible. These incentives range from low-interest loan programs and various forms of tax advantages to cash rebates that cover as much as 60 percent of the total system cost for turbines 10 kW or smaller installed in residential applications. Most of these incentives were developed to support a ran ge of emerging renewable technologies (most notably photovoltaic systems), and were therefore not specifically designed with small wind systems in mind. As such, the question remains as to which incentive types provide the greatest benefit to small wind systems, and how states might appropriately set the level and type of incentives in the future. Furthermore, given differences in incentive types and levels across states, as well as variations in retail electricity rates and other relevant factors, it is not immediately obvious which states offer the most promising markets for small wind turbine manufacturers and installers, as well as potential residential system owners. This paper presents results from a Berkeley Lab analysis of the impact of existing and proposed state and federal incentives on the economics of grid-connected, residential small wind systems. Berkeley Lab has designed the Small Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT) to compare system economics under current incentive structures a cross all 50 states. SWAT reports three metrics to characterize residential wind economics in each state and wind resource class: (1) Break-Even Turnkey Cost (BTC): The BTC is defined as the aggregate installed system cost that would balance total customer payments and revenue over the life of the system, allowing the customer to ''break-even'' while earning a specified rate of return on the small wind ''investment.'' (2) Simple Payback (SP): The SP is the number of years it takes a customer to recoup a cash payment for a wind system and all associated costs, assuming zero discount on future revenue and payments (i.e., ignoring the time value of money). (3) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE): The LCOE is the levelized cost of generating a kWh of electricity over the lifetime of the system, and is calculated assuming a cash purchase for the small wind system and a 5.5 percent real discount rate. This paper presents SWAT results for a 10 kW wind turbine and turbine power production is based on a Bergey Excel system. These results are not directly applicable to turbines with different power curves and rated outputs, especially given the fact that many state incentives are set as a fixed dollar amount, and the dollar per Watt amount will vary based on the total rated turbine capacity.

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

Doug Strickland

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

143

LoanSTAR Energy Auditing: Update and Changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Annual savings identified by detailed LoanSTAR audits during the period January, 1989 -December, 1991 are $13.7 million with an investment cost of $46.1 million. These savings represent retrofit projects in state-owned buildings, local government-owned facilities, and independent school districts, accounting for 80%, 16%, and 4% of the investment cost, respectively. A summary of retrofit projects by type is presented and modifications to chillers and chilled water systems account for 26% of the savings and 32% of the cost, followed by lighting retrofits which account for 24% of the savings and 24% of the cost. The Governor's Energy Office has implemented changes to simplify the audit process by eliminating some calculations. Independent calculations and maintenance and operating procedures calculations are no longer required, and some retrofit projects may depend on standard paybacks to identify cost savings.

Heffington, W. M.; Athar, A.; Britton, A. J.; Nutter, D. W.; Stuewe, C.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Evaluating the costs and benefits of increased funding for public transportation in Chicago  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) off-peak ridership, is at or slightly below break-even with respect to net benefits if the CTA cost structure and tax source of subsidy remains unchanged. In order to justify any significant additional long-term ...

Schofield, Mark L., 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

price of oil (for fixed price of CO 2 ) and break-even price of CO 2 (for fixed price of oil) * Includes costs for complying with subpart UU and (optionally) subparts RR and Class...

146

Grid Parity for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that electricity price rather than technical parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Clark, N.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Agricultural and Resource Economics Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the United States, corn ethanol is a breakeven business15 billion gallons of corn ethanol, but it is not likely toproducing ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil, from corn in the

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at a sufficient high price and coal price keeps sufficientMWh electricity, 12% IRR Coal Price, $/metric ton BreakevenCERT-3B 42 $/metric ton coal price Electricity Sale Price,

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experiment  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the TFTR is given in terms of the physical size of the experiment in relation to existing and future tokamaks. Some break-even criteria are mentioned. (MOW)

Furth, H.P.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Users enlist consultants to calculate costs, savings  

SciTech Connect

Consultants who calculate payback provide expertise and a second opinion to back up energy managers' proposals. They can lower the costs of an energy-management investment by making complex comparisons of systems and recommending the best system for a specific application. Examples of payback calculations include simple payback for a school system, a university, and a Disneyland hotel, as well as internal rate of return for a corporate office building and a chain of clothing stores. (DCK)

1982-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

151

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have lower operational costs per kWh produced. There is alsoper kWh of energy, the energy payback time (EPBT), the cost

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Microsoft Word - Energy Code Enforcement Funding Task Force ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2010, including projected construction levels, energy consumption, and fuel prices. The task force conservatively assumed a 4-year payback period...

153

Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rebate based on installed capacity, not production) Approximate cost after incentive mix, about 45% of cost (e.g., income tax credit, accelerated depreciation) Simple payback...

154

Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , Alsema, E. , 2006, Photovoltaic Energy Payback Times,options, 21 European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.solar energy 500 times, the area of photovoltaic material,

Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Renewables and Sector Partnerships  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

kW hours yr. * Saves up to 685,000 over 40 years * Complements Efficiency Upgrades: LEED * Reduces Upfront Investment * Increases System Size * Reduces Payback Time * Minimizes...

156

Design, construction and testing of a high-vacuum anneal chamber for in-situ crystallisation of silicon thin-film solar cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thin-film solar cells on glass substrates are likely to have a bright future due to the potentially low costs and the short energy payback times. (more)

Weber, Jrgen Wolfgang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Environmental Energy Technologies Division News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

dioxide (CO2) emissions, nitrogen oxide treatment costs, SGIP, fuel cell lifetime, fuel cell efficiency, photovoltaic installation costs, and payback periods. Pie chart of the...

158

Energy Opportunities in the Aluminum Processing Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As carbon management has grown in importance and project payback becomes ... overall energy within a plant and within the aluminum processing industry.

159

Energy Upgrade Program Revitalizing Oregon | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Act. The program tapped nonprofit Energy Trust of Oregon to provide free energy audits for the participating businesses. Two-year payback When the energy upgrades are...

160

Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

complete an in-depth energy audit and analysis to baselineof measures identified in the energy audit with a payback ofon energy management, energy audits and analysis, routines

McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Audit Report - Opportunities for Energy Savings at Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

facility evaluation identified conservation measures that could result in a payback within 2 months and an estimated annual savings of about 77,000 for projects including...

162

The Adoption of Residential Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the Presence of a Financial Incentive: A Case Study of Consumer Experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) (more)

Adachi, Christopher

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

TY JOUR T1 Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recommended steam system energy efficiency measures Based on analyses implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics payback period...

164

Efficiency Measures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recommended steam system energy efficiency measures Based on analyses implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics payback period...

165

Energy Conservation Tax Credits - Competitively-Selected Projects...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Incentive Programs Amount Varies by project Equipment Requirements First year energy savings must yield a simple payback period of greater than 3 years. Start Date 2011...

166

Ir. Charles Mussche 8 Spruce St, New York  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Electricity Assessments, Biogas Plant Feasibility Assessments and Investment Payback, PV for the construction of a biogas plant resulting in a 74% reduction in electricity needs

167

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: United Resources Group...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

maintenance savings, net air conditioning savings, and a corresponding cost and dollar savings total with payback. Screen Shots Keywords Quantify, Lighting Conservation,...

168

SPECIFIC AIMS: The Maxwell M. Wintrobe Research Building has served as a central research building for the University of Utah School of Medicine for nearly 30 years. However, the current facilities no longer meet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leachate Procedure (TCLP) under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The burrito (FRLs) differ for the two soils (TCLP-based for the Quonset hut soils and OSDF WAC for the burrito soils vented to increase the volatilization of TCE. FRLs differ for the two soils (TCLP-based for the Quonset

Marc, Robert E.

169

Economic review of the geopressured-geothermal resource with recommendations  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an economic study conducted by the INEL under DOE Contract No. AC07-76ID01570 to evaluate the breakeven price to market energy from a geopressured-geothermal resource. A breakeven price is a minimum, per unit charge required for the developer to recover all direct and indirect costs and a rate of return sufficient to compensate the developer for depreciation, the time value of money, and the risk of failure. The DOE Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program and the DOE well testing and operations at three locations in the Gulf Coast region provide the bulk of resource and economic characteristics for this study. A menu-driven model was developed in LOTUS-123 to calculate the breakeven price to market gas and electricity from a geopressured-geothermal resource. This model was developed using the present value methodology and conservative assumptions. Assuming present well constraints and current off-the-shelf conversion technology, the breakeven price for electricity is about $0.26/kWh using only the thermal energy from a Hulin-type resource. Assuming identical resource and technology constraints, the breakeven price is reduced to about $0.15/kWh when using all available energy forms (methane, hydraulic, and thermal). Assuming the use of available advanced technologies, the breakeven price is reduced to about $0.10/kWh. Assuming the higher quality resource (with higher temperature and gas content) in the South Texas cases, the breakeven cost is about $0.095/kWh. Using advanced technology, this cost is further reduced to about $0.05/kWh. Both costs are within program goals. The results of this study suggest that the future direction of the Geopressured-Geothermal Program emphasize (a) selection of higher quality resource, (b) advanced energy conversion technology, and (c) total energy utilization.

Plum, M.M.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Faulder, D.D.; Lunis, B.C.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Batteries - EnerDel Lithium-Ion Battery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EnerDel/Argonne Advanced High-Power Battery for Hybrid Electric Vehicles EnerDel/Argonne Advanced High-Power Battery for Hybrid Electric Vehicles EnerDel lithium-ion battery The EnerDel Lithium-Ion Battery The EnerDel/Argonne lithium-ion battery is a highly reliable and extremely safe device that is lighter in weight, more compact, more powerful and longer-lasting than the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries in today's hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery is expected to meet the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium's $500 manufacturing price criterion for a 25-kilowatt battery, which is almost a sixth of the cost to make comparable Ni-MH batteries intended for use in HEVs. It is also less expensive to make than comparable Li-ion batteries. That cost reduction is expected to help make HEVs more competitive in the marketplace and enable consumers to receive an immediate payback in

171

Understanding and reducing energy and costs in industrial cooling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial cooling remains one of the largest potential areas for electrical energy savings in industrial plants today. This is in spite of a relatively small amount of attention paid to it by energy auditors and rebate program designers. US DOE tool suites, for example, have long focused on combustion related systems and motor systems with a focus on pumps and compressors. A chilled water tool designed by UMass was available for some time but is no longer being supported by its designers or included in the government tool website. Even with the focus on motor systems, auditing programs like the DOE's Industrial Assessment Center program show dramatically less energy savings for electrical based systems than fossil fueled ones. This paper demonstrates the large amount of increased saving from a critical review of plant chilled water systems with both hardware and operational improvements. After showing several reasons why cooling systems are often ignored during plant energy surveys (their complexity, lack of data on operations etc.), three specific upgrades are considered which have become more reliable and cost effective in the recent past. These include chiller changeouts, right sizing of systems with load matching, and floating head pressures as a retrofit. Considerations of free cooling and improved cooling tower operations are shown as additional "big hitters. It is made clear that with appropriate measurements and an understanding of the cooling system, significant savings can be obtained with reasonable paybacks and low risk.

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Analysis of fuel savings associated with fuel computers in multifamily buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research was undertaken to quantify the energy savings associated with the installation of a direct monitoring control system (DMC) on steam heating plants in multi-family buildings located in the New York City metropolitan area. The primary objective was to determine whether fuel consumption was lower in buildings employing a DMC relative to those using the more common indirect monitoring control system (IMC) and if so, to what extent. The analysis compares the fuel consumption of 442 buildings over 12 months. The type of control system installed in these buildings was either a Heat-Timer (identified as IMC equipment) or a computer-based unit (identified as DMC equipment). IMC provides control by running the boiler for longer or shorter periods depending on outdoor temperature. This system is termed indirect because there is no feedback from indoor (apartment) temperatures to the control. DMC provides control by sensing apartment temperatures. In a typical multifamily building, sensors are hard wired to between 5 and 10 apartments sensors. The annual savings and simple payback were computed for the DMC buildings by comparing annual fuel consumption among the building groupings. The comparison is based on mean BTUs per degree day consumed annually and normalized for building characteristics, such as, equipment maintenance and boiler steady state efficiency as well as weather conditions. The average annual energy consumption for the DMC buildings was 14.1 percent less than the annual energy consumption for the IMC buildings. This represents 3,826 gallons of No. 6 fuel oil or $2,295 at a price of $0.60 per gallon. A base DMC system costs from $8,400 to $10,000 installed depending on the number of sensors and complexity of the system. The standard IMC system costs from $2,000 to $3,000 installed. Based on this analysis the average simple payback is 2.9 or 4.0 years depending on either an upgrade from IMC to DMC (4.0 years) or a new installation (2.9) years.

McNamara, M.; Anderson, J.; Huggins, E. [EME Group, New York, NY (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

Environmental Protection Agency - Edison, New Jersey | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

energy project. It uses a super ambient solar thermal collector or solar hot water pre-heater for shower facilities in the lab. Initial investment: 14,448 Payback...

175

MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

layers. The cost is $.90 to $1.50 per square foot, with a payback period of three to five years. Window side out, press and ad- just bulk of fiberfill. Stitch up- per casing for spring pressure rod. Adjust

176

MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

layers. The cost is $.90 to $1.50 per square foot, with a payback period of three to five years. Window up- per casing for spring pressure rod. Adjust length of quilt if neces- sary. Turn bottom quilt

177

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

land to a solar developer. The savings and payback are deemed reasonable, and as such, a solar PV system represents a viable reuse for the landfill under analyzed conditions. vi...

178

Thermally Activated Cooling: A Regional Approach for Estimating Building Adoption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

waste-heat-driven absorption chillers. The payback of theseTAC) technologies such as absorption chillers and dessicanti.e. indirect-fired absorption chillers integrated with a

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Modern Control System Design for Hydro-power Plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis addresses dynamic model and advance controller design for entire Hydro-power plant. Although hydro-power has the best payback ratio and the highest efficiency in (more)

Ding, Xibei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

A Survey of the U.S. ESCO Industry: Market Growth and Development from 2008 to 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ESCO views on trends in project costs, simple payback time,they believed installed project costs (i.e. , per- projectmost influential factor in project cost increases has been

Satchwell, Andrew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

--No Title--  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

lamps will be retrofit into these fixtures. The lighting retrofit objective is to reduce energy usage to a level that will provide a payback in no more than a 10-year period. In...

182

Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

payback period and are more resilient to changes in costs. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is an option for refuse hauler fleets that need more fuel in a smaller space. LNG is...

183

Third-Generation Solar Cells Using Optical Rectenna Vaccine ...  

but resulted in a price too high to compete with fossil fuels (Payback time of about 5-7 years). The second generation of solar cells focuses on low production costs

184

Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

&spv0&st0&srp1&stateKS. vii Table ES-1. Turbine Performance and Economics, Including Job Creation Estimates 5 Annual Cost Savings (year) Payback Period (years) Wind System...

185

Energy Conservation Tax Credits - Small Premium Projects (Personal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

System Size Projects must cost less than 20,000 Equipment Requirements First year energy savings must yield a simple payback period of greater than 3 years. Start Date 2011...

186

Energy Conservation Tax Credits - Small Premium Projects (Corporate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

System Size Projects must cost less than 20,000 Equipment Requirements First year energy savings must yield a simple payback period of greater than 3 years. Start Date 2011...

187

Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Quick-Service Restaurants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Document describing PNNL's project to develop a package of energy efficiency measures that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a 50% energy savings for quick-service restaurants with a simple payback of 5 years or less.

Zhang, Jian; Schrock, D. W.; Fisher, D. R.; Livchak, A.; Zabrowski, D. A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel-use airports. Figure 1-1 shows Airport "A" eGSE payback results in years for fossil fuel escalation rates from 0 to 20% per annum. In this case, the model was run for a...

189

DOE/ID-Number  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel-use airports. Figure 1-1 shows Airport "A" eGSE payback results in years for fossil fuel escalation rates from 0 to 20% per annum. In this case, the model was run for a...

190

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system including investment, operating fee and pay-back time. The results show that waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system has a low investment, low operating fee and short payback time.

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost and the marginal fuel savings (assuming a base case of ten cents per kWhper kWh, which would bring it in line with the break-even costcost per mile: electricity vs. gasoline PRICE OF ELECTRICITY ($/kWh)

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Fast Ignition Program Presented at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hot gas #12;FI program leverages both NNSA and international capabilities · Laser coupling credible US pathway for FI progression from Concept Exploration to Proof of Principle is emerging ­NNSA FY15 Firex I breakeven Japan NNSA HEPW lasers Integrated modeling IRE 10Hz HEPW Driver/power plant

193

Carbon Capture by Fossil Fuel Power Plants: An Economic Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For fossil fuel power plants to be built in the future, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies offer the potential for significant reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. We examine the break-even value for CCS adoptions, that ... Keywords: accounting, cost--benefit analysis, energy, energy policies, environment, government, natural resources, pollution

zge ??legen; Stefan Reichelstein

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Forest Products Supply Chain --Availability of Woody Biomass in Indiana for Bioenergy Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forest Products Supply Chain -- Availability of Woody Biomass in Indiana for Bioenergy Production or wood waste biomass · Map Indiana's wood waste for each potential bioenergy supply chain · Develop break-even analyses for transportation logistics of wood waste biomass Isaac S. Slaven Abstract: The purpose

195

Retrofits for Improved Heat Rate and Availability: Circulating Water Heat Recovery Retrofits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circulating water heat recovery is a means of directly increasing the thermal efficiency of a power plant. If only fuel savings are considered, the economic benefit is often only marginal. However, when increased megawatt output and heat-rate improvements are included in the economic analysis, such retrofits can be attractive, with break-even fuel costs sometimes approaching $1/million Btu.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

196

Addendum to 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-electric vehicles (EVs). We pay particular attention to grid impacts, break-even battery costs, and the three ways battery cost relative to the current generation of hybrid electric vehicles. Since we completed that based on a cost-benefit framework, California drivers would often use grid-supplied electricity to power

Kammen, Daniel M.

197

Poker Player Behavior After Big Wins and Big Losses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We find that experienced poker players typically change their style of play after winning or losing a big pot---most notably, playing less cautiously after a big loss, evidently hoping for lucky cards that will erase their loss. This finding is consistent ... Keywords: break-even hypothesis, investment, prospect theory, risk

Gary Smith; Michael Levere; Robert Kurtzman

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

paper CO2 Regulations and Electricity Prices: Cost Estimates for Coal-Fired Power Plants. We thank  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For fossil fuel power plants to be built in the future, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies offer the potential for significant reductions in CO2 emissions. We examine the break-even value for CCS adoptions, that is, the critical value in the charge for CO2 emissions that would justify investment in CCS capabilities. Our analysis takes explicitly into account that the supply of electricity at the wholesale level (generation) is organized competitively in some U.S. jurisdictions, while in others a regulated utility provides integrated generation and distribution services. For either market structure, we find that emissions charges in the range of $25-$30 per tonne of CO2 would be the break-even value for adopting CCS capabilities at new coal-fired power plants. The corresponding break-even values for natural gas plants are substantially higher, near $60 per tonne. Our break-even estimates serve as a basis for projecting the change in electricity prices once carbon emissions become costly. CCS capabilities effectively put an upper bound on the rise in electricity prices. We estimate this bound to be near 30 % at the retail level for both coal and natural gas plants. In contrast to the competitive power supply scenario, however, these price increases materialize only gradually for a regulated utility. The delay in price adjustments reflects that for regulated

Stefan Reichelstein; Erica Plambeck

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

about $0.50/gJ to the price of biomass-derived hydrogen (biomass (Larson and Katofsky, 1992). The fuel retati pricebiomass instead of from solar power, the production cost would be much lower (Table 5), and the breakeven gasoline price

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Evaluating state markets for residential wind systems: Results from an economic and policy analysis tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the wind energy system is 0 percent of cost for year oneWind Energy Association Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory break-even turnkey costLCOE for Wind Classes 2-4 Levelized Cost of Energy ($/kWh)

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

LED traffic lights: New technology signals major energy savings  

SciTech Connect

Using light-emitting diode technology to replace incandescent lamps in traffic signals promises energy savings upwards of 60 percent for each of the estimated quarter of a million controlled intersections in the United States. LED units use only 9 to 25 watts instead of the 67 to 150 watts used by each incandescent lamp. Though their first cost is relatively high, energy savings result in paybacks of 1 to 5 years. LED retrofit kits are available for red signal disks and arrows, and installations in several states have proven successful, although minor improvements are addressing concerns about varying light output and controller circuitry. Retrofitting green lamps is not yet feasible, because color standards of the Institute of Traffic Engineers cannot be met with existing LED technology. Yellow lamps have such low duty factors (they`re on only 3 percent of the time) that retrofitting with LED signals is not cost-effective. LEDs last much longer than incandescents, allowing municipalities to not only reduce their electricity bills, but to save on maintenance costs as well. As further incentive, some utilities are beginning to implement rebate programs for LED traffic signal retrofits. Full approval of LED units is still awaited from the Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE), the standard-setting body for traffic safety devices. Local and state governments ultimately decide what specifications to require for traffic lights, and the growing body of successful field experience with LEDs appears to be raising their comfort level with the technology. The California Department of Transportation is developing an LED traffic light specification, and two California utilities, Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric, have provided rebates for some pilot installations.

Houghton, D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

The federal market for ESCO services: How does it measure up?  

SciTech Connect

The federal market has been a source of strong energy service company (ESCO) industry growth over the last decade as traditional MUSH markets municipal/state governments, universities, schools and hospitals have matured. Federal alternative financing programs Utility Energy Services Contracts (UESC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Super, Army and Air Force Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC) have enabled this growth, but recent events threaten the ESPC programs. We compare the federal and MUSH markets by analyzing {approx} ;1550 completed projects and interviewing ESCO representatives. Federal ESPC market activity is estimated at {approx} ;$1.6 billion (B) over 10-15 years; activity in 2002 was {approx} ;$230 million (M). MUSH markets have produced {approx} ; $12-16B in projects over 20 years, and {approx} ;$0.8-1.0B in 2002. Federal sector projects have longer average contract terms than MUSH (14 vs. 9.5 years respectively). Federal projects are larger (median costs are $1.85M vs. $0.98M for MUSH), but costs per square foot are lower (median costs are $2.08/ft2 vs. $2.93/ft2 for MUSH), and annual energy savings are higher (18 vs. 14 kBtu/ft2). Non-energy savings are more often counted in federal projects (58 percent vs. 35 percent of MUSH projects) but when counted represent a higher proportion of savings in MUSH projects. Median payback times in the federal market are shorter than MUSH (7.7 vs. 8.8 years) and calculated net economic benefits of 214 federal projects amount to {approx} ;$550M, compared to {approx} ;$1.2B for 965 MUSH projects.

Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Birr, Dave

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

203

Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuel-based lighting are substantial given the paltry levels of lighting service provided to users, leading to a great opportunity for GHG mitigation byencouraging the switch from fuel-based to rechargeable LED lighting. However, as with most new energy technology, switching to efficient lighting requires an up-front investment of energy(and GHGs) embedded in the manufacture of replacement components. We studied a population of off-grid lighting users in 2008-2009 in Kenya who were given the opportunity to adopt LEDlighting. Based on their use patterns with the LED lights and the levels of kerosene offset we observed, we found that the embodied energy of the LED lamp was"paid for" in only one month for grid charged products and two months for solar charged products. Furthermore, the energyreturn-on investment-ratio (energy produced or offset over the product's service life divided by energy embedded) for off-grid LED lighting ranges from 12 to 24, which is on par with on-gridsolar and large-scale wind energy. We also found that the energy embodied in the manufacture of a typical hurricane lantern is about one-half to one-sixth of that embodied in the particular LEDlights that we evaluated, indicating that the energy payback time would be moderately faster if LEDs ultimately displace the production of kerosene lanterns. As LED products improve, weanticipate longer service lives and more successful displacement of kerosene lighting, both of which will speed the already rapid recovery of embodied energy in these products. Our studyprovides a detailed appendix with embodied energy values for a variety of components used to construct off-grid LED lighting, which can be used to analyze other products.

Alstone, Peter; Mills, Evan; Jacobson, Arne

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

204

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bischoff Blast Furnace Top Gas Process for high pressure blast furnaces is presented as an example of a modern gas treatment process in the iron and steel industry: the work potential of the high pressure top gas is utilized in a plant comprising a gas cleaning unit for dust removal and a turbine for converting the recoverable thermal energy into mechanical and electrical energy. The adjustable annular gap scrubber for separating fine dust also serves as an element for regulating the gas pressure at the blast furnace top so that pressure control by the turbine and its control gear is no longer necessary. Moreover, in the event of a turbine outage the annular gap scrubber can be used as a low noise, pressure-throttling element. The economic use of a turbine for recovering energy from top gas depends on many parameters, such as top pressure, top gas rate, clean gas temperature, local cost of electric power, etc. A profitability analysis for a specific installation shows a remarkably short payback period. The process incorporates a new concept in blast air compression. Mechanical energy from the turbine is transferred directly to the axial flow compressor so that the prior conversion of energy via the power generating cycle is dispensed with. Coupled to the turbine is the compressor motor which, while rated to cover the full power requirement, uses about 40% less electrical power from the power supply system. Finally, as an example of the future potential of this process, a new continuous steelmaking process is presented which employs a closed top converter. The gas, held under pressure during refining, is subsequently cleaned and expanded as the blast furnace process described above. This gas is cleaned without any entrainment of air to furnish a gaseous fuel of high calorific value. Since the steelmaking process is continuous, the gas is constantly available and can be fed into the distribution system without any intermediate storage.

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 2013 2, 2013 Estimating the Potential for Oil Production and CO 2 Storage from CO 2 EOR Using the FE/NETL CO 2 EOR Storage Cost Model FE/NETL CO 2 EOR Storage Cost Model Integration with Additional FE/NETL Models CO 2 CTUS NEMS Model CO 2 CTUS Model (Standalone) CO 2 Saline Storage Cost Model, V1 CO 2 Capture Cost Model, V2 CO 2 Transport Cost Model V1 CO 2 EOR Storage Cost Model, V1 (in development) 2 * Estimates costs, revenues and cash flow to owners for a CO 2 EOR site for specified prices of oil ($/ST Bbl) and CO 2 ($/tonne) * Determines break-even price of oil (for fixed price of CO 2 ) and break-even price of CO 2 (for fixed price of oil) * Includes costs for complying with subpart UU and (optionally) subparts RR and Class VI well regulations * Identifies cost drivers for CO

206

Multiple shell fusion targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

1975-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

Not Available

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume III. Wind conversion systems with energy storage. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The variability of energy output inherent in wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has led to the investigation of energy storage as a means of managing the available energy when immediate, direct use is not possible or desirable. This portion of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a wind energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with wind energy conversion systems.

Not Available

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Lab News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sept. 7, 2012 Sept. 7, 2012 Experiments verify key aspect of Sandia nuclear fusion concept NOT YOUR USUAL BIRTHDAY CAKE - Ryan McBride (1648) pays close attention to the tiny central beryllium liner that will be imploded by the intense magnetic field generated by the Z machine's huge electrical current. This will happen in the next of a run of tests to create a mechanism to achieve scientific break-even or better in dry-run nuclear fusion experiments. The larger cylinders forming a circle on the exterior of the base plate measure Z's load current by picking up the generated magnetic field. (Photo by Randy Montoya) by Neal Singer Magnetically imploded tubes called liners, intended to help produce nuclear fusion conditions at scientific "break-even" energies or better within

210

Design, Fabrication, and Operation of Innovative Microalgae Culture Experiments for the Purpose of Producing Fuels: Final Report, Phase I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual design was developed for a 1000-acre (water surface) algae culture facility for the production of fuels. The system is modeled after the shallow raceway system with mixing foils that is now being operated at the University of Hawaii. A computer economic model was created to calculate the discounted breakeven price of algae or fuels produced by the culture facility. A sensitivity analysis was done to estimate the impact of changes in important biological, engineering, and financial parameters on product price.

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Preheat effects on microballoon laser fusion implosions  

SciTech Connect

Nonequilibrium hydroburn simulations of early laser-driven compression experiments indicate that low energy photons from the vicinity of the ablation surface are preheating the microballoon-pushers, thereby severely limiting the compressions achieved (similar degradation may result from 1 to 4 percent energy deposition by superthermal electrons). This implies an 8- to 27-fold increase in the energy requirements for breakeven, unless radiative preheat can be drastically reduced by, say, the use of composite ablator-pushers. (auth)

Fraley, G.S.; Mason, R.J.

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Analysis of federal options to support photovoltaic industry growth  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the impact and leverage of federal options for supporting the growth of the photovoltaic industry. Results were projected for combinations of the following: an aggressive federal research and development program, achievement of a technological breakthrough, and immediate or breakthrough-dependent incentives including direct price reductions, keyed-to-breakeven subsidies, and federal puchases. The modeling methodology and market assumptions were also tested to determine their effect on analysis results.

Bennington, G.; Cherdak, A.; Williams, F.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Antares: a status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Antares is the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory 100-kJ CO/sub 2/ laser driver for inertial confinement fusion experiments. The status of the various Antares subsystems is discussed. These subsystems consist of facilities, front end, energy storage, power amplifier, target, optical alignment and diagnostics, large optics, and controls. The installation of Antares is underway and the schedule to permit experiments which may lead to breakeven in 1984 is discussed.

Stine, R.D. Jr.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

SoCalGas - Non-Residential On-Bill Financing Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

On-Bill Financing Program On-Bill Financing Program SoCalGas - Non-Residential On-Bill Financing Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Other Program Info State California Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount General Minimum Loan Amount: $5,000/meter minimum Non-Institutional Customers: up to $100,000/meter with 5 year max payback Taxpayer Funded Institutions: up to $250,000/meter with 10 year max payback State of California: up to $1,000,000 with 10 year max payback Provider Southern California Gas Company The SoCalGas On-Bill Financing (OBF) program offers qualified business customers 0% financing from $5,000 to $100,000 per meter for qualifying

216

Rocky Mountain Power - Energy FinAnswer | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50% of eligible measure cost 50% of eligible measure cost Lighting Energy Savings Limit: 50%-75% of savings Payback Cap: 1 year; if incentive brings the simple payback below one year, the incenive is reduced so the simple payback equals one year Program Info State Idaho Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.12/kWh annual energy savings + $50/kW average monthly on-peak demand savings Provider Rocky Mountain Power Rocky Mountain Power's Energy FinAnswer program provides incentives to help its customers improve the efficiency of existing facilities and build new facilities that are significantly more efficient than code. New construction and retrofit projects for all industrial facilities can participate as well as all new commercial projects and commercial retrofits in facilities larger than 20,000 square feet.

217

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 19150 of 28,905 results. 41 - 19150 of 28,905 results. Download Policy Flash 2012-38 Attached is Policy Flash 2012-38 Acquisition Guide 42.2 Foreign Travel Approval http://energy.gov/management/downloads/policy-flash-2012-38 Article Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation Adding insulation to an existing home often has an attractive payback period. http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/estimating-payback-period-additional-insulation Download Safety Management System Policy Safety Management Systems provide a formal, organized process whereby people plan, perform, assess, and improve the safe conduct of work. The Safety Management System is institutionalized through... http://energy.gov/em/downloads/safety-management-system-policy Download Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety

218

Technical and Energy Assessment of Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems applied to the UAE Office Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the market, the embodied energy payback time (EPBT) is the scale to measure and compare the viability of PV systems against other technologies. Although the impact of PV panels on the operational energy is significant, it is not considered at the time of EPBT estimation. Including savings in operational energy gained over the PV system life leads to shortening the total EPBT. This study shows that the ratio between PV outputs and savings in energy due to PV panels is about 1:3. For the southern and western PV facades of the UAE office buildings, the embodied energy payback time is 12-13 years. When reductions in operational energy are considered the payback time can be reduced to 3 years. It is obvious that the reduction in the operational energy due to the PV panels represents an important factor when the EPBT is estimated.

Radhi, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

SCE - Non-Residential On-Bill Financing Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

On-Bill Financing Program On-Bill Financing Program SCE - Non-Residential On-Bill Financing Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Other Maximum Rebate Taxpayer Funded Institutions: up to $250,000/meter with 5 year max payback Non-Institutional Customers: up to $100,000/meter with 5 year max payback State of California: up to $1,000,000 with 10 year max payback Program Info Start Date 8/2/2010 State California Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount 5,000 minimum Provider Business Programs The SoCalGas On-Bill Financing (OBF) program offers qualified business customers 0% financing from $5,000 to $100,000 per meter for qualifying

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Pacific Power - FinAnswer Express | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pacific Power - FinAnswer Express Pacific Power - FinAnswer Express Pacific Power - FinAnswer Express < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Other Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Appliances & Electronics Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Heat Pumps Heating Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate General: 70% of energy efficiency project cost If incentive brings the simple payback below one year, the incentive is reduced so the simple payback equals one year. Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount T-8 Lighting Fixtures: $3-$7

222

'Mini'-Roadmapping - Ensuring Timely Sites' Cleanup / Closure by Resolving Science and Technology Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Roadmapping is a powerful tool to manage technical risks and opportunities associated with complex problems. Roadmapping identifies technical capabilities required for both project- and program-level efforts and provides the basis for plans that ensure the necessary enabling activities will be done when needed. Roadmapping reveals where to focus further development of the path forward by evaluating uncertainties for levels of complexity, impacts, and/or the potential for large payback. Roadmaps can be customized to the application, a graded approach if you will. Some roadmaps are less detailed. We have called these less detailed, top-level roadmaps mini-roadmaps. These miniroadmaps are created to tie the needed enablers (e.g., technologies, decisions, etc.) to the functions. If it is found during the mini-roadmapping that areas of significant risk exist, then those can be roadmapped further to a lower level of detail. Otherwise, the mini-roadmap may be sufficient to manage the project / program risk. Applying a graded approach to the roadmapping can help keep the costs down. Experience has indicated that it is best to do mini-roadmapping first and then evaluate the risky areas to determine whether to further evaluate those areas. Roadmapping can be especially useful for programs / projects that have participants from multiple sites, programs, or other entities which are involved. Increased synergy, better communications, and increased cooperation are the results from roadmapping a program / project with these conditions. And, as with any trip, the earlier you use a roadmap, the more confidence you will have that you will arrive at your destination with few, if any, problems. The longer the trip or complicated the route, the sooner the map is needed. This analogy holds true for using roadmapping for laying out program / project baselines and any alternative (contingency) plans. The mini-roadmapping process has been applied to past projects like the hydrogen gas generation roadmap and the subsurface contaminant focus area (SCFA), and its basic form is being applied in the formulation of the 2012 Plan at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). There are also plans to apply this process in the near future for other projects/programs.

Dale Luke; James Murphy

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This case study describes how the J.R. Simplot company's Don Plant in Pocatello, Idaho, achieved annual savings of $335,000 and 75,000 MMBtu, with a simple payback of 6.5 months, after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

The Effect of Wind Speed and Electric Rates On Wind Turbine Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Effect of Wind Speed and Electric Rates On Wind Turbine Economics Economics of wind power depends mainly on the wind speeds and the turbine make and model. Definition: Simple Payback The "Simple period of a small wind power project. All the figures are per turbine, so it can be used for a one, two

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

225

Report to California Energy Commission on route to scale-up of polymer based PV: Funding suggestions for research and technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production potential for solar vent pre- heating, PV, and wind technologies. #12;6 These facilities should for a solar PV system in this report, has many near-ideal areas in which to implement a PV system solar resource, and excellent incentives, a government-owned PV system provides a reasonable payback

Islam, M. Saif

226

Viability study of photo-voltaic systems added to terrestrial electric vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the following computer study is to determine the set of necessary conditions under which the addition of photo-voltaic (PV) cells to electric vehicles provides a net utility or economic benefit. Economic benefits are given the primary focus and are evaluated in terms of a payback period.

Rippel, W.E.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens  

SciTech Connect

This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 Sweden Climate Change Issues (CC) 8-11 May 2011, Linkping, Sweden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar thermal system and no backup energy. For temperate-climate systems, two alternatives are presented of energy backup that is used. The study shows that the energy pay-back time of solar systems is lower than in different countries [3-6] but none was focused on solar thermal systems with auxiliary energy source

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Design manual for solar heating of buildings and domestic hot water  

SciTech Connect

This manual presents design and cost analysis methods for sizing and payback estimating of solar heat collectors for augmentation of portable water heaters and space heaters. Sufficient information is presented to enable almost anyone to design solar space and water heating systems or conduct basic feasibility studies preparatory to design of large installations. Both retrofit and new installations are considered. (MOW)

Field, R.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Water conservation study (water and energy) Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) FY94s Fort Knox, Kentucky. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Systems Corp surveyed and completed water and energy analyses for 650 representative buildings at Fort Knox, categorized as unaccompanied personnel housing, community facilities, administrative facilities, maintenance facilities, training facilities, family housing, post laundry, hospital, heating plants, cooling towers, water treatment plants and water distribution systems. The water and energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) evaluated are listed in Table 1.1. Cost estimates were prepared using Means Data for Windows Spreadsheets, Version 2.Oa. Life cycle cost analyses were performed using the Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) computer program. Project descriptions and DDl39l forms were prepared for four Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) projects. The total of the four projects that were developed represent $893K in annual savings and a total discounted savings of $13.4M in the twenty year life of the projects. The simple paybacks average 5.6 years and the savings to investment (SIR) for the four ECIP projects average 2.8. In addition, three Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) projects were developed. FEMP Project 1 is the replacement of all of the steam traps in the post laundry with a payback of 0.5 years and an SIR of 40. FEMP Project 2 is heating distribution system manhole repairs with a 3.4 year payback and an SIR of 5.5. FEMP Project 3 is the installation of wells to provide irrigation water for Lindsey and Anderson Greens with a 5.1 year payback and an SIR of 2.9.

1994-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structures (Plantships) · Bottom-Mounted Structures · Model Basin Tests/ At-Sea Tests · 210 kW OC-OTEC systems and with an investment payback period estimated at 3 to 4 years. #12;OTEC 12 Energy Carriers & Attachments #12;#12;#12;#12;Bottom-Mounted Structures · Fixed Towers · Guyed Towers · TLP not shown · Causeway

232

A multistage model for distribution expansion planning with distributed generation in a deregulated electricity market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distribution systems management is becoming an increasingly complicated issue due to the introduction of new technologies, new energy trading strategies and a new deregulated environment. In the new deregulated energy market and considering the incentives ... Keywords: GAMS-MATLAB interface, distributed generation (DG), distribution company (DISCO), investment payback time, microturbine, social welfare

S. Porkar; A. Abbaspour-Tehrani-Fard; P. Poure; S. Saadate

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

PV ENERGY ROI Tracks Efficiency Gains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PV ENERGY ROI Tracks Efficiency Gains the state of PV today E nergy payback time (EPBT) is the time it takes for a photovoltaic (PV) system to produce all the energy used through- out its life cycle. A short EPBT corre- sponds to a high energy return on energy invest- ment

234

AgBioForum, 13(2): 131-141. 2010 AgBioForum. Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Lett. 3 (2008) 034001 H K Gibbs et al Industrialized nations with biofuels targets, such as the United.1088/1748-9326/3/3/034001 Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield Published 9 July 2008 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/3/034001 Abstract Biofuels from land-rich tropical

235

A S I A N -P A C I F I C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Lett. 3 (2008) 034001 H K Gibbs et al Industrialized nations with biofuels targets, such as the United.1088/1748-9326/3/3/034001 Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield Published 9 July 2008 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/3/034001 Abstract Biofuels from land-rich tropical

236

IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 3 (2008) 034001 (10pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/3/034001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Lett. 3 (2008) 034001 H K Gibbs et al Industrialized nations with biofuels targets, such as the United.1088/1748-9326/3/3/034001 Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield Published 9 July 2008 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/3/034001 Abstract Biofuels from land-rich tropical

Sheridan, Jennifer

237

Evaluation of Northern Illinois Residential Retrofit Delivery Practices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a detailed BEopt analysis, PARR has developed packages of measures following a 'loading order' appropriate for cold climates at increasing levels of savings. Packages of measures to provide 'good, better, best' energy savings were determined based on predicted source energy savings, safety issues, program costs and simple payback for customers.

Rowley, P.; Kerr, R.; Brand, L.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Economical Pyrite-Based Solar Cells  

compete with fossil fuels (payback time of about 5-7 years). The second generation of solar cells focuses on low production costs using thin film cells, which resulted in much lower efficiency rates. The third generation of solar cells has not yet ...

239

Third-Generation Solar Cells Using Optical Rectenna  

compete with fossil fuels (Payback time of about 5-7 years). The second generation of solar cells focuses on low production costs using thin film cells, which resulted in much lower efficiency rates. The thirdgeneration of solar cells has not yet ...

240

LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM CASE STUDIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

luminaires. At the DoubleTree Hotel, as lamp usage decreased, so did energy use, lamp replacement by 33%, further shortening the payback by as much as a year. Energy Savings Opportunity Many hotel the overnight hours." The Watt Stopper Inc., LBNL, and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting at T.J.Maxx in Manchester, NH Phase I  

SciTech Connect

A report describing the process and results of replacing existing parking lot lighting, looking at a LED option with occupancy sensors, and conventional alternates. Criteria include payback, light levels, occupant satisfaction. This report is Phase I of II. Phase I deals with initial installation.

Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

242

10 Strategic Steps to Reducing Your Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If your company is looking at energy management as part of its overall strategy to reduce costs and improve profits, it is not alone. While energy prices have increased at a shocking rate, so has interest in environmental responsibility. Progressive organizations are exploring ways to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gases. Some are even creating new positions for these issues, placing someone in charge of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The CSR's job is to help a company be more socially responsible and reduce harmful emissions. Energy management can accomplish both conservation and emission goals- plus, it lowers utility costs and strengthens your bottom line! In the past, reasonably priced energy made it difficult to justify new conservation projects. It was hard to meet the standard criteria of 2-3 years payback. However, natural gas prices have tripled in the last five years from $2 to over $6 per Dekatherm (Dth). Electric prices also have increased dramatically-by more than 100% in some parts of the country. These increased energy costs have made conservation projects more desirable. A natural gas improvement project that had a six-year payback five years ago may have less than a two-year payback today. New technologies also have helped drive down the payback of projects and opened up new areas for potential savings. The following paper looks at how the new market offers opportunities to reduce overall energy costs.

Swanson, G. A.; Haley, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Energy Efficiency Assessment Case Study: Energy Savings at a Rock Crushing and Finishing Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many areas could be identified at this facility where modification could result in energy cost savings. The audit successfully identified savings ranging from $51,000 to $67,000 with associated costs totaling around $72,000 to $81,000. The simple payback for these measures averaged from 1.2 to 1.4 years.

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

244

Product guide: energy-efficient ballasts  

SciTech Connect

The product guide covers the energy-efficient ballasts of seven manufacturers as a representative sample. The guide provides directory information on the companies, describes models, and lists price ranges and payback estimates. A summary of ballast features includes estimated life and output. Other sections cover lead and installation times and arrangements for warranties and service.

1985-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Technical and economical analysis of the conversion of a full-scale scrubber to a biotrickling filter for odor control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.e., including indirect costs and profit, of such a con- version may be between US$45,000 and US$ 55,000. Long-term against temporary changes. Also, a cost-benefit analysis of the conversion was performed. Savings from filter throughout the project indicated that the payback time of the conversion was about 1.3 years. Cost

246

Lighting energy efficiency opportunities at Cheyenne Mountain Air Station  

SciTech Connect

CMAS is an intensive user of electricity for lighting because of its size, lack of daylight, and 24-hour operating schedule. Argonne National Laboratory recently conducted a lighting energy conservation evaluation at CMAS. The evaluation included inspection and characterization of existing lighting systems, analysis of energy-efficient retrofit options, and investigation of the environmental effects that these lighting system retrofits could have when they are ready to be disposed of as waste. Argonne devised three retrofit options for the existing lighting systems at various buildings: (1) minimal retrofit--limited fixture replacement; (2) moderate retrofit--more extensive fixture replacement and limited application of motion detectors; and (3) advanced retrofit--fixture replacement, reduction in the number of lamps, expansion of task lighting, and more extensive application of motion detectors. Argonne used data on electricity consumption to analyze the economic and energy effects of these three retrofit options. It performed a cost analysis for each retrofit option in terms of payback. The analysis showed that lighting retrofits result in savings because they reduce electricity consumption, cooling load, and maintenance costs. The payback period for all retrofit options was found to be less than 2 years, with the payback period decreasing for more aggressive retrofits. These short payback periods derived largely from the intensive (24-hours-per-day) use of electric lighting at the facility. Maintenance savings accounted for more than half of the annual energy-related savings under the minimal and moderate retrofit options and slightly less than half of these savings under the advanced retrofit option. Even if maintenance savings were excluded, the payback periods would still be impressive: about 4.4 years for the minimal retrofit option and 2 years for the advanced option. The local and regional environmental impacts of the three retrofit options were minimal.

Molburg, J.C.; Rozo, A.J.; Sarles, J.K.; Haffenden, R.A.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Cavallo, J.D.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Climate Smart Planning Platform Sector: Climate, Energy Topics: Analysis Tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Complexity/Ease of Use: Simple Website: climatesmartplanning.org/node/33 Cost: Free Related Tools Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment (GRAPE) Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) Model MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS A spreadsheet tool for building marginal abatement cost curves, and for calculating break-even carbon prices. Supports comparison of costs and

248

Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

Not Available

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Geothermal loan guaranty cash flow model: description and users' manual  

SciTech Connect

This is the users guide for the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Cash Flow Model (GCFM). GCFM is a Fortran code which designs and costs geothermal fields and electric power plants. It contains a financial analysis module which performs life cycle costing analysis taking into account various types of taxes, costs and financial structures. The financial module includes a discounted cash flow feature which calculates a levelized breakeven price for each run. The user's guide contains descriptions of the data requirements and instructions for using the model.

Keimig, M.A.; Rosenberg, J.I.; Entingh, D.J.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Bioenergy: What`s in it for the grower? The cost of producing dedicated energy crops. Comparisons with conventional crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dedicated energy crops must be at least as profitable as conventional crops that could be grown on a given site before farmers will produce energy crops on that site. This report concentrates on the cost of producing dedicated energy crops and compare those costs to the profitability of conventional crops. This comparison allows one to estimate a breakeven price, that is, a price for which the profitability of dedicated energy crops is equivalent to the profitability of conventional crops. Switchgrass and hybrid poplar have been chosen as representative herbaceous and woody crop species for the estimation.

Walsh, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

POTENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AS HEAT AND RADIATION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

An outline is presented of the potential applications and quantity requiremerts of fission products for the period 1964 to 1968. These applications include military, governmert, and civilian heat sources; irradiation processing; and food irradiation. The potential requirements for 1964 to 1968 are 273 MC / sup 90/Sr and 351 MC /sup 137/Cs. An evaluation is made of the applications of heat-producing isotopes in Coast Guard navigational buoys, lights, and beacons; undersea electronic systems; and weather stations. Costs were determined for conventional methods of power generation and compared to radioisotope power generation. Fuel requiremerts and break-even fuel costs for isotopic power are tabulated. (D.L.C.)

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

PowerPoint Presentation Template  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photo Photo Economic Analysis of Ultrasupercritical PC Plants George Booras Manager, Technology Assessment Science & Technology Division Combustion Technology University Alliance Columbus, Ohio August 4, 2003 2 Combustion Technology University Alliance Workshop, August 4, 2003, Columbus, OH Presentation Outline * Economic Analysis Methodology - Capital Cost Estimating Basis - Revenue Requirement Methodology - EPRI PC Plant Cost & Performance Model * Assessment of Competing Technologies - Conventional Pulverized Coal Plants - Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle * Breakeven Capital Cost for USC Plants * Sensitivity Analysis * Conclusions 3 Combustion Technology University Alliance Workshop, August 4, 2003, Columbus, OH Economic Analysis Methodology * USC plants offer very high efficiencies

253

TransForum v9n2 - PHEV Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PHEVs Need Further Research for Acceptable Payback PHEVs Need Further Research for Acceptable Payback Fuel Consumption as a Function of Distance PHEV graph In order to double the fuel displacement obtained with a 4kWh battery, the battery size had to be quadrupled to 16kWh. Aymeric Rousseau and his team at Argonne studied the impact of real-world drive cycles on the fuel efficiency and costs of different plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) configurations. They found that while different PHEV configurations all demonstrated great potential for replacing gasoline (with less gasoline consumed as more electricity was used), the benefit of adding a larger battery seemed to decrease with increasing battery pack size. "In general, the larger the battery, the more fuel saved," said Rousseau, principal investigator of the vehicle modeling and simulation

254

Pacific Power - Energy FinAnswer | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pacific Power - Energy FinAnswer Pacific Power - Energy FinAnswer Pacific Power - Energy FinAnswer < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Maximum Rebate Retrofit: 50% of the eligible energy efficiency measure cost Lighting: 50% of savings If incentive brings the simple payback below one year, the incentive is reduced so the simple payback equals one year. Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.12/kWh-$0.18/kWh annual energy savings + $50/kW average monthly on-peak demand savings

255

Property:Incentive/EligSysSize | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:Incentive/EligSysSize Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/EligSysSize Property Type Text Description Eligible System Size. Pages using the property "Incentive/EligSysSize" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 3 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) + 150 kW A AEP (Central and SWEPCO) - Coolsaver A/C Tune Up (Texas) + AEP Texas residential and business customers with units up to 25 tons. AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) + Must have a minimum of 1 year simple payback or maximum of 7 years simple payback without the incentive AEP Ohio - Renewable Energy Credit (REC) Purchase Program (Ohio) + Must have a rated capacity of 100kW or less

256

TEMPLATE FOR EES DIRECTORATE QUARTERLY HIGHLIGHTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

August 2012 August 2012 Fuel Consumption and Cost Saving of Natural Gas as Alternative Fuel in Class 8 Heavy-Duty (HD) Trucks The fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas as alternative fuel in HD class 8 trucks have been investigated under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods have been compared between diesel and natural gas in both conventional and hybrid HD trucks. The study shows that although trucks powered by natural gas have higher fuel consumption, their carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO

257

Insulation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Insulation Insulation Insulation Where to Insulate Learn where to insulate in a home to save money and improve comfort. Read more Insulation Get the facts about how insulation works. Read more Estimate the Payback Period for Insulation Adding insulation to your home will likely have an attractive payback. Read more You can reduce your home's heating and cooling costs through proper insulation and air sealing techniques. These techniques will also make your home more comfortable. Any air sealing efforts will complement your insulation efforts, and vice versa. Proper moisture control and ventilation strategies will improve the effectiveness of air sealing and insulation, and vice versa. Featured Insulation for New Home Construction Planning carefully for insulation results in reduced utility bills and superior comfort during the life of the home. In this house, raised heel trusses accommodate R-60 insulation. | Credit: Paul Norton, NREL.

258

Fact Sheet: ES-Select - A Decision Support Tool (October 2012) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ES-Select - A Decision Support Tool (October 2012) ES-Select - A Decision Support Tool (October 2012) Fact Sheet: ES-Select - A Decision Support Tool (October 2012) DNV KEMA developed the Energy Storage Select (ES-Select) decision-support tool to help users identify feasible energy storage technology options as well as provide the probability of reaching a payback point and the statistical distribution of the payback year. It is a sophisticated, highly interactive model that offers a means to conduct careful analysis of the many interrelated factors that influence energy storage performance. Fact Sheet: ES-Select - A Decision Support Tool (October 2012) More Documents & Publications Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review and Update Meeting Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Poster Session 1

259

Kansas City Power and Light - Commercial/Industrial Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4,907-$35,142 by business 4,907-$35,142 by business class size and differs among Missouri and Kansas residents. Program Info State Kansas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit ( Energy Audit (> 25,000 sq ft): 50% of cost, up to $500 High Performance T8 Fixtures: $20 - $30/fixture Standard T8 Lamps/Ballasts: $2 - $10/unit Lighting Power Density: $1/watt per square foot High Intensity Fluorescent: $50/fixture Pulse Star Metal Halide: $50/fixture Lighting Controls: $20 - $50 per sensor Single Phase Package/Split System AC: $92/ton Three Phase Unitary/Split System AC: $92/ton Unitary/Split System AC: $73 - $79/ton Motors: $50 - $130/motor Custom (Retrofit): The lesser of a buydown to a two year payback, or 50% of the incremental cost Custom (New Construction): The lesser of a buydown to a two year payback,

260

Kansas City Power and Light - Commercial/Industrial Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7,299-$52,276 by business 7,299-$52,276 by business class, size, new construction, retrofit, and location. Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit ( Energy Audit (> 25,000 sq ft): 50% of cost, up to $500 High Performance T8 Fixtures: $20 - $30/fixture Standard T8 Lamps/Ballasts: $2 - $10/unit Lighting Power Density: $1/watt per square foot High Intensity Fluorescent: $50/fixture Pulse Star Metal Halide: $50/fixture Lighting Controls: $20 - $50 per sensor Single Phase Package/Split System AC: $92/ton Three Phase Unitary/Split System AC: $92/ton Unitary/Split System AC: $73 - $79/ton Motors: $50 - $130/motor Custom (Retrofit): The lesser of a buydown to a two year payback, or 50% of the incremental cost Custom (New Construction): The lesser of a buydown to a two year payback,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Solar Power Purchase Agreements  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Power Purchase Agreements Solar Power Purchase Agreements Brian Millberg | Energy Manager, City of Minneapolis Direct Ownership * Financial: Even at $3/kW installed cost, simple payback is 18 years (initial electricity cost of $0.10/kWh and 3%/year electricity cost inflation) * Politics: How to justify expense with such a long payback * If RECS begin to have some real value, this would be a positive for ownership. 2 PPA Advantages * No/low up-front costs * City can take advantage of Investment Tax Credits (ITCs) - This leads to low electricity costs * Predictable electricity cost for length of contract * Avoid direct design/rebate/permitting work * No maintenance/operation headaches 3 PPA Financial Case (1 MW system) * PPA allows a developer to reduce system cost through:

262

Plant Wide Assessment for SIFCO Industries, Inc.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sifco Industries carreid out a plant wide energy assessment under a collaborative program with the U.S. Department of Energy during October 2004 to September 2005. During the year, personnel from EIS, E3M, DPS, BuyCastings.Com, and Sifco plant facilities and maintenance personnel, as a team collected energy use, construction, process, equipment and operational information about the plant. Based on this information, the team identified 13 energy savings opportunities. Near term savings opportunities have a total potential savings of about $1,329,000 per year and a combined simple payback of about 11 months. Implementation of these recommendations would reduce CO2 emissions by about 16,000,000 pounds per year, which would reduce overall plant CO2 emissions by about 45%. These totals do not include another $830,000 per year in potential savings with an estimated 9-month payback, from converting the forging hammers from steam to compressed air.

Kelly Kissock, Arvind Thekdi et. al.

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

263

Case Studies of Systems Integration through Energy Simulation During Early Design Phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents two case studies, a commercial & a community project, in Houston Texas, where energy simulation and a decision matrix were used to solve budget conflicts and meet LEED EA-1 requirements. The first case study consists of the analysis of three different direct-expansion (DX) systems in an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) configuration for an office building with an unusually large footprint. Of the three options, only two could meet EA-1 pre-requisite for LEED-NC certification while meeting the project budget. The second case study involves analysis of a 120,000 sf. Community recreation center with multiple space types and operation schedules. The analysis employed different combinations of energy recovery systems, efficient lighting package, skylights and large efficient ceiling fans. While all the options met LEED-NC EA-1 prerequisite, each had a different payback time. Finally a combination of strategies was used for optimum payback and energy efficiency.

Upadhyaya, K.; McLean, D.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Economic Evaluation of By-Product Power/Co-Generation Systems for Industrial Plants with Fluidized-Bed Coal Burning Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic analysis of the construction and operation of by-product electric power and steam/power cogeneration systems in coal fired fluidized-bed steam cycles, located at individual industrial sites analyzed by the author, is being presented. The plants analyzed employ fluidized bed boilers for generation of steam for process and building/heating/cooling demands, in conjunction with electric power co-generation. Results of the analysis are presented, using life cycle costs and investment payback periods, pinpointing the areas, type and magnitude of costs which should be considered in the selection of combustors or systems. Capital and operating costs, and recognized technical and economic barriers are also presented and their effects indicated. Life cycle cost of each of the alternatives analyzed are compared and the expected payback periods for the different size FBC plants and for different annual average production levels are discussed.

Mesko, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during the Fall of 1999. This plant manufactures Nitric Acid and high and low density Ammonia Nitrate. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify energy losses and system improvements in the steam and condensate systems. Steam system improvements focus on lowering the cost of steam, wherever possible, with paybacks of 3 years or less. Overall, this ASI evaluation identifies six (6) steam savings proposals with an average simple payback of 2.9 years. This evaluation also identifies one system deficiency that will lead to unnecessary expenditures if allowed to continue, but would help to increase production if the suggested improvement was implemented. The following report details the individual findings and outlines the corrections needed. The savings generated from these improvements will more than pay for themselves in short order.

DeBat, R.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Bluefield, West Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 3400 Cumberland Road, Bluefield, West Virginia. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately five (5) years instead of the 7.73 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the downtown area of Austin, it is planned to build a new naturally stratified chilled water storage tank and share it among four separated chilled water plants. An underground piping system is to be established to connect these four plants together. This paper presents the method of determining the optimal tank size as well as corresponding optimal operating strategies for this project. Based on the analysis of the historical log data, utility rate structures, and equipment information, the baseline profiles of electricity fed to buildings, plant cooling load, and utility billing cost for each plant are generated. A simplified TES plus four plants model is built based on some assumptions. The results show that a 3.5 million gallon tank has the shortest payback time and the projected total capital cost is within the budget. The annual billing cost savings are $907,231 and the simple payback time is 12.5 years.

Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user and therefore a prime target for industrial energy audits. The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and supporting methodology for performing compressed air system audits. Seven field audits were conducted to refine the software and methodology as well as assess the savings potential of six common Operation and Maintenance measures. Audit results yielded significant savings with short payback periods. Total estimated savings for the project were 4,056,000 kWh or 49.2% of annual compressor energy for a cost savings of $152,000. Total implementation costs were $94,700 for a project payback period of 0.6 years. Capital benefits of delaying or avoiding the cost of a new compressor might double the energy benefits if a new compressor is being considered. The methodology proved to be a simple and effective audit tool.

Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Experience on design and operation of hotel/motel solar hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of solar energy to preheat domestic hot water in hotels and motels has many advantages. Year long use of these solar systems provides shorter payback periods. Temperature requirements for hotel/motel use are relatively low and are compatible with low cost flat plate collectors. Simple controls relate to higher reliability in both drain-down and heat exchanger configurations. Solar systems are easily retrofitted to most existing hotel/motel hot water systems and there are many hotels and motels across the country with roof area sufficient in size to hold the required collector arrays. Hotel/motel systems with payback periods of less than four years, which provide 70% of the total hot water load, are discussed.

Brohl, E.C.; Struss, R.G.; Sidles, P.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Woodbrdge, VA. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 13317 Gordon Boulevard, Woodbridge, Virginia is given. The description of the system along with the final breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 7.2 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Bluefield, West Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 3400 Cumberland Road, Bluefield, West Virginia. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately five (5) years instead of the 7.73 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As director of Oregon's Industrial Assessment Center, I have encountered many industrial steam systems during plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. In nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a 0.4-year payback. 75% of those recommendations have been implemented for $1.1 million annual savings with 0.3-year payback. Recently I have developed a tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five steam recommendations. This presentation will demonstrate SteamMaster software applied to one or more industrial steam systems. Software will be made available on a national web site at no cost.

Wheeler, G.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Analysis of the Double Window in Saving Energy and Economical Efficiency in Nanjing in the Winter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the rapid progress of the economy, heating in winter is widespread in the eastern area of China. According to the exterior-protected structure of buildings in Nanjing, the hourly and dynamic load of energy consumption during the time of heating in winter is simulated and calculated in the paper. Through calculations, the energy consumption of the different windows, walls and roofs is gained. By analyzing the results of these calculations, the conclusion that using a single frame-double plastic steel window can save energy by 37.68% is reached. As part of the economical efficiency analysis, an investment payback period is analyzed using the methods of static state and dynamic state. The analysis shows that by using single frame-double plastic steel window, the investment payback period is about 7 years.

Zhang, Y.; He, J.; Gao, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Compact Fluorescent Lamps Compact Fluorescent Lamps Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps October 8, 2013 - 2:18pm Addthis This tool calculates the payback period for your calc retrofit project. Modify the default values to suit your project requirements. Existing incandescent lamp wattage Watts Incandescent lamp cost dollars Incandescent lamp life 1000 hours calc wattage Watts calc cost dollars calc life (6000 hours for moderate use, 10000 hours for high use) 8000 hours Number of lamps in retrofit project Hours operating per week hours Average cost of electricity 0.06 $/kWh Relamper labor costs $/hr Time taken to retrofit all lamps in this project min Time taken to relamp one lamp min Type of Relamping Practiced: Group Relamping: Calculate Simple Payback Period months

279

ISO 50001 Conformant Energy Management Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ISO 50001-conformant ISO 50001-conformant Energy Management Systems Aimee McKane Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory atmckane@lbl.gov 518-782-7002 April 2, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Energy efficiency improvements with very favorable payback periods often do not get implemented due to competing organizational priorities * Even projects that are implemented may not be sustained due to lack of supportive operational and maintenance practices Problem: Energy efficiency is not integrated into daily

280

ISO 50001 Conformant Energy Management Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ISO 50001-conformant ISO 50001-conformant Energy Management Systems Aimee McKane Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory atmckane@lbl.gov 518-782-7002 April 2, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Energy efficiency improvements with very favorable payback periods often do not get implemented due to competing organizational priorities * Even projects that are implemented may not be sustained due to lack of supportive operational and maintenance practices Problem: Energy efficiency is not integrated into daily

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Pinch Technology/Process Optimization: Volume 3: Case Study--Port Townsend Paper Corp.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sitewide study of a Kraft pulp and paper mill operated by Port Townsend Paper Corp. identified projects to reduce energy costs by $1.0 million annually while accommodating a 30% increase in plant capacity. The study, using advanced process analysis techniques known as `pinch technology,` found cost-effective applications for improved evaporator integration and enhanced process heat recovery. Payback would be less than two years.

1998-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

282

2008 Site Environmental Report Brookhaven National Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,000 gallons of propane ­ 517 million cubic feet of natural gas ­ Energy use per square foot in 2008 was 30, and sustainability Cost avoidance of over $1.8 million in CY2008 · Reduced/recycled/reused 9.7 million lbs funded · Annual cost savings = $14,000 from new projects · Average payback a little more than 1 year FY08

Homes, Christopher C.

283

U.C. San Diego Foundation Financial Statements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Payback Revenues Expenses ReAl eSTATe Beverly Glen Housing Project (669,129) 19,414 28,090 (692,041) STIP,807 100 Medical Plaza Tenant Improvement Costs $106,457 100 Medical Plaza Return of STIP to Plant Account,133,508 93,869,113 INTERNAL FINANCING (STIP) VILLAGE TERRACE 5,754,653 179,727 179,727 3.00% PARK WILSHIRE 4

Russell, Lynn

284

Monitored performance of residential geothermal heat pumps in central Texas and Southern Michigan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes measured performance of residential geothermal heat pumps (GHP`s) that were installed in family housing units at Ft. Hood, Texas and at Selfridge Air National Guard base in Michigan. These units were built as part of a joint Department of Defense/Department of Energy program to evaluate the energy savings potential of GHP`s installed at military facilities. At the Ft. Hood site, the GHP performance was compared to conventional forced air electric air conditioning and natural gas heating. At Selfridge, the homes under test were originally equipped with electric baseboard heat and no air conditioning. Installation of the GHP systems at both sites was straightforward but more problems and costs were incurred at Selfridge because of the need to install ductwork in the homes. The GHP`s at both sites produced impressive energy savings. These savings approached 40% for most of the homes tested. The low cost of energy on these bases relative to the incremental cost of the GHP conversions precludes rapid payback of the GHP`s from energy savings alone. Estimates based on simple payback (no inflation and no interest on capital) indicated payback times from 15 to 20 years at both sites. These payback times may be reduced by considering the additional savings possible due to reduced maintenance costs. Results are summarized in terms of 15 minute, hourly, monthly, and annual performance parameters. The results indicate that all the systems were working properly but several design shortcomings were identified. Recommendations are made for improvements in future installations at both sites.

Sullivan, W.N.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Prospects for investment in solar energy  

SciTech Connect

The prospects for solar energy and the growth of the solar industry are discussed. Some misconceptions, capital requirements, energy payback, and growth rate are reviewed. Technologies briefly discussed in the order in which they will likely be commercialized are: conservation, passive solar, biomass, flat plate collectors for water and space heating, wind power, solar ponds, photovoltaics, concentrating collectors for high temperature heat and electricity generation, ocean thermal energy conversion systems, and the solar power satellite. (MCW)

Edesess, M.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Wastewater recycling and heat reclamation at the Red Lion Central Laundry, Portland, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses water, energy, and cost savings that can be achieved in a commercial laundry through the use of a wastewater recycling and heat recovery system. Cost savings are achieved through reductions in water use, reduction in sewage charges, reductions in water heating energy, and potential reductions in water treatment chemicals. This report provides an economic analysis of the impact of capital investment, daily consumption, and local utility rates on the payback period.

Garlick, T.F.; Halverson, M.A.; Ledbetter, M.R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Economic analysis of the daylight-linked lighting control system in office buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to perform an economic analysis of the daylight-linked automatic on/off lighting control system installed for the purpose of energy savings in office buildings. For this, a building was chosen as a typical example, and the energy cost was calculated by using the daylight and building energy analysis simulation. When the lighting control was utilized, an economic analysis was performed using a payback period that was calculated by comparing the initial cost of installing the lighting control system with the annual energy cost which was reduced thanks to the application of the lighting control. The results showed that the lighting energy consumption, when the lighting control was applied, was reduced by an average of 30.5% compared with the case that there was not lighting control applied. Also, the result for total energy consumption showed that, when lighting control was applied, this was reduced by 8.5% when the glazing ratio was 100%, 8.2% for 80%, and 7.6% for 60% when compared to non-application. The payback period was analyzed in terms of the number of floors in a building; 10 floors, 20 floors, 30 floors, and 40 floors. Hence, the building with 40 floors and glazing ratio 100% resulted in the shortest payback period of 8.8 years, the building with 10 floors and glazing ratio 60% resulted in the longest period of 12.7 years. In other words, the larger the glazing ratio and the number of building floors are, the shorter the payback period is. (author)

Yang, In-Ho; Nam, Eun-Ji [Department of Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Dongguk University, 26-3, Pil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Drawing a Bead on Energy Savings and Power Quality at a Wire Manufacturer: Energy Efficiency Assessment Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy and power quality assessment was conducted at a manufacturer of wire stock. After defining the energy usage and power quality concerns, the audit team identified areas where energy could be saved and power quality issues mitigated. System losses, waste heat recovery, belt drive optimization, indoor and outdoor lighting, motor efficiency, and the electrical system were examined. After identifying possible savings and associated costs, the simple payback for suggested improvements was ...

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

289

Energy Efficiency and Power Quality at a Foods Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A condiment facility in the western United States was examined for energy efficiency and power quality considerations. Prior to the assessment, steps had been taken by the facility to lower energy costs through adjustments in lighting and compressed air. Further energy efficiency gains were identified in motor efficiency improvement and waste heat recovery, and payback periods were calculated when known. A power quality assessment identified a few areas of possible sensitivity, and costs were ...

2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

290

Cool Storage Economic Feasibility Analysis for a Large Industrial Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analysis of economic feasibility for adding a cool storage facility to shift electric demand to off-peak hours for a large industrial facility is presented. DOE-2 is used to generate the necessary cooling load profiles for the analysis. The aggregation of building information for predicting central plant behavior at the site is discussed. The dollar benefits and costs for the project are favorable, providing a payback in the neighborhood of 4 to 5 years.

Fazzolari, R.; Mascorro, J. A.; Ballard, R. H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the principles and practice of various designs of biomass/wood gasifiers. In general, the basic principle of gasification is reviewed. A look at existing gasifier schemes, including packed bed updraft, downdraft, and fluidized bed, defines the basic characteristics of each and their advantages and di advantages. The economics of using one type of system - a fluid bed gasifier, on an oil fired boiler is presented to depict a representative, if not conservative, payback time for such an investment.

Murphy, M. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Comparing Two Types of Magnetically- Coupled Adjustable Speed Drives with Variable Frequency Drives in Pump and Fan Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the results from laboratory tests on MagnaDrive Corporations fixed-magnet magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drive (MC-ASD) and Coyote Electronics electromagnetic MC-ASD as compared to a typical variable frequency drive (VFD) for typical fan and pump loads. It also discusses advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical MC-ASD versus VFDs and it provides field experience with VFDs in refrigerated warehouses as well as the fixed magnet MC-ASD in wastewater and other field applications. Laboratory tests for a 50 hp fan retrofit showed electronic VFD savings at 62%, the MagnaDrive Coupling at 39% and PAYBACK Drive at 46%. At $0.06/kWh and list prices, the simple payback for the VFD is 2.4 years, the MagnaDrive is 4.6 years and the PAYBACK is 1.9 years. MagnaDrive has models from 25 to 500 hp while PAYBACK has models from 3 to 200 hp. Contractors to the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance have helped to install VFDs for about 300 evaporator fans in over two dozen refrigerated warehouses and to install fixed-magnet MC-ASDs in about 50 applications with about half of these controlling wastewater pumps. The Alliance has no particular field experience with the electcromagnetic coupling. The primary advantages of magnetically coupled adjustable speed drives (MC-ASD) over VFDs come from reduced maintenance, resistance to dirty environments, separation of load vibration from the motor, and less stringent requirements for precise shaft alignment. Field experience indicates reductions in noise and repairs from vibration loads, tolerance of poor electrical power quality, and ease of installation are often more important than energy savings. The MC-ASDs are being used where VFDs have not survived or are considered too complicated.

Anderson, K. J.; Chvala, W. D.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. An example of a xylene extraction tower is sited, illustrating the economic attractiveness in which a simple payback period of less than two years is achievable.

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Life Cycle Assessment of Amonix 7700 HCPV Systems  

SciTech Connect

We estimated the energy payback time (EPBT) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the life cycle of the Amonix high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) system with III-V solar cells. For a location in the southwest United States, the Amonix 7700 has an EPBT of only 0.86 yrs and GHG emissions of 24g CO{sub 2}-eq./kWh we expect further decreases in both by 2011.

Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

Technical and Economic Considerations for Power Quality Improvements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report addresses technical application issues and analyzes economic cost payback for power quality mitigation solutions. The solutions described are targeted at improving the process uptime for end-use customer equipment. These solutions range from modification at the substation level to customer-specified ride-through of new equipment. The report focuses on the different solutions at each level and provides expectations in terms of the relative improvements gained if the solutions are implemented.

2001-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

296

Generating Electricity with your Steam System: Keys to Long Term Savings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of combined heat and power principals to existing plant steam systems can help produce electricity at more than twice efficiency of grid generated electricity. In this way, steam plant managers can realize substantial savings with relatively quick payback of capital. Carefully planned and executed projects are the key to unlocking the maximum value of generating electricity from an existing steam system. This paper illustrates the key concepts of generating onsite power with backpressure steam turbine generators along with practical considerations.

Bullock, B.; Downing, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Results of acid treatments in hydrothermal direct heat experiment wells  

SciTech Connect

Matrix acid treatments have been employed in two low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal wells with successful results. These two wells showed flow rate increases of 40% and 50%. The increased flow reduced the payback periods for the heating systems to nearly one-half of what they were before acidization. It is recommended that well designs in certain areas consider accommodating such acid stimulation techniques, if testing suggests they are warranted as a well completion tool.

Strawn, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

Meo, M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

HVDC power transmission technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Potential benefits of thermal energy storage in the proposed Twin Cities district heating-cogeneration system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, large, cogeneration-district heating system has been proposed for the Twin Cities area, using hot water in a closed-loop system. The proposed system, as described by Studsvik Energiteknik AB of Sweden, does not employ thermal energy storage (TES). Four cases have been developed, describing system configurations which would employ TES, to evaluate the potential benefits of incorporating annual-cycle TES into the Twin Cities system. The potential benefits are found to be substantial, confirming results of earlier, generic studies of aquifer TES. The reference (Studsvik) system employs oil-fired boilers to supplement cogenerated heat, for handling peak loads and providing standby reserve. TES can serve the same function, with net energy savings in spite of heat losses during storage, by making it possible to operate the cogeneration equipment at higher capacity factors. Coal replaces oil as the fuel consumed. Energy savings of the reference system are impressive; energy savings with TES are 2 to 22% better. Capital cost requirements for boilers, cogeneration equipment, and pipelines are reduced by $66 to $258 million. The breakeven capital cost of TES is estimated to range from $43 to $76 per kilowatt peak thermal input to or withdrawal from aquifer TES. A factor in evaluating the breakeven operating cost of TES is the $14 to $31 million per year saving in cost of fuel. Abatement of air pollution and thermal pollution are concomitant benefits.

Meyer, C.F.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Energy Recovery from Solid Waste for Small Cities - Has the Time Really Come?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The City of Longview, Texas is evaluating modular, two stage incineration with waste heat recovery to produce steam for sale to industrial consumers. An envisioned 150 tpd waste disposal facility would serve the area population of approximately 100,000. Estimates for operating cost and steam conversion efficiency were based on historical data obtained from a similar facility located in Salem, Virginia. The total projected break-even cost in 1982 for production of 150 psig saturated steam for a completely consumptive use was $7.95 per 1000 lb. The projected break-even cost in 1982 for 600 psi steam superheated to 700 deg. F for a consumptive use was $8.72 per 1000 lb. excluding the cost of water deionization facilities. These costs compare favorably with projected costs of steam production using natural gas as a boiler fuel but are not competitive when compared to use of locally available lignite. The results indicate that the time has come for smaller cities with a potential for industrial steam sales to consider energy recovery from solid waste using modular, two stage incinerations with waste heat recovery.

Winn, W. T., Jr.; Paxton, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Production costs and supply of biomass by U.S. Region  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Biofuels Feedstock Development Program has attempted to estimate the cost of producing dedicated energy crops for several regions of the United States. Switchgrass and hybrid poplar have been chosen as representative herbaceous and woody crop species for the estimation. A full economic cost accounting approach is used. This means that not only are out-of-pocket cash expenses (e.g. fertilizers, chemicals, seeds, fuel, repairs) estimated, but fixed costs (e.g., overhead, taxes) and the costs of owned resources (e.g., producer`s own labor, equipment depreciation, land values) are also estimated as part of the cost of producing dedicated energy crops. The costs are estimated as enterprise budgets which means that costs of producing energy crops are estimated as separate entities, and not estimated in context of the entire farm management structure. Competitiveness of energy crops with conventional crops vary by region. Breakeven prices are regional averages. Breakeven prices for poplar are higher than for switchgrass in all regions, in large part due to the higher cost of producing poplars.

Walsh, M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

The economics of heat mining: An analysis of design options and performance requirements of hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal power systems  

SciTech Connect

A generalized economic model was developed to predict the breakeven price of HDR generated electricity. Important parameters include: (1) resource quality--average geothermal gradient ({sup o}C/km) and well depth, (2) reservoir performance--effective productivity, flow impedance, and lifetime (thermal drawdown rate), (3) cost components--drilling, reservoir formation, and power plant costs and (4) economic factors--discount and interest rates, taxes, etc. Detailed cost correlations based on historical data and results of other studies are presented for drilling, stimulation, and power plant costs. Results of the generalized model are compared to the results of several published economic assessments. Critical parameters affecting economic viability are drilling costs and reservoir performance. For example, high gradient areas are attractive because shallower well depths and/or lower reservoir production rates are permissible. Under a reasonable set of assumptions regarding reservoir impedance, accessible rock volumes and surface areas, and mass flow rates (to limit thermal drawdown rates to about 10 C per year), predictions for HDR-produced electricity result in competitive breakeven prices in the range of 5 to 9 cents/kWh for resources having average gradients above 50 C/km. Lower gradient areas require improved reservoir performance and/or lower well drilling costs.

Tester, Jefferson W.; Herzog, Howard J.

1991-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

304

A Feasibility Study of Fuel Cell Cogeneration in Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Up until now, most of the literature on fuel cell cogeneration describes cogeneration at commercial sites. In this study, a PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell cogeneration system was designed for an industrial facility and an economic analysis was performed. The US DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database was examined to determine what industry considers a good investment for energy saving measures. Finally, the results of the cogeneration analysis and database investigation were used to project the conditions in which the PC25C might be accepted by industry. Analysis of IAC database revealed that energy conservation recommendations with simple paybacks as high as five years have a 40% implementation rate; however, using current prices the simple payback of the PC25C fuel cell exceeds the likely lifetime of the machine. One drawback of the PC25C for industrial cogeneration is that the temperature of heat delivered is not sufficient to produce steam, which severely limits its usefulness in many industrial settings. The cost effectiveness of the system is highly dependent on energy prices. A five year simple payback can be achieved if the cost of electricity is $0.10/kWh or greater, or if the cost of the fuel cell decreases from about $3,500/kW to $950/kW. On the other hand, increasing prices of natural gas make the PC25C less economically attractive.

Phelps, S. B.; Kissock, J. K.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Energy analysis of facade-integrated photovoltaic systems applied to UAE commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Developments in the design and manufacture of photovoltaic cells have recently been a growing concern in the UAE. At present, the embodied energy pay-back time (EPBT) is the criterion used for comparing the viability of such technology against other forms. However, the impact of PV technology on the thermal performance of buildings is not considered at the time of EPBT estimation. If additional energy savings gained over the PV system life are also included, the total EPBT could be shorter. This paper explores the variation of the total energy of building integrated photovoltaic systems (BiPV) as a wall cladding system applied to the UAE commercial sector and shows that the ratio between PV output and saving in energy due to PV panels is within the range of 1:3-1:4. The result indicates that for the southern and western facades in the UAE, the embodied energy pay-back time for photovoltaic system is within the range of 12-13 years. When reductions in operational energy are considered, the pay-back time is reduced to 3.0-3.2 years. This study comes to the conclusion that the reduction in operational energy due to PV panels represents an important factor in the estimation of EPBT. (author)

Radhi, Hassan [Architectural Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-ain (United Arab Emirates)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Analysis of battery storage for commercial buildings. Phase 1 final report  

SciTech Connect

The application of battery storage to load leveling by the utility user represents a new concept in energy management. TRW Energy Management Systems Division has studied the possibility of combining an energy management computer/control system with a lead-acid/power processor system and explored the feasibility of demonstrating power management at a government facility. Candidate sites in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area were evaluated by analyzing demand curves for electricity. One site, the Department of the Treasury's Bureau of Printing and Engraving is recommended as the best of the sites evaluated. Analysis using estimated production system costs of $130/kW for power processors and $80/kWh for lead acid batteries indicates a payback of nine years. However, if the Department of Energy's cost goals for batteries and converters are achieved, a payback in less than four years is possible. Furthermore, coupling battery energy storage with conventional computer based energy management is projected to offer substantial reductions in utility bills. Payback from a production system in less than two years is predicted. System design is based on using present day technolgy where possible for the system components. Capacity for the system has been set at 1.1 MWh with a peak load capability of 600 kW. Preliminary specifications are supplied. Facility modification and system layout are presented, giving alternate placements for the batteries. Floor loading and system safety are two critical design parameters.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Economic viability of heat pump desuperheaters for supplying domestic hot water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat reclaimer is a heat exchange device that removes superheat from the refrigerant gas in a heat pump or central air conditioning unit and uses that extracted energy to heat water for domestic uses. This analysis examines the energy-saving potential and economic benefit of the heat reclaimer. Energy savings were calculated using a modified bin analytical technique. Economic viability was determined using the simple payback criterion. The analysis was performed for 28 cities in the United States to gain an understanding of the relationship between energy savings, economic viability, and climate. The results of the assessment indicate that the heat reclaimer has payback periods greater than seven years when compared with oil- or gas-fired water heating systems. Because of the long payback periods, the heat reclaimer does not appear to be economically feasible for these applications. However, when compared to electric-resistance water heating units, the heat reclaimer is economically viable, especially in areas where the air conditioning load is substantial or where the price of electricity is high.

Olszewski, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Survey Evidence on the Willingness of U.S. Consumers to Pay for Automotive Fuel Economy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prospect theory, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2002, holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from four random sample surveys of 1,000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are short, about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. Calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on this stated uncertainty illustrate how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Evans, David H [Sewanee, The University of the South; Hiestand, John [Indiana University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Analysis of battery storage for commercial buildings. Phase 1 final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of battery storage to load leveling by the utility user represents a new concept in energy management. TRW Energy Management Systems Division has studied the possibility of combining an energy management computer/control system with a lead-acid/power processor system and explored the feasibility of demonstrating power management at a government facility. Candidate sites in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area were evaluated by analyzing demand curves for electricity. One site, the Department of the Treasury's Bureau of Printing and Engraving is recommended as the best of the sites evaluated. Analysis using estimated production system costs of $130/kW for power processors and $80/kWh for lead acid batteries indicates a payback of nine years. However, if the Department of Energy's cost goals for batteries and converters are achieved, a payback in less than four years is possible. Furthermore, coupling battery energy storage with conventional computer based energy management is projected to offer substantial reductions in utility bills. Payback from a production system in less than two years is predicted. System design is based on using present day technolgy where possible for the system components. Capacity for the system has been set at 1.1 MWh with a peak load capability of 600 kW. Preliminary specifications are supplied. Facility modification and system layout are presented, giving alternate placements for the batteries. Floor loading and system safety are two critical design parameters.

Not Available

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Walkway Lighting at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center, in Atlantic City, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a collaborative project to demonstrate a solid state lighting (SSL) general illumination product in an outdoor area walkway application. In the project, six light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires were installed to replace six existing high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires mounted on 14-foot poles on a set of exterior walkways and stairs at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, during December, 2007. The effort was a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SSL Technology Gateway Demonstration that involved a collaborative teaming agreement between DOE, FAA and Ruud Lighting (and their wholly owned division, Beta LED). Pre- and post-installation power and illumination measurements were taken and used in calculations of energy savings and related economic payback, while personnel impacted by the new lights were provided questionnaires to gauge their perceptions and feedback. The SSL product demonstrated energy savings of over 25% while maintaining illuminance levels and improving illuminance uniformity. PNNL's economic analysis yielded a variety of potential payback results depending on the assumptions used. In the best case, replacing HPS with the LED luminaire can yield a payback as low as 3 years. The new lamps were quite popular with the affected personnel, who gave the lighting an average score of 4.46 out of 5 for improvement.

Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

311

Economic Evaluation of Insulation/Radiant Barrier Systems for the State of Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents simulated performance of insulation/radiant barrier systems under different Texas climates. A transient heat and mass transfer model which predicts thermal performance of residential attics (Medina, 1992) was coupled with an "economic" subroutine. Simple payback periods were estimated which were based on current insulation and radiant barrier (RB) prices (materials and installation), and current and forecast electric rates. It was found that when the analyses were based solely on reductions of ceiling heat loads during the summer time, a combination of R-11 with RB was more effective than upgrading the insulation level to R-19. Similarly, adding a radiant barrier to an existing insulation level of R-19 proved more effective than upgrading to R-30. When heat gains to the cold air traveling inside A/C ducts (\\which are usually installed in attic spaces) were considered, all insulation/radiant barrier combinations showed faster payback periods than insulation upgrades, During the winter time, insulation upgrades proved to be more effective than insulation/radiant barrier combinations. The simple payback analyses presented herein include both summer and winter simulations.

Medina, M. A.; Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Design and Evaluation of a High Temperature Burner Duct Recuperator System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) has completed a program to design, construct, install, and field test a ceramic-based high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) in an industrial setting. The unit was capable of operating in corrosive, high temperature (2250oF) flue gas streams. The HTBDR was successfully tested in a steel soaking pit at B&W's Tubular Products Division in Koppel, Pennsylvania. The ceramic stage consisted of 50 bayonet style ceramic tube-in-tube assemblies supported by an insulated metallic tubesheet and sealed with a ceramic fiber product. The heat exchanger was designed to take maximum advantage of radiation heat transfer, minimize pressure drops on both the air and flue sides, and minimize thermal stresses and fouling. Modeling of the bayonet assemblies determined the outer-to-inner tube spacing to optimize the air-side pressure drop and heat transfer within the tubes. During the 1400 hour operation prior to plant closing, the ceramic stage performed well with no material related problems or air-to-flue leakage. Maximum preheat air produced was 1425F with a flue gas temperature of 2250oF. Measured fuel savings of 17-24% were obtained over the previous recuperated (metallic heat exchanger) system. This projects a savings of 41% for an unrecuperated furnace. A simple payback analysis indicated acceptable payback for installation in unrecuperated furnaces but unacceptable payback for recuperated furnaces at today's low gas prices."

Parks, W. P.; DeBellis, C. L.; Kneidel, K.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Technical and Economic Potential for Electricity Energy Efficiency in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in energy efficiency in the semiconductor industry. The declining prices for semiconductor products has prompted semiconductor manufacturing plants to control costs so as to maintain profitability. This paper presents the potential for energy efficiency improvements at a semiconductor manufacturing plant from various energy efficiency measures such as high efficiency motors, adjustable speed drive motors, high efficiency HVAC, and high efficiency lighting. The effort was part of a utility-sponsored technical potential study. Although this paper describes energy efficiency options in a specific facility, the recommended actions have broad application. In this study, the results show that none of the group replacement with high efficiency motors, adjustable speed drive motors, and high efficiency lighting would yield paybacks of less than 3 years. However, the end-of-useful life replacement with high efficiency motors for abatement of exhaust and deionizing of water as well as high efficiency lighting would yield paybacks of less than 3 years. The installation of adjustable speed drive motors at the end of useful life would not yield average paybacks of less than 3 years. Although specific implementation plans to achieve the energy savings are not outlined in this paper, it is hoped that the results of this analysis will identify areas which merit further engineering and economic analyses.

Lee, A. H. W.; Golden, J. W.; Zarnikau, J. W.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Not-In-Kind Technologies for Residential and Commercial Unitary Equipment  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated by the Department of Energy in response to a request from the HVAC industry for consolidated information about alternative heating and cooling cycles and for objective comparisons of those cycles in space conditioning applications. Twenty-seven different heat pumping technologies are compared on energy use and operating costs using consistent operating conditions and assumptions about component efficiencies for all of them. This report provides a concise summary of the underlying principals of each technology, its advantages and disadvantages, obstacles to commercial development, and economic feasibility. Both positive and negative results in this study are valuable; the fact that many of the cycles investigated are not attractive for space conditioning avoids any additional investment of time or resources in evaluating them for this application. In other cases, negative results in terms of the cost of materials or in cycle efficiencies identify where significant progress needs to be made in order for a cycle to become commercially attractive. Specific conclusions are listed for many of the technologies being promoted as alternatives to electrically-driven vapor compression heat pumps using fluorocarbon refrigerants. Although reverse Rankine cycle heat pumps using hydrocarbons have similar energy use to conventional electric-driven heat pumps, there are no significant energy savings due to the minor differences in estimated steady-state performance; higher costs would be required to accommodate the use of a flammable refrigerant. Magnetic and compressor-driven metal hydride heat pumps may be able to achieve efficiencies comparable to reverse Rankine cycle heat pumps, but they are likely to have much higher life cycle costs because of high costs for materials and peripheral equipment. Both thermoacoustic and thermionic heat pumps could have lower life cycle costs than conventional electric heat pumps because of reduced equipment and maintenance costs although energy use would be higher. There are strong opportunities for gas-fired heat pumps to reduce both energy use and operating costs outside of the high cooling climates in the southeast, south central states, and the southwest. Diesel and IC (Otto) engine-driven heat pumps are commercially available and should be able to increase their market share relative to gas furnaces on a life cycle cost basis; the cost premiums associated with these products, however, make it difficult to achieve three or five year paybacks which adversely affects their use in the U.S. Stirling engine-driven and duplex Stirling heat pumps have been investigated in the past as potential gas-fired appliances that would have longer lives and lower maintenance costs than diesel and IC engine-driven heat pumps at slightly lower efficiencies. These potential advantages have not been demonstrated and there has been a low level of interest in Stirling engine-driven heat pumps since the late 1980's. GAX absorption heat pumps have high heating efficiencies relative to conventional gas furnaces and are viable alternatives to furnace/air conditioner combinations in all parts of the country outside of the southeast, south central states, and desert southwest. Adsorption heat pumps may be competitive with the GAX absorption system at a higher degree of mechanical complexity; insufficient information is available to be more precise in that assessment.

Fischer, S.K.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

315

Not-In-Kind Technologies for Residential and Commercial Unitary Equipment  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated by the Department of Energy in response to a request from the HVAC industry for consolidated information about alternative heating and cooling cycles and for objective comparisons of those cycles in space conditioning applications. Twenty-seven different heat pumping technologies are compared on energy use and operating costs using consistent operating conditions and assumptions about component efficiencies for all of them. This report provides a concise summary of the underlying principals of each technology, its advantages and disadvantages, obstacles to commercial development, and economic feasibility. Both positive and negative results in this study are valuable; the fact that many of the cycles investigated are not attractive for space conditioning avoids any additional investment of time or resources in evaluating them for this application. In other cases, negative results in terms of the cost of materials or in cycle efficiencies identify where significant progress needs to be made in order for a cycle to become commercially attractive. Specific conclusions are listed for many of the technologies being promoted as alternatives to electrically-driven vapor compression heat pumps using fluorocarbon refrigerants. Although reverse Rankine cycle heat pumps using hydrocarbons have similar energy use to conventional electric-driven heat pumps, there are no significant energy savings due to the minor differences in estimated steady-state performance; higher costs would be required to accommodate the use of a flammable refrigerant. Magnetic and compressor-driven metal hydride heat pumps may be able to achieve efficiencies comparable to reverse Rankine cycle heat pumps, but they are likely to have much higher life cycle costs because of high costs for materials and peripheral equipment. Both thermoacoustic and thermionic heat pumps could have lower life cycle costs than conventional electric heat pumps because of reduced equipment and maintenance costs although energy use would be higher. There are strong opportunities for gas-fired heat pumps to reduce both energy use and operating costs outside of the high cooling climates in the southeast, south central states, and the southwest. Diesel and IC (Otto) engine-driven heat pumps are commercially available and should be able to increase their market share relative to gas furnaces on a life cycle cost basis; the cost premiums associated with these products, however, make it difficult to achieve three or five year paybacks which adversely affects their use in the U.S. Stirling engine-driven and duplex Stirling heat pumps have been investigated in the past as potential gas-fired appliances that would have longer lives and lower maintenance costs than diesel and IC engine-driven heat pumps at slightly lower efficiencies. These potential advantages have not been demonstrated and there has been a low level of interest in Stirling engine-driven heat pumps since the late 1980's. GAX absorption heat pumps have high heating efficiencies relative to conventional gas furnaces and are viable alternatives to furnace/air conditioner combinations in all parts of the country outside of the southeast, south central states, and desert southwest. Adsorption heat pumps may be competitive with the GAX absorption system at a higher degree of mechanical complexity; insufficient information is available to be more precise in that assessment.

Fischer, S.K.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

316

A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic operation in response to local or system operators. There are no known distributed energy asset owners currently receiving compensation for reactive power supply or capability. However, there are some cases where small generators on the generation and transmission side of electricity supply have been tested and have installed the capability to be dispatched for reactive power support. Several concerns need to be met for distributed energy to become widely integrated as a reactive power resource. The overall costs of retrofitting distributed energy devices to absorb or produce reactive power need to be reduced. There needs to be a mechanism in place for ISOs/RTOs to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where distributed energy resides. Novel compensation methods should be introduced to encourage the dispatch of dynamic resources close to areas with critical voltage issues. The next phase of this research will investigate in detail how different options of reactive power producing DE can compare both economically and functionally with shunt capacitor banks. Shunt capacitor banks, which are typically used for compensating reactive power consumption of loads on distribution systems, are very commonly used because they are very cost effective in terms of capital costs. However, capacitor banks can require extensive maintenance especially due to their exposure to lightning at the top of utility poles. Also, it can be problematic to find failed capacitor banks and their maintenance can be expensive, requiring crews and bucket trucks which often requires total replacement. Another shortcoming of capacitor banks is the fact that they usually have one size at a location (typically sized as 300, 600, 900 or 1200kVAr) and thus don't have variable range as do reactive power producing DE, and cannot respond to dynamic reactive power needs. Additional future work is to find a detailed methodology to identify the hidden benefit of DE for providing reactive power and the best way to allocate the benefit among customers, utilities, transmission companies or RTOs.

Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; King, Thomas F [ORNL

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Economic Effect of Energy Price and Economic Feasibility and Potenhal of New Technology and Improved Management for Irrigation in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Irrigation is a major contributing factor in crop production on the Texas High Plains. It is responsible for greatly increasing crop production and farm income for the region. Two factors, a declining groundwater supply and increasing production costs, are of primary concern because they impact on farm operations and producer economic viability. Recursive linear programming models for a typical Texas High Plains irrigated farm were developed to evaluate expected impact of energy and crop price changes, tenure and new technology. The model includes a Fortran sub-routine that adjusts irrigation factors each year based on the linear programming solution of the previous year. After calculating new pumping energy requirements, well yield, and pumping lift, the Fortran component updates the linear programming model. This procedure continues automatically to the end of a specified planning period or to economic exhaustion of the groundwater, whichever occurs first. Static applications of the model, in a deep water situation, showed that a natural gas price increase from $1.50 to $2.20 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) would result in reductions in irrigation levels. Irrigation was terminated when the price of natural gas reached about $7.00 per mcf. In a shallow water situation, much higher natural gas prices were reached ($3.60 per mcf) before short-run adjustments in farm organization began to occur. Under furrow irrigation, irrigation was terminated when the natural gas price reached $7.00 per mcf. Increased natural gas prices impact heavily on returns above variable costs (up to 15 percent reductions) for a 60 percent natural gas price increase. The effects of rising natural gas prices over a longer period of time were more significant. Annual returns (above variable and fixed costs) were reduced by as much as 30 percent, and the present value of returns to water was reduced by as much as 80 percent as the natural gas price was increased annually by $0.25 per mcf (from $1.50 per mcf). The economic life of deep groundwater was shortened by as much as 18 years. Renter-operators are even more vulnerable to rising natural gas prices than are owner-operators. With rising natural gas prices, profitability over time for the renter is low. As natural gas prices continue to increase, the greater will be the incentives for renter-operators to seek more favorable rental terms such as a sharing of irrigation costs. With the problem of a declining groundwater supply and rising natural gas prices, an economic incentive exists for producers to find new technologies that will enable them to make more efficient use of remaining groundwater and of natural gas. Substantial economic gains appear feasible through improved pump efficiency. Increasing pump efficiency from 50 to 75 percent will not increase the economic life of the water supply, but can improve farm profits over time; e.g., the present value of groundwater was increased 33 percent for a typical farm with an aquifer containing 250 feet of saturated thickness and 15 percent for 75 feet of saturated thickness. Improved irrigation distribution systems can help conserve water and reduce irrigation costs. Results indicate that irrigation can be extended by 11 or more years with 50 percent improved distribution efficiency. In addition, the increase in present value of groundwater on the 1.69 million irrigated acres of the Texas High Plains was estimated to be $995 million with 50 percent improved efficiency. New technology opportunities were expanded to include analysis of the economic feasibility of wind assisted irrigation pumping. Two wind machines were analyzed, with rate outputs of 40 to 60 kilowatts (KW). Each was applied to the Northern and Southern Texas High Plains over a range of land and water resource situations. Breakeven investment was estimated at discount rates of three, five and ten percent. Cropping patterns on the Southern High Plains were dominated by irrigated cotton and were insensit

Lacewell, Ronald D.; Hardin, D. C.; Petty, J. A.; Whitson, R. E.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Microsoft PowerPoint - Georgetown lecture 3-29-10 final for distribution.pptx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Whittington Lecture Whittington Lecture Georgetown Public Policy Institute 29 March 2010 "Predictions are hard to make, I will make two predictions: especially about the future." 1. The price of oil will be higher in the coming decades. 2. We will live in a carbon constrained world. "Breakeven" Price of Oil (Dollars/Barrel) Conventional oil is 30% of world oil reserves. Production costs of unconventional oil are much higher. Source: International Energy Agency Unconventional Oil Energy Use: 1980 - Present and Projections to 2030 Source: EIA International Energy Outlook 2009 Climate Change is real: the temperature record from 1880 - 2007 Source NASA: http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/ Concentration of Greenhouse gases The beginning of the Industrial

319

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluating CO2 Capture Options for a Evaluating CO2 Capture Options for a Fluidized Catalytic Cracker Regenerator May 8-11, 2006 * Hilton Alexandria Mark Center * Alexandria, Virginia George F. Schuette, Edward G. Latimer, Joseph B. Cross and Etop Esen ConocoPhillips Company Outline Refinery CO2 Emissions Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) Emissions Flue Gas CO2 Capture Technologies Process Models: MEA vs. Solid Adsorbent Cost Breakeven Properties Summary CO2 Emissions from Oil & Gas Refining 4 % 223 US Refineries 98 % 5,870 Total 32 % 1,875 Transportation 28 % 1,666 Industrial 21 % 1,215 Residential 17 % 1,026 Commercial 2003 US Emissions by Sector (MM tonne) CO2 Emission Factor: 40 M tonne CO2/MM bbl crude oil Energy Information Administration Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2003

320

Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the US Jeff Maguire 4/30/13 Outline * Why HPWHs? * US Water Heating Market * Overview of HPWHs * Model Description * Results o HPWH Performance o Energy Savings Potential o Breakeven Cost 2 Heat Pump Water Heaters Save $300 a year over standard electric? Save $100 a year over standard gas? Heat Pump Electric Gas 3 Questions about HPWHs * Are HPWHs a good replacement for typical gas and electric storage water heaters? o In different locations across the country? o In conditioned/unconditioned space? o Source energy savings?

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

Rios, M. Jr.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with different capacity. It is assumed that the owner substitutes own electricity load with electricity from the wind mill and sells excess electricity back to the grid on an hourly basis. The problem for the owner is to find the price levels at which it is optimal to invest, and in which capacity to invest. The results suggests it is optimal to wait for significantly higher prices than the net present value break-even. Optimal scale and timing depend on the expected price growth rate and the uncertainty in the future prices.

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

323

A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

324

Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

Thomas Mason

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

325

Preliminary Neutronic Study of D2O-cooled High Conversion PWRs  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a preliminary neutronics analysis of tight-pitch D2O-cooled high-conversion PWRs loaded with MOX fuel aiming at high Pu conversion and negative void coefficient. SCALE6.1 has been exclusively utilized for this study. The analyses are performed in two separate parts. The first part of this paper investigates the performance of axial and internal blankets and seeks break-even or near-breeder core even without the presence of radial blankets. The second part of this paper performs sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected systems in order to analyze the characters of this high-conversion PWR from different aspects.

Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Electrical Energy Requirements for Accelerator and Fusion Neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The electrical energy requirements and costs of accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) and fusion plants designed to transmute nuclides of fission wastes are compared. Both systems use the same blanket concept, but tritium breeding is taken into account for the fusion system. The ATW and fusion plants are found to have the same electrical energy requirement per available blanket neutron when the blanket coverage is comparable and the fusion energy gain is near breakeven (Q {approx}1), but the fusion plant has only a fraction of the energy requirement when Q >> 1. If the blanket thermal energy is converted to electricity, the fusion plant and ATW have comparable net electrical energy outputs per available neutron when Q {approx}1.5 and the blanket neutron multiplication is large.

Jassby, Daniel L.; Schmidt, John A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States)

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Mechanical-engineering aspects of mirror-fusion technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mirror approach to magnetic fusion has evolved from the original simple mirror cell to today's mainline effort: the tandem-mirror machine with thermal barriers. Physics and engineering research is being conducted throughout the world, with major efforts in Japan, the USSR, and the US. At least one facility under construction (MFTF-B) will approach equivalent energy breakeven in physics performance. Significant mechanical engineering development is needed, however, before a demonstration reactor can be constructed. The principal areas crucial to mirror reactor development include large high-field superconducting magnets, high-speed continuous vacuum-pumping systems, long-pulse high-power neutral-beam and rf-plasma heating systems, and efficient high-voltage high-power direct converters. Other areas common to all fusion systems include tritium handling technology, first-wall materials development, and fusion blanket design.

Fisher, D.K.; Doggett, J.N.

1982-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Development/Demonstration of an Advanced Oxy-Fuel Front-End System  

SciTech Connect

Owens Corning and other glass manufacturers have used oxy-fuel combustion technology successfully in furnaces to reduce emissions, increase throughput, reduce fuel consumption and, depending on the costs of oxygen and fuel, reduce energy costs. The front end of a fiberglass furnace is the refractory channel system that delivers glass from the melter to the forming process. After the melter, it is the second largest user of energy in a fiberglass plant. A consortium of glass companies and suppliers, led by Owens Corning, was formed to develop and demonstrate oxy/fuel combustion technology for the front end of a fiberglass melter, to demonstrate the viability of this energy saving technology to the U.S. glass industry, as a D.O.E. sponsored project. The project goals were to reduce natural gas consumption and CO2 green house gas emissions by 65 to 70% and create net cost savings after the purchase of oxygen to achieve a project payback of less than 2 years. Project results in Jackson, TN included achieving a 56% reduction in gas consumption and CO2 emissions. A subsequent installation in Guelph ON, not impacted by unrelated operational changes in Jackson, achieved a 64% reduction. Using the more accurate 64% reduction in the payback calculation yielded a 2.2 year payback in Jackson. The installation of the demonstration combustion system saves 77,000 DT/yr of natural gas or 77 trillion Btu/yr and eliminates 4500 tons/yr of CO2 emissions. This combustion system is one of several energy and green house gas reduction technologies being adopted by Owens Corning to achieve aggressive goals relating to the companys global facility environmental footprint.

Mighton, Steven, J.

2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

331

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce electricity for farm use and for sale to the public utility. The Wastes were partially stabilized by bacterial action with the digesters and the digester effluent passed to a liquid-solid separator. Solid fraction was composted and either used as bedding material for the cows or marketed as soil conditioner. The liquid fraction flowed to a storage pond and was used in the Greenfeed subsystem to fertilize forage crops for the cows. Estimated energy savings of the system were 1705 MBtu for the first two subsystems and 7,718 MBtu's for all three subsystems. Simple payback for the first two subsystems was very long (20 years) because facilities for effective manure recovery did not exist on the farm at the outset of the project, operational costs for manure collection were charged against the project, and system components were oversized. Including the Greenfeed subsystem, simple payback for the project was 8.2 years. Assuming that manure collection facilities and practices already existed and assuming proper sizing of all components, simple payback for the Anaerobic Digestion and Electrical Production subsystem and the Farm Waste Management subsystem was 5.8 years. Using data from this project, an estimate of the return on investment was projected for different herd sizes. Results suggested that for dairy farms with less than 500 cows, anaerobic digester systems are only marginally profitable.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Edison processor information is not uner  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

processor information is no longer under NDA Edison processor information is no longer under NDA September 11, 2013 (0 Comments) Ivy Bridge was announced by Intel on 9102013....

333

Vectren Energy Delivery of Indiana (Electric) - Commercial New Construction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vectren Energy Delivery of Indiana (Electric) - Commercial New Vectren Energy Delivery of Indiana (Electric) - Commercial New Construction Rebates (Indiana) Vectren Energy Delivery of Indiana (Electric) - Commercial New Construction Rebates (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Custom/HVAC Systems: $100,000 or 50% of the total project cost Incentive cannot buy down project below 1.5 years payback. Program Info State Indiana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount HVAC Systems (New Construction): $0.12/kWh reduced

334

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: United Resources Group Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

United Resources Group Lighting Conservation United Resources Group Lighting Conservation Comprehensive lighting software designed to analyze existing lighting systems and provide alternative systems that will offer energy-savings retrofit options with corresponding total wattage reduction, percent reduction, kilowatt hour savings, maintenance savings, net air conditioning savings, and a corresponding cost and dollar savings total with payback. Screen Shots Keywords Quantify, Lighting Conservation, Cost and Savings Validation/Testing Regular updates of wattage table. Expertise Required Some familiarity with Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and the codes used to describe existing equipment which is in place at a site. Users 1 Audience Energy Efficiency Consultants, Energy Contractors, Architects, and Building

335

Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Schools Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Manufacturing Other Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Custom Incentives: amount that buys down the cost of the project to a 1 year simple payback Program Info State New Hampshire Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Retrofits and Engineering Studies: 50% of project cost Fluorescent Lighting: $10-$50 High Bay: $70 or $100 (retrofit) Metal Halide: $50 or $70 LED Exit Signs: $12 LED Traffic Signals: $50

336

The Second US-China Energy Efficiency Forum: Energy Management Standards and Implementation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Standards Standards and Implementation James Quinn U.S. Department of Energy 1 DOE's Industrial Technologies Programivers Solutions Help plants save energy today by assessing opportunities and facilitating adoption of best energy management practices Develop advanced technologies addressing the top energy savings opportunities across industry Research & Development Technical Assistance Improve national energy security, climate, environment, and economic competitiveness by transforming the way U.S. industry uses energy. 2 * Time and again, industrial energy efficiency has been demonstrated to be cost effective while having a positive effect on productivity * Despite this, energy efficiency improvements with very favorable payback periods often do not get implemented

337

Technology Deployment List | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deployment » Technology Deployment List Deployment » Technology Deployment List Technology Deployment List October 8, 2013 - 2:44pm Addthis Technology Ranking Criteria Technologies featured in the Technology Deployment List were ranked by: Federal Impact: Combination of energy savings potential and applicability in the Federal market (50% weighting) Cost Effectiveness: Relative cost of the implementation and average expected return typically reported in case studies as simple payback period (30% weighting) Probability of Success: Combination of the qualitative characteristics scored separately and averaged to determine probability of success. Criteria include strength of supply chain, knowledge base, implementation difficulty, and customer acceptance (20% weighting). The Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) Technology Deployment List

338

Pacific Power - FinAnswer Express | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pacific Power - FinAnswer Express Pacific Power - FinAnswer Express Pacific Power - FinAnswer Express < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Other Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Appliances & Electronics Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Heat Pumps Heating Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Lighting: 70% of cost Incentive amount cannot reduce the project simple payback below one year Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting T-8 Lighting Fixtures: $0.25-$21 T-5 Lighting Fixtures: $0.25-$20 Cold Cathode: $5

339

Unitil - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Unitil - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs Unitil - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs Unitil - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Institutional Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Other Construction Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate New Construction: 75% of incremental cost Retro-fit: 35% of installed cost Custom: 1 year payback Program Info State New Hampshire Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Small Business and Multifamily: free technical assessment and % of installed cost for recommended measures Custom: 35% of cost Fluorescent Fixtures: $25 Lighting Sensors: $25-$50 LED Traffic Light: $60-$80 Motor Retrofits: $75-$3295

340

Wind Energy Finance (WEF): An Online Calculator for Economic Analysis of Wind Projects (Double-Gatefold Brochure)  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

How Does WEF Work? How Does WEF Work? Inputs The user enters data about the project, including: * General assumptions * Capital costs * Operating expenses * Financing assumptions * Tax assumptions * Economic assumptions * Financial constraining assumptions. Extensive help notes describe each input and provide reasonable default values. Outputs * Minimum energy payment to meet financial criteria * Levelized cost of energy * Payback period * Net present value * Internal rate of return * Summary and detailed cash flows. As an alternative option, if the user enters a first-year energy payment, the program will calculate the rate of return, coverage ratios, etc. Wind Energy Finance (WEF): An Online Calculator for Economic Analysis of Wind Projects The National Renewable Energy Laboratory created

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

National Grid (Electric) - Large Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Grid (Electric) - Large Commercial Energy Efficiency National Grid (Electric) - Large Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs National Grid (Electric) - Large Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Retail Supplier Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Custom Incentives: 50% of engineering studies and total costs until project reaches a 1.5 year simple payback. Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Schools and New Buildings Custom Incentives: 75% of additional cost for efficiency upgrades AC/Heat Pumps: $30 - $125/ton

342

JEA - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

JEA - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program JEA - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program JEA - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Other Heat Pumps Heating Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Water Heating Maximum Rebate Custom: Rebates capped at 50% of cost with a 2.0 year payback General/Custom: $300,000 per customer per program year Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Chillers: $5/ton (additional rebates available for units that exceed minimum efficiency requirement) Three Phase AC: $25 - $40/ton Three Phase Heat Pump: $20 - $30/ton

343

Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 281 Solar Hot Water Application Assessment for U.S. Army IMCOM-Southeast Region  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires installations (EISA) to install solar systems of sufficient capacity to provide 30% of service hot water in new construction and renovations where cost-effective. However, installations are struggling with how to implement solar hot water, and while several installations are installing solar hot water on a limited basis, paybacks remain long. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to address this issue to help determine how best to implement solar hot water projects. This documents discusses the results of that project.

Russo, Bryan J.; Chvala, William D.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

345

Chapter 1.19: Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Thin Film: CdTe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chapter reviews the history, development, and present processes used to fabricate thin-film, CdTe-based photovoltaic (PV) devices. It is intended for readers who are generally familiar with the operation and material aspects of PV devices but desire a deeper understanding of the process sequences used in CdTe PV technology. The discussion identifies why certain processes may have commercial production advantages and how the various process steps can interact with each other to affect device performance and reliability. The chapter concludes with a discussion of considerations of large-area CdTe PV deployment including issues related to material availability and energy-payback time.

Gessert, T. A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Get to the Savings NOW!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The majority of industrial processes are served by support systems (process heating, process cooling, etc) which have energy savings opportunities which can be divided into two distinct categories: Shutdown savings and operating point savings. It has been repeatedly demonstrated at large industrial facilities that introducing even a short idle mode on process support systems can generate paybacks of less than a year, and operating point changes often pay for themselves in a matter of months. This paper will serve to identify the potential in rotating equipment savings by either introducing an idle mode or matching the operating point of rotating equipment to the process requirement.

Sherman, J. C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Energy-efficient hospitals: DOE-assisted retrofit projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Features of energy conservation programs at hospitals to improve energy efficiency are described. The DOE Institutional Conservation Program provides matching grants to hospitals and other public institutions to develop, implement, and manage projects to improve energy efficiency within their facilities. Information on DOE grants awarded to the hospitals, measures implemented by the hospitals for energy recovery and energy conservation, savings accomplished, project costs, estimated annual savings, and approximate payback period are discussed for the following hospitals: Saint Joseph, Towson, Maryland; Bronson Methodist, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Albany General Hospital, Albany, Oregon; Saint Vincent's Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida; DePaul Community Health Center, Bridgeton, Missouri; Woodland Memorial Hospital, Woodland, California. (MCW)

Not Available

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Retrocommissioning's Greatest Hits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is possible to save thousands of dollars in energy costs through a few low-cost operational adjustments but those opportunities are often hidden. Retrocommissioning is a systematic investigation process for improving and optimizing the operation and maintenance of buildings. Although owners' priorities for RCX projects may vary, it typically focuses on energy-using equipment such as lighting, HVAC, refrigeration, and the related controls. This paper highlights key findings from several of PECI's retrocommissioning projects that have produced significant benefits for low costs. The RCX measures are described along with the estimated savings, simple paybacks, and related benefits.

Haasl, T.; Potter, A.; Irvine, L.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Considerations for Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The success of a cogeneration system depends upon the system being available, i.e. operating and meeting its demands under expected environmental conditions. A high availability in turn, depends on both Reliability (indicating how often the system fails), and Maintainability (indicating how fast it can be returned to a satisfactory operating state). A low availability will adversely effect important economic criteria for the project such as Discounted Cash Flow and Payback. This paper provides a structure by which these important parameters can be addressed at the design evaluation stage. The paper discusses reliability methods and practical aspects such as installation and operation considerations, including air filtration, fuel conditioning and compressor washing.

Meher-Homji, C. B.; Focke, A. B.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Fuel Cells on Bio-Gas (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Fuel cells operating on bio-gas offer a pathway to renewable electricity generation; (2) With federal incentives of $3,500/kW or 30% of the project costs, reasonable payback periods of less than five years can be achieved; (3) Tri-generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen offers an alternative route to solving the H{sub 2} infrastructure problem facing fuel cell vehicle deployment; and (4) DOE will be promoting bio-gas fuel cells in the future under its Market Transformation Programs.

Remick, R. J.

2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

351

Progressive Powder Coating: New Infrared Curing Oven at Metal Finishing Plant Increases Production by 50%  

SciTech Connect

Progressive Powder Coating in Mentor, Ohio, is a metal finishing plant that uses a convection oven in its manufacturing process. In an effort to save energy and improve production, the company installed an infrared oven in between the powder coating booth and the convection oven on its production line. This installation allowed the plant to increase its conveyor line speed and increase production by 50 percent. In addition, the plant reduced its natural gas consumption, yielding annual energy savings of approximately$54,000. With a total project cost of$136,000, the simple payback is 2.5 years.

Not Available

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Cost estimates for commercial plasma source ion implantation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A semiempirical model for the cost of a commercial plasma sourceion implantation (PSII) facility is presented. Amortized capital and operating expenses are estimated as functions of the surface area throughput T. The impact of secondary electron emission and batch processing time is considered. Treatment costs are found to decrease monotonically with T until they saturate at large T when capital equipment payback and space rental dominate the expense. A reasonably sized PSII treatment facility should be able to treat a surface area of 104 m2 per year at a cost of $0.01 per cm2.

Donald J. Rej; Ralph B. Alexander

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Hospital remedies architect's lighting overdesign for $22k: installs current limiters  

SciTech Connect

St. Luke's Hospital in Racine, Wisconsin is spending $22,000 to install current limiters in the fluorescent lamps of a new wing after finding that the architectural firm overdesigned the lighting fixtures so much that the hospital's lighting expenses were 50% higher than necessary. The hospital expects an 8-month payback on the current limiters. The hospital's corridor lighting reached 45-55 footcandles (fc), when only three fc are required for emergency lighting and 15 for corridor lighting. Representatives of the architectural firm argued that the design did not exceed state wattage requirements.

Ponczak, G.

1984-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

354

Potential energy savings based on reduction of pressure in Central Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methodology and practical recommendations on retrofitting existing Central Heating Systems to deliver steam at lower pressure are presented. The retrofitting, is examined in terms of engineering approaches and economic effectiveness. In addition to investigating the savings obtainable through reduction of thermal and leakage losses, other energy conservation opportunities related to reduction of steam pressure are considered. The latter includes less boiler blowdown, less energy used pumping feedwater, less steam vented from the deaerator, reduced boiler maintenance and repair requirements, and cogeneration of electricity by steam or gas turbines. Energy savings are estimated as up to 10%, and payback period as in the range of two to four years.

Minkov, V.; Hirsch, P.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

On Decision Making Following an Industrial Energy Audit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A survey of 104 manufacturers has been carried out. Each plant had received an energy audit by an EADC at least 24 months prior to the study. The survey attempted to determine why certain recommendations made in the audit report were not implemented. Several interesting results were obtained. Of most importance is the observation that many of the companies eventually implemented recommendations which were initially rejected. Also, the acceptable simple payback for energy conserving measures varies inversely with yearly energy costs. Finally, a clear correlation between the level of training of plant personnel and the sophistication of solutions to energy problems is clearly demonstrated.

Muller, M. R.; Barnish, T.; Polomski, P. P.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Drive Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Adjustable speed drive (ASD) technologies have the ability to precisely control motor sytems output and produce a numbr of benefits including energy and demand savings. This report examines the performance and cost effectiveness of a specific class of ASDs called magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drives (MC-ASD) which use the strength of a magnetic field to control the amount of torque transferred between motor and drive shaft. The MagnaDrive Adjustable Speed Coupling System uses fixed rare-earth magnets and varies the distance between rotating plates in the assembly. the PAYBACK Variable Speed Drive uses an electromagnet to control the speed of the drive

Chvala, William D.; Winiarski, David W.

2002-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

357

Hotel Cedes 7 months' savings for total lighting retrofit  

SciTech Connect

In an unusual shared-savings agreement, the Hilton Florida Center at Orlando, where a retrofit program was begun two years ago, will give up all savings from a lighting retrofit program for seven months, avoiding upfront costs of equipment purchase, and will then become sole owner of the equipment and beneficiary of the savings. The four-month-old program has improved the lighting and cut electricity costs $2000 to $2500 per month, which would have been a six-month payback. Contracts for two other hotels are expected where retrofitting has begun. Retrofit details are given.

Warrock, A.M.

1983-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

358

Study of Heat Loss: Commercial and Residential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is much savings involved in the prevention of heat loss. Many structures exhibit such loss. Much can be done to improve or minimize the heat loss in a structure. These include interior and exterior modifications. It has been shown that heat can move by means of convection, conduction, and radiation. Problems with heat loss can be due to moisture, and poor construction techniques. There is a beneficial cost savings involved in the prevention of heat loss. Prevention techniques include insulation, caulking, weather stripping, and double pane windows. There are tables available for one to reference and calculate the return on their investment or payback tim

Emmett Ientilucci

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Integration of Continuous Commissioning as a Measure in LoanSTAR and Energy Services Contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuous Commissioning (CC) is a process that resolves operating problems, optimizes the HVAC system operation and controls to reduce building energy consumption and improve comfort based on current building conditions and requirements. The process typically achieves 15% whole building energy cost reduction with simple paybacks of less than two years. It has been used in over 450 federal, institutional, university, and commercial buildings and central plants with measured savings of over $100 million and 12.5 trillion Btus in primary energy since 1993.

Wei, G.; Zhou, J.; Turner, D.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Integration of Continuous Commissioning as a Measure in LoanSTAR and Energy Services Contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuous Commissioning (CC) is a process that resolves operating problems, optimizes the HVAC system operation and controls to reduce building energy consumption and improve comfort based on current building conditions and requirements. The process typically achieves 15% whole building energy cost reduction with simple paybacks of less than two years. It has been used in over 450 federal, institutional, university, and commercial buildings and central plants with measured savings of over $100 million and 12.5 trillion Btus in primary energy since 1993.

Wei, G.; Zhou, J.; Turner, D.; Lilley, D.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of fluorocarbon resin covered tubes has advanced to the point where full scale marketing in connection with condensing heat exchangers has begun. Field installations show simple paybacks of one to one and a half years with resulting steam boiler fuel to steam efficiencies in excess of 90%. The studies and evaluations done to date indicate that units of this type will be cost effective in sizes ranging from 10,000 to 300,0000 steam per hour as long as cold makeup water is available for preheating with the waste flue gases.

Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energys Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

363

NOx Reduction through Efficiency Gain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benz Air Engineering and the CompuNOx system focus on a controls approach to minimize emissions without exposing steam generation plants to an unbearable financial burden. With minimal system changes we use thorough system analysis in conjunction with a novel control design to deliver a comprehensive boiler controls retrofit that provides reductions in emissions as well as substantial cost savings. Combining mechanical engineering expertise with substantial experience in control engineering in over 200 retrofits this system achieves astonishing results with short payback time, making CompuNOx a feasible solution for emission mandates and cost savings.

Benz, R.; Thompson, R.; Staedter, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment Development and Results  

SciTech Connect

This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a users manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Cal Poly Initiates R-407C Chiller Replacement: Commercial Cooling Update--Case Study in Southern California Edison Territory, Issue 4, June 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern California Edison and EPRI have teamed with students at California State Polytechnic University in Pomona (Cal Poly) to evaluate the performance of what is thought to be the first chiller in the United States using R-407C, a promising replacement for HCFC-22. Once optimized, the 160-ton screw chiller should reduce annual energy use by 44% compared to the 24-year old, 204-ton CFC-11 unit it replaces, while providing a 6.7 year payback. Researchers are currently focusing on testing--which began in...

1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

366

Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The energy consumed in manufacturing silicon solar cell modules was calculated for the current process, as well as for 1982 and 1986 projected processes. In addition, energy payback times for the above three sequences are shown. The module manufacturing energy was partitioned two ways. In one way, the silicon reduction, silicon purification, sheet formation, cell fabrication, and encapsulation energies were found. In addition, the facility, equipment, processing matrial, and direct material lost-in-process energies were appropriated in junction formation processes and full module manufacturing sequences. A brief methodology accounting for the energy of silicon wafers lost-in-processing during cell manufacturing is described.

Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Geothermal utilization at Castle Oaks Subdivision, Castle Rock, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Designs of geothermal systems for using warm water from four aquifers of the Denver Basin are presented. Advantages of using heat pumps with the geothermal resource are discussed. Two design cases-one with separate heat load and heat pump, and the other with the heat pump and heat load located at the well site-are evaluated in terms of pump costs, operating costs, and payback periods. The 20-year delivered energy costs for the two geothermal systems would be slightly less than those for natural gas ($5.64 to $6.42 versus $6.70 per million Btu).

Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Residential energy-conservation actions: analysis of disaggregate data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration recently published data they collected from the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS). NIECS includes detailed information on 4081 individual households: demographic characteristics, energy-related features of the structure, heating equipment and appliances therein, recent conservation actions taken by the household, and fuel consumption and cost for the April 1978 to March 1979 one-year period. This data set provides a new and valuable resource for analysis. Based on the survey data, about half the household took actions that cut their annual energy use by an estimated 25 percent; these measures yielded a typical payback period of two years. 20 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

Hoffman, W.L.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energys Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

371

An Investigation of Window and Lighting Systems using Life Cycle Cost Analysis for the Purpose of Energy Conservation in Langford Building A at Texas A&M University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Langford Building A forms part of the Langford Architectural Complex at Texas A & M University. Inefficient lighting fixtures and single pane windows in Langford Building A contribute to a considerable portion of the total cost of energy for this building. In the Southwestern United States, a building's windows can be responsible for a significant loss of energy. The windows and inefficient light bulbs can result in high utility costs and high labor charges from more frequent lighting maintenance than that required for efficient lighting. In Langford Building A, window system energy efficiency has not been improved since the building was constructed in 1977. This paper investigates the economic feasibility of using efficient lighting and window systems in Langford Building A. The cost for windows and new lighting tubes was analyzed and compared by using Life Cycle Cost Analysis. The payback periods, determined in this analysis, showed that more efficient lighting and window systems would reduce costs. As results of this analysis, the window film and LED lighting tube reduce building life cycle cost and short payback periods than other alternatives.

Hwang, Hea Yeon

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Roof and Attic Design Guidelines for new and retrofit Construction of Homes in Hot and Coild Climates  

SciTech Connect

Some guidelines for improving the energy efficiency of roofs and attics are presented and are based on the research of the DOE Building Technology. The results of combined analytical and experimental studies were used to benchmark computer tools, which in turn, were used to simulate homes in hot and cold climates. Adding floor and roof insulation, above deck ventilation, radiant barriers, cool color shingle, metal or tile roofs, sealing the attic floor, sealing the duct system and sealing the attic were simulated to compute the cost of energy savings. Results are prioritized to help building owners make an informed economic decision when contemplating roof and attic retrofits. Sealing the attic floor is a top retrofit option. The sealed attic approach and a new prototype roof assembly an insulated and ventilated roof are good options for retrofit work but have paybacks ranging from 15 to 25 years. A new sealed attic concept was simulated and computations show its simple payback is about 10 to 12 years in hot and cold climates; its first cost is significantly reduced from that of a spray foam approach. For new construction the best option is to keep the ducts out of the attic, make sure the attic floor is sealed and add at least code level of insulation to the ceiling.

Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; LaFrance, Marc [International Energy Agency] [International Energy Agency

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200/sup 0/C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the /sup 222/Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of ..cap alpha..-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature (500 to 1200(NiAsS) are considered possible species for consideraed. The calculated activity data of the various carbonate, sulfate and hydroxide species in the Li/sup +/Na/sup +/K/sup +//CO/sub 3/ = SO/sub 4/ = OH/sup -/ system have been combined f liquidus surfaces, and estimated error limits are given for each system. A comng payback period, but as the initial cost of the SAHPS is reduced and fuel prices increase, the payback period of a SAHPS will be shorter and could be competitive with other conventional heating/cooling systems.

Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Thermally Activated Cooling: A Regional Approach for EstimatingBuilding Adoption  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the economic potential for thermally-activated cooling (TAC) technologies as a component of distributed energy resource (DER) systems in California. A geographic information system (GIS) is used to assess the regional variation of TAC potential and to visualize the geographic pattern of potential adoption. The economic potential and feasibility of DER systems in general, and especially TAC, is highly dependent on regional factors such as retail electricity rates, building cooling loads, and building heating loads. Each of these factors varies with location, and their geographic overlap at different sites is an important determinant in a market assessment of DER and TAC. This analysis uses system payback period as the metric to show the regional variation of TAC potential in California office buildings. The DER system payback with and without TAC is calculated for different regions in California using localized values of retail electricity rates and the weather-dependent variation in building cooling and heating loads. This GIS-based method has numerous applications in building efficiency studies where geographically dependent variables, such as space cooling and heating energy use, play an important role.

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Prime movers reduce energy costs  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial plants have found that reciprocating engines used to power generator sets and chiller systems are effective in reducing energy costs as part of a load management strategy, while meeting other plant energy needs. As the trend towards high electric utility costs continues, familiarity with basic analyses used to determine the economic viability of engine-driven systems is essential. A basic method to determine the economic viability of genset or chiller systems is to review the supplying utility`s rate structure, determine approximate costs to install and operate an engine-driven system, and calculate a simple equipment payback period. If the initial analysis shows that significant savings are possible and a quick payback is likely, a thorough analysis should be conducted to analyze a plant`s actual electric load profile. A load profile analysis takes into consideration average loads, peak loads, and peak duration. A detailed study should cover myriad considerations, including local air quality regulations and permitting, space availability, auxiliary system components, and financing options. A basic analysis takes relatively little time and can rule out the need for a detailed study.

Swanson, J.E. [Caterpillar, Inc., Mossville, IL (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Use of unglazed transpired solar collectors for desiccant cooling  

SciTech Connect

The use of unglazed transpired solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are less expensive than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, we studied the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. We found that the thermal coefficient of performance of the cooling system with unglazed collectors was lower than that of the cooling system with glazed collectors because the former system did not use the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. Although the area required for the unglazed collector array was 70% more than that required for the glazed collector array in a 10.56 kW (3 ton) solar cooling system, the cost of the unglazed array was 45% less than the cost of the glazed array. The simple payback period of the unglazed collector was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when replacing an equivalent gas-fired air heater. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors seems to make economic sense relative to use of glazed conventional collectors, some practical considerations may limit their use for desiccant regeneration.

Pesaran, A.A.; Wipke, K.B. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation final report documents the feasibility of using oil bypass filters on 17 vehicles in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) fleet during a 3-year test period. Almost 1.3 million test miles were accumulated, with eleven 4-cycle diesel engine buses accumulating 982,548 test miles and six gasoline-engine Chevrolet Tahoes accumulating 303,172 test miles. Two hundred and forty oil samples, taken at each 12,000-mile bus servicing event and at 3,000 miles for the Tahoes, documented the condition of the engine oils for continued service. Twenty-eight variables were normally tested, including the presence of desired additives and undesired wear metals such as iron and chrome, as well as soot, water, glycol, and fuel. Depending on the assumptions employed, the INL found that oil bypass filter systems for diesel engine buses have a positive payback between 72,000 and 144,000 miles. For the Tahoes, the positive payback was between 66,000 and 69,000 miles.

L. R. Zirker; J. E. Francfort; J. J. Fielding

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Our Most Popular Energy Conservation Opportunities - Ideas That Could Save Big Dollars For You  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Oklahoma Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (OEADC) is a nonprofit program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy with the University Science Center of Philadelphia acting as a primary manager. The primary objective of OEADC is to provide aid to small to medium sized Oklahoma Industries in identifying and analyzing pragmatic energy management opportunities in process or plant operations. The Oklahoma EADC has completed more than 120 industrial audits for Oklahoma manufacturing firms from which over 250 Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECO's) have been identified and analyzed. This paper, however, analyzes the 48 distinct ECO's suggested in the first 50 industrial energy audits. The primary objective of this paper is to propagate a more widespread awareness of energy management in the manufacturing firm by presenting a list of popular ECO's. A secondary objective is to provide additional information for the decision making process regarding energy conservation projects. An equally important third purpose is to relate the savings in energy and dollars achievable through the application of practical energy management opportunities. The analysis incorporates the aspects of frequency of ECO suggestion in audited plants, average dollar savings per ECO, average payback period associated with each ECO, fast payback and large dollar savings concepts are also identified and evaluated.

Whitney, R. D.; Al-Qattan, I. Y.; Turner, W. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Analysis of IECC2003 Chiller Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating Requirement for New York State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The state of New York asked the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the requirement for Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating that exists in the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code to determine whether this requirement should be adopted into the New York State Energy Code. A typical hotel application that would trigger this requirement was examined using whole building simulation software to generate baseline annual chiller and service hot water loads, and a spreadsheet was used to examine the energy savings potential for heat recovery using hourly load files from the simulation. An example application meeting the code requirement was developed, and the energy savings, energy cost savings, and first costs for the heat recovery installation were developed. The calculated payback for this application was 6.3 years using 2002 New York state average energy costs. This payback met the minimum requirements for cost effectiveness established for the state of New York for updating the commercial energy conservation code.

Winiarski, David W.

2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Electrical energy and cost savings potential at DOD facilities  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Defense (DOD) has been mandated to reduce energy consumption and costs by 20% from 1985 to 2000 and by 30% from 1985 to 2005. Reduction of electrical energy consumption at DOD facilities requires a better understanding of energy consumption patterns and energy and financial savings potential. This paper utilizes two independent studies--EDA (End-Use Disaggregation Algorithm) and MEIP (Model Energy Installation Program)--and whole-installation electricity use data obtained from a state utility to estimate electrical energy conservation potential (ECP) and cost savings potential (CSP) at the Fort Hood, Texas, military installation and at DOD nationwide. At Fort Hood, the authors estimated an annual electricity savings of 62.2 GWh/yr (18%), a peak demand savings of 10.1 MW (14%), and an annual energy cost savings of $6.5 million per year. These savings could be attained with an initial investment of $41.1 million, resulting in a simple payback of 6.3 years. Across the DOD, they estimated an annual electricity savings of 4,900 GWh/yr, a peak demand savings of 694 MW, and an annual energy cost savings of $316 million per year. The estimated cost savings is 16% of the total nationwide DOD 1993 annual energy costs. These savings could be attained with an initial investment of $1.23 billion, resulting in a simple payback of 3.9 years.

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Lister, L.; DeBaille, L. [Army Construction Engineering Research Labs., Champaign, IL (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Costs and benefits from utility-funded commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the costs and savings of commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings. A total of 46 EEMs were commissioned for all 16 buildings and 73 deficiencies were corrected. On average, commissioning was marginally cost effective on energy savings alone, although the results were mixed among all 16 buildings. When considered as a stand-alone measure, the median simple payback time of 6.5 years under the low energy prices in the Pacific Northwest. Under national average prices the median payback time is about three years. In estimating the present value of the energy savings from commissioning we considered low and high lifetimes for the persistence of savings from deficiency corrections. Under the low- lifetime case the average present value of the energy savings ($0. 21/ft{sup 2}) were about equal to the average commissioning costs ($0. 23/ft{sup 2}). Under the high-lifetime case the savings ($0.51/ft{sup 2}) were about twice the costs. Again, the savings would be about twice as large under national average prices. The results are subject to significant uncertainty because of the small sample size and lack of metered data in the evaluation. However, the findings suggest that investments in commissioning pay off. Building owners want buildings that work as intended, and are comfortable, healthy, and efficient. It is likely that the non-energy benefits, which are difficult to quantify, are larger than the energy-savings benefits.

Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel  

SciTech Connect

The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel economy (miles per gallon), and yearly average mileage. A series of plots have been developed which indicate simple paybacks for the conversion of several vehicle types (passenger car, small and standard pickups, and two and three ton trucks) over a wide range of fuel economies and annual usage patterns. A simple payback of less than three years can be achieved for vehicles with poor fuel economy and high annual use. The figures provided in this report may be used by fleet management personnel as a screening tool to identify those passenger cars, small or standard pickups, or light duty trucks which are candidates for LPG conversion. In addition to examining the benefits of an LPG conversion, local governments should also consider the competing energy management strategies of downsizing, and the acquisition of fuel efficient, diesel powered vehicles.

McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Moving Towards Net-Zero Energy of Existing Building in Hot Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of an extensive program of energy conservation and energy generation using integrated photovoltaic (PV) modules. The program conducted on an existing institutional building intending to convert it into a Net-Zero Energy Building (NZEB) or near net Zero Energy Building (nNZEB). The program consists of three phases; the first phase is concerned with energy auditing and energy conservation measures at minimum cost and the second phase implements a Building Management System (BMS) whereas the third phase considers the installation of photovoltaic modules in the building roof to provide considerable portion of the energy consumption in the building. The first phase results in an energy conservation of 6.5% of the building consumption. The second phase yields further reduction of the building energy consumption by about 55.4%. The average payback period of most energy conservation measures is about half year. In the third phase, approximately 27% of the total energy consumption with a payback period of less than 9 years and a saving of about 160 tone/year of CO2 emission can be accomplished.

Unknown author

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Economic Realities and Energy Efficient Polyphase Integral Horsepower Electric Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy efficient polyphase integral horsepower electric motors are currently being vigorously promoted as a profitable method of conserving energy in many industrial and commercial applications. While the goal to be attained is indeed laudable, and must be tenaciously pursued, the economic realities of investment payback on increased efficiency versus cost of change out, power factor, etc. must have a meaningful review before decision making. Actual savings on a discount cash flow basis must be documented. and validity of the claims for the energy efficient motor must be verified. This paper develops the procedures used by the chemical manufacturing divisions of the Union Carbide Corporation in developing a long range plan for evolution from a motor population of standard efficiency units to one of higher efficiency and increased reliability. It notes statistics publicized by the U.S. Department of Energy, Union Carbide's overall electric equipment efficiency review, their own efficiency testing of sample small electric motors, and a pilot program to determine the number of lightly loaded motors in plant location. It further depicts an economic appraisal on the payback of replacing a standard efficiency motor with a higher efficiency unit and an action plan for purchasing energy efficient motors while simultaneously securing optimization of other parameters.

Whittington, B. W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The Mercury Laser System-A scaleable average-power laser for fusion and beyond  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nestled in a valley between the whitecaps of the Pacific and the snowcapped crests of the Sierra Nevada, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is home to the nearly complete National Ignition Facility (NIF). The purpose of NIF is to create a miniature star-on demand. An enormous amount of laser light energy (1.8 MJ in a pulse that is 20 ns in duration) will be focused into a small gold cylinder approximately the size of a pencil eraser. Centered in the gold cylinder (or hohlraum) will be a nearly perfect sphere filled with a complex mixture of hydrogen gas isotopes that is similar to the atmosphere of our Sun. During experiments, the laser light will hit the inside of the gold cylinder, heating the metal until it emits X-rays (similar to how your electric stove coil emits visible red light when heated). The X-rays will be used to compress the hydrogen-like gas with such pressure that the gas atoms will combine or 'fuse' together, producing the next heavier element (helium) and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. 2010 will mark the first credible attempt at this world-changing event: the achievement of fusion energy 'break-even' on Earth using NIF, the world's largest laser! NIF is anticipated to eventually perform this immense technological accomplishment once per week, with the capability of firing up to six shots per day - eliminating the need for continued underground testing of our nation's nuclear stockpile, in addition to opening up new realms of science. But what about the day after NIF achieves ignition? Although NIF will achieve fusion energy break-even and gain, the facility is not designed to harness the enormous potential of fusion for energy generation. A fusion power plant, as opposed to a world-class engineering research facility, would require that the laser deliver drive pulses nearly 100,000 times more frequently - a rate closer to 10 shots per second as opposed to several shots per day.

Ebbers, C A; Moses, E I

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

389

Economic implications of anaerobic digesters on dairy farms in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, air and water have been considered common property resources and, therefore, over utilized as waste receptors. Dairy waste is a leading environmental concern in the North Bosque River watershed in Texas. Changing societal attitudes are forcing dairies and policymakers to balance environmental concerns with farm profitability. Dairies are entering a realm filled with technologies to combat waste concerns. Anaerobic digester technology may play a role in helping dairies balance profit and the environment. Digesters capture methane from livestock waste and transform it into electricity which can be sold to utilities or used on-farm. Because a digester facility is confined, air and water pollution can be reduced. Technological advancement and institutional factor changes allowing the sale of on-farm produced electricity and green power requirements have increased the economic feasibility of digesters. The study of the economic implications of anaerobic digesters for Texas dairies provides producers and policymakers with information to make good decisions concerning adoption and subsidization of this technology. At the beginning of this study, no digesters were operating in Texas. Dairies operating digesters in four states, therefore, were interviewed on-site to provide necessary data. The expected net present value, E(NPV), of a plug-flow digester is negative with and without selling electricity, indicating it should not be constructed based strictly on its financial contribution. At the current electricity-selling price, digesters are less economically feasible than current waste management strategies, lagoons, even after considering potential environmental penalties. However, selling electricity and capturing by-product heat for cost savings makes the digester's E(NPV) less negative than lagoons. The E(NPV) of a covered lagoon digester is positive. This indicates digesters are a potentially feasible waste management strategy. For plug-flow digesters to show a positive E(NPV), the selling price needs to be approximately 82.38% higher than the current price. The breakeven selling price is 12% higher than the current price. Below the breakeven price, lagoons have a larger E(NPV) than plug-flow digesters, therefore making lagoons the preferred waste management strategy. Results suggest changes in rules and technology efficiency make digesters economically competitive with current waste management systems.

Jackson, Randy Scott, Jr.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break-even selling price for the baseline assumption is about $11/GJ, however it may be possible to reduce this value by 20-30% depending on other factors evaluated in the non-baseline scenarios. Assuming a value for the char co-product improves the analysis. Significantly lower break-even costs are possible in an international setting, as labor is the dominant production cost.

Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Recommendations for 2009 IECC 15% Above Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the 79th Legislature (2005) the Energy Systems Laboratory was required to develop three alternative methods for achieving 15% above-code energy savings in new residential, commercial and industrial construction. The Laboratory continues to work closely with code officials, energy raters, manufacturers, state officials and other stakeholders to develop cost effective energy efficiency measures. This report presents detailed information about the recommendations for achieving 15% above-code energy performance, which are based on the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), for single-family residences across the State of Texas. To estimate above-code savings (%) of energy efficiency measures, total source energy savings from heating, cooling, lighting, equipment, and DHW were considered for emissions reductions determination. The recommendations were developed for three 2009 IECC climate zones in Texas along with simple payback calculations. This information is useful to homebuilders, utility demand side energy managers, homeowners and others who wish to construct residential buildings that exceed the minimum national energy code requirements. The analysis was performed using an ESL simulation model based on the DOE-2.1e simulation of a 2009 IECC code-compliant, single family residence and the appropriate TMY2 weather files for seventeen counties in Texas for which TMY2 data is available. According to 2009 IECC Climate Zone, seventeen counties were categorized into three climate zones: Climate Zone 2, 3, and 4, and the 2009 IECC code-compliance base-case models were constructed for each climate zone. Two options based on the choice of heating fuel type were considered: (a) natural gas (gas-fired furnace for space heating, and gas water heater for domestic water heating), and (b) electricity (heat pump for space heating, and electric water heater for domestic water heating). A total of eighteen measures based on the energy savings above the base-case house were selected. These measures include building envelope and fenestration, HVAC system, domestic hot water (DHW) system, lighting and renewable options. The implementation costs of each individual measure were also calculated along with simple payback calculations. These measures were then combined to achieve the total source energy savings of the group is 15% above the base-case 2009 code-compliant house. As a result, three example combinations were proposed for each base case ((a) electric/gas house and (b) all-electric house) in each climate zone. Each combination was formed to have a different payback period. Finally, the corresponding emissions savings of each combination were calculated based on the eGrid for Texas.

Kim, H.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Montgomery, C.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR??s test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

N.B. Elsner; J.C. Bass; S. Ghamaty; D. Krommenhoek; A. Kushch; D. Snowden; S. Marchetti

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings Title Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6267E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Stadler, Michael, Markus Groissböck, Gonçalo Cardoso, Andreas Müller, and Judy Lai Abstract Governor Brown's research priorities include an additional 6.5 GW of combined heat and power (CHP) by 2030. As of 2009, roughly 0.25 GW of small natural gas and biogas fired CHP is documented by the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) database. The SGIP is set to expire, and the anticipated grid de-carbonization based on the development of 20 GW of renewable energy will influence the CHP adoption. Thus, an integrated optimization approach for this analysis was chosen that allows optimizing the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaics (PV), CHP, storage technologies, etc. in the California commercial sector from the building owners' perspective. To solve this DER adoption problem the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and used extensively to address the problem of optimally investing and scheduling DER under multiple settings, has been used. The application of CHP at large industrial sites is well known, and much of its potential is already being realized. Conversely, commercial sector CHP, especially those above 50 to 100 kW peak electricity load, is widely overlooked. In order to analyze the role of DER in CO2 reduction, 147 representative sites in different climate zones were selected from the California Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS). About 8000 individual optimization runs, with different assumptions for the electric tariffs, natural gas costs, marginal grid CO2 emissions, and nitrogen oxide treatment costs, SGIP, fuel cell lifetime, fuel cell efficiency, PV installation costs, and payback periods for investments have been performed. The most optimistic CHP potential contribution in this sector in 2020 will be 2.7 GW. However, this result requires a SGIP in 2020, 46% average electric efficiency for fuel cells, a payback period for investments of 10 years, and a CO2 focused approach of the building owners. In 2030 it will be only 2.5 GW due to the anticipated grid de-carbonization. The 2030 result requires a 60% electric efficiency and 20 year life time for fuel cells, a payback period of 10 years, and a CO2 minimization strategy of building owners. Finally, the possible CHP potential in 2030 shows a significant variance between 0.2 GW and 2.5 GW, demonstrating the complex interactions between technologies, policies, and customer objectives.

394

Three Essays on Strategic Considerations for Product Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

light bulbs could easily be manufactured to last longer, but are not in order to increase replacement sales.light bulbs could easily be manufactured to last longer, but are not in order to increase replacement sales.

Sawhill, James Winslow

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | National Marine Fisheries Service 2008 Status of U.S. Fisheries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are no longer subject to overfishing, three stocks have increased in biomass and are no longer overfished industry and recreational saltwater fishing provide our Nation with food, jobs, and other benefits that we

396

Disability Insurance: Protect Your Most Valuable Asset  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An 18% chance of becoming disabled for 3 months or longera 41% chance of becoming disabled for 3 months or longer. AA 13% chance of becoming disabled for 3 months or longer

Borgia, Andy G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Renewing Economically Distressed American Communities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All communities do not fare equally well after recessions and other economic shocks. Some bounce back fairly quickly. Others suffer more and take longer to recoversometimes decades longer. A sluggish return to growth is ...

Greenstone, Michael

398

Comparison of AEO 2008 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

renewables can provide price certainty over longer terms. In6 This additiona l level of price discovery in longer-datedreplicate the long-term price stability that renewables can

Bolinger, Mark

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Information Resources: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool This April 3, 2012 webcast presented information about the Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool developed by DOE"s Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Doug Elliott of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided a guided walk-through of what the tool can do and how to use it to evaluate costs and benefits associated with converting to LED street and roadway lighting. The webcast showed how city and other government agencies, utilities, finance and budget offices, and energy efficiency organizations can use the tool to compute annualized energy-cost savings, maintenance savings, greenhouse gas reductions, net present value, and simple payback, which can be helpful when putting together construction and conservation grant applications, as well as for preparing budgets and comparing incumbent costs to new costs.

400

Parity | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Parity Parity Dataset Summary Description Global PV grid parity and market potential. Data is courtesy of Sean Ong. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords grid Parity Payback photovoltaic price PV Residential Data text/csv icon globalgridparity.csv (csv, 4.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Creative Commons CCZero Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote Comments Login or register to post comments If you rate this dataset, your published comment will include your rating. Syndicate content

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CX-000070: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

70: Categorical Exclusion Determination 70: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000070: Categorical Exclusion Determination Meridian Township's Revolving Energy Fund CX(s) Applied: B5.1, B2.5, B2.2 Date: 11/12/2009 Location(s): Meridian Township, Michigan Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Initially, the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant funds will be used to retrofit Township-owned buildings and facilities. As energy savings and utility rebates replenish the fund, additional improvements will be made. Ten buildings have been assessed and over two dozen improvements have been identified with reasonable payback periods. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-000070.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-002413: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000062: Categorical Exclusion Determination

402

Installing and Maintaining a Small Wind Electric System | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Installing and Maintaining a Small Wind Electric System Installing and Maintaining a Small Wind Electric System Installing and Maintaining a Small Wind Electric System July 2, 2012 - 8:22pm Addthis Installing and Maintaining a Small Wind Electric System What does this mean for me? When installing a wind system, the location of the system, the energy budget for the site, the size of the system, and the height of the tower are important elements to consider. Deciding whether to connect the system to the electric grid or not is also an important decision. If you went through the planning steps to evaluate whether a small wind electric system will work at your location, you will already have a general idea about: The amount of wind at your site The zoning requirements and covenants in your area The economics, payback, and incentives of installing a wind system

403

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project Title: La Puente City Hall HVAC System (1.1) Project Location: California City of LaPuente Proposed Action or Project Description: RIN#: ARRA Project: The City of La Puente will be replacing an antiquated heating and cooling system (1966) with a modern energy efficient system. The City will initiate the project immediately upon approval. The estimated payback period is expected to be 5 to 6 years and the City estimates a savings of 88,020 Kwh per year. Class of Action(s) Applied: x- 82.5 Safety and environmental improvements of a facility. replacement/upgrade of facility components X- 85.1 Actions to conserve energy *-For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulations regarding categorical exclusions, see Subpart D of 10 CFRIO 21 Click Here

404

A Viewgraph from the Director  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 A Viewgraph from the Director ...no one foresaw that the new cores would reveal a climatic flickering of great frequency and magnitude... Art Rosenfeld Global Warming Warning: Don't Fool with the Climate I am pleased to be able to bring you this column for the premier issue of our newsletter because it's an opportunity to present the Center's current favorite viewgraph. I hope that readers who decide the information presented here is useful will pass it along to others. Everything we develop at the Center, from hardware to policy, is aimed at saving energy and money through investments that will pay for themselves in a short time. In a rational market, these ideas sell themselves. But we now know that even before the 1973 oil embargo, when the payback time for

405

The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar September 4, 2012 - 12:29pm Addthis The NYC Solar Map allows users to estimate the solar energy potential for every building in New York City’s five boroughs. The NYC Solar Map allows users to estimate the solar energy potential for every building in New York City's five boroughs. Minh Le Minh Le Program Manager, Solar Program What is the New York City Solar Map The New York City Solar Map is an interactive online tool that allows users to estimate the solar energy potential for every building in New York City. The map also highlights existing solar installations, displays real-time solar energy production citywide, and allows users to estimate the costs, incentives, and payback period for investing in solar.

406

Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cape Light Compact - Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Manufacturing Other Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Commercial Weatherization Water Heating Maximum Rebate Retrofit: 50% of cost of upgraded equipment, or an amount that buys down the cost of the project to a 1.5 year simple payback. New Construction: 70% of incremental cost of higher efficiency equipment, or an amount that buys down the incremental investment to a 1.5 year simple

407

New Jersey SmartStart Buildings - New Construction and Retrofits |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » New Jersey SmartStart Buildings - New Construction and Retrofits New Jersey SmartStart Buildings - New Construction and Retrofits < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Manufacturing Other Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate General: incentives may be limited to $500,000 per utility account per year. Custom Measures: limited to lesser of $0.16/kWh or $1.60/therm saved annually; 50% of total costs; or buydown to a 1-year payback period Program Info Funding Source New Jersey Societal Benefits Charge (public benefits fund)

408

Newsletter12.09  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

knowledge of the LEED sys- knowledge of the LEED sys- tems and principles. Appli- cation of these techniques produces lower-than- industry-standard opera- tional costs and often addi- tional economic payback in the form of employee pro- ductivity gains incurred as a result of working in a health- ier environment. Studies have suggested that an initial up-front investment of two percent extra will yield more than ten times the initial in- vestment over the life of the building. [2] Be ready to apply these tech- niques to your project. The next offering of LEED for New Construction and Exist- ing Buildings is planned for May 18-19, 2010, in Wash- ington, DC. By Cynthia L. Hunt, P.E., LEED

409

Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation Costs Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation Costs October 7, 2013 - 10:18am Addthis Analyzing the cost of implementing each greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measure provides an important basis for prioritizing different emission reduction strategies. While actual costs should be used when available, this guidance provides cost estimates or considerations for the major emission reduction measures to help agencies estimate costs without perfect information. Cost criteria the agency may consider when prioritizing strategies include: Lifecycle cost Payback Cost effectiveness ($ invested per MTCO2e, metric tonne carbon dioxide equivalent avoided). Implementation costs should be analyzed for each emissions source:

410

Untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Executive Summary Executive Summary Potential Savings The overwhelming majority of lights in residential households are incandescent--the least energy efficient of all light types (Figure ES1.). If households replaced the most intensively used bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs, they would see a sizable savings in their electric bills. The total U.S. household energy that would be saved by replacing all incandescent bulbs used 4 or more hours per day would be 31.7 billion kilowatthours (kWh) annually, or 35 percent of all electricity used for residential lighting. The amount of time it takes for households to see a simple payback from compact fluorescent bulbs depends on the price of electricity. Assuming a 26-watt compact fluorescent bulb that costs 22 dollars, an average sized

411

Financing Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stakeholders Meeting Stakeholders Meeting March 1, 2012 Laurence Doxsey, Director, Office of Environmental Policy  San Antonio Energy Financing Efforts are mostly recent - post 2008 recession  Various methods attempted  On-Bill Financing  Revolving Loan Fund  Loan Loss Reserve  Interest Rate BuyDown  Initially Active with PACE * City conducted consultant study on the PAYS® (Pay As You Save) * Needed utility bill technology improvements created initial postponement * Public funds for private benefit issue has to be resolved in San Antonio  City Lights  0% interest for lighting upgrades for small businesses  Quick payback on lighting allows fund to be replenished quickly and thereby maintain activity  City Lights experience illustrated the low risk

412

Industrial Assessment Centers Help Students, Communities Learn About Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Assessment Centers Help Students, Communities Learn Industrial Assessment Centers Help Students, Communities Learn About Energy Efficiency Industrial Assessment Centers Help Students, Communities Learn About Energy Efficiency March 9, 2011 - 10:42am Addthis April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Assessments are performed by one of 26 local teams of engineering faculty and students. Assessments include a site visit where students take engineering measurements as a basis for recommendations. The team performs a detailed analysis for specific recommendations with cost, performance and payback time estimates. The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) is part of the Department's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. A program of the ITP, the

413

Traction Drive Systems Breakout  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Traction Drive Systems Breakout Traction Drive Systems Breakout John M. Miller, PhD, PE, F.IEEE, F.SAE Oak Ridge National Laboratory Facilitator July 24, 2012 EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Vehicle Technologies Program - Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors eere.energy.gov EV Everywhere Traction Drive System * DOE goals for Electric Traction Drive System (TDS) innovations must be disruptive innovation focused to meet the CY2022 price target ($20,000 $25,000) for a mid-sized 5 passenger sedan having 5 year simple payback. Enhanced Efficiency Reduced Cost Traction Drive System EETT Roadmap: "Therefore, research is needed to develop technologies that are less expensive and, at the same time, smaller, lighter, more efficient, and equally reliable as conventional automotive technologies. "

414

Progress Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Update Update FALL 2013 Learn more at eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_assistance/betterplants/ The Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a national partnership initiative that challenges industry to set and meet ambitious energy-saving targets. Across the United States, manufacturers spend more than $200 billion each year to power their plants. 1 The industrial sector has the potential to invest more than $100 billion in cost-effective, energy-efficiency technologies by 2020, which would result in annual energy savings of almost $50 billion. 2 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data demonstrates that many facilities can save 15% or more annually through projects with payback periods of less than three years. 3 Better Plants Partners are working with DOE

415

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BLCC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BLCC BLCC BLCC logo. Provides comprehensive economic analysis of proposed capital investments that are expected to reduce long-term operating costs of buildings or buildings systems. BLCC5 and BLCC4 are the main programs in a set of six National Institute of Standards computer programs that are especially useful for evaluating energy and water conservation projects in buildings. The programs calculate Lowest Life-Cycle Cost, Net Savings, Savings-to-Investment Ratio, Adjusted Internal Rate of Return, and Payback Period. The recently released BLCC5 is a windowed version of the DOS-based BLCC4. It contains modules to evaluate agency-funded projects according to 10CFR436A and projects that are financed through ESPC or utility contracts as directed by Executive Order 13123. The remaining modules, now in BLCC4

416

Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Achieved at SRS Basic Retro-Cx: 1. Eliminated electric reheat. 2. Turned off humidification devices. 3. Tuned floor tile airflow. 4. Turned off three CRAC units. Total estimated savings ≅ 1,400,000 kWh/year Retro-Cx cost at SRS: Engineering consultant: preliminary, on-site, and follow-up work including data measurements and retrieval. SRS on-site facilities personnel and engineering support. Total estimated cost ≅ $25,000 Simple Payback at SRS: Estimated, at $0.045/kWh = 2.5 months. taken in the SRS program addressed retro-commissioning. Retro-Commissioning In general, retro-commissioning (Retro- Cx) is a systematic, documented process

417

Superior Energy Performance: Getting the Most Value from ISO 50001-Energy Management Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Superior Energy Performance Superior Energy Performance cm : Getting the Most Value from ISO 50001- Energy Management Systems US Department of Energy Advanced Manufacturing Office March 13, 2012 Aimee McKane Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 | Industrial Energy Efficiency eere.energy.gov * Time and again, industrial energy efficiency has been demonstrated to be cost effective while having a positive effect on productivity * Despite this, energy efficiency improvements with very favorable payback periods often do not get implemented * Even projects that are implemented may not be sustained due to lack of supportive operational and maintenance practices Problem: Energy efficiency is not integrated into daily management practices. Solution: Staff at all levels within an organization need to be

418

photovoltaic | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

photovoltaic photovoltaic Dataset Summary Description Global PV grid parity and market potential. Data is courtesy of Sean Ong. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords grid Parity Payback photovoltaic price PV Residential Data text/csv icon globalgridparity.csv (csv, 4.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Creative Commons CCZero Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote Comments Login or register to post comments If you rate this dataset, your published comment will include your rating.

419

Audit Report: DOE/IG-0869 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report: DOE/IG-0869 Report: DOE/IG-0869 Audit Report: DOE/IG-0869 August 31, 2012 Opportunities for Energy Savings at Department of Energy Facilities Our review disclosed that the Department had not always effectively identified and implemented energy-saving opportunities through facility evaluations and electricity metering. Three of the five sites we reviewed (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory) had not always identified or implemented low- and no-cost, quick payback energy conservation measures discovered during facility evaluations. In addition, two of the five sites (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 National Security Complex) had not fully evaluated existing buildings to determine, among other things, whether

420

Audit Report: DOE/IG-0869 | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

69 69 Audit Report: DOE/IG-0869 August 31, 2012 Opportunities for Energy Savings at Department of Energy Facilities Our review disclosed that the Department had not always effectively identified and implemented energy-saving opportunities through facility evaluations and electricity metering. Three of the five sites we reviewed (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory) had not always identified or implemented low- and no-cost, quick payback energy conservation measures discovered during facility evaluations. In addition, two of the five sites (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 National Security Complex) had not fully evaluated existing buildings to determine, among other things, whether building systems such as heating and lighting were operating as intended,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOW RESTRICTED For internal DOW RESTRICTED For internal use only US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools Riyaz Papar, PE, CEM Hudson Technologies Company Phone: (281) 298 0975 Email: rpapar@hudsontech.com - Agenda * Introduction * Steam System BP Tools Suite - SSST - SSAT - 3EPlus * Q & A 1 Steam System Management Objective: Minimize Steam Use, Energy Losses And Most Importantly STEAM COST!! Steam Market Assessment Takeaways * Fuel savings estimates - individual projects - ranged from 0.6 percent to 5.2 percent * Estimated payback periods generally very attractive - Ranged from 2 to 34 months - Most less than 2 years * Potential steam savings in target industries - over 12 percent of fuel use 2 Promising Areas To Achieve Steam Energy and Cost Savings? Use Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST) For

422

Building Efficiency Report | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Efficiency Report Building Efficiency Report Building Efficiency Report Buildings use 40% of total energy in the United States - more than either the industrial or transportation sectors. Technical improvements and cost reductions (see Appendix 3) in building materials, components and energy management systems are enabling progress in reducing the nation's energy consumption and consequent greenhouse gas emissions with payback periods as low as 24 months. With responsibility and funding for the nation's largest set of building energy-related research, development and deployment programs, the Department of Energy (DOE) should lead efforts to ensure building energy efficiency is a national priority. One of the most important things DOE can do to reduce the country's energy use and dependence on fossil fuels is to actively lead the national

423

California | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Palo Alto Utilities - Commercial and Non-Profit Efficiency Loan Palo Alto Utilities - Commercial and Non-Profit Efficiency Loan Program (California) City of Palo Alto Utilities (CPAU) provides 0% loans to business and non-profit customers to offset the need for upfront energy efficiency investments in qualifying facilities. Loans are only provided to electric customers and natural gas projects do not qualify. Members have up to 5 years to repay loans, however repayment timelines are based upon the simple payback of the implemented measures. Loans from $5,000 -$50,000 are available for qualifying projects. Projects must also qualify for CPAU rebates which count against the total loan amount. October 16, 2013 City of Palo Alto Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (California) City of Palo Alto Utilities, through the Commercial Advantage Program

424

Energy Star Building Upgrade Manual Investment Analysis Chapter 3  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3. Investment 3. Investment Analysis Revised July 2007 3. Overview 2 3.2 Analytic Conventions 2 3.3 Cash-Flow Analysis Tools 2 Payback Period 3 Net Present Value 4 Internal Rate of Return 6 3.4 Selecting an Analysis Tool 7 3.5 The Investment Analysis Process 8 Choose the Right Time Frame 8 Consider All of the Impacts on Cash Flow 8 Account for Interactions Among Measures 9 Include Anticipated Price Changes 10 Adjust for Taxes 10 Consider Sensitivity Analysis 10 3.6 Other Considerations  Qualitative Assessments 11 Effect of Energy Performance on Shareholder Value 11 3.7 Summary  Bibliography 2 Glossary G- ENERGY STAR ® Building Manual 2 3. Investment Analysis 3. Overview All types of organizations, for-profit and not-for-profit alike, should analyze prospective invest-

425

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Home Energy Tune-uP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Energy Tune-uP Home Energy Tune-uP Home Energy Tune-uP's® audit software identifies cost-effective opportunities for energy efficient upgrades in the home. It analyzes data collected from the home, using approximately 1,000 calculations to produce energy-saving recommendations. The software generates a report itemizing recommended improvements and their costs, energy savings, and payback periods. The software produces a second table of the recommended group of improvements that will pay for themselves when financed. Using a selected finance rate and term, the software identifies the combination of upgrades that will save more on the monthly energy bills than they cost in finance charges. When homeowner's see that a down payment is not required and that they can realize a net savings on their investment, they are likely to be

426

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

City of Chandler - Green Building Requirement for City Buildings City of Chandler - Green Building Requirement for City Buildings The mayor and city council of Chandler, AZ adopted Resolution 4199 in June 2008, establishing a requirement for all new occupied city buildings larger than 5,000 square feet to be designed and built to achieve the Silver level of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification program, and to strive for higher levels of certification whenever project resources and conditions permit. To maintain cost control, city building projects may be exempt from the requirement if the payback period necessary to recover the initial costs is more than ten years. October 16, 2013 City of Boston - Green Power Purchasing In April 2007, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino issued an executive order that

427

DOE/EEI Model Agreement Explanation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE/EEI Model Agreement Explanation DOE/EEI Model Agreement Explanation Introduction The attached document serves as a model for the development of formal agreements between a Federal civilian Agency and its serving Utility for the procurement of energy services on a "designated" or "sole" source basis. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 ("EPAct") establishes as a federal government goal, identifying and implementing all energy and water conservation projects with a payback of ten years or less. Executive Order 13123, signed on June 3, 1999, requires all federal agencies to achieve a 30% reduction in facilities energy use and a 20% improvement in industrial energy efficiency by the year 2005, relative to 1990 levels. The Order requires a 35% reduction in energy use at facilities and a 25% improvement in industrial energy

428

Campus Carbon Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Campus Carbon Calculator Campus Carbon Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Campus Carbon Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Clean Air-Cool Planet Phase: Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Develop Goals User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/toolkit/inv-calculator.php The Campus Carbon Calculator(tm), Version 6.4, is now available for download. Version 6.4 includes new features, updates and corrections - including greatly expanded projection and solutions modules, designed to aid schools that have completed greenhouse gas inventories in developing long term, comprehensive climate action plans based on those inventories. The new modules facilitate analysis of carbon reduction options, determining project payback times, net present value, cost per ton reduced,

429

Definition: Automatic Generation Control | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Automatic Generation Control Automatic Generation Control Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Automatic Generation Control Equipment that automatically adjusts generation in a Balancing Authority Area from a central location to maintain the Balancing Authority's interchange schedule plus Frequency Bias. AGC may also accommodate automatic inadvertent payback and time error correction.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms system, power, electricity generation, load, frequency bias, balancing authority, balancing authority area, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An inline LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Automatic_Generation_Control&oldid=502513"

430

Navy Techval Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FUPWG FUPWG October 20, 2010 Rapid City, SD Paul Kistler, PE CEM NAVFAC Engineering Service Center Port Hueneme CA Navy Techval Program Techval 2 Navy Techval Program Technologies *Work Station Specific Lighting *CO2 HVAC control What is it, how does it work? Data from projects Where does it work best? 3 What Is It? 1. Pendant light used mainly in open cubicles 2. Each cubicle has own dedicated fixture 3. One up light 4. Two down lights 5. Down light dimmed by the occupant 6. Up light on time clock 7. Occupancy sensor 8. Day light sensor 9. T5 5000K 10.Does not replace task lighting Work Station Specific Lighting 4 Work Station Specific Lighting Projected Savings 1. Projected payback is 17 years 2. Projected pay back on incremental cost is 3 to 4 years 3. Recent projects indicate a total savings of 70% lighting

431

MassSAVE (Electric) - Commercial Retrofit Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » MassSAVE (Electric) - Commercial Retrofit Program MassSAVE (Electric) - Commercial Retrofit Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Local Government Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Other Construction Heat Pumps Heating Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate 50% of cost of upgraded equipment, or an amount that buys down the cost of the project to a 1.5 year simple payback. Program Info Start Date 1/1/2011 State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Fluorescent Systems: $10-$50/fixture High and Low Bay Fluorescents: Up to $100/fixture LED Interior: $15-$50/fixture

432

Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EGS EROI - 1 EGS EROI - 1 Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment A.J. Mansure, Geothermal Consultant, ajm@q.com Albuquerque, NM 12/10/2012 Key Words: energy, EROI, EGS, efficiency, energy investment, energy return, input energy, energy payback, and net energy. Abstract Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use "efficiency" when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS

433

Audit Report - Opportunities for Energy Savings at Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report - Opportunities for Energy Savings at Department of Report - Opportunities for Energy Savings at Department of Energy Facilities, DOE/IG-0869 Audit Report - Opportunities for Energy Savings at Department of Energy Facilities, DOE/IG-0869 Our review disclosed that the Department had not always effectively identified and implemented energy-saving opportunities through facility evaluations and electricity metering. Three of the five sites we reviewed (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory) had not always identified or implemented low- and no-cost, quick payback energy conservation measures discovered during facility evaluations. In addition, two of the five sites (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 National Security Complex) had not fully

434

U.S. Department of Energy Buildings Technologies Program: Better Buildings, Brighter Future  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

new technologies and practices, energy-efficient new technologies and practices, energy-efficient buildings will be the new standard for residents in all U.S. climate zones. DOE and its partners are pursuing a portfolio of research to make it happen. Better Buildings, Brighter Future Innovative Building Technologies and Practices Save Energy and Money Buildings use more energy than any other sector of the U.S. economy, consuming more than 70 percent of electricity and over 50 percent of natural gas. Investing in energy-efficient buildings yields: * Cost savings for American homeowners and businesses; * Reductions in peak demand, providing the energy needed for a strong economy with fewer new power plants; and * Expeditious and sustained reductions in carbon dioxide emissions-with fast paybacks

435

National Grid (Electric) - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Program (Upstate New York) National Grid (Electric) - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Program (Upstate New York) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Manufacturing Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Large Business Energy Initiative Program: Technical Service, Financial Services, and 50% of the project cost Custom Engineering Study: Up to 50% of the project cost Custom Small Business: Up to 70% of project costs: remaining share financed by National Grid with a 0% interest loan: payback time of up to 24 months. Linear/Parabolic/Recessed Fluorescent Fixtures: $15-$50/fixture

436

Building America Efficient Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Habitat for Humanity Palm Beach County, West Palm Beach, Florida  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2011, Building America assisted Habitat for Humanity of Palm 2011, Building America assisted Habitat for Humanity of Palm Beach County (HabitatPBC) in completing three high-performance prototype houses that achieved HERS index scores of less than 60, which is about 30% better than typical HabitatPBC construction, at a payback of less than 4 years. The HabitatPBC is planning to implement these strategies in future homes they build. This has the potential for significant and affordable energy savings as HabitatPBC has built more than 111 affordable houses and served an additional 125 families worldwide through their affiliation with HFH International (today serving >20 families a year). Building America (through the Florida Solar Energy Center, a member of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory team) achieved

437

price | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

price price Dataset Summary Description Global PV grid parity and market potential. Data is courtesy of Sean Ong. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords grid Parity Payback photovoltaic price PV Residential Data text/csv icon globalgridparity.csv (csv, 4.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Creative Commons CCZero Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote Comments Login or register to post comments If you rate this dataset, your published comment will include your rating. Dataset Summary

438

Lessons Learned: Milwaukees Wind Turbine Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

City of Milwaukee: City of Milwaukee: Wind Turbine Project Matt Howard, Environmental Sustainability Director Project Best Practices * Transparency and information * Find the most appropriate site - both wind profile and building load * Stay away from neighborhoods and iconic civic sites * No surprises for locally elected officials * Active public engagement * Know the facts; kill the myths; control the narrative * Tie to local economic development * Cost-benefit analysis, budgeting, payback, over and over and over... Project Basics * Proposal to site ONE, small-scale wind turbine on City-owned building on Port Authority property * 2323 S. Lincoln Memorial Dr., Port Administration Building * Turbine will power ALL of Port Admin. Bldg's needs * Best estimate of total cost of installation/operation: $550,000-$600,000

439

grid | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1 1 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278981 Varnish cache server grid Dataset Summary Description Global PV grid parity and market potential. Data is courtesy of Sean Ong. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords grid Parity Payback photovoltaic price PV Residential Data text/csv icon globalgridparity.csv (csv, 4.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Creative Commons CCZero Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote

440

The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar September 4, 2012 - 12:29pm Addthis The NYC Solar Map allows users to estimate the solar energy potential for every building in New York City’s five boroughs. The NYC Solar Map allows users to estimate the solar energy potential for every building in New York City's five boroughs. Minh Le Minh Le Program Manager, Solar Program What is the New York City Solar Map The New York City Solar Map is an interactive online tool that allows users to estimate the solar energy potential for every building in New York City. The map also highlights existing solar installations, displays real-time solar energy production citywide, and allows users to estimate the costs, incentives, and payback period for investing in solar.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

MassSAVE (Electric) - Commercial New Construction Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MassSAVE (Electric) - Commercial New Construction Program MassSAVE (Electric) - Commercial New Construction Program MassSAVE (Electric) - Commercial New Construction Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Local Government Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Other Construction Heat Pumps Heating Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate 70% of incremental cost of higher efficiency equipment, or an amount that buys down the incremental investment to a 1.5 year simple payback. Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Lighting: $0.40 - $1.00/watt saved High Efficiency Fluorescent Systems: $10-$35/fixture High and Low Bay Fluorescents: $20 - $40/fixture

442

Energy Smart Federal Partnership: Your Steps to Energy Savings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Smart Federal Partnership: Your Steps to Energy Savings Energy Smart Federal Partnership: Your Steps to Energy Savings 1. Review your facilities and commitment to efficiency investments  Communicate with key facilities staff including the people that will approve the energy project budgets.  Determine if the energy-saving opportunities meet your agency's requirements for investment (such as project payback) and are likely to receive funding approval.  Contact your local serving utility or utilities to discuss your plans and understand the process for obtaining financial assistance (incentives). If you are unsure who your serving utility is, please contact BPA and we will help. Another good resource for locating utilities can be found our website: http://www.bpa.gov/Energy/N/UtilityLocator.cfm.

443

CX-002094: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Categorical Exclusion Determination 4: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002094: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Reduction Measures At City Buildings-Retrofits CX(s) Applied: B2.2, B2.5, A1, B1.3, B5.1 Date: 04/20/2010 Location(s): Bartlett, Tennessee Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant for: Replace 10 Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) roof top units at city hall (payback estimated at 6.93 years)- preparation of a bid package ($14,500), competitive solicitation for a contractor ($n/a), and construction ($158,000). All funds will be applied to contractor personnel (retaining existing jobs). This work will also rezone each unit to catch up with many interior renovations, which have taken place over the years. We anticipate

444

Pacific Power - Energy FinAnswer | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Other Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Retrofit: 60% of project cost Lighting: 50% of savings Incentives may not be available to reduce the project simple payback below one year Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.15/kWh annual energy savings + $50/kW average monthly demand savings Provider Pacific Power Pacific Power's Energy FinAnswer program provides cash incentives to help its commercial and industrial customers improve their heating, cooling, refrigeration, compressed air, lighting, pumping or industrial processes.

445

Lamb Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lamb Energy Lamb Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Lamb Energy Place Riverside, California Zip 92507 Sector Carbon, Renewable Energy Product String representation "Lamb Energy pro ... ancial payback." is too long. Coordinates 33.98163°, -117.373879° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.98163,"lon":-117.373879,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

446

Empire District Electric - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebates |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Empire District Electric - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Empire District Electric - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebates Empire District Electric - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebates < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Schools Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate 20,000 per program year per customer Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: 2 - 50 per fixture Lighting Power Density: 1 per watt per square foot Lighting Sensors: 20 - 50 per sensor Central AC: 73 - 92 per ton Motors: 50 - 130 per motor Energy Audit: 50% of cost Custom: Lesser of 50% of incremental cost; 2-year payback equivalent; or

447

Federal Energy Management Program: Technology Deployment List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deployment List Deployment List Technology Ranking Criteria Technologies featured in the Technology Deployment List were ranked by: Federal Impact: Combination of energy savings potential and applicability in the Federal market (50% weighting) Cost Effectiveness: Relative cost of the implementation and average expected return typically reported in case studies as simple payback period (30% weighting) Probability of Success: Combination of the qualitative characteristics scored separately and averaged to determine probability of success. Criteria include strength of supply chain, knowledge base, implementation difficulty, and customer acceptance (20% weighting). The Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) Technology Deployment List features information about promising new and underutilized energy-saving technologies available for Federal and commercial building sector deployment. Common considerations and barriers are also outlined.

448

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy NEPA categorical exclusion determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WA-TRIBE-SQUAXIN ISLAND TRIBE WA-TRIBE-SQUAXIN ISLAND TRIBE Location: Tribe WA-TRIBE- SQUAXIN ISLAND TRIBE WA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description 1) The Squaxin Island Tribe will retain a technical consultant to work with the Planning and Community Development Department and key stakeholders to develop a Tribal-wide energy efficiency and climate change initiative that will complement other facility and environmental policies and 2) retain technical consulting services to develop strategies and conduct audits of the Tribal campus facilities, propose energy conservation measures, calculation of energy savings and paybacks, estimated construction or acquisition costs, and estimated operation and maintenance savings on an annual basis.

449

CenterPoint Energy - Commercial and Industrial Standard Offer Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CenterPoint Energy - Commercial and Industrial Standard Offer CenterPoint Energy - Commercial and Industrial Standard Offer Program CenterPoint Energy - Commercial and Industrial Standard Offer Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Home Weatherization Insulation Design & Remodeling Maximum Rebate Standard Offer: 20% of the annual incentive budget. Retro-Commissioning: up to $10,000 with matching customer contribution with simple payback in three years. Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Standard Offer Lighting (Fluorescent, HID, CFL): $120/kW; $0.04/kWh

450

Empire District Electric - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Empire District Electric - Commercial and Industrial Energy Empire District Electric - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebates Empire District Electric - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebates < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate 5,000; additional funds may be available for final 3 months of program year Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom: lesser of $.30 per kWh savings, 50% of incremental cost, or buydown to two year payback Fluorescent Lamps/Fixtures: $0.50 - $16 High Performance T8 Systems: $9 - $18 High-Bay Fluorescent Lamps/Ballasts: $40 - $125 CFL Fixtures: $8 - $25 Pendant/Wall Mount/Recessed Indirect Fixtures: $16 - $24

451

Meet Tony Simon, Another Industrial Assessment Center Student Success Story  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Meet Tony Simon, Another Industrial Assessment Center Student Meet Tony Simon, Another Industrial Assessment Center Student Success Story Meet Tony Simon, Another Industrial Assessment Center Student Success Story June 16, 2011 - 6:05pm Addthis Tony Simon Tony Simon Rob Penney Senior Energy Engineer, WSU Energy Program How does it work? Assessments are performed by one of 26 local teams of engineering faculty and students. Assessments include a site visit where students take engineering measurements as a basis for recommendations. The team performs a detailed analysis for specific recommendations with cost, performance and payback time estimates. Earlier this year, we told you about Matan Moram and Vitelio Silva, two alumni of their university's Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC), which are part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's

452

CX-002191: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2191: Categorical Exclusion Determination 2191: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002191: Categorical Exclusion Determination Squaxin Island Tribe Technical Consultant CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 04/29/2010 Location(s): Squaxin Island, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. 1) The Squaxin Island Tribe will retain a technical consultant to work with the Planning and Community Development Department and key stakeholders to develop a Tribal-wide energy efficiency and climate change initiative that will complement other facility and environmental policies and 2) retain technical consulting services to develop strategies and conduct audits of the Tribal campus facilities, propose energy conservation measures, calculation of energy savings and paybacks, estimated construction or

453

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: OnGrid Tool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OnGrid Tool OnGrid Tool The OnGrid Tool is an Excel-based application assisting in PV system sizing, pricing and quoting. It enables solar installers to gather a customer’s utility and site information quickly and efficiently. It calculates optimum system size, electricity bill savings, system incentives, and system net costs. It then calculates various economic benefit factors and produces a variety of proposals, quotes, and. The OnGrid Tool includes rates, incentives, and tax calculations, and estimates system performance, including all performance factors and shading data. Screen Shots Keywords solar, financial, payback, analysis, sales, tool, software, economics, proposal Validation/Testing The software is run through Microsoft Excel and results are available immediately. OnGrid uses the most credible sources for industry updates.

454

Industrial SPP Partner Teaming Profile Relight Depot Navistar International  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SDI eBusiness, Inc. d/b/a RelightDepot Navistar International SDI eBusiness, Inc. d/b/a RelightDepot Navistar International 1341 SW 5 th Ave 6025 Urbana Street Boca Raton, FL 33432 Springfield, OH 45502 Business: Energy Efficient Lighting Business: Truck and Engine Manufacturer Ray De Varona James Spaulding, Strategic Sourcing Manager President Dan Benson, Facility Engineer Phone: 888-548-6387 Phone: 740-919-1934 Email: rdevarona@relightdepot.com Email: James.Spaulding@navistar.com Navistar International Lighting Retrofit Project Saves Over $1.1M/year With Instant Payback through First Energy Rebate Program Project Scope RelightDepot was contracted to retrofit all of the lighting at Navistar International's Springfield Assembly

455

SolOpt: A Novel Approach to Solar Rooftop Optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Traditionally Photovoltaic Technology (PV) and Solar Hot Water Technology (SHW) have been designed with separate design tools, making it difficult to determine the appropriate mix of PV and SHW. A new tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory changes how the analysis is conducted through an integrated approach based on the life cycle cost effectiveness of each system. With 10 inputs someone with only basic knowledge of the building can simulate energy production from PV and SHW, and predict the optimal sizes of the systems. The user can select from four optimization criteria currently available: Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Net-Present Value, Renewable Energy Production, and Discounted Payback Period. SolOpt provides unique analysis capabilities that aren't currently available in any other software programs. Validation results with industry accepted tools for both SHW and PV are presented.

Lisell, L.; Metzger, I.; Dean, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Barriers and Opportunities: A Review of Selected Successful Energy-Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In industry, barriers may exist at various points in the decision making process, and in the implementation and management of measures to improve energy efficiency. Barriers may take many forms, and are determined by the business environment and include decision-making processes, energy prices, lack of information, a lack of confidence in the information, or high transaction costs for obtaining reliable information, as well as limited capital availability. Other barriers are the "invisibility" of energy efficiency measures and the difficulty of quantifying the impacts, and slow diffusion of innovative technology into markets while firms typically under-invest in R&D, despite the high pay-backs. Various programs try to reduce the barriers to improve the uptake of innovative technologies. A wide array of policies has been used and tested in the industrial sector in industrialized countries, with varying success rates. We review some new approaches to industrial energy efficiency improvement in industrialized countries, focusing on voluntary agreements.

Worrell, E.; Price, L.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

LoanSTAR Energy Conservation Audits: January 1989 - August 1990  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fourteen audit reports, covering seventy buildings and Texas' Governor's mansion, have been accepted as a part of the Texas LoanSTAR Program. Task 1 (the first of five) is responsible for audit reviews and assignments. One hundred forty-five energy cost reduction measures (ECRMs) and maintenance and operation recommendations (M&Os) have been identified which can result in significant amounts of electrical energy, demand and natural gas savings. Costs savings are $1,882,000/yr and the investment cost is $5,566,000 for an overall simple payback of 3.0 years. The ECRMs and M&Os have been categorized as well as the types of buildings involved. The cost for auditing the 5.2 million square feet was $0.054 per square foot. Problems associated with audit reports are also discussed.

Nutter, D. W.; Britton, A. J.; Muraya, N. K.; Heffington, W. M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Elimination of Steam Traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How would you like to have a share of $154,000,000,000 a year? According to the Department of Energy that is roughly what was spent for creating steam in 1978. Steam generation accounts for fully one half of the industrial and commercial energy dollar. That figure could be reduced by 10-20% or more by the simple elimination of steam traps. Recent engineering developments show that steam traps can be eliminated. Documented results demonstrate that the retrofitting of existing facilities to alternative methods of condensate removal is simple and economically feasible, with paybacks of less than 12 months. Advantages obtained in the first year remain consistent for several years after conversion with virtual elimination of maintenance.

Dickman, F.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heating Systems in Turkey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: In this study, solar water heater was investigated using meteorological and geographical data of 129 sites over Turkey. Three different collector types were compared in terms of absorber material (copper, galvanized sheet and selective absorber). Energy requirement for water heating, collector performances, and economical indicators were calculated with formulations using observed data. Results showed that selective absorbers were most appropriate in terms of coverage rate of energy requirement for water-heating all over Turkey. The prices of selective, copper and galvanized absorber types heating systems in Turkey were 740.49, 615.69 and 490.89 USD, respectively. While payback periods (PBPs) of the galvanized absorber were lower, net present values (NPVs) of the selective absorber were higher than the rest. Copper absorber type collectors did not appear to be appropriate based on economical indicators.

Can Ertekin; Recep Kulcu; Fatih Evrendilek

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thermal and cost goal analysis for passive solar heating designs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Economic methodologies developed over the past several years for the design of residential solar systems have been based on life cycle cost (LCC) minimization. Because of uncertainties involving future economic conditions and the varied decision making processes of home designers, builders, and owners, LCC design approaches are not always appropriate. To deal with some of the constraints that enter the design process, and to narrow the number of variables to those that do not depend on future economic conditions, a simplified thermal and cost goal approach for passive designs is presented. Arithmetic and graphical approaches are presented with examples given for each. Goals discussed include simple payback, solar savings fraction, collection area, maximum allowable construction budget, variable cost goals, and Btu savings.

Noll, S.A.; Kirschner, C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "longer breakeven payback" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The Business and Technical Case for Continuous Commissioning for Enhanced Building Operations - A Case Study: Alamo Community College District, San Antonio, Texas, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides a business and technical case study for the Continuous Commissioning(CC) 1 process developed by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) at Texas A&M University System for building optimization. The business and technical advantages for CC include: 1) project risk mitigation, 2) enhanced occupant comfort and productivity, 3) retrofit identification and 4) a high return on investments [average ROI of 0.5]. ESL applied CC from 2002 to 2004 at Alamo Community College District (ACCD) with conditioned space of 2.35 million square feet, as part of a broader energy efficiency project. The project has produced savings of $510,400 [US]in 23 months with $315,000 from CC alone in first 18 months. The total project cost was $3.5 million [US] and included the cost of CC, deferred maintenance and other Energy Cost Reduction Measures (ECRMs) with a payback of 6.7 years.

Verdict, M.; Wei, G.; Martinez, J.; Claridge, D.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Turner, W. D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Energy Audit and Simulated Conservation Opportunities for a Renovated Mixed-Use Academic Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an energy audit performed in a 97,760 ft2 (9082 m2) academic building at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The paper describes the building survey and a simulation of the buildings energy use using eQUEST software calibrated with monthly and hourly utility data. Conclusions of the survey identified problems with the building envelope, indoor air quality, and HVAC controls which were promptly addressed. Nine long-term energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) were identified and evaluated. Five ECOs related to lights, envelope, and HVAC were recommended with a total implementation cost of $165k. It is shown that a savings of 23.7% in overall energy usage can be achieved with a payback of less than 8 years. In addition to energy and economic savings, building performance and occupant comfort are expected to improve.

Bejrowski, M.; Manteufel, R.; Arnold, N.; Rashed-Ali, H.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Gas cooler sets the perfect balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In July 1991, a 65-ton electric chiller was in need of major repair at NutraSweet's R and D facility outside of Chicago. Instead of automatically repairing or replacing that chiller, NutraSweet engineers Larry Aubry and Gerald Schwartz began to look at other alternatives. What they discovered was that a natural gas absorption chiller was a cost-effective, environmentally safe alternative effective, environmentally safe alternative perfectly suited for their application. The benefits for NutraSweet are straightforward: energy bills have been cut by more than [dollar sign]70,000 annually, existing boiler capacity is better utilized, existing electrical cooling system life is extended, maintenance costs are reduced, and no-ozone-depleting CFCs are utilized by the natural gas chiller. Simple payback on the unit, originally expected to be almost four years, has been reduced to closer to three.

Bilder, M.; Aubry, L.; Schwartz, G.; Anderson, R.; Burkhardt, C. (NutraSweet Co., Mount Prospect, IL (United States)); Wilson, J.; Vallort, J.; Ransick, M.F. (Northern Illinois Gas, Glenview, IL (United States))

1993-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

465

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Guangzhou West Tower Faade System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guangzhou West Tower is an extremely tall public building. The energy efficiency evaluation of its faade should be different than that of ordinary public buildings. Based on the national code GB50189-2005, Design Standard for Energy efficiency of Public Buildings, typical meteorological yearly data for Guangzhou were used and revised according to architectural character of Guangzhou West Tower. The energy efficiency design of a single skin faade and active airflow curtain wall was analyzed by a dynamic energy simulation tool and modified weather data. The payback period of initial investment in the faade system was evaluated based on simulation results. In addition, the results confirm the faade system scheme of Guangzhou West Tower.

Meng, Q.; Zhang, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A Case Study of Retro Commissioning in a Standard Commercial Office Building in Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes retro commissioning of a standard commercial office building in Japan. The owner's expectations for retro commissioning are realization of energy and cost savings, and controlling the increase in electric power demand, while continuing use of most existing equipment, and maintenance of high efficiency operation. First, the performance of the existing equipment was checked using the BEMS during retro commissioning program phase. Next, optimal selection of a system and heat source equipment was performed using the simulation in the design phase. Furthermore, the verification of the performance of the refrigeration machine installed was carried out as a Functional Performance Test. And the economic effect by a repair work was verified during the operation phase. The simple payback of the project was about six years.

Kamitani, K.; Shimazu, M.; Inomata, N.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Utilization of geothermal energy-feasibility study, Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Company, Ojo Caliente, New Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report investigates the feasibility of a geothermal heating system at the Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Co. The geothermal energy will be used to preheat hot water for the laundry facilities and to heat the water for a two-pipe fan coil heating system in the hotel. Present annual heating fuel costs of $11,218 for propane will be replaced by electricity to operate fans and pump at an annual cost of $2547, resulting in a net savings of $8671. Installation costs include $10,100 for a well system, $1400 for a laundry system, and $41,100 for a heating system. With the addition of a 10% design fee the total installation cost is $57,860. Ignoring escalating propane fuel prices, tax credits for energy conservation equipment, and potential funding from the State of New Mexico for a geothermal demonstration project, the simple economic payback period for this project is 6.7 years.

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

A Management Tool for Analyzing CHP Natural Gas Liquids Recovery System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to develop a management tool for analyzing combined heat and power (CHP) natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery systems. The methodology is developed around the central ideas of product recovery, possible recovery levels, and the flexibility of the process. These ideas led to the design of the CHP-NGL recovery system and the development of the equipment sizing and economic analysis methods. Requirements for sizing refrigeration units, heat exchangers, and pumps are discussed and demonstrated. From the data sheets it is possible to gather costs associated with the project and demonstrate the economic feasibility of the system. The amount of NGL recovered, heating value, payback period, cash flow, net present value of money, and the internal rate of return are calculated and demonstrated to be favorable to this project.

Olsen, C.; Kozman, T. A.; Lee, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Low Temperature Waste Energy Recovery at Chemical Plants and Refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technologies to economically recover low-temperature waste energy in chemical plants and refineries are the holy grail of industrial energy efficiency. Low temperature waste energy streams were defined by the Texas Industries of the Future Chemical and Refining Sectors Advisory Committee as streams with a temperature below 400 degrees F. Their waste energy streams were also characterized as to state, flow rate, heat content, source and temperature. These criteria were then used to identify potential candidates of waste heat recovery technologies that might have an application in these industries. Four technologies that met the criteria of the Advisory Committee included: organic rankine cycle (ORC), absorption refrigeration and chilling, Kalina cycle, and fuel cell technologies. This paper characterizes each of these technologies, technical specifications, limitations, potential costs/ payback and commercialization status as was discussed in the Technology Forum held in Houston, TX in May 2012 (TXIOF 2012).

Ferland, K.; papar, R.; Quinn, J.; Kumar, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial market. However, this paper concentrates on the industrial market since 76% of this market's load is motors. The poly phase integral horsepower motor is the "workhorse" of industry. The efficiency of the standard induction motor can be improved. The new "high efficiency" motor is described and the operating cost is compared to the standard motor. Payback for high efficiency motors is found to be about one year for continuous duty applications. Specific instructions are presented for use in industry.

Dautovich, D. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Task 5.1:Expand the Number of Faculty Working in Wind Energy: Wind Energy Supply Chain and Logistics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind as a source of energy has gained a significant amount of attention because it is free and green. Construction of a wind farm involves considerable investment, which includes the cost of turbines, nacelles, and towers as well as logistical costs such as transportation of oversized parts and installation costs such as crane-rental costs. The terrain effects at the project site exert considerable influence on the turbine assembly rate and the project duration, which increases the overall installation cost. For higher capacity wind turbines (>3MW), the rental cost of the cranes is significant. In this study, the impact of interest rate, sales price of electricity, terrain effects and availability of cranes on the duration of installation and payback period for the project is analyzed. Optimization of the logistic activities involved during the construction phase of a wind farm contributes to the reduction of the project duration and also increases electricity generation during the construction phase.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

473

Energy Efficiency Improvements and Cost Saving Opportunities in the Corn Wet Milling Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry in the food and kindred products group (SIC 20). Plants typically spend approximately $15 to 25 million per year on energy, one of its largest operating costs, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. After describing the industry's trends, structure and production and the process's energy use, we examine energy-efficiency opportunities for corn wet millers. Where available, we provide energy savings and typical payback periods for each measure based on case studies of plants that have implemented it. Given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the industry while maintaining the quality of the products produced. Further research on the economics of the measures and their applicability to different wet milling practices is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

Galitsky, C.; Worrell, E.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Wineries for Retrofit and New Construction Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper outlines typical winemaking processes for both white and red wines and the associated major energy consuming systems. Energy efficiency opportunities in retrofit as well as new construction projects are introduced. The opportunities for small/medium wineries as compared to large and very large wineries are discussed. The presented data is based on detailed assessments of 33 wineries and evaluation of designs of 17 new wineries in Northern and Central California. Over 25 major distinct energy efficiency opportunities were identified in all assessments. Electrical consumption distribution per system type will be discussed based on the size of the winery. The energy savings results as well as the simple payback will be outlined per measure base and per facility base for the evaluated existing and new construction wineries.

Wu, Y. Y.; Chow, S.; Ganji, A. R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows  

SciTech Connect

A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

476

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Energy-management handbook for Colorado school administrators  

SciTech Connect

The handbook identifies the fundamentals for implementing a formal energy-management program, demonstrates ways and means to improve energy conservation, and provides specific examples of energy-conservation measures in Colorado schools. Section One: Energy Management Model. This section identifies the major components of an energy-management program and describes the procedures necessary for their implementation. Section Two: Operation and Maintenance Guides. The guides provide recommendations for improving energy-consumption efficiency in the areas of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and building envelope. Section Three: Energy Conservation Measures. This section provides a list of energy-conservation measures identified in specific Colorado school buildings by qualified engineers and architects. The measures are given with projected energy and money savings, cost of measure, simple payback, and contact person. Section Four: Colorado Energy Conservation Directory. The directory provides lists of resource people and agencies for Colorado energy-conservation information and Colorado energy-conservation activities.

Howard, F.R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Residential sidewall insulation case histories, including experiences and problems in the field application of loose fill  

SciTech Connect

An unbonded fiberglass loose-fill insulation was selected for this sidewall application study. The insert tube technique is described and the parameters that affect pneumatic application of the product are identified. The initial evaluation was conducted in the laboratory and included density and thermal testing. The laboratory results were then utilized in field studies. Ten homes with no sidewall insulation were retrofitted. Thermographic scans of sidewalls before and after retrofit confirmed the predicted reductions in heat loss based on calculation techniques given in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. The improvement was further confirmed by comparing utility bills. Typical problems that occur while preparing a house for sidewall retrofit are discussed. The simple payback for typical houses is presented. Good correlation is shown between laboratory test results and field performance. Test data indicate that the application procedure used gave an effective R-value per product claim.

Infante, L.J.; Aller, P.F.; Fay, R.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479