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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Long-Wave Infrared | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Long-Wave Infrared Long-Wave Infrared Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Long-Wave Infrared Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Remote Sensing Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Passive Sensors Parent Exploration Technique: Passive Sensors Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Map characteristic minerals associated with hot springs/mineral deposits Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Map surface temperatures Dictionary.png Long-Wave Infrared: Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) refers to multi- and hyperspectral data collected in the 8 to 15 µm wavelength range. LWIR surveys are sometimes referred to as "thermal imaging" and can be used to identify relatively warm features

2

Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging Spectrometers Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging Spectrometers Abstract Surface minerals of active geothermal systems have been mapped using visible-short wave infrared and mid wave and long wave imaging spectrometers separately. May and June 2008, the Prospectir sensor and SEBASS (Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System) were located on together on a roll compensated mount viewing through the same camera port in a Twin Otter. These two imaging spectrometers have similar Instantaneous Fields of View (IFOV) and together collect over 600 channels of spectral information from the visible to the long wave infrared.

3

Definition: Long-Wave Infrared | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Long-Wave Infrared Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Long-Wave Infrared Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) refers to multi- and hyperspectral data collected in the 8 to 15 µm wavelength range. LWIR surveys are sometimes referred to as "thermal imaging" and can be used to identify relatively warm features such as hot springs, fumaroles, and snow melt. LWIR can also be used to map the distribution of certain minerals related to hydrothermal alterations.[2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition References ↑ Katherine Young,Timothy Reber,Kermit Witherbee. 2012. Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange on Openei. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal

4

Long-Wave Infrared At Coso Geothermal Area (1968-1971) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Long-Wave Infrared At Coso Geothermal Area (1968-1971) Long-Wave Infrared At Coso Geothermal Area (1968-1971) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Long-Wave Infrared At Coso Geothermal Area (1968-1971) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Long-Wave Infrared Activity Date 1968 - 1971 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Fumarolic and hot springs activity Notes 8- to 14-micrometer IR imagery has value in delineating the typical arcuate structural patterns References Koenig, J.B.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Austin, C.F. (1 February 1972) Remote sensing survey of the Coso geothermal area, Inyo county, California. Technical publication 1968--1971 Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Long-Wave_Infrared_At_Coso_Geothermal_Area_(1968-1971)&oldid=473747"

5

Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy Jason M. Kriesel and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) and Long related applications, and fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility

6

CPU/GPU computing for long-wave radiation physics on large GPU clusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geoscience simulations rely heavily on high performance computing (HPC) systems. To date, many CPU/GPU heterogeneous HPC systems have been established on which many geoscience simulations have been performed. For most of these simulations on GPU clusters, ... Keywords: CPU/GPU computing, Long-wave radiation, MPI+OpenMP/CUDA, Tianhe-1A supercomputer, Workload distribution

Fengshun Lu; Junqiang Song; Xiaoqun Cao; Xiaoqian Zhu

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Energy and waste reduction in the wood fiber and fuel industry utilizing a long wave length catalytic infrared drying system. Progress report Number 3  

SciTech Connect

Following the testing of the Cat-Tec handling system, detail design work commenced both at the Catalytic Industrial Systems (CIS) Kansas facility and at the Cat-Tec offices in Minneapolis for the mating of the heating and handling system elements of the catalytic infrared particulate dryer. A used equipment looped handling system designed to feed and recirculate the test material was procured and shipped to CIS in anticipation of the on-site testing. Evaluation of the findings of the test results led the joint CIS-Cat-Tec design team to conclude that the unit to be provided to Lignetics for testing needed to have approximately 120 square feet of agitation bed and approximately 100 feet of infrared generation surfaces. The overall size was thus increased approximately 50% from the initial test unit.

Davis, R.

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Parameterization of Outgoing Infrared Radiation Derived from Detailed Radiative Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art radiative transfer models can calculate outgoing infrared (IR) irradiance at the top of the atmosphere (F) to an accuracy suitable for climate modeling given the proper atmospheric profiles of temperature and absorbing gases and ...

Starley L. Thompson; Stephen G. Warren

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Long-Wave Trapping by Oceanic Ridges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long waves are affected by bottom topography and under certain conditions may be trapped along topographical contours which then act as wave guides transmitting wave energy for great distances with little loss. This study examines waves trapped ...

Richard Paul Shaw; Wayne Neu

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

Berdahl, P.H.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

11

Infrared Radiative Properties Of the Maritime Antarctic Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The longwave radiation environment of the Antarctic Peninsula and Southern Ocean has been investigated using radiometric Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements of atmospheric emission in conjunction with detailed radiative transfer ...

Dan Lubin

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

A Simulated Climatology of Spectrally Decomposed Atmospheric Infrared Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation experiment is conducted to inquire into the mean climate state and likely trends in atmospheric infrared radiation spectra. Upwelling and downwelling spectra at five vertical levels from the surface to the top of the atmosphere (TOA) ...

Yi Huang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Radiative Properties of Cirrus Clouds in the Infrared Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-scattering radiative transfer model is employed to evaluate the 11 ?m and the broad-band infrared (IR) fluxes, cooling rates and emittances in model cirrus clouds for a number of standard vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature ...

Graeme L. Stephens

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Energy and waste reduction in the wood fiber and fuel industry utilizing a long wave length catalytic infrared drying system. Progress report No.4, January 1--March 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect

During the past quarter significant headway was made on the project. The design and fabrication of the materials handling system by the subcontractor, Cat-Tech Industries, was completed in late January and was shipped in February to Catalytic Industrial System (CIS) Kansas facility. Unfortunately a part shipped directly from the manufacturer, for mating in Kansas to the unit, was determined to be the wrong size and nearly a month was lost in the process of ordering and receiving the correct parts. In early March the system was ready for agitation testing and performed perfectly. Design of the air circulation system was completed in late March and fabrication and installation of that element is expected to be completed this week (April 15--22). The insulation panels have been designed and ordered and are expected to be on site and ready for installation the last week of April. In a series of conference phone calls, it was decided to increase the amount of infrared energy input in Zone 1 (the first one-third of the 30 foot unit) of the dryer. These zones are presently being redesigned and fabricated and will likely be installed by the 10th of May. Product testing is expected to commence around the 15--20 of May. Work on the testing protocol was held in check while the discussion on increasing the total energy input was transpiring. It is scheduled to restart on or about May 1.

Davis, R.

1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture  

SciTech Connect

An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

Johnson, Edward A. (Bedford, MA)

1998-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

16

Topographic Filtering and Reflectionless Transmission of Long Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equation governing the passage of linear monochromatic, long waves over variable topography can be transformed into a Schrdinger equation. There are several transformations accomplishing this. First, a naive transformation (in which only ...

Leo R. M. Maas

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Influence of Infrared Radiation on Attic Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study concerned with different modes of heal transfer in fibrous and cellulose insulating material is presented. A series of experiments were conducted using an attic simulator to determine the effects of ventilation on attic heat transfer, and the effect of infrared radiation on the thermal conductivity of the insulation system and on attic heat transfer. All the tests were performed at steady state conditions by controlling the roof deck temperature. Calculations are performed for insulation thicknesses between 1 inch (2.54cm) and 6.0 inches (15.24cm) and roof deck temperatures between 145F (62.78C) and 100F (36.78C). The temperature profiles within the insulation were measured by placing thermocouples at various levels within the insulation. The profiles for the cellulose insulation are linear. The profiles within the glass fiber insulation are non-linear due to the effect of infrared radiation. Also heat fluxes were measured through different insulation thicknesses and for different roof temperatures. It was found that a radiant barrier such as aluminum foil can reduce the heat flux significantly. Experimental results were compared to a Three-Region approximate solution developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL). The model was in good agreement with experimental results.

Katipamula, S.; Turner, W. D.; Murphy, W. E.; O'Neal, D. L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Infrared Radiation Properties of CuO-ZnO-Based Sintered Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Infrared Radiation Properties of CuO-ZnO-Based Sintered Material Prepared for Energy-Saving Coating. Author(s), Chao Lian, Wei Wei, Hao...

19

The Effect of Clouds on the Earth's Solar and Infrared Radiation Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of global cloudiness on the solar and infrared components of the earth's radiation balance is studied in general circulation model experiments. A wintertime simulation is conducted in which the cloud radiative transfer calculations use ...

Gerald F. Herman; Man-Li C. Wu; Winthrop T. Johnson

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Satellite Determinations of the Relationship between Total Longwave Radiation Flux and Infrared Window Radiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nimbus-7 satellite observations are used to determine the relationship between the total longwave radiation flux and the radiance in the 10-12 ?m infrared window. The total longwave fluxes are obtained from the earth radiation budget (ERB) narrow-...

George Ohring; Arnold Gruber; Robert Ellingson

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Radiative and Backscattering Properties Using Combined Lidar and Infrared Radiometer (LIRAD) Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for retrieval of cirrus macrophysical and radiative properties using combined ruby lidar and infrared radiometer measurements is explained in detail. The retrieval algorithm includes estimation of a variable backscatter-to-extinction ...

Jennifer M. Comstock; Kenneth Sassen

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Overlap of Solar and Infrared Spectra and the Shortwave Radiative Effect of Methane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on two shortcomings of radiative transfer codes commonly used in climate models. The first aspect concerns the partitioning of solar versus infrared spectral energy. In most climate models, the solar spectrum comprises ...

J. Li; C. L. Curry; Z. Sun; F. Zhang

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

An Improved Algorithm for the Operational Calibration of the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiance data from the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) have been used routinely in both direct radiance assimilation for numerical weather prediction and climate change detection studies. The operational HIRS calibration ...

Changyong Cao; Kenneth Jarva; Pubu Ciren

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Nano-Mechanical Infrared Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.7 m and 100 m. It extends from visible light to THz waves. Because fundamentally different phenomena can be observed within the IR region, four sub-bands are usually distinguished: near-IR (NIR), mid-wave-IR (MWIR), long-wave-IR (LWIR) and very long-wave-IR (VLWIR). Although somewhat different definitions exist in literature, wavelengths from 0.7 m to 2.5 m belong to NIR, from 2.5 m to 8 m belong to MWIR, from 8 m to 14 m belong to LWIR and wavelengths above 14 m belong to VLWIR. The IR photon energies range from 1.77 eV for 0.7 m photons to 0.0124 eV for 100 m photons. The significance and practical applications of IR detectors are related to two distinct phenomena: emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects at T > 0 K and interaction of electromagnetic waves with vibrational modes of molecular bonds. Thermal imaging and molecular spectroscopy are, respectively, the two major fields that critically depend on the ability to detect IR radiation.

Grbovic, Dragoslav [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Absorption Approximation with Scattering Effect for Infrared Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme that can handle cloud infrared scattering based on the absorption approximation is developed. In a two-stream mode, the new scheme produces more accurate results than those from the modified two-stream discrete ordinate method. For low ...

J. Li; Qiang Fu

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Accounting for Unresolved Clouds in a 1D Infrared Radiative Transfer Model. Part I: Solution for Radiative Transfer, Including Cloud Scattering and Overlap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various aspects of infrared radiative transfer through clouds are investigated. First, three solutions to the IR radiative transfer equation are presented and assessed, each corresponding to a different approximation for the Planck function. It ...

J. Li

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Multiple Scattering Parameterization in Thermal Infrared Radiative Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic formulation of various radiative transfer parameterizations is presented, including the absorption approximation (AA), ?-two-stream approximation (D2S), ?-four-stream approximation (D4S), and ?-two- and four-stream combination ...

Qiang Fu; K. N. Liou; M. C. Cribb; T. P. Charlock; A. Grossman

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Photochemical synthesis of disilane from silane with infrared laser radiation  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the clean and efficient conversion of silane to disilane by CO{sub 2} laser irradiation. The direct irradiation of pure silane at high pressures (from 75 to 1,700 Torr) converts silane to disilane with high selectivity and with efficient use of the absorbed laser radiation. Hydrogen is the only other major volatile product, and the production of solid products is minimal. The proposed mechanism of the photochemical reaction includes (1) collisionally enhanced absorption of the laser radiation by silane, (2) collisional deexcitation of the vibrationally excited silane, (3) concurrent decomposition to SiH{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, (4) production of vibrationally excited disilane by SiH{sub 2} insertion into a silane Si-H bond, (5) collisional quenching of the excited disilane, and (6) rapid cooling of the irradiated gas by thermal expansion. They support the proposed mechanism by additional experiments and model calculations.

Zavelovich, J. (Amoco Technology Co., Naperville, IL (USA)); Lyman, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

29

Method and apparatus for reducing radiation exposure through the use of infrared data transmission  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus is described for transmitting information, for exae, dosimetry data from a hazardous environment such as a radioactive area to a remote relatively safe location. A radiation detector senses the radiation and generates an electrical signal which is fed as a binary coded decimal signal to an infrared transmitter having a microprocessor. The microprocessor formats the detected information into digits of data and modulates a 40 kHz oscillator, the output of which is fed to and intensity modulates one or more infrared emitting diodes. The infrared signal from the diodes is transmitted to a portable hand-held infrared receiver remote from the hazardous environment. The receiver includes an infrared sensitive diode which decodes the data and generates an electrical signal which is coupled to a microcomputer. The microcomputer synchronizes itself to the transmitter, reads the digits of data as they are received, sums the digits and compares the sum with a checksum signal generated and transmitted from the transmitter. If a match of the checksum signals exists, the received data is displayed, otherwise it is described and the receiver conditions itself for the next transmission of data.

Austin, Frank S. (Schaghticoke, NY); Hance, Albert B. (Schenectady, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Rf system for the NSLS coherent infrared radiation source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existing NSLS X-ray Lithography Source (XLS Phase I) is being considered for a coherent synchrotron radiation source. The existing 211 MHz warm cavity will be replaced with a 5-cell 2856 MHz superconducting RF cavity, driven by a series of 2 kW klystrons. The RF system will provide a total V{sub RF} of 1.5 MV to produce {sigma}{sub L} = 0.3 mm electron bunches at an energy of 150 MeV. Superconducting technology significantly reduces the required space and power needed to achieve the higher voltage. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the superconducting RF system and cavity, power requirements, and cavity design parameters such as input coupling, Quality Factor, and Higher Order Modes.

Broome, W.; Biscardi, R.; Keane, J.; Mortazavi, P.; Thomas, M.; Wang, J.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Excess Infrared Radiation from a Massive DAZ White Dwarf: GD362 - a Debris Disk?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the discovery of excess K-band radiation from a massive DAZ white dwarf star, GD362. Combining infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations, we show that the excess radiation cannot be explained by a stellar or substellar companion, and is likely to be caused by a debris disk. This would be only the second such system known, discovered 18 years after G29-38, the only single white dwarf currently known to be orbited by circumstellar dust. Both of these systems favor a model with accretion from a surrounding debris disk to explain the metal abundances observed in DAZ white dwarfs. Nevertheless, observations of more DAZs in the mid-infrared are required to test if this model can explain all DAZs.

Mukremin Kilic; Ted von Hippel; S. K. Leggett; D. E. Winget

2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Gastropod Fast Radiative Transfer Model for Advanced Infrared Sounders and Characterization of Its Errors for Radiance Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Principal aspects of the development of Gastropod, a fixed-pressure-grid fast radiative transfer model for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), are described. Performance of the forward and gradient operators is characterized, and the impact ...

V. Sherlock; A. Collard; S. Hannon; R. Saunders

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Retrieval of Sea Surface Temperature from Space, Based on Modeling of Infrared Radiative Transfer: Capabilities and Limitations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The retrieval (estimation) of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from space-based infrared observations is increasingly performed using retrieval coefficients derived from radiative transfer simulations of top-of-atmosphere brightness temperatures (...

Christopher J. Merchant; Pierre Le Borgne

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A Study of the Solar Radiation Effect on the 4.3-?m Channels of the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of infrared radiation from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration series of satellites are used to retrieve atmospheric temperature, moisture, and ozone. It is well known that the measurements from the 4.3-?m channels of ...

Larry M. McMillin; David S. Crosby

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Equatorial Long Waves in Geostationary Satellite Observations and in a Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geostationary satellite observations of a zonally oriented sea surface temperature front in the eastern equatorial Pacific were made between 1975 and 1981. Long waves appeared along the front mainly during the summer and fall, except during 1976, ...

Richard Legeckis; William Pichel; George Nesterczuk

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Long-Wave Dynamics of Sea Level Variations during Indian Ocean Dipole Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-wave dynamics of the interannual variations of the equatorial Indian Ocean circulation are studied using an ocean general circulation model forced by the assimilated surface winds and heat flux of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather ...

Dongliang Yuan; Hailong Liu

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Shifting of infrared radiation using rotational raman resonances in diatomic molecular gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for shifting the frequency of infrared radiation from a CO.sub.2 laser by stimulated Raman scattering in either H.sub.2 or D.sub.2. The device of the preferred embodiment comprises an H.sub.2 Raman laser having dichroic mirrors which are reflective for 16 .mu.m radiation and transmittive for 10 .mu.m, disposed at opposite ends of an interaction cell. The interaction cell contains a diatomic molecular gas, e.g., H.sub.2, D.sub.2, T.sub.2, HD, HT, DT and a capillary waveguide disposed within the cell. A liquid nitrogen jacket is provided around the capillary waveguide for the purpose of cooling. In another embodiment the input CO.sub.2 radiation is circularly polarized using a Fresnel rhomb .lambda./4 plate and applied to an interaction cell of much longer length for single pass operation.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Intersatellite Radiance Biases for the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounders (HIRS) on board NOAA-15, -16, and -17 from Simultaneous Nadir Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intersatellite radiance comparisons for the 19 infrared channels of the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounders (HIRS) on board NOAA-15, -16, and -17 are performed with simultaneous nadir observations at the orbital intersections of the ...

Changyong Cao; Hui Xu; Jerry Sullivan; Larry McMillin; Pubu Ciren; Yu-Tai Hou

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Gas Phase Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the long-wave IR using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Dynamic Infrared Simulation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The increased usage of infrared sensors by pilots has created a growing demand for simulated environments based on infrared radiation. This has led to (more)

Dehlin, Jonas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Hollow core and other infrared waveguides for instrumentation in intense radiation environments.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this LDRD was to study the effect of steady-state neutron and gamma irradiation on the transmission of waveguides designed to operate well in the near- or mid-IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this context, near-IR refers to the region between 1.3 {mu}m and about 2.4 {mu}m, and mid-IR between 3.0 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m. Such radiation environments could exist in nuclear power plants or nuclear weapons. Pulsed and steady-state radiation effects had been extensively studied on silica-based optical fibers because they have been the most readily available, most widely used in communications and sensing, and the least expensive. However, silica-based fibers do not transmit well beyond about 1.8 {mu}m and they are virtually opaque in the mid-IR. The mid-IR, as defined above, and beyond, is where vibrational spectroscopy is carried out. This type of sensing is one important application of infrared optical fibers.

Weiss, Jonathan David

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Infrared retina  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

Krishna, Sanjay (Albuquerque, NM); Hayat, Majeed M. (Albuquerque, NM); Tyo, J. Scott (Tucson, AZ); Jang, Woo-Yong (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

43

Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states  

SciTech Connect

A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm/sup -1/ with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm/sup -1/. The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy.

Bookless, W.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Observations of the Infrared Radiative Properties of the OceanImplications for the Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature via Satellite Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was used to measure the infrared radiative properties and the temperature of the Gulf of Mexico during a 5-day oceanographic cruise in January 1995. The ocean skin temperature was measured ...

William L. Smith; R. O. Knuteson; H. E. Revercomb; W. Feltz; N. R. Nalli; H. B. Howell; W. P. Menzel; Otis Brown; James Brown; Peter Minnett; Walter McKeown

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

ON THE SIMULTANEOUS GENERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION AND SUBMILLIMETER/INFRARED RADIATION FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we study the role of the mechanism of quasi-linear diffusion (QLD) in producing the high-energy emission in the MeV-GeV domains strongly connected with the submillimeter/infrared radiation. Considering the kinetic equation governing the stationary regime of the QLD, we investigate the feedback of the diffusion on electrons. We show that this process leads to the distribution of particles by pitch angles, implying that the synchrotron mechanism is no longer prevented by energy losses. Examining a reasonable interval of physical parameters, we show that it is possible to produce MeV-GeV {gamma}-rays that are strongly correlated with submillimeter/infrared bands.

Osmanov, Z., E-mail: z.osmanov@iliauni.edu.g [Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics, ITP, Ilia State University, Kazbegi Str. 2a, 0160 Tbilisi (Georgia)

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Whitson, Barry G. (Corryton, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Cloud-Induced Infrared Radiative Heating and Its Implications for Large-Scale Tropical Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional global distributions of longwave radiative cooling for the summer of 1988 and the winter of 1989 are generated from radiative transfer calculations using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and ...

Byung-Ju Sohn

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Observations and Modeling of Downward Radiative Fluxes (Solar and Infrared) in Urban/Rural Areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pollutants (gaseous and aerosol) contained in urban atmospheres alter radiative fluxes at the surface.Numerous radiative models have been developed, and while few experimental data are available, results areoften contradictory. We have taken ...

Claude Estournel; Raoul Vehil; Daniel Guedalia; Jacques Fontan; Aim Druilhet

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Comparison between Model Simulations and Measurements of Hyperspectral Far- infrared Radiation from FIRST during the RHUBC-II Campaign  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface downward far-infrared (far-IR) spectra were collected from NASAs Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument from August to October 2009 at an altitude of 5.4 km near the summit of Cerro Toco, Chile. This region is known for its dry, cold, and dominantly clear atmosphere, which is optimal for studying the effects, that water vapor and cirrus clouds have on the far-IR. Comparisons with Line-By-Line Discrete Ordinants Radiative Transfer model, LBLDIS, show that FIRST observes the very fine spectral structure in the far-IR with differences as small as +/- 0.7% for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky simulations. Clear sky model analysis demonstrated the greatest sensitivity to atmospheric conditions is between 300 and 500 cm-1. The cloudy-sky simulations demonstrated that the far-IR radiation has minimal sensitivity to cloud particle effective radius, yet is very sensitive to cloud optical thickness at wavenumbers between 400 - 600 cm-1. In fact, cirrus optical thickness found to be inferred from the brightness temperature differences at 250 and 559.5 cm-1. Aerosols proved to reduce downwelling radiance by half that a clear-sky would emit, but had little effect on the total far-IR radiative forcing. Furthermore, these far-IR measurements open a new window to understanding the radiative impacts of various atmospheric constituents such as water vapor and clouds, and to understanding and modeling the Earths climate and energy budget.

Baugher, Elizabeth

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

INFRARED RADIATIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V30, 581, 1975. El "Exxon Donor Solvent Coal Liquefactionfarth- est, along is the Exxon Donor Sol vent process, whichn t and Refined Coal, I and II Exxon Donor Solvent B. ZnClg-

Berdahl, Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

INFRARED RADIATIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Requirement for Coal Slurry Reactor . . . . . . .Mass Transfer Resistances in Coal Liquefaction. . . . . . .ZnClp/MeOH Coal L i q u e f a c t i o n P r o c e s s D e s

Berdahl, Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

INFRARED RADIATIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

u r r y Reactor Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .velocities. D. Slurry Reactor Theory General Slurry reactors

Berdahl, Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Assessment of Shortwave Infrared Sea Surface Reflection and Nonlocal Thermodynamic Equilibrium Effects in Community Radiative Transfer Model Using IASI Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nadir-viewing satellite radiances at shortwave infrared channels from 3.5 ?m to 4.6 ?m are not currently assimilated in operational numerical weather prediction data assimilation systems and are not adequately corrected for applications of ...

Yong Chen; Yong Han; Paul van Delst; Fuzhong Weng

54

Cloud Cover over the South Pole from Visual Observations, Satellite Retrievals, and Surface-Based Infrared Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of cloud cover over the South Pole are presented from five different data sources: routine visual observations (19572004; Cvis), surface-based spectral infrared (IR) data (2001; CPAERI), surface-based broadband IR data (19942003; Cpyr)...

Michael S. Town; Von P. Walden; Stephen G. Warren

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Incoming Solar and Infrared Radiation Derived from METEOSAT: Impact on the Modeled Land Water and Energy Budget over France  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) project radiation fluxes, derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite, were used in the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) ...

D. Carrer; S. Lafont; J.-L. Roujean; J.-C. Calvet; C. Meurey; P. Le Moigne; I. F. Trigo

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Earths Clear-Sky Radiation Budget and Water Vapor Absorption in the Far Infrared  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed observational data are used to simulate the sensitivity of clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) to water vapor perturbations in order to investigate the effect of uncertainties in water vapor measurements and spectroscopic ...

Ashok Sinha; John E. Harries

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Lateral transport and far-infrared radiation of electrons in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/GaAs heterostructures with the double tunnel-coupled quantum wells in a high electric field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the far-infrared radiation of electrons in the selectively doped heterostructures with double tunnel-coupled quantum wells in high lateral electric fields strongly depends on the level of doping of the wells. At a high impurity concentration in a narrow well, higher than (1-2) x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, the radiation is caused only by indirect intrasubband electron transitions. At a lower concentration, along with the indirect transitions, the direct intersubband transitions also contribute to the radiation. These transitions become possible in high electric fields due to the real-space electron transfer between the quantum wells.

Baidus, N. V. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Nizhni Novgorod Research Physicotechnical University (Russian Federation); Belevskii, P. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Biriukov, A. A. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Nizhni Novgorod Research Physicotechnical University (Russian Federation); Vainberg, V. V.; Vinoslavskii, M. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Ikonnikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Zvonkov, B. N. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Nizhni Novgorod Research Physicotechnical University (Russian Federation); Pylypchuk, A. S.; Poroshin, V. N., E-mail: poroshin@iop.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Infra-red signature neutron detector  

SciTech Connect

A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generating a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn Allen (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

59

Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

Karr, T.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

Karr, T.J.

1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

Karr, Thomas J. (Alamo, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Definition: Near Infrared Surveys | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Near Infrared Surveys Near Infrared Surveys Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Near Infrared Surveys Near infrared surveys refer to multi- and hyperspectral data collected in the region just outside wavelengths detectable by the human eye. Near infrared wavelengths are generally considered to be between approximately 0.75-1.4 micrometers. View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Infrared (IR) light is electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometres (nm) to 1 mm. This range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of approximately 430 THz down to 300 GHz, and includes most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature. Infrared light is emitted or absorbed by molecules

64

Assessment of Shortwave Infrared Sea Surface Reflection and Nonlocal Thermodynamic Equilibrium Effects in the Community Radiative Transfer Model Using IASI Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nadir-viewing satellite radiances at shortwave infrared channels from 3.5 to 4.6 ?m are not currently assimilated in operational numerical weather prediction data assimilation systems and are not adequately corrected for applications of ...

Yong Chen; Yong Han; Paul van Delst; Fuzhong Weng

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed quality, and can also be used to monitor the degree of grain maturity, grain damage, the fate of organic contaminants and the effect of chemical treatment on plant and grain seeds.

P Yu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Definition: Forward-Looking Infrared | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forward-Looking Infrared Forward-Looking Infrared Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Forward-Looking Infrared Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) cameras flown from fixed-wing aircraft measure the amount of energy radiated in the infrared (7.5 - 13 micrometer) to detect detailed information on the land surface temperature distribution that might indicate areas of geothermal activity.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Forward looking infrared (FLIR) cameras, typically used on military and civilian aircraft, use an imaging technology that senses infrared radiation. The sensors installed in forward-looking infrared cameras-as well as those of other thermal imaging cameras-use detection of infrared radiation, typically emitted from a heat source, to create a "picture"

67

Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

primary radiation flux measurements at the SGP extended facilities are obtained from the Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS). In this study, we examine the radiation...

68

Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations During the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, J. H. Churnside, and J. B....

69

Low-Temperature Calibration of Infrared Thermometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method was developed for calibrating infrared thermometers to properly measure target temperatures ranging from ?70 to 0C. Once calibrated for this range, the thermometer can then be used to measure the flux of thermal radiation from the sky. ...

B. A. Kimball; S. T. Mitchell

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Estimates for Infrared Transfer in Finite Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper and lower bounds are computed for the infrared radiance within a cloud of finite size. The bounds are established by an iterative procedure, analogous to the iterative solution of the radiative transfer equation, except that at every ...

D. M. O'Brien

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Surface Forcing of the Infrared Cooling Profile over the Tibetan Plateau. Part I: Influence of Relative Longwave Radiative Heating at High Altitude  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of the Tibetan Plateau on the behavior of the surface longwave radiation budget is examined, and the behavior of the vertical profile of longwave cooling over the plateau, including its diurnal variation, is quantified. The investigation ...

Eric A. Smith; Lei Shi

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately accounting for radiative energy balance between the incoming solar and the outgoing infrared radiative fluxes is very important in modeling the Earth's climate. Water vapor absorption plays a critical role in the radiative heating rate ...

D. D. Turner; E. J. Mlawer

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ferroelectric infrared detector and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

Lashley, Jason Charles (Sante Fe, NM); Opeil, Cyril P. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Smith, James Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Multi-channel infrared thermometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and a light pipe array positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The light pipe array includes one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

Ulrickson, Michael A. (East Windsor, NJ)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Research Directed at Developing a Classical Theory to Describe Isotope Separation of Polyatomic Molecules Illuminated by Intense Infrared Radiation. Final Report for period May 7, 1979 to September 30, 1979; Extension December 31, 1997  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories.

Lamb, W. E. Jr.

1981-12-00T23:59:59.000Z

76

Efficient Calculation of Infrared Fluxes and Cooling Rates Using the Two-Stream Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calculation of infrared radiative fluxes and cooling rates using the two-stream equations is discussed. It is argued that at infrared wavelengths the two-stream equations are best viewed as an approximation to the differential radiance, the ...

J. M. Edwards

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Infrared Surveys for AGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

Smith, H E

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Infrared Surveys for AGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

Harding E. Smith

2002-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

79

Real-time scene simulator for thermal infrared localization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exploiting the natural thermal infrared radiation of humans is a promising approach for an accurate, comfortable and inexpensive indoor localization system. However, different sources of disturbance make the development challenging. In order to provide ...

Daniel Hauschildt; Jrgen Kemper; Nicolaj Kirchhof; Benedict Juretko; Holger Linde

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

CIRCE, the Coherent Infrared Center at the ALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INFRARED CENTER AT THE ALS* J. M. Byrd, S. De Santis, J-Yat the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeleyinfrared radiation from the ALS generated via femtosecond

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Incident Solar Radiation over Europe Estimated from METEOSAT Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily sums of the downward solar radiation, i.e., the global radiation, have been computed from imaging data of reflected solar and emitted infrared radiation which were measured from the geostationary satellites METEOSAT I and II during the ...

Werner Mser; Ehrhard Raschke

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

An infrared image of a dog, with warmest areas appearing the brightest.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sunlight, a roaring fire, a radiator or a warm sidewalk is infrared radiation. Although our eyes cannot see in space. Infrared astronomy is the art of measuring incredibly small values of thermal energy astronomers face the same problem when they try to detect heat from space. At room temperature

83

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

84

Infrared Thermography Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

funds for Fiscal Year 2014. Title Infrared Thermography Systems Publication Type Book Chapter LBNL Report Number LBNL-46590 Year of Publication 2000 Authors Griffith, Brent...

85

Issues with infrared thermography  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Abstract Infrared scanning radiometers are used to generate temperature maps of building envelope components, including windows and insulation. These temperature maps may...

86

Effect of infrared transparency on the heat transfer through windows: a clarification of the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

The various radiative, convective, and conductive components of the net heat transfer are calculated and illustrated for various infrared transparencies of covers such as would be used in architectural, greenhouse, or solar collector windows. It is shown that in the limiting cases of infrared opacity and infrared transparency the relative contributions of the three modes of heat transfer are altered, but all contribute significantly. The radiation shielding arguments pertain to the analogous greenhouse effect in the atmosphere.

Silverstein, S.D.

1976-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

1991-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

A Study on the Runaway Greenhouse Effect with a One-Dimensional RadiativeConvective Equilibrium Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple one-dimensional radiativeconvective equilibrium model is used to investigate the relationship between the surface temperature and the outgoing infrared radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The model atmosphere has a gray infrared ...

Shinichi Nakajima; Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi; Yutaka Abe

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Infrared Basics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Infrared Basics Citation Protherm. Infrared Basics Internet. 2013. cited...

90

Current Issues in Terrestrial Solar Radiation Instrumentation for Energy, Climate and Space Applications Preprint prepared for New RAD '99  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reductions of uncertainty in terrestrial solar radiation measurements are needed to validate the Earth's radiation balance derived from satellite data. Characterization of solar energy resources for renewable technologies requires greater time and spatial resolution for economical technology deployment. Solar radiation measurement research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses calibrations, operational characteristics, and corrections for terrestrial solar radiation measurements. We describe progress in measurements of broadband diffuse-sky radiation, and characterization of field instrument thermal offsets and spectral irradiance. The need and prospects for absolute references for diffuse and long-wave terrestrial solar radiation measurements are discussed. Reductions in uncertainty of broadband irradiance measurements from tens of watts per square meter to a few (one to two) watts per square meter are reported, which reduce time and labor to quantify and identify trends in artificial optical radiation sources, terrestrial solar radiation, and the Earth's radiation budget.

Stoffel, T. L.; Reda, I.; Myers, D. R.; Renne, D.; Wilcox, S. W.; Treadwell, J.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

91

The Infrared Sky  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The infrared sky from space is the sum of a cosmic signal from galaxies, quasars, and perhaps more exotic sources; and foregrounds from the Milky Way and from the Solar System. At a distance of 1 AU from the Sun, the foreground from interplanetary dust is very bright between 5 and 100 microns, but ``very bright'' is still several million times fainter than the background produced by ground-based telescopes. In the near infrared 1-2.2 micron range the space infrared sky is a thousand times fainter than the OH nightglow from the Earth's atmosphere. As a result of these advantages, wide-field imaging from space in the infrared can be an incredibly sensitive method to study the Universe.

E. L. Wright

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

92

Development of a 3D atmospheric radiative transfer model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 3D atmospheric radiative transfer model is established based on MODTRAN4. Moreover, the methods of calculating the ratio of atmospheric transmission, path radiation and single scattering solar radiation are presented. This 3D model is running by ... Keywords: MODTRAN4, atmospheric radiative transfer model, infrared radiation

Zhifeng Lu; Ge Li; Gang Guo; Kedi Huang

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Infrared Thermography Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrared Thermography Laboratory Infrared Thermography Laboratory The Infrared Thermography Laboratory (IRLab) conducts detailed laboratory experiments on the thermal performance of windows and other insulated systems. During a typical experiment, a specimen is placed between two environmental chambers that simulate a long, cold night during winter. Besides generating informative thermal images, the experiments collect several types of quantitative data with high spatial resolution that are useful for understanding subtle details in the thermal performance and for validating computer simulations of heat and fluid flows. Thermography experiments in the IRLab use an infrared imager to produce qualitative thermal images, or thermograms, that help provide a visual interpretation of how heat is flowing through the specimen. The infrared thermograms are also taken and postprocessed to extract numerical data to perform quantitative thermography that produces a database of the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm side of various specimen. A traversing system is also used to measure the distribution of air temperatures and velocities near the specimen. Research results are presented at various technical conferences -- see our schedule of upcoming conferences. Technical papers on infrared thermography are available for downloading. The IRLab contains a machine tool shop area that supports fabrication efforts in the Building Technologies Department. Other types of research, such as Non-Destructive Evaluation, are also conducted in the IRLab.

94

Infrared Protein Crystallography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We consider the application of infrared spectroscopy to protein crystals, with particular emphasis on exploiting molecular orientation through polarization measurements on oriented single crystals. Infrared microscopes enable transmission measurements on individual crystals using either thermal or nonthermal sources, and can accommodate flow cells, used to measure spectral changes induced by exposure to soluble ligands, and cryostreams, used for measurements of flash-cooled crystals. Comparison of unpolarized infrared measurements on crystals and solutions probes the effects of crystallization and can enhance the value of the structural models refined from X-ray diffraction data by establishing solution conditions under which they are most relevant. Results on several proteins are consistent with similar equilibrium conformational distributions in crystal and solutions. However, the rates of conformational change are often perturbed. Infrared measurements also detect products generated by X-ray exposure, including CO{sub 2}. Crystals with favorable symmetry exhibit infrared dichroism that enhances the synergy with X-ray crystallography. Polarized infrared measurements on crystals can distinguish spectral contributions from chemically similar sites, identify hydrogen bonding partners, and, in opportune situations, determine three-dimensional orientations of molecular groups. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Structure and Function in the Crystalline State.

J Sage; Y Zhang; J McGeehan; R Ravelli; M Weik; J van Thor

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Long wave runup on random beaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The estimation of the maximum wave sunup height is a problem of practical importance. Most of the analytical and numerical studies are limited to a constant slope plain shore and to the classical Nonlinear Shallow Water (NSW) equations. However, in nature the shore is characterized by some roughness. In order to take into account the effects of the bottom rugosity various ad-hoc friction terms are usually used. In this paper we study the effect of the roughness of the bottom on the maximum runup height. A stochastic model is proposed to describe the bottom irregularity and its effect is quantified using Monte-Carlo simulations. For the discretization of the NSW equations we employ modern finite volume schemes. Moreover, the results of the random bottom model are compared with the more conventional approaches.

Dutykh, Denys; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies: Calibration at Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Wavelengths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New far-infrared and submillimeter data are used to solidify and to extend to long wavelengths the empirical calibration of the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of normal star-forming galaxies. As was found by Dale et al. (2001), a single parameter family, characterized by f_nu(60 microns)/f_nu(100 microns), is adequate to describe the range of normal galaxy spectral energy distributions observed by IRAS and ISO from 3 to 100 microns. However, predictions based on the first generation models at longer wavelengths (122 to 850 microns) are increasingly overluminous compared to the data for smaller f_nu(60 microns)/f_nu(100 microns), or alternatively, for weaker global interstellar radiation fields. After slightly modifying the far-infrared/submillimeter dust emissivity in those models as a function of the radiation field intensity to better match the long wavelength data, a suite of SEDs from 3 microns to 20 cm in wavelength is presented. Results from relevant applications are also discussed, including submillimeter-based photometric redshift indicators, the infrared energy budget and simple formulae for recovering the bolometric infrared luminosity, and dust mass estimates in galaxies. Regarding the latter, since galaxy infrared SEDs are not well-described by single blackbody curves, the usual methods of estimating dust masses can be grossly inadequate. The improved model presented herein is used to provide a more accurate relation between infrared luminosity and dust mass.

Daniel A. Dale; George Helou

2002-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

97

First Data From the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first data obtained from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented. These data include emitted infrared radiation, albedo, and estimated scene types for 15 November 1984, as well as measurements of the solar constant. ...

ERRE Science Team

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Infrared Thermography Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists measuring sample at IR Thermography lab Scientists measuring sample at IR Thermography lab Infrared Thermography Laboratory In the Infrared Thermography Laboratory (IRLab), researchers test the thermal performance of windows and other insulated systems. Test specimens are placed between chambers that simulate different climate conditions, including household room temperature versus extreme winter cold with high exterior wind speed. Using an infrared imaging system, the IRLab produces calibrated quantitative thermal images, or surface temperature maps, of the specimens in heat transfer experiments. This high resolution non-contact surface temperature data help researchers understand details of thermal performance and validate computer simulations of heat and fluid flow, as well as provide a powerful visualization of detailed thermal features in

99

Solar Infrared Photometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sun photometer which operates at five wavelengths in the near infrared between 1.0 and 4.0 ?m has been developed. The instrument is a manually operated, fitter wheel design and has principal applications for atmospheric aerosol studies. The ...

J. D. Spinhirne; M. G. Strange; L. R. Blaine

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Determining Longwave Forcing and Feedback Using Infrared Spectra and GNSS Radio Occultation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors investigate whether combining a data type derived from radio occultation (RO) with the infrared spectral data in an optimal detection method improves the quantification of longwave radiative forcing and feedback. Signals derived from ...

Yi Huang; Stephen S. Leroy; James G. Anderson

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Methodology for Measuring Cirrus Cloud Visible-to-Infrared Spectral Optical Depth Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of cirrus cloud optical depths is necessary to understand the earths current climate and to model the cloud radiation impact on future climate. Cirrus clouds, depending on the ratio of their shortwave visible to longwave infrared ...

Daniel H. DeSlover; William L. Smith; Paivi K. Piironen; Edwin W. Eloranta

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

An Intercalibration of METEOSAT-1 and GOES-2 Visible and Infrared Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An intercomparison between radiative parameters determined from visible and infrared channels of the METEOSAT-1 and GOES-2 geosynchronous satellites has been carried out using data obtained over the central Atlantic Ocean for 5 November 1978. ...

David R. Brooks; Christopher F. England; Carry E. Hunt; Patrick Minnis

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Examination of the Relationship between Outgoing Infrared Window and Total Longwave Fluxes Using Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between narrowband and broadband thermal radiances is explored to determine the accuracy of outgoing longwave radiation derived from narrowband data. Infrared window (10.212.2 ?m) data from the Geostationary Operational ...

Patrick Minnis; David F. Young; Edwin F. Harrison

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Computation of Infrared Cooling Rates in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the behavior in the far wings of absorption lines to scale transmission along an inhomogencous path to an equivalent ...

Ming Dah Chou; Albert Arking

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

106

Measuring Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration...

107

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site? Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site? D. D. Turner and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Low level haze is often observed during the night and early morning hours in many locations. This haze is typically formed during quiescent conditions by radiative cooling of the surface, which lowers the ambient temperature and consequently increases the near-surface relative humidity (RH). Many aerosols start to deliquesce around 75% relative humidity (RH) (depending on their chemical composition), and thus if the near surface RH increases above this level, haze will form. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's ultimate goal, stated simply, is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in global climate models. Global climate models typically do not

108

Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing  

SciTech Connect

A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

Byer, Robert L. (Stanford, CA); Herbst, Richard L. (Menlo Park, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Mid?Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Luminous Infrared Galaxies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a statistical analysis of 248 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) which comprise the Great Observatories All?sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) observed with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on?board Spitzer in the rest?frame wavelength range between 5 and 38 ?m. The GOALS sample enables a direct measurement of the relative contributions of star?formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the total infrared (IR) emission from a large

A. Petric; The GOALS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Coherent infared radiation from the ALS generated via femtosecond laser modulation of the electron beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INFRARED RADIATION FROM THE ALS GENERATED VIA FEMTOSECONDthrough a wiggler at the ALS produces large modulation oflocations for a nominal ALS lattice and for an experimental

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Infra-Red Process for Colour Fixation on Fabrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infra-red radiations find wide application in industrial processes as heating, drying, stoving and forming. The results are often far better than those from the other techniques: convection oven, gas IR etc . They come from the electric IR specific advantages: energy direct transmission, emitter and product spectral coupling, possible selectivity. That is the case in the Textile Industry, where experiments showed that infra-red process heating could be efficient for color fixation on fabrics. Shorter production cycles and energy saving are the main results.

Biau, D.; Raymond, D. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Infrared laser system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

Cantrell, Cyrus D. (Santa Fe, NM); Carbone, Robert J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooper, Ralph S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Infrared laser system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

Cantrell, Cyrus D. (Richardson, TX); Carbone, Robert J. (Johnson City, TN); Cooper, Ralph (Hayward, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

The Baseline Surface Radiation Network Pyrgeometer Round-Robin Calibration Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the aim of improving the consistency of terrestrial and atmospheric longwave radiation measurements within the Baseline Surface Radiation Network, five Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers and one modified Meteorological ...

Rolf Philipona; Claus Frhlich; Klaus Dehne; John DeLuisi; John Augustine; Ellsworth Dutton; Don Nelson; Bruce Forgan; Peter Novotny; John Hickey; Steven P. Love; Steven Bender; Bruce McArthur; Atsumu Ohmura; John H. Seymour; John S. Foot; Masataka Shiobara; Francisco P. J. Valero; Anthony W. Strawa

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thin cirrus cloud thermal infrared radiative transfer model has been developed for application to cloudy satellite data assimilation. This radiation model was constructed by combining the Optical Path Transmittance (OPTRAN) model, developed for ...

Qing Yue; K. N. Liou; S. C. Ou; B. H. Kahn; P. Yang; G. G. Mace

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Radiative Effects on Turbulent Temperature Spectra and Budgets in the Planetary Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of radiative energy transfer on turbulent temperature fields are studied, and preliminary estimates show the infrared radiative dissipation mechanism to be dominant. Spectral computations for the idealized homogeneous-isotropic case ...

M. Coantic; O. Simonin

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Long-Term Trends in Downwelling Spectral Infrared Radiance over the U.S. Southern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A trend analysis was applied to a 14-yr time series of downwelling spectral infrared radiance observations from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) located at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) site in the U.S. ...

P. Jonathan Gero; David D. Turner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Infrared Thermometer Measurements of the Temperature of the Clouds from the Surface during the 7 March 1970 Total Eclipse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An infrared thermometer was used to observe the apparent radiation temperature of the overcast sky during a 15 h period including the total solar eclipse of 7 March 1970 at the Suwannee River State Park, Florida. An effective cloud temperature ...

L. F. Hall

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Inference of Cirrus Cloud Properties Using Satellite-observed Visible and Infrared Radiances. Part I: Parameterization of Radiance Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current techniques for deriving cirrus optical depth and altitude from visible (0.65 ?m) and infrared (11.5 ?m) satellite data use radiative transfer calculations based on scattering phase functions of spherical water droplets. This study ...

Patrick Minnis; Kuo-Nan Liou; Yoshihide Takano

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Validation of infrared  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of infrared cloud radiative transfer simulations and spectral Validation of infrared cloud radiative transfer simulations and spectral cloud properties retrievals using S-HIS, AERI and HSRL measurements from M-PACE Holz, Robert University of Wisconsin, CIMMS DeSlover, Daniel University of Wisconsin Revercomb, Henry University Of Wisconsin-Madison Tobin, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Knuteson, Robert University Of Wisconsin Turner, David Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Eloranta, Edwin University of Wisconsin As part of the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) the Scanning High spectral resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) flew on the Proteus high altitude aircraft with the ARM-UAV instrumentation. The University of North Dakota Cessna Citation capable of cloud situ measurements was coordinated with the Proteus to obtain coincident down looking and situ

122

Forward looking infrared | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Forward looking infrared Citation Wikipedia. Forward looking infrared...

123

Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

124

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

125

Variability of Radiative Cooling during the Asian Summer Monsoon and Its Influence on Intraseasonal Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared radiative cooling rates are calculated over the Asian summer monsoon between 5S20N and 40135E at a spatial resolution of 5 5 for the summer seasons of 1984 and 1987. A medium spectral resolution infrared radiative transfer ...

Amita V. Mehta; Eric A. Smith

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2005-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

127

Thermophotovoltaic conversion using selective infrared line emitters and large band gap photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Efficient thermophotovoltaic conversion can be performed using photovoltaic devices with a band gap in the 0.75-1.4 electron volt range, and selective infrared emitters chosen from among the rare earth oxides which are thermally stimulated to emit infrared radiation whose energy very largely corresponds to the aforementioned band gap. It is possible to use thermovoltaic devices operating at relatively high temperatures, up to about 300.degree. C., without seriously impairing the efficiency of energy conversion.

Brandhorst, Jr., Henry W. (Auburn, AL); Chen, Zheng (Auburn, AL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

129

Absorption of Solar Radiation by Atmospheric O4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectroscopic measurements of the atmospheric solar radiation attenuation reveal that the near ultravioletvisiblenear-infrared absorption of the oxygen collision complex (O2)2, thus far omitted from models, is important for the direct heating ...

Klaus Pfeilsticker; Frank Erle; Ulrich Platt

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

* The far-infrared (λ > 15 µm) is an important  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

infrared (λ > 15 µm) is an important infrared (λ > 15 µm) is an important component of the overall radiation budget of the Earth, accounting for approximately half of the outgoing infrared radiation to space. * Dominated by the pure rotation band of water vapor, the maximum mid-to-upper tropospheric cooling also occurs in the far-IR (left panel). * ARM science team research has resulted in enormous improvements in the treatment of radiation in climate models (e.g. Tobin et al. 1999; right panel). Tropical atmosphere cooling rates calculated using modern LBLRTM calculations(left panel) and differences between current and early ARM (1995/1996) calculations. At the conclusion of the 1997 SHEBA campaign, some spectral differences between Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measurements and

131

Solid state radiative heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Solid state radiative heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

Berdahl, P.H.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

133

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation-resistant Microorganisms. ... Elucidated radiation protection by intracellular halides. ...

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Beta Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

135

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Satellite-based reconstruction of the tropical oceanic clear sky outgoing longwave radiation and comparison with climate models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The changes of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in clear-sky conditions have been calculated using High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) observations from 1979 to 2004. After applying corrections for satellite orbital drift and ...

Guillaume Gastineau; Brian J. Soden; Darren L. Jackson; Chris W. ODell

137

Some Characteristic Differences in the Earth's Radiation Budget over Land and Ocean Derived from the Nimbus-7 ERB Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad spectral band Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment data are analyzed for top-of-the-atmosphere regional variations in near-ultraviolet visible and near-infrared reflected solar radiation. Regional differences in the noon vs ...

H. Lee Kyle; K. L. Vasanth

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Infrared Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectrometer , A. V. Muravjovb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopy (ICLAS) at Mid-IR (MIR, 3-5 µm wavelengths), Long-Wave IR (LWIR, 8-12 µm wavelengths of vapors that will be simple, low-power, man portable, and composed of all off-the-shelf components aerosols, drugs, and banned or invasive plants or animals. Also, biomedical breath analysis and non

Peale, Robert E.

139

Wood Inspection by Infrared Thermography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood is used everywhere and for everything. With times, this material presents many adulterations, witch degrade his physical properties. This work present a study of infrared thermography NDT for wood decay detection. The study is based on the difference of moisture content between sound wood and decay. In the first part, moisture content influence on response signal is determine. The second part define the limits of infrared thermography for wood decay detection. Results show that this method could be used, but with many cautions on depth and size of wood defects.

A. Wyckhuyse; X. Maldague; X. Maldague Corresponding

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Real time infrared aerosol analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

OPTICAL DIFFERENCE FREQUENCY GENERATION OF FAR INFRARED RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spot radius (mm) Fig. 9. o u If) .r- :::::I s::: ttl s:::or- ttlttl S- O) If) O~----~----J-----~----~----~--~~ o Angle from

Morris, J.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Gaussian Quadrature and Its Application to Infrared Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gaussian integration of moments is systematically discussed. It is shown that the well-known diffusivity-factor approximation is equivalent to a one-node Gaussian quadrature. The limit as the moment power approaches infinity in a one-node ...

J. Li

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Novel rectenna for collection of infrared and visible radiation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation presents the rectifying antennas potential for harvesting solar power, along with a novel design for a solar rectenna. The suns general features and (more)

Sarehraz, Mohammad

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

145

Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Ionizing Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

146

Chapter 30: Quantum Physics 9. The tungsten filament in a standard light bulb can be considered a blackbody radiator.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 1 Chapter 30: Quantum Physics 9. The tungsten filament in a standard light bulb can be considered frequency is that of infrared electromagnetic radiation, the light bulb radiates more energy in the infrared. The light from a flashlight can be considered as the emission of many photons of the same frequency

Kioussis, Nicholas

147

Infrared Thermography Guide (Revision 3)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Costly equipment outages can be reduced by implementing a comprehensive predictive maintenance program. Infrared thermography (IR), a fundamental component of such programs, uses nonintrusive techniques to monitor the operating condition of equipment and components. This revised report provides updated information to assist utilities in implementing an effective IR program.

2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Industrial Use of Infrared Inspections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infrared is and has been an established technology in the military and aerospace fields. However, only relatively recently has this technology found a "use" in the industrial sector. Many reasons exist why the technology has not been used, but in the final analysis it comes down to the fact that the industrial management responsible for the operations and production budgets did not, and in many cases, still does not understand the economic benefits to the company that infrared industrial inspections can bring about. Over the last 2-3 years a number of articles have appeared in various industrial publications concerning infrared surveys. However, all of the articles have dealt with the technical aspects of infrared inspections, with the economics either completely neglected or mentioned only in passing. I believe that in the real industrial world it is the economic benefits of a technology that allow the product of that technology to reach the market and become a success, and not the fact that a technology is useful per se. In this presentation, I shall be focusing primarily on the major economic aspects of the surveys and what the end results really represent in terms of economic benefits. Once the economic benefits of these inspections are clearly understood, it will be readily apparent why the industrial use of these inspections is developing rapidly.

Duch, A. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Infrared emitting device and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An infrared emitting device and method. The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns.

Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Dawson, L. Ralph (Albuquerque, NM); Howard, Arnold J. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device District: 8 Senate District: 5 Application: Nationwide Amount: $324,250 Term: November 1, 2010

151

Thermal Infrared Exposure of Cryogenic Indirect Drive ICF Targets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets at the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be protected from thermal infrared radiation by a cold shroud. As the shroud is removed just before the laser pulse, infrared radiation will heat and possibly degrade the symmetry of the solid hydrogen fuel layer. A lumped component mathematical model has been constructed to calculate how long an indirect drive target can be exposed to thermal radiation before the fuel layer degrades. The allowed exposure time sets the maximum shroud removal time and therefore has important implications for the design of the cryogenic shroud systems. The model predicts that the maximum exposure time is approximately 0.18 s for plastic capsules inside hohlraums with transparent laser entrance holes. By covering the laser entrance holes with a partially reflective coating, the exposure time can be increased to approximately 1 s. The exposure time can be increased to about 2 s by using beryllium capsules. Several other design concepts could increase the exposure time even further. Lengthening of the allowed exposure time to 1 s or longer could allow a significant cost savings for the shroud system.

London, R A; Moody, J D; Sanchez, J J; Sater, J D; Haid, B J; Bittner, D N

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

152

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

153

Infrared Land Surface Emissivity in the Vicinity of the ARM SGP Central Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrared Land Surface Emissivity in the Vicinity Infrared Land Surface Emissivity in the Vicinity of the ARM SGP Central Facility R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, W. F. Feltz, B. J. Osbourne, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-SSEC) has developed, under National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funding, a model for the infrared land surface emissivity (LSE) in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Central Facility (CF) in North Central Oklahoma. The UW-Madison LSE model is part of the ARM best

154

Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at the North Slope of Alaska During Early 2002  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at the North Slope of Alaska During Early 2002 J. A. Shaw and B. Thurairajah Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, Montana E. Edqvist National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. Mizutani Communications Research Laboratory Koganei, Tokyo, Japan Introduction Starting in February 2002, we deployed a new cloud-radiation sensor called the infrared cloud imager (ICI) at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site near Barrow, Alaska (71.32 N, 156.62 W). ICI records radiometrically calibrated images of the thermal infrared sky radiance in the 8µm to 14 µm wavelength band, from which spatial cloud statistics and spatially resolved cloud radiance can be determined.

155

Amazon Forest Radiation Budget from Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation is determined over the Ducke Reserve Forest site, Manaus, Brazil (257 S, 5957 W), from GOES-7 visible and infrared data during the 1987 wet season (April?May), for 0900 and 1500 LST. It is shown that a ...

J-C. Calvet; Y. Viswanadham

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Radiation Physics Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Portal. Radiation Physics Portal. ... more. >> see all Radiation Physics programs and projects ... ...

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

157

Infrared Cooling in Cloudy Atmospheres: Precision of Grid Point Selection for Numerical Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The infrared layer temperature change in a cloudy atmosphere normally shows warming at the base of the cloud and intense cooling at the top of the cloud. In a model that uses broad-band radiative transfer to calculate atmospheric temperature ...

L. P. Stearns

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen: Surface Temperatures Title Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen: Surface...

159

Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H. [Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. (United States); Barhen, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Synthesis of materials with infrared and ultraviolet lasers  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses three divergent examples of synthesis of materials with lasers. The three techniques are: (1) infrared (CO/sub 2/) laser synthesis of silane (SiH/sub 4/) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/); (2) excimer (ArF) laser production of fine silicon powders from methyl- and chloro-substituted silanes; and, (3) excimer (KrF) laser production of fine metallic powders by laser ablation. The mechanism for each process is discussed along with some conclusions about the features of the laser radiation that enable each application. 19 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Lyman, J.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Radiation Cataract  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation including patients undergoing diagnostic CT scans or radiotherapy, atomic bomb survivors, residents of radioactively contaminated buildings, victims of the...

162

Coherent infrared imaging camera (CIRIC)  

SciTech Connect

New developments in 2-D, wide-bandwidth HgCdTe (MCT) and GaAs quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) coupled with Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology are now making focal plane array coherent infrared (IR) cameras viable. Unlike conventional IR cameras which provide only thermal data about a scene or target, a coherent camera based on optical heterodyne interferometry will also provide spectral and range information. Each pixel of the camera, consisting of a single photo-sensitive heterodyne mixer followed by an intermediate frequency amplifier and illuminated by a separate local oscillator beam, constitutes a complete optical heterodyne receiver. Applications of coherent IR cameras are numerous and include target surveillance, range detection, chemical plume evolution, monitoring stack plume emissions, and wind shear detection.

Hutchinson, D.P.; Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Richards, R.K.; Emery, M.S.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Wachter, E.A.; Huston, M.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Infrared emitting device and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns. 8 figs.

Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Dawson, L.R.; Howard, A.J.; Baucom, K.C.

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

164

Diurnal Variability of Regional Cloud and Clear-Sky Radiative Parameters Derived from GOES Data. Part III: November 1978 Radiative Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diurnal variability of the radiation emitted and reflected from the earth-atmosphere is investigated at the regional scale using November 1978 GOES-East visible and infrared data and GOES-derived cloud information. Narrowband GOES data are ...

Patrick Minnis; Edwin F. Harrison

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

166

Infrared [Fe II] and Dust Emissions from Supernova Remnants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) are strong thermal emitters of infrared radiation. The most prominent lines in the near-infrared spectra of SNRs are [Fe II] lines. The [Fe II] lines are from shocked dense atomic gases, so they trace SNRs in dense environments. After briefly reviewing the physics of the [Fe II] emission in SNR shocks, I describe the observational results which show that there are two groups of SNRs bright in [Fe II] emission: middle-aged SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and young core-collapse SNRs in dense circumstellar medium. The SNRs belonging to the former group are also bright in near-infrared H$_2$ emission, indicating that both atomic and molecular shocks are pervasive in these SNRs. The SNRs belonging to the latter group have relatively small radii in general, implying that most of them are likely the remnants of SN IIL/b or SN IIn that had strong mass loss before the explosion. I also comment on the "[Fe II]-H$_2$ reversal" in SNRs and on using the [Fe II]-line luminosity as an indic...

Koo, Bon-Chul

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Exploring the physical properties of local star-forming ULIRGs from the ultraviolet to the infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an application of the da Cunha, Charlot & Elbaz (2008) model of the spectral energy distribution (SEDs) of galaxies from the ultraviolet to far-infrared to a small pilot sample of purely star-forming Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). We interpret the observed SEDs of 16 ULIRGs using this physically-motivated model which accounts for the emission of stellar populations from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared and for the attenuation by dust in two components: an optically-thick starburst component and the diffuse ISM. The infrared emission is computed by assuming that all the energy absorbed by dust in these components is re-radiated at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. This model allows us to derive statistically physical properties including star formation rates, stellar masses, as well as temperatures and masses of different dust components and plausible star formation histories. We find that, although the ultraviolet to near-infrared emission represents only a small fraction of th...

da Cunha, Elisabete; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Marshall, Jason A; Elbaz, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Effects of Long Waves on Wind-Generated Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is developed to explain the observation made in several laboratory experiments that short wind-generated waves are suppressed by a train of long, mechanically generated waves. A sheltering mechanism is responsible for generation of the ...

Gang Chen; Stephen E. Belcher

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

A Comment on Long Waves in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface currents near the equator in the eastern Pacific Ocean fluctuate with periods of 2130 days. Channel model experiments determined that these changes in oscillations are attributed to variations in the intensity of the South Equatorial ...

Anne D. Seigel

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Lecture 3 week 2/3 2012: Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... that would be like 13.68 one- hundred watt light bulbs illuminating a one-meter square surface, except that light bulbs put about 80% of their 100 watts of power into heat/infrared radiation. Given the distance

171

Global, Seasonal Cloud Variations from Satellite Radiance Measurements. Part II. Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global, daily, visible and infrared radiance measurements from the NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer (SR) are analyzed for the months of January, April, July and October 1977 to infer cloud and surface radiative properties and their effects on the Earth ...

William B. Rossow; Andrew A. Lacis

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A dedicated storage ring for Far-IR coherent synchrotron radiation at the ALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION AT THE ALS* W. C. Barry, K. M.on the Infrared Beamline ALS 1999 Activity Report pp. 78-m circumference ring will use the ALS injector parasitically

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Influence of Radiation on the Temperature Sensor Mounted on the Swiss Radiosonde  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Swiss radiosonde (SRS400) measures the air temperature with a very thin copperconstantan thermocouple. The influence of the visible and infrared radiation, as well as the dependency of the air pressure on the measured temperature, is ...

Dominique Ruffieux; Juerg Joss

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Absorption of Solar Radiation by Stratocumulus Clouds: Aircraft Measurements and Theoretical Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft observations of shortwave radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds were carried out over the western North Pacific Ocean during January 1991. Two aircraft were equipped with a pair of pyranometers and near-infrared pyranometers. ...

Tadahiro Hayasaka; Nobuyuki Kikuchi; Masayuki Tanaka

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Information << Timeline >> Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player July 31, 1942 The Army Corp of Engineers leases...

176

NIST Complete hemispherical infrared laser-based ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A custom instrument, the Complete Hemispherical infrared Laser-based Reflectometer ... using light input from a selection of lasers covering the ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

177

Modeling Infrared and Combination Infrared-Microwave Heating of Foods in an Oven .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A quantitative, model-based understanding of heat exchange in infrared and combined infrared-microwave heating of food inside an oven is developed. The research is divided into (more)

Frangipani Almeida, Marialuci

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Correcting Calibrated Infrared Sky Imagery for the Effect of an Infrared Window  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is demonstrated for deriving a correction for the effects of an infrared window when used to weatherproof a radiometrically calibrated thermal infrared imager. The technique relies on initial calibration of two identical imagers without ...

Paul W. Nugent; Joseph A. Shaw; Nathan J. Pust; Sabino Piazzolla

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Selective radiative cooling with MgO and/or LiF layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A material for a wavelength-selective radiative cooling system, the material comprising an infrared-reflective substrate coated with magnesium oxide and/or lithium fluoride in a polycrystalline form. The material is non-absorptive for short wavelengths, absorptive from 8 to 13 microns, and reflective at longer wavelengths. The infrared-reflective substrate inhibits absorption at wavelengths shorter than 8 microns, and the magnesium oxide and/or lithium fluoride layers reflect radiation at wavelengths longer than 13 microns.

Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Definition of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

How to Detect Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How...

182

COBE Observations of the Cosmic Infrared Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Diffuse InfraRed Background Experiment on COBE measured the total infrared signal seen from space at a distance of 1 astronomical unit from the Sun. Using time variations as the Earth orbits the Sun, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by the interplanetary dust cloud [zodiacal light]. By correlating the DIRBE signal with the column density of atomic hydrogen measured using the 21 cm line, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by interstellar dust, although one must still be concerned by dust associated with H_2 (molecular gas) and H II (the warm ionized medium). DIRBE was not able to determine the CIRB in the 5-60 micron wavelength range, but did detect both a far infrared background and a near infrared background. The far infrared background has an integrated intensity of about 34 nW/m^2/sr, while the near infrared and optical extragalactic background has about 59 nW/m^2/sr. The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on COBE has been used to constrain the long wavelength tail of the far infrared background but a wide range of intensities at 850 microns are compatible with the FIRAS data. Thus the fraction of the CIRB produced by SCUBA sources has large uncertainties in both the numerator and the denominator.

E. L. Wright

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

183

Infrared emission from interplanetary dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standard models of the interplanetary dust emission fail to account satisfactorily for IR observations. A new model of the dust, based on very simple assumptions on the grain structure (spherical and homogeneous) and chemical composition (astronomical silicates, graphite, blackbodies) is developed. Updated values of the refractive indexes have been included in the analysis. The predictions of the model (absolute values of the fluxes, spectral shape, elongation dependence of the emission) have then been compared with all the available IR observations performed by the ARGO (balloon-borne experiment by University of Rome), AFGL and Zodiacal Infrared Project (ZIP) (rocket experiments by Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.), and IRAS satellite. Good agreement is found when homogeneous data sets from single experiments (e.g., ZIP and ARGO) are considered separately. 19 references.

Temi, P.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Moreno, G.; Salama, A.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Definition: Multispectral Thermal Infrared | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Infrared Infrared Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Multispectral Thermal Infrared This wavelength range senses heat energy from the Earth's surface. It can be used to sense surface temperature, including anomalies associated with active geothermal or volcanic systems. Both multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing observations are available. This range can also be used to map mineralogy associate with common rock-forming silicates.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_infrared_spectroscopy ↑ http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/ Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Multispectral_Thermal_Infrared&oldid=601561

185

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-E Coatings Low-E Coatings Low-E Center-of-glass values of double pane units with and without low-E coatings. When heat or light energy is absorbed by glass, it is either convected away by moving air or reradiated by the glass surface. The ability of a material to radiate energy is called its emissivity. All materials, including windows, emit (or radiate) heat in the form of long-wave, far-infrared energy depending on their temperature. This emission of radiant heat is one of the important components of heat transfer for a window. Thus reducing the window's emittance can greatly improve its insulating properties. Standard clear glass has an emittance of 0.84 over the long-wave portion of the spectrum, meaning that it emits 84% of the energy possible for an object at its temperature. It also means that 84% of the long-wave

188

Radiation Hydrodynamics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish hydrogen atoms from helium atoms, for instance. There are all just components of a mixed fluid in this case. So why do we have a special subject called ''radiation hydrodynamics'', when photons are just one of the many kinds of particles that comprise our fluid? The reason is that photons couple rather weakly to the atoms, ions and electrons, much more weakly than those particles couple with each other. Nor is the matter-radiation coupling negligible in many problems, since the star or nebula may be millions of mean free paths in extent. Radiation hydrodynamics exists as a discipline to treat those problems for which the energy and momentum coupling terms between matter and radiation are important, and for which, since the photon mean free path is neither extremely large nor extremely small compared with the size of the system, the radiation field is not very easy to calculate. In the theoretical development of this subject, many of the relations are presented in a form that is described as approximate, and perhaps accurate only to order of {nu}/c. This makes the discussion cumbersome. Why are we required to do this? It is because we are using Newtonian mechanics to treat our fluid, yet its photon component is intrinsically relativistic; the particles travel at the speed of light. There is a perfectly consistent relativistic kinetic theory, and a corresponding relativistic theory of fluid mechanics, which is perfectly suited to describing the photon gas. But it is cumbersome to use this for the fluid in general, and we prefer to avoid it for cases in which the flow velocity satisfies {nu} << c. The price we pay is to spend extra effort making sure that the source-sink terms relating to our relativistic gas component are included in the equations of motion in a form that preserves overall conservation of energy and momentum, something that would be automatic if the relativistic equations were used throughout.

Castor, J I

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Optical Metrology Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Metrology Laboratory Optical Metrology Laboratory Photo of a laser and a spectral irradiance calibration system used to create lamp-detector alignment. Researchers use a spectral irradiance calibration alignment jig and a laser beam to align a calibration source and test unit. The NREL Optical Metrology Laboratory ensures that optical radiation resource measurement equipment is calibrated to national or international standards to ensure the quality and traceability of data. NREL considers optical radiation to range from 250 nm to 2,500 nm and to include the ultraviolet (250-400 nm), visible (400-750 nm), near infrared (750-1,100 nm), and shortwave infrared (1,100-2,500 nm) ranges. Activities The Optical Metrology Laboratory provides National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable measurements for:

190

RADIATION DETECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

191

Two-color mid-infrared thermometer with a hollow glass optical fiber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a low-temperature optical-fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. A single 700-{mu}m-bore hollow glass optical fiber collects and transmits radiation that is then modulated and split into two paths by a reflective optical chopper. Two different thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors monitor the chopped signals that are recovered with lock-in amplification. With the two previously obtained blackbody calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the true temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the ambient radiation field from the target surface. The small numerical aperture of the hollow glass fiber and the fast response of the detectors, together with the two-color principle, permit high spatial and temporal resolution while allowing the user to dynamically alter the fiber-to-target distance. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

Small, W. IV; Celliers, P.M.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-399, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Soltz, B.A. [Conversion Energy Enterprises, 81 Pinebrook Road, Spring Valley, New York 10977 (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

NIST Radiation thermometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation thermometry. Summary: ... Description: Radiation thermometers are calibrated using a range of variable-temperature blackbodies. ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

193

NIST Optical Radiation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Group. Welcome. The Optical Radiation Group maintains, improves, and disseminates the national scales ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

194

Frequency Selective Surfaces as Near Infrared Electro-Magnetic Filters for Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Frequency selective surfaces (FSS) effectively filter electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (1mm to 100mm). Interest exists in extending this technology to the near infrared (1 {micro}m to 10 {micro}m) for use as a filter of thermal radiation in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. This paper assesses the ability of FSS to meet the strict spectral performance requirements of a TPV system. Inherent parasitic absorption, which is the result of the induced currents in the FSS metallization, is identified as a significant obstacle to achieving high spectral performance.

Ryan T. Kristensen; John F. Beausang; David M. DePoy

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Frequency Selective Surfaces as Near Infrared Electro-Magnetic Filters for Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Frequency selective surfaces (FSS) effectively filter electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (1 mm to 100 mm). Interest exists in extending this technology to the near infrared (1 {micro}m to 10 {micro}m) for use as a filter of thermal radiation in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. This paper assesses the ability of FSS to meet the strict spectral performance requirements of a TPV system. Inherent parasitic absorption, which is the result of the induced currents in the FSS metallization, is identified as a significant obstacle to achieving high spectral performance.

RF Kristensen; JF Beausang; DM DePoy

2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

197

Molecular Hydrogen in Infrared Cirrus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We combine data from our recent FUSE survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen absorption toward 50 high-latitude AGN with COBE-corrected IRAS 100 micron emission maps to study the correlation of infrared cirrus with H2. A plot of the H2 column density vs. IR cirrus intensity shows the same transition in molecular fraction, f_H2, as seen with total hydrogen column density, N_H. This transition is usually attributed to H2 self-shielding, and it suggests that many diffuse cirrus clouds contain H2 in significant fractions, f_H2 = 1-30%. These clouds cover approximately 50% of the northern sky at latitudes b > 30 degrees, at temperature-corrected 100 micron intensities D_100 > 1.5 MJy/sr. The sheetlike cirrus clouds, with hydrogen densities n_H > 30 cm^-3, may be compressed by dynamical processes at the disk-halo interface, and they are conducive to H2 formation on grain surfaces. Exploiting the correlation between N(H2) and 100 micron intensity, we estimate that cirrus clouds at b > 30 contain approximately 3000 M_sun in H2. Extrapolated over the inner Milky Way, the cirrus may contain 10^7 M_sun of H2 and 10^8 M_sun in total gas mass. If elevated to 100 pc, their gravitational potential energy is ~10^53 erg.

Kristen Gillmon; J. Michael Shull

2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

198

Infrared Properties of z=7 Galaxies from Cosmological Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-dimensional panchromatic dust radiative transfer calculations are performed on a set of 198 galaxies of stellar masses in the range 5x10^8-3x10^10 Msun from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation (resolved at 29pc/h) at z=7. In a companion paper (Kimm & Cen), the stellar mass and UV luminosity functions, and UV-optical and FUV-NUV colors are shown to be in good agreement with observations, if an SMC-type dust extinction curve is adopted. Here we make useful predictions, self-consistently, of the infrared properties of these z=7 simulated galaxies that can be confronted with upcoming ALMA data. Our findings are as follows. (1) The effective radius in the rest-frame MIPS 70 micron band is in the range of 80-400pc proper for z=7 galaxies with L_FIR=10^{11.3-12}Lsun. (2) The median of the peak wavelength of the far-infrared (FIR) spectral energy distribution is in the range of 45-60 micron, depending on the dust-to-metal ratio. (3) For star formation rate in the range 3-100 Msun/yr the median FIR to bol...

Cen, Renyue

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Near Infrared Surveys | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Near Infrared Surveys Near Infrared Surveys (Redirected from Thermal And-Or Near Infrared) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Near Infrared Surveys Details Activities (18) Areas (14) Regions (1) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Remote Sensing Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Passive Sensors Parent Exploration Technique: Passive Sensors Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 450.0045,000 centUSD 0.45 kUSD 4.5e-4 MUSD 4.5e-7 TUSD / sq. mile Median Estimate (USD): 800.0080,000 centUSD 0.8 kUSD 8.0e-4 MUSD 8.0e-7 TUSD / sq. mile High-End Estimate (USD): 1,350.00135,000 centUSD 1.35 kUSD 0.00135 MUSD 1.35e-6 TUSD / sq. mile

200

Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 A cold sulfur spring in Germany is the only place where archaea are known to dominate bacteria in a microbial community. How this unique community thrives and the lessons it may hold for understanding global carbon and sulfur cycles are beginning to emerge from research by the University of Regensburg's Christine Moissl-Eichinger and her colleagues, including Advanced Light Source guest Alex Probst. Crucial microbial biochemistry was done at Berkeley Lab by Hoi-Ying Holman, director of the Berkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology facility, and her staff at the ALS, and by Phylochip inventors Todd DeSantis and Gary Anderson.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

Geyer, Scott Mitchell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

High-Density-Infrared Transient Liquid Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared energy is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between 0.78 mm ..... that may bring to the market new materials that cannot be produced economically ... For more information, contact C.A. Blue, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,...

203

Rapid infrared heating of a surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Rapid infrared heating of a surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Infrared Propagation Modeling beneath Marine Stratus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions are used to determine the vertical profiles of infrared (IR) extinction and absorption coefficients and asymmetry factors in eight different maritime stratus cloud regimes during unstable ...

H. G. Hughes; C. R. Zeisse

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

NIST Infrared laser gonioreflectometer instrument (ILGRI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... stable CO 2 , near infrared diode, and continuously tunable OPO PPLN lasers) and a ... from 1 nW to 1 W. The addition of other laser wavelengths in ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

207

Session Z: Pb-Salt Infrared Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to demonstrate the advantages of this light coupling scheme, a two-color C-QWIP covering the two infrared atmospheric windows as well as a relatively...

208

Annual Forcing of the Surface Radiation Balance Diurnal Cycle Measured from a High Tower near Boulder, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation balance consisting of upward and downward components of solar and thermal infrared broadband irradiances is continuously measured from the top of a 300-m tower situated on the Colorado high plains. The data are representative of a ...

Ellsworth G. Dutton

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Large-Scale Precipitation and Outgoing Longwave Radiation from INSAT-1B during the 1986 Southwest Monsoon Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Areally averaged precipitation and broadband outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) have been estimated from infrared window channel observations from INSAT-1B, the Indian geostationary satellite, for the period JuneSeptember 1986. The estimation ...

Phillip A. Arkin; A. V. R. Krishna Rao; R. R. Kelkar

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A Theory for the Retrievals of Virtual Temperature from Remote Measurements of Horizontal Winds and Thermal Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper develops a theory for the estimation of virtual temperature from remote measurements of (i) emitted thermal radiation by microwave and infrared radiometers and (ii) horizontal winds by Doppler radars (or lidars). The problem of ...

Tzvi Gal-Chen

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Uncooled infrared photon detector and multicolor infrared detection using microoptomechanical sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods for infrared detection are described. An optomechanical photon detector includes a semiconductor material and is based on measurement of a photoinduced lattice strain. A multicolor infrared sensor includes a stack of frequency specific optomechanical detectors. The stack can include one, or more, of the optomechanical photon detectors that function based on the measurement of photoinduced lattice strain. The systems and methods provide advantages in that rapid, sensitive multicolor infrared imaging can be performed without the need for a cooling subsystem.

Datskos, Panagiotis G. (Knoxville, TN); Rajic, Solobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskou, Irene C. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Infrared Issues in Graviton Higgs Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the one-loop infrared behaviour of the effective potential in minimally coupled graviton Higgs theory in Minkowski background. The gravitational analogue of one loop Coleman Weinberg effective potential turns out to be complex, the imaginary part indicating an infrared instability. This instability is traced to a tachyonic pole in the graviton propagator for constant Higgs fields. Physical implications of this behaviour are studied. We also discuss physical differences between gauge theories coupled to Higgs fields and graviton Higgs theory.

Srijit Bhattacharjee; Parthasarathi Majumdar

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

213

Comparing Optical and Near Infrared Luminosity Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey [SDSS] has measured an optical luminosity function for galaxies in 5 bands, finding 1.5 to 2.1 times more luminosity density than previous work. This note compares the SDSS luminosity density to two recent determinations of the near infrared luminosity function based on 2MASS data, and finds that an extrapolation of the SDSS results gives a 2.3 times greater near infrared luminosity density.

Edward L. Wright

2001-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

214

Radiation receiver  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

216

RADIATION SOURCES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

Brucer, M.H.

1958-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit the minimum achievable emittance in the synchrotron light sources for short bunches.

Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

218

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

219

Radiation Tolerant Metallic Multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strategies that can alleviate radiation damage may assist the design of radiation tolerant materials. We will summarize our recent studies on radiation damage in...

220

NEW SOURCES OF RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project Report No. 75/07.IBL 79M0733 Fig. 20. Radiation emission pattern by electronsWinick, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Fig. 21.

Schimmerling, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1a Figure 1b Figure 1. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma in afollowing completion of radiation therapy. Figure 2a Figurecell histiocytosis after radiation for breast carcinoma: can

Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Accomplishments of the Instantaneous Radiative Flux (IRF) Working Group August 2006 AERI Observations at Southern Great Plains Improve Infrared Radiative Transfer Models Turner et al., JAS, 2004 * AERI observations used to evaluate clear sky IR radiative transfer models * Long-term comparisons have improved - Spectral line database parameters - Water vapor continuum absorption models * Reduced errors in computation of downwelling radiative IR flux by approx 4; current uncertainty is on the order of 1.5 W/m 2 AERI - (Pre-ARM Model) AERI - (Model in 2003) 1 RU = 1 mW / (m 2 sr cm -1 ) Excellent Agreement in Clear Sky Shortwave Radiative Transfer Between Obs and Calcs Shortwave Flux Bias (Solid) Shortwave Flux RMS (Hatched) W m -2 * Comparison of shortwave radiative flux at the surface

223

Radiation properties of cavity Cerenkov radiation  

SciTech Connect

Cerenkov radiation from cavities has been analyzed by quantum electrodynamic theory. Analytical expressions of basic radiation properties such as the Einstein's A and B coefficients are derived and shown to be directly modified by the cavities. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the coherent radiation from the Cerenkov radiation devices is due to super radiance of spontaneous emission instead of stimulated emission. Coherent and incoherent radiations are analyzed in the THz radiation range.

Gao Ju; Shen Fang [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Spectroscopic research on infrared emittance of coal ash deposits  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a pulverized coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant. Normal emittance spectra in the near to medium infrared (2.5-25 {mu}m) region and total normal emittances were measured on four kinds of ground ash deposits. Measurements were conducted in the 570-1460 K temperature range which is common for boiler furnaces, by both heating and cooling the ash samples, with the aim to study the effect of their thermal history. Dependence of emittance on wavelength, temperature and chemical composition was studied, too. Samples were tested for transparency (opacity) to verify the accuracy of results. It was determined that the thicknesses used for the ash powders are opaque for infrared radiation for thicknesses in the order of a millimeter. Tests have shown that spectral emittance increases with an increase of wavelength with a characteristic pattern common for all samples. Spectral normal emittance increases strongly with temperature at shorter wavelengths and remains high and unchanged at longer ones. Emittance spectra are not very sensitive to chemical composition of ashes especially beyond {lambda} {approx} 5 {mu}m. With an increase of temperature, total emittance of the powdered sample decreases to a minimum value around 1200 K. Further temperature rise induces an increase of total emittance due to sintering in the ash. On cooling, the emittance increases monotonically following the hysteresis. Quantitative directions for evaluating thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits for the merits of the safety design of boiler furnaces were proposed. That comprises correlating the experimentally obtained emittance spectra with curves of simple analytical form, i.e., a continuous function of minimum emittance vs. wavelength. The proposed method can be extended to other specimens from the same furnace and used to determine correlations for thermal calculation of old and design of new furnaces - with similar geometry and combusting similar coal. The method is potentially applicable to completely different boiler furnaces combusting different coal, and the authors recommend running the tests with new deposit samples. The data will then be applicable to the thermal design of a whole new class of furnaces, having similar geometry and combusting similar coal. This is expected to greatly enhance the accuracy and precision of thermal calculation as well as the efficiency of thermal design of steam boilers. (author)

Saljnikov, Aleksandar; Komatina, Mirko; Gojak, Milan [Department of Thermomechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS); Vucicevic, Biljana [Laboratory for Thermal Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (RS); Goricanec, Darko [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor 2000 (Slovenia); Stevanovic, Zoran [Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Coherent Radiation in Gamma-Ray Bursts and Relativistic Collisionless Shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest that coherent radiation may occur in relativistic collisionless shocks via two-stream Weibel instabilities. The coherence amplifies the radiation power by many orders [$\\sim 10^{12}$ in Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs)] and particles cool very fast before being randomized. We imply (1) GRBs accompany strong infrared emission, (2) protons efficiently transfer energy to electrons and (3) prompt GRBs might be the upscattered coherent radiation.

Kunihito Ioka

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

226

Types of Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation...

227

Radiation Effects In Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RADIATION MATERIALS SCIENCE IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS II: Radiation Effects in Ceramics. Sponsored by: Jt. SMD/MSD Nuclear Materials...

228

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry. ... OH. US Air Force Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Wright-Patterson - Base, OH [100548- 0] PA. ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

229

Radiation Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Radiation Physics Division, part of the Physical Measurement Laboratory ... the measurement standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However, even though this class of devices is finding a growing number of applications, electronic processes in organic materials are still not well understood. A group of researchers from the University of California and the ALS has succeeded in probing the intrinsic electronic properties of the charge carriers in organic FETs using infrared spectromicroscopy. The results of their study could help in the future development of sensors, large-area displays, and other plastic electronic components.

231

Infrared sensing techniques for adaptive robotic welding  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using infrared sensors to monitor the welding process. Data were gathered using an infrared camera which was trained on the molten metal pool during the welding operation. Several types of process perturbations which result in weld defects were then intentionally induced and the resulting thermal images monitored. Gas tungsten arc using ac and dc currents and gas metal arc welding processes were investigated using steel, aluminum and stainless steel plate materials. The thermal images obtained in the three materials and different welding processes revealed nearly identical patterns for the same induced process perturbation. Based upon these results, infrared thermography is a method which may be very applicable to automation of the welding process.

Lin, T.T.; Groom, K.; Madsen, N.H.; Chin, B.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Near Infrared Surveys | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Near Infrared Surveys Near Infrared Surveys Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Near Infrared Surveys Details Activities (18) Areas (14) Regions (1) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Remote Sensing Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Passive Sensors Parent Exploration Technique: Passive Sensors Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 450.0045,000 centUSD 0.45 kUSD 4.5e-4 MUSD 4.5e-7 TUSD / sq. mile Median Estimate (USD): 800.0080,000 centUSD 0.8 kUSD 8.0e-4 MUSD 8.0e-7 TUSD / sq. mile High-End Estimate (USD): 1,350.00135,000 centUSD 1.35 kUSD 0.00135 MUSD 1.35e-6 TUSD / sq. mile Time Required Low-End Estimate: 6 weeks0.115 years

234

Infrared Heating of Hydrogen Layers in Hohlraums  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors report results of modeling and experiments on infrared heated deuterium-hydride (HD) layers in hohlraums. A 2 mm diameter, 40 {micro}m thick shell with 100-400 {micro}m thick HD ice inside a NIF scale-1 gold hohlraum with 1-3 {micro}m rms surface roughness is heated by pumping the HD vibrational bands. Models indicate control of the low-mode layer shape by adjusting the infrared distribution along the hohlraum walls. They have experimentally demonstrated control of the layer symmetry perpendicular to the hohlraum axis.

Kozioziemski, B J; McEachern, R L; London, R A; Bitter, D N

2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

The FourStar Infrared Camera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The FourStar infrared camera is a 1.0-2.5 micron (JHKs) near infrared camera for the Magellan Baade 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (Chile). It is being built by Carnegie Observatories and the Instrument Development Group at Johns Hopkins and is scheduled for completion in 2009. The instrument uses four Teledyne HAWAII-2RG arrays that produce a 10.9 x 10.9 arcmin field of view. The outstanding seeing at the Las Campanas site coupled with FourStar's high sensitivity and large field of view will enable many new survey and targeted science programs.

S. E. Persson; Robert Barkhouser; Christoph Birk; Randy Hammond; Albert Harding; E. R. Koch; J. L. Marshall; Patrick J. McCarthy; David Murphy; Joe Orndorff; Gregg Scharfstein; Stephen A. Shectman; Stephen Smee; Alan Uomoto

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

236

Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility SURF III ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Synchrotron Radiation. What is Synchrotron Radiation? Synchrotron radiation ... known. Properties of Synchrotron Radiation. Schwinger ...

237

Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Cloud Properties Derived from Visible and Near-infrared Reflectance in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Properties Derived from Visible and Near-infrared Reflectance in the Cloud Properties Derived from Visible and Near-infrared Reflectance in the Presence of Aerosols Hofmann, Odele University of Colorado at Boulder Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado Gore, Warren NASA Ames Research Center Russell, Phil NASA Ames Research Center Livingston, John SRI International Redemann, Jens BAERI/NASA Ames Research Center Bergstrom, Robert Bay Area Environmental Research Institute Platnick, Steven NASA-GSFC Daniel, John NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties The New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS-ITCT) experiment conducted in July-August 2004 included objectives on the effects of urban-industrial pollution aerosols on cloud radiative properties, the so-called indirect effect. Measurements

239

Infrared Quantum Dots** By Edward H. Sargent*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increasingly on mastery of the infrared spectral region. Fiber-optic communications systems rely on the low's progress in visible-light-emitting colloidal-quantum-dot synthesis, physical chemistry, and devices on applications and devices. The applications of interest surveyed include monolithic integration of fiber-optic

240

MOLECULAR GAS IN INFRARED ULTRALUMINOUS QSO HOSTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report CO detections in 17 out of 19 infrared ultraluminous QSO (IR QSO) hosts observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The cold molecular gas reservoir in these objects is in a range of (0.2-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} (adopting a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO} = 0.8 M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}). We find that the molecular gas properties of IR QSOs, such as the molecular gas mass, star formation efficiency (L{sub FIR}/L'{sub CO}), and CO (1-0) line widths, are indistinguishable from those of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). A comparison of low- and high-redshift CO-detected QSOs reveals a tight correlation between L{sub FIR} and L'{sub CO(1-0)} for all QSOs. This suggests that, similar to ULIRGs, the far-infrared emissions of all QSOs are mainly from dust heated by star formation rather than by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), confirming similar findings from mid-infrared spectroscopic observations by Spitzer. A correlation between the AGN-associated bolometric luminosities and the CO line luminosities suggests that star formation and AGNs draw from the same reservoir of gas and there is a link between star formation on {approx}kpc scale and the central black hole accretion process on much smaller scales.

Xia, X. Y.; Hao, C.-N. [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Gao, Y.; Tan, Q. H. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mao, S. [National Astronomical Observatories of China, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Omont, A. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095, UPMC and CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Flaquer, B. O.; Leon, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomia Milimetrica (IRAM), Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, 18012 Granada (Spain); Cox, P., E-mail: xyxia@bao.ac.cn [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM), F-38406 St. Martin d'Heres (France)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Shortwave Infrared Spectroradiometer for Atmospheric Transmittance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroradiometer as a solar radiometer is presented. The radiometer collects 1024 channels of data over the spectral range of 1.12.5 ?m. The system was tested by applying the Langley method to data ...

M. Sicard; K. J. Thome; B. G. Crowther; M. W. Smith

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

SiGeC Near Infrared Photodetectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A near infrared waveguide photodetector in Si-based ternary Si???x??yGexCy alloy was demonstrated for 0.85~1.06 m wavelength fiber-optic interconnection system applications. Two sets of detectors with active absorption ...

Li, Baojun

243

A Field Intercomparison Technique to Improve the Relative Accuracy of Longwave Radiation Measurements and an Evaluation of CASES-99 Pyrgeometer Data Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Techniques for improving the relative accuracy of longwave radiation measurements by a set of pyrgeometers [the Eppley Laboratory Precision Infrared Radiometer (Model PIR)] are presented using 10 PIRs from the 1999 Cooperative AtmosphereSurface ...

S. P. Burns; J. Sun; A. C. Delany; S. R. Semmer; S. P. Oncley; T. W. Horst

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Effects of Radiation and Turbulence on the Diabatic Heating and Water Budget of the Stratiform Region of a Tropical Cloud Cluster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, kinematic model, incorporating ice- and water-cloud microphysics, visible and infrared radiation, and convective adjustment, is used to diagnose the thermodynamic, water vapor, and hydrometeor fields of the stratiform clouds ...

Dean D. Churchill; Robert A. Houze Jr.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Comparing MODIS and AIRS Infrared-Based Cloud Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons are described for infrared-derived cloud products retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) using measured spatial response functions obtained from prelaunch ...

Shaima L. Nasiri; H. Van T. Dang; Brian H. Kahn; Eric J. Fetzer; Evan M. Manning; Mathias M. Schreier; Richard A. Frey

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Noise reduction efforts for the ALS infrared beamlines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is being commissioned at the ALS that should help quietalso has links to the main ALS Infrared Website, where PDFsNoise reduction efforts for the ALS infrared beamlines Tom

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Satellite Rainfall Estimation Using Combined Passive Microwave and Infrared Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a combined infrared and passive microwave satellite rainfall estimation technique is outlined. Infrared data from geostationary satellites are combined with polar-orbiting passive microwave estimates to provide 30-min rainfall ...

Chris Kidd; Dominic R. Kniveton; Martin C. Todd; Tim J. Bellerby

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Infrared Brightness Temperature of Mars, 1983-2103  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The predicted infrared brightness temperature of Mars using the 1976 model of Wright is tabulated here for the period 1983 to 2103. This model was developed for far-infrared calibration, and is still being used for JCMT calibration.

E. L. Wright

2007-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

249

A Comparison of Infrared Light Emitting Diodes (IR-LED) versus Infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. Characteristics of a typical IR LED analogous to the typeLight Emitting Diodes (IR-LED) versus Infrared Helium-Neon (light emitting diode (IR-LED) to quantitatively measure fuel

Girard, James W.; Bogin, Gregory E; Mack, John Hunter; Chen, J-Y; Dibble, Rober W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

An Accurate Radiative Heating and Cooling Algorithm for Use in a Dynamical Model of the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An infrared radiative heating and cooling algorithm designed to be used with dynamical models of the middle atmosphere is described. A Curtis matrix is used to compute cooling by the 15 and 10 ?m bands of carbon dioxide. Escape of radiation to ...

W. M. Wehrbein; C. B. Leovy

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site C. M. R. Platt and R. T. Austin Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado C. M. R. Platt and J. A. Bennett Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Atmospheric Research Aspendale, Victoria, Australia Abstract The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (CSIRO/ARM) Program Mark II infrared (IR) filter radiometer operated continuously at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site for a period of five weeks. Data of high quality were obtained by remote operation and data transfer with no evidence of spurious

252

Metallic Mesh Filter Used for Electromagnetic Shielding of Infrared Window  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to meet anti-electromagnetism interference performance requirements of infrared window, a metallic mesh coating must be used on the infrared window. From the diffraction theory of grating and the equivalent circuit method, simplified expressions ... Keywords: stealth technology, electro-optical countermeasure, transparent conductive coating, metallic mesh filter, infrared window

Jia-Li Song, Xiao-Guo Feng

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A multimedia museum guide system with instant infrared communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe a prototype of an multimedia guide system that use instant infrared communication to get the multimedia contents and play the contents based on the operation of the users. The portable guide device is conposed of an infrared ... Keywords: guide system, infrared, uubiquitous computing, wireless communication

Dawei Cai

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Radiation Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

255

RADIATION COUNTER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

Goldsworthy, W.W.

1958-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

RADIATION DOSIMETER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement was made in the determination of amounts of ionizing radiation, particularly low-energy beta particles of less than 1000 rad total dose by means of fluid-phase dosimeter employing a stabilized-- sensitized ferrous-ferric colorimetric system in a sulphuric acid medium. The improvement in the dosimeter consists of adding to the ferrous-ferric system in concentrations of 10/sub -2/ to 10/sup -4/M an organic compound having one or more carboxylic or equivalent groups, such compounds being capable of chelating or complexing the iron ions in the solution. Suitable sensitizing and stabilizing agents are benzoic, phthalic, salicylic, malonic, lactic, maleic, oxalic, citric, succinic, phenolic tartaric, acetic, and adipic acid, as well as other compounds which are added to the solution alone or in certain combinations. As in conventional fluid-phase dosimeters, the absorbed dosage is correlated with a corresponding change in optical density at particular wavelengths of the solution.

Balkwell, W.R. Jr.; Adams, G.D. Jr.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

257

Gamma Radiation & X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

258

DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2) W. J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , Newand R. J. Berry, "Manual on Radiation Dosimetry" (New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (New

Perez-Mendez, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements in the 8- to 14-µm Atmospheric Window: Self-Broadening Coefficient Data T. J. Kulp (a) and J. Shinn Geophysics and Environmental Research Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Introduction The accurate characterization of the latent infrared (IR) absorption in the atmospheric window regions continues to be an area of research interest for the global climate modeling community. In the window between 8 and 14 µm, this absorption can be attributed primarily to water vapor. It consists of 1) weak lines originating from the edge of the water vapor pure rotational band (at low wavenumbers) and the trailing P-branch of the υ 2 rovibrational band (at the high-wavenumber boundary of the window); and 2) the

260

3D metamaterials for the thermal infrared.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metamaterials form a new class of artificial electromagnetic materials that provides the device designer with the ability to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic energy in ways that are not achievable with naturally occurring materials. However, progress toward practical implementation of metamaterials, particularly at infrared and visible frequencies, has been hampered by a combination of absorptive losses; the narrow band nature of the resonant metamaterial response; and the difficulty in fabricating fully 3-dimensional structures. They describe the progress of a recently initiated program at Sandia National Laboratories directed toward the development of practical 3D metamaterials operating in the thermal infrared. They discuss their analysis of fundamental loss limits for different classes of metamaterials. In addition, they discuss new design approaches that they are pursuing which reduce the reliance on metallic structures in an effort to minimize ohmic losses.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Wendt, Joel Robert; Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Analysis of the SIAM Infrared Acquisition System  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and presents the results of an analysis of the performance of the infrared acquisition system for a Self-Initiated Antiaircraft Missile (SIAM). A description of the optical system is included, and models of target radiant intensity, atmospheric transmission, and background radiance are given. Acquisition probabilities are expressed in terms of the system signal-to-noise ratio. System performance against aircraft and helicopter targets is analyzed, and background discrimination techniques are discussed. 17 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

Varnado, S.G.

1974-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

THE INFRARED COLORS OF THE SUN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar infrared colors provide powerful constraints on the stellar effective temperature scale, but they must be measured with both accuracy and precision in order to do so. We fulfill this requirement by using line-depth ratios to derive in a model-independent way the infrared colors of the Sun, and we use the latter to test the zero point of the Casagrande et al. effective temperature scale, confirming its accuracy. Solar colors in the widely used Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and WISE W1-4 systems are provided: (V - J){sub Sun} = 1.198, (V - H){sub Sun} = 1.484, (V - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 1.560, (J - H){sub Sun} = 0.286, (J - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.362, (H - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.076, (V - W1){sub Sun} = 1.608, (V - W2){sub Sun} = 1.563, (V - W3){sub Sun} = 1.552, and (V - W4){sub Sun} = 1.604. A cross-check of the effective temperatures derived implementing 2MASS or WISE magnitudes in the infrared flux method confirms that the absolute calibration of the two systems agrees within the errors, possibly suggesting a 1% offset between the two, thus validating extant near- and mid-infrared absolute calibrations. While 2MASS magnitudes are usually well suited to derive T{sub eff}, we find that a number of bright, solar-like stars exhibit anomalous WISE colors. In most cases, this effect is spurious and can be attributed to lower-quality measurements, although for a couple of objects (3% {+-} 2% of the total sample) it might be real, and may hint at the presence of warm/hot debris disks.

Casagrande, L.; Asplund, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Ramirez, I. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Melendez, J., E-mail: luca@mso.anu.edu.au [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, 05508-900 SP (Brazil)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

263

Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Organic Transistors with Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Wednesday, 26 July 2006 00:00 Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However, even though this class of devices is finding a growing number of applications, electronic processes in organic materials are still not well understood. A group of researchers from the University of California and the ALS has succeeded in probing the intrinsic electronic properties of the charge carriers in organic FETs using infrared spectromicroscopy. The results of their study could help in the future development of sensors, large-area displays, and other plastic electronic components.

264

Infrared Sky Brightness Monitors for Antarctica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Two sky brightness monitorsone for the near-infrared and one for the mid-infraredhave been developed for site survey work in Antarctica. The instruments, which we refer to as the NISM (Near-Infrared Sky Monitor) and the MISM (Mid-Infrared Sky Monitor), are part of a suite of instruments being deployed in the Automated Astrophysical Site-Testing Observatory (AASTO). The chief design constraints include reliable, autonomous operation, low power consumption, and of course the ability to operate under conditions of extreme cold. The instruments are currently operational at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, prior to deployment at remote, unattended sites on the high antarctic plateau. 1. INTRODUCTION The antarctic plateau is recognized as having the potential to provide some of the best astronomical observing conditions on earth (see, e.g., Burton et al. 1994). Almost all the site testing to date has been carried out at the South Pole, where it has already been demonstrated t...

Storey Ashley Boccas; J. W. V. Storey; M. C. B. Ashley; M. Boccas; M. A. Phillips; A. E. T. Schinckel

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Integral field near-infrared spectroscopy of II Zw 40  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present integral field spectroscopy in the near-infrared of the nearby starburst galaxy IIZw40. Our new observations provide an unprecedented detailed view of the interstellar medium and star formation of this galaxy. The radiation emitted by the galaxy is dominated by a giant HII region, which extends over an area of more than 400 pc in size. A few clusters are present in this area, however one in particular appears to be the main source of ionizing photons. We derive the properties of this object and compare them with those of the 30 Doradus cluster in the Large magellanic cloud (LMC). We study the spatial distribution and velocity field of different components of the inetrstellar medium (ISM), mostly through the Bracket series lines, the molecular hydrogen spectrum, and [FeII]. We find that [FeII] and H2 are mostly photon excited, but while the region emitting [FeII] is almost coincident with the giant HII region observed in the lines of atomic H and He, the H2 has a quite different distribution in space and velocity. The age of the stellar population in the main cluster is such that no supernova (SN) should be present yet so that the gas kinematics must be dominated by the young stars. We do not see, in the starbursting region, any geometrical or dynamical structure that can be related to the large scale morphology of the galaxy.

L. Vanzi; G. Cresci; E. Telles; J. Melnick

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

266

Courses on Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

267

Radiation Physics Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Events. Radiation Physics Events. (showing 1 - 3 of 3). CIRMS 2012 Start Date: 10/22/2012 ...

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Bayesian Radiation Source Localization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Special Issue on the 16th Biennial Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division / Radiation Measurements and General Instrumentation

Kenneth D. Jarman; Erin A. Miller; Richard S. Wittman; Christopher J. Gesh

269

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

270

Solar radiation resource assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

Novack, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Pinhero, Patrick J. (Columbia, MO)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

272

Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

Novack, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Pinhero, Patrick J. (Columbia, MO)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

274

Detecting Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Using Visible, Infrared, and Microwave Satellite Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Using Visible, Infrared, and Microwave Satellite Data H. Shao and G. Liu Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida Introduction Determining the radiative effects of aerosols is one of the most important areas in climate research. There are observational evidences showing that aerosols can affect the radiative balance of the earth indirectly - as the number of aerosols increases, water in the cloud spreads over many more particles. Large concentrations of small droplets not only make the cloud more reflective, but also reduce the probability of rainfall and prolong cloud lifetime, because small droplets have less efficiency of coalescence (e.g., Albrecht 1989, Rosenfeld 2000). Since precipitation is a key component in

275

On the band-to-continuum intensity ratio in the infrared spectra of interstellar carbonaceous dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Published interpretations of the relative intensity variations of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) and their underlying continuum are discussed. An alternative model is proposed, in which a single carrier for both emits a) mostly a continuum when it is electronically excited by photons (visible or UV), or b) exclusively the UIBs, when only chemical energy is deposited by H capture on its surface, inducing only nuclear vibrations. The bands will dominate in atomic H regions but will be overcome by thermal continuum radiation when the ambient field is strong but lacks dissociating photons (900-1100 Angstroms). The model applies to PDRs as well as to limbs of molecular clouds in the ISM and agrees quantitatively with recent satellite observations. It gives indications on atomic H density and UIB intensity provided the ambient radiation field is known. It invokes no chemical, electronic, structural or size change in order to interpret the observed intensity variations.

Renaud Papoular

2004-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

277

Far-infrared observations of G351. 6 - 1. 3/G351. 7 - 1. 2 region  

SciTech Connect

An area of about 20 arcmin x 25 arcmin around the H II region-molecular cloud complexes G351.6 - 1.3 and G351.7 - 1.2 has been mapped in a 120 - 300 micron far-infrared band with a spatial resolution of about 1.5 arcmin. Besides the two main sources, five weaker sources have been seen. The IRAS two-dimensional COADD data of the same region at 60 microns and 100 microns have been deconvolved for comparison with the 150 micron intensity map. Combining all the available far-infrared measurements, dust temperature, optical depth, far-infrared luminosity, etc, have been derived for the individual sources in this complex. Spectra have been constructed for the two main sources using all available data. These have been compared with the results of radiation transfer calculations for a spherically symmetric model. Information has been derived on the nature of the dust and its distribution in the main source in G351.6 - 1.3. A mixture of graphite and silicate grains gives a good fit to the observed spectrum. The favored radial dust density distribution is uniform. 30 refs.

Ghosh, S.K.; Iyengar, K.V.K.; Rengarajan, T.N.; Tandon, S.N.; Verma, R.P. (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

NIST MIRF - Accelerator Radiation Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerator Radiation Physics. Medium-energy accelerators are under investigation for production of channeling radiation ...

279

NIST Synchrotron radiation in SSD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation in the Sensor Science Division. ... Synchrotron Radiation-Based Calibrations for Space Weather Prediction. ...

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

280

Monoenergetic Proton Beams Accelerated by a Radiation Pressure Driven Shock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on the acceleration of impurity-free quasimononenergetic proton beams from an initially gaseous hydrogen target driven by an intense infrared ({lambda} = 10 {micro}m) laser. The front surface of the target was observed by optical probing to be driven forward by the radiation pressure of the laser. A proton beam of MeV energy was simultaneously recorded with narrow energy spread ({sigma}-4%), low normalized emittance (-8 nm), and negligible background. The scaling of proton energy with the ratio of intensity over density (I/n) confirms that the acceleration is due to the radiation pressure driven shock.

Palmer, C.A.; Pogorelsky, I.; Dover, N.P.; Babzien, M.; Dudnikova, G.I.; Ispiriyan, M.; Polyanskiy, M.N.; Schreiber, J.; Shkolnikov, P.; Yakimenko, V.; Najmudin, Z.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Radiation Detection Instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Directory of Accredited Laboratories. Radiation Detection Instruments. In 2005, the Department of Homeland Security requested ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

282

Posters A One-Dimensional Radiative Convective Model with Detailed Cloud Microphysics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters A One-Dimensional Radiative Convective Model with Detailed Cloud Microphysics J. Simmons, O. Lie-Svendsen, and K. Stamnes Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska The Arctic is a key element in determining the radiation budget of the earth. Within the polar regions, the net radiation (incoming solar radiation minus outgoing infrared radiation) is negative. To understand the role this energy deficit plays in the overall radiation budget, one must examine the prevalent atmospheric features of the Arctic. One such feature is a persistent layer of low-altitude, stratiform clouds found over the central Arctic predominantly from April to September (Tsay et al. 1984). These Arctic stratus clouds (ASC) modulate the earth's radiation budget

283

Word Pro - S12  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- house Gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases-such as water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for about 98 percent of U.S. CO 2 emissions. The vast majority of CO 2 emissions come from fossil fuel combustion, with smaller amounts from the nonfuel use of fossil fuels, as well as from electricity generation using geothermal energy and non-

284

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

285

Stratified Quasar Winds: Integrating X-ray and Infrared Views of Broad Absorption Line Quasars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quasars are notable for the luminous power they emit across decades in frequency from the far-infrared through hard X-rays; emission at different frequencies emerges from physical scales ranging from AUs to parsecs. Each wavelength regime thus offers a different line of sight into the central engine and a separate probe of outflowing material. Therefore, obtaining a complete accounting of the physical characteristics and kinetic power of quasar winds requires a panchromatic approach. X-ray and infrared studies are particularly powerful for covering the range of interesting physical scales and ionization states of the outflow. We present a stratified wind picture based on a synthesis of multiwavelength research programs designed to constrain the nature of mass ejection from radio-quiet quasars. This wind comprises three zones: the highly ionized shielding gas, the UV broad absorption line wind, and the cold dusty outflow. The primary launching mechanism for the wind likely varies in each zone. While radiative acceleration on resonance lines dominates for the UV absorbing wind, the shielding gas may instead be driven by magnetic forces. Ultraviolet continuum radiative pressure, perhaps coupled with magnetic launching, accelerates a dusty outflow that obscures the inner broad line region in unification schemes.

S. C. Gallagher; J. E. Everett

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

286

Radiation Field Control Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Radiation Management Program is dedicated to reducing nuclear power plant worker personnel exposure by developing practices and technologies to increase the radiation protection of the worker, and to implement methods to reduce radiation fields. The nuclear power industry has recently implemented the RP2020 Initiative to promote positive radiation protection trends. Control of radiation fields is crucial to one of the initiative goals of reducing exposure. This manual provides the current state ...

2004-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloudy Assessment within an Atmospheric Infrared Cloudy Assessment within an Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Pixel by Combining Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Ground-Based Lidar and Radar Measurements L. Adhikari and Z. Wang University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming D. Whiteman National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Water vapor is an important component of the atmosphere in terms of its effects on the global radiation budget through its interaction with both the terrestrial long wave radiation and short wave solar radiation through cloud formation. It is one of the most radiatively active constituent of the atmosphere, ranging from shortwave solar radiances through the broadband infrared (Soden and Bretherton 1993) to

289

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Does an accelerated electron radiate Unruh radiation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accelerated particle sees the Minkowski vacuum as thermally excited, and the particle moves stochastically due to an interaction with the thermal bath. This interaction fluctuates the particle's transverse momenta like the Brownian motion in a heat bath. Because of this fluctuating motion, it has been discussed that the accelerated charged particle emits extra radiation (the Unruh radiation) in addition to the classical Larmor radiation, and experiments are under planning to detect such radiation by using ultrahigh intensity lasers constructed in near future. There are, however, counterarguments that the radiation is canceled by an interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the fluctuating motion. In fact, in the case of an internal detector where the Heisenberg equation of motion can be solved exactly, there is no additional radiation after the thermalization is completed. In this paper, we revisit the issue in the case of an accelerated charged particle in the scalar QED. We first prove the e...

Iso, Satoshi; Zhang, Sen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clouds and Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave, and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve the ...

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato; Konstantin Loukachine; Natividad Manalo-Smith

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Rapid Characterization of Drill Core and Cutting Mineralogy using Infrared  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rapid Characterization of Drill Core and Cutting Mineralogy using Infrared Rapid Characterization of Drill Core and Cutting Mineralogy using Infrared Spectroscopy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rapid Characterization of Drill Core and Cutting Mineralogy using Infrared Spectroscopy Abstract Infrared spectroscopy is particularly good at identifying awide variety of hydrothermally altered minerals with no samplepreparation, and is especially helpful in discrimination amongclay minerals. We have performed several promising pilot studieson geothermal drill core and cuttings that suggest the efficiencyof the technique to sample continuously and provide alterationlogs similar to geophysical logs. We have successfully identifiedlayered silicates, zeolites, opal, calcite, and iron oxides and

293

Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer I. Genkova and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington T. Besnard ATMOS SARL Le...

294

a prospective for new mid-infrared medical endoscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that chalcogenide glass fiberoptics could underpin new mid-infrared medical endoscopic systems for real-time molecular sensing, imaging and...

295

Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004) Exploration...

296

Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal Exploration At The Salton Sea, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference...

297

Infrared Imagery Applied to A Large Buoyant Plume  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of applying infrared imagery to the study of a large, hot plume materialized by carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel oil is investigated.

J-M. Brustet; B. Benech; P. Waldteufel

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

First Principles Simulations of the Infrared Spectrum of Liquid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

infrared spectra. These important findings suggest that through the use of high-performance computing, we can improve our predictive power of aqueous environments. Prof. Galli...

299

High-Temperature Reactor for Diffuse Reflectance Infrared ...  

High-Temperature Reactor for Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy Note: The technology described above is an early stage ...

300

Near Infrared Heating and Sintering; A Versatile Tool to Enable ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single heating technique (near infrared (NIR)) can bring down oven residence times to seconds. Five examples in relation to HOPV production are: (1) TiO2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Testing and Deployment of an Infrared Thermometer Network at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

four user- definable field-of-view retrievals centered on zenith * Ferroelectric thermal infrared detector does not need cryogenic cooling * Detector is resistant to...

302

Cesiated Carbon Nanoflakes Field Emitter Array Infrared Imager  

Cesiated Carbon Nanoflakes Field Emitter Array Infrared Imager ... The field emission current of each cesiated carbon nanoflake structure is modulated by the

303

Laboratory Procedures for using Infrared Thermography to Validate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

925 Laboratory Procedures for using Infrared Thermography to Validate Heat Transfer Models Daniel Trler, Brent T. Griffith, and Dariush K. Arasteh Lawrence Berkeley National...

304

Infrared Thermography in High Level Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy, government-owned, company-operated industrial complex built in the 1950s to produce materials used in nuclear weapons. Five reactors were built to support the production of nuclear weapons material. Irradiated materials were moved from the reactors to one of the two chemical separation plants. In these facilities, known as ''canyons,'' the irradiated fuel and target assemblies were chemically processed to separate useful products from waste. Unfortunately, the by-product waste of nuclear material production was a highly radioactive liquid that had to be stored and maintained. In 1993 a strategy was developed to implement predictive maintenance technologies in the Liquid Waste Disposition Project Division responsible for processing the liquid waste. Responsibilities include the processing and treatment of 51 underground tanks designed to hold 750,000 to1,300,000 gallons of liquid waste and operation of a facility that vitrifies highly radioactive liquid waste into glass logs. Electrical and mechanical equipment monitored at these facilities is very similar to that found in non-nuclear industrial plants. Annual inspections are performed on electrical components, roof systems, and mechanical equipment. Troubleshooting and post installation and post-maintenance infrared inspections are performed as needed. In conclusion, regardless of the industry, the use of infrared thermography has proven to be an efficient and effective method of inspection to help improve plant safety and reliability through early detection of equipment problems.

GLEATON, DAVIDT.

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

305

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

306

Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (<1 m) plants in small ({le}3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using nested hexagonal and rectangular arrays. Energy costs depend on the overall efficiency (useable infrared energy on the plot per electrical energy in), which varies with the radiometric efficiency (infrared radiation out per electrical energy in) of the individual heaters and with the geometric efficiency (fraction of thermal radiation that falls on useable plot area) associated with the arrangement of the heaters in an array. Overall efficiency would be about 26% at 4 ms{sup -1} wind speed for a single hexagonal array over a 3-m-diameter plot and 67% for a 199-hexagon honeycomb array over a 100-m-diameter plot, thereby resulting in an economy of scale.

Kimball B. A.; Lewin K.; Conley, M. M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Radiative effects of a CO/sub 2/ increase: results of a model comparison  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of infrared radiative transfer models is announced. The initial phase is underway, with other phases scheduled through 1984. The results of the ir model comparison will be included in the state-of-the-art report on climate modeling. Although the time scale for completion of the comparison is a few years, significant preliminary results have already been obtained. (PSB)

Luther, F.M.

1982-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

308

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - General Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Radiation Information Answers to Questions about Radiation Dose Ranges Charts - tables showing radiation dose ranges from radio diagnostics to cancer radiotherapy....

309

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Websites about Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Websites About Radiation The ABC's of Nuclear Science A Teacher's Guide To The Nuclear Science Wall Chart Answers to Questions about Radiation and You Background Radiation:...

310

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

311

Carbon nanotubes as near infrared laser susceptors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power (W) q Momentum (kg m s-1) Qc Heat loss through conduction (W) Qr Heat loss through radiation (W) rnuc Nucleation radius (m) Rf Reflection fraction Tf Transmission fraction V Volume (m3) VG Steam specific volume (m3 kg-1) VL Water...

Bahrami, Amir

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

312

High speed infrared imaging system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for radiation detection with an increased frame rate. A semi-parallel processing configuration is used to process a row or column of pixels in a focal-plane array in parallel to achieve a processing rate up to and greater than 1 million frames per second.

Zehnder, Alan T. (Ithaca, NY); Rosakis, Ares J. (Altadena, CA); Ravichandran, G. (Arcadia, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Tachyons and Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND GRAVITATIONAL CHERENKOV RADIATION CHARLES SCHWARTZwould emit gravitational radiation. It is very small.gravitational waves; Cherenkov radiation. In a recent work,

Schwartz, Charles

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advisor Paul Hoover Special Assistant and Issues Management Coordinator Elinor Gwynn Radiation Protection Radiation Protection The Radiation Protection Division supports the...

315

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2.2. Internal ExposureRADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

Rubloff, Gary W.

316

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

317

WI Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

318

Nonionizing Radiation and HIV  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nonionizing Radiation and HIV Name: Flora R Pitchford Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: What are the effects of nonionizing radiation on DNA , RNA or any other cell...

319

Radiation and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation is the driving force for the general circulation of the atmosphere and controls the Earth's climate. Ozone is responsible for the warm stratosphere and protects life on Earth from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In July 1959, the ...

G. Ohring; R. D. Bojkov; H-J. Bolle; R. D. Hudson; H. Volkert

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

322

OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION Yingying Li , Wei Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University ABSTRACT Early detection of oil spill events is the key in detecting the early onset of a small-scale oil spill event. Based on an infrared oil-water contrast model

Yin, Wotao

323

Guideline for Developing and Managing an Infrared Thermography (IRT) Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Guideline for Developing and Managing an Infrared Thermography Program is an extension of a number of reports addressing the use and benefits of infrared thermography (IRT) as a diagnostic tool. This document expands on more of the technology's intricacies, as well as defining procedures for setting up a comprehensive IRT program.

2001-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

Infrared NDT methods applied to solar cell and panel characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Infrared nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are described that have a good potential for providing valuable data concerning solar cell or panel characteristics without requiring contact with the photovoltaic device. Preliminary tests with cells and panels were conducted and the infrared NDT results are presented and discussed. (MHR)

Green, D. R.; Olsen, L. C.

1978-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

325

Hybrid Infrared and Visible Light Projection for Location Tracking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-output light emitting diodes. Figure 5. Inside our projector: A) LED light source B) culminating lens C) DMD for application content. In [4], Nii et al. created an infrared projector prototype using discrete light emitting diodes (LEDs). The projection lens focused directly onto the LED array creating a low resolution infrared

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

326

Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a novel technique to analyze the infrared vein patterns in the back of the hand for biometric purposes. The technique utilizes the minutiae features extracted from the vein patterns for recognition, which include bifurcation points ... Keywords: Biometrics, Infrared, Minutiae, Vein pattern

Lingyu Wang; Graham Leedham; David Siu-Yeung Cho

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Compound parabolic concentrators for narrowband wireless infrared receivers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compound parabolic concentrators for narrowband wireless infrared receivers Keang-Po Ho Joseph M and hollow compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs), for use in free-space infrared communication receivers terms: compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs); optical bandpass fil- ters; Monte Carlo ray tracing

Kahn, Joseph M.

328

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earths surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earths energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

Chen, Jian [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Radiation protection at CERN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Radiation Dosimetry Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Dosimetry Data. Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions. MJ Berger The databases ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

332

Radiation Shields Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Materials Solutions for the Nuclear Renaissance. Presentation Title, Radiation...

333

Synchrotron Infrared Spectroscopy with Multivariate Spectral Analyses Potentially Facilitates the Classification of Inherent Structures of Feed-Type of Sorghum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the inherent structural-chemical features of Chinese feed-type sorghum seed using synchrotron-radiation Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM) with two multivariate molecular spectral analysis techniques: Agglomerative Hierarchical cluster (AHCA) and principal component analyses (PCA). The results show that by application of these two multivariate techniques with the infrared spectroscopy of the SRFTIRM, it makes possible to discriminate and classify the inherent molecular structural features among the different layers of sorghum with a great efficiency. With the SRFTIRM, images of the molecular chemistry of sorghum could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of nutrient matrix and nutrient make-up and interactions could be revealed.

Yu Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav [College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, S7N 5A8 (Canada); Liu Dasen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University (China)

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

334

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT for INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS DE-FG05-85ER13439 1-AUG-1985 to 31-JUL-1994 Robert F. Curl and Graham P. Glass Principal Investigators Introduction This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study (by infrared absorption spectroscopy) of the chemical kinetic behavior of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. The work typically progressed from the detection and analysis of the infrared spectrum of combustion radical to the utilization of the infrared spectrum thus obtained in the investigation of chemical kinetics of the radical species. The methodology employed was infrared kinetic spectroscopy. In this technique the radical is produced by UV flash photolysis using an excimer laser and then

335

Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal Infrared  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal Infrared Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal Infrared Imagery Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Reference Material: Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal Infrared Imagery Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Unavailable Author(s): K. Watson Published: Proceedings of the ninth international symposium on remote sensing of environment, April 15-19, p. 1919-1932., 1974 Document Number: Unavailable DOI: Unavailable Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1974-1976) Raft River Geothermal Area Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Geothermal_Reconnaissance_From_Quantitative_Analysis_Of_Thermal_Infrared_Imagery&oldid=387504" Category:

336

Infrared and Visible Satellite Rain Estimation. Part II: A Cloud Definition Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the relationships between satellite infrared clouds and rainfall, and infrared-threshold visible clouds and rainfall. Clouds are defined by the outline of the 253 K isotherm. Cloud infrared area was highly correlated with rain ...

Andrew J. Negri; Robert F. Adler

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Information Content of Infrared Satellite Sounding Measurements with Respect to CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information theory is used to study the capabilities of the new-generation satellite infrared sounders [Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)] for retrieving atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) ...

R. J. Engelen; G. L. Stephens

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

339

PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

1961-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

340

Radiation detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

Nelson, Melvin A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Davies, Terence J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Morton, III, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Sandia Laboratories radiation facilities  

SciTech Connect

This brochure is designed as a basic source of information for prospective users of Sandia Laboratories Radiation Facilities. It contains a brief description of the various major radiation sources, a summary of their output characteristics, and additional information useful to experimenters. Radiation source development and source upgrading is an ongoing program, with new source configurations and modes of operation continually being devised to satisfy the ever-changing radiation requirements of the users. For most cases, the information here should allow a potential user to assess the applicability of a particular radiation facility to a proposed experiment and to permit some preirradiation calculations and planning.

Choate, L.M.; Schmidt, T.R.; Schuch, R.L.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Report of a workshop on the impact of chemicals on the radiative transfer imbalance  

SciTech Connect

This workshop delineates the significant factors, possessed by any chemical, that may directly or indirectly affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Atmospheric physics research has already given information on direct and indirect effects. An example of direct effect is the cumulative infrared greenhouse effect of several trace gases, some of which are anthropogenic, and the short wave radiative effects of unactivated aerosol particles in clouds. Examples of indirect effects are those of aerosols as they change cloud droplet size distributions and hence albedo and radiative properties, and as found in observations of albedo and absorption anomalies in clouds, and cloud modification by urban pollution. 26 references.

DeLuisi, J.J. (ed.)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Role of aerosols in radiative forcing of climate change: Global mean and uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenically induced climate change is of great current interest because of increases in atmospheric loading of infrared active (greenhouse) gases over the past 150 years and the inferred resultant increase in infrared radiation flux in the troposphere. However, the climate change ascribed to such increases, not to mention predictions of future climate change in response to prospective changes in the earth`s radiation budget, is based virtually entirely on climate model simulations of how the earth`s climate would respond to changes in radiation rather than on empirically established relationships between changes in the earth`s radiation budget and climate change. There is thus an urgent need to evaluate the performance of climate models to ascertain the accuracy with which they represent the changes in temperature and other indicia of climate that have been observed over the industrial period. Such an evaluation, however, requires an accurate assessment of the totality of changes in the earth`s radiation budget in both the longwave (thermal infrared) and shortwave (solar) spectral regions, not just of changes in the longwave due to increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases.

Schwartz, S.E.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Amorphous silicon solar cell allowing infrared transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An amorphous silicon solar cell with a layer of high index of refraction material or a series of layers having high and low indices of refraction material deposited upon a transparent substrate to reflect light of energies greater than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon back into the solar cell and transmit solar radiation having an energy less than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon.

Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

NIST Optical Radiation Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Staff Directory. Staff. Name, Position, Office Phone. ... Contact. Optical Radiation Group Eric Shirley, Group Leader. ...

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

347

NVLAP Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry LAP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry LAP. ... This site has been established for applicants to the accreditation program for ionizing radiation dosimetry. ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Welcome. The Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division is a division ... disseminate the national standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

349

NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course. ... 2012 NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course October 15-19, 2012 NIST Gaithersburg, Maryland. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Ionizing Radiation Division of the Physics Laboratory supports the ... meaningful, and compatible measurements of ionizing radiations (x rays ...

351

Instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Volume 3. Radiation  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive survey of instrunnentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory under a grant from the Natioral Science Foundation. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements of Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedical Parameters related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. The survey material is compiled in 5 loose- leaf volumes which can be periodically updated. An update for volume 3 on radiation instrumentation is presented. New pages are included for insertion in the introductory material and also under the headings nuclear reactors, combination instruments, alpha particle instrumentation, beta particle instrumentation, x and gamma radiation monitoring instrumentation, gamma spectrometry, neutron monitoring instrumentation, personnel dosimetry, radionuclides (strontium -89 and -90, iodine -129 and -131, radium, uranium, plutonium, and instrument notes), and infrared. (WHK)

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Visible/infrared radiometric calibration station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have begun construction of a visible/infrared radiometric calibration station that will allow for absolute calibration of optical and IR remote sensing instruments with clear apertures less than 16 inches in diameter in a vacuum environment. The calibration station broadband sources will be calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and allow for traceable absolute radiometric calibration to within {plus_minus}3% in the visible and near IR (0.4--2.5 {mu}m), and less than {plus_minus}1% in the infrared, up to 12 {mu}m. Capabilities for placing diffraction limited images or for sensor full-field flooding will exist. The facility will also include the calibration of polarization and spectral effects, spatial resolution, field of view performance, and wavefront characterization. The configuration of the vacuum calibration station consists of an off-axis 21 inch, f/3.2, parabolic collimator with a scanning fold flat in collimated space. The sources are placed, via mechanisms to be described, at the focal plane of the off-axis parabola. Vacuum system pressure will be in the 10{sup {minus}6} Torr range. The broadband white-light source is a custom design by LANL with guidance from Labsphere Inc. The continuous operating radiance of the integrating sphere will be from 0.0--0.006 W/cm{sup 2}/Sr/{mu}m (upper level quoted for {approximately}500 nm wavelength). The blackbody source is also custom designed at LANL with guidance from NIST. The blackbody temperature will be controllable between 250--350{degrees}K. Both of the above sources have 4.1 inch apertures with estimated radiometric instability at less than 1%. The designs of each of these units will be described. The monochromator and interferometer light sources are outside the vacuum, but all optical relay and beam shaping optics are enclosed within the vacuum calibration station. These sources are described, as well as the methodology for alignment and characterization.

Byrd, D.A.; Maier, W.B. II; Bender, S.C.; Holland, R.F.; Michaud, F.D.; Luettgen, A.L.; Christensen, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); O`Brian, T.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NML), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Radiometric Physics Div.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Solar radiation model validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several mathematical models have been developed within the past few years which estimate the solar radiation from other weather variables. Some of these models have been used to generate data bases which are extensively used in the design and analysis of solar system. Three of these solar radiation models have been used in developing the Augmented SOLMET Solar Data Tapes for the 26 SOLMET sites and the 222 ERSATZ Solar Data Tapes. One of the models, a theoretical one, predicts the solar noon radiation for clear sky conditions from the optical air mass, precipitable water vapor and turbidity variables. A second model, an empirical one, predicts the hourly total horizontal radiation from meteorological variables. And, a third model, also an empirical one, predicts the hourly direct normal radiation from the hourly total horizontal radiation. A study of the accuracy of these three solar radiation models is reported here. To assess the accuracy of these models, data were obtained from several US National Weather Service Stations and other sources, used the models to estimate the solar-radiation, and then compared the modeled radiation values with observed radiation values. The results of these comparisons and conclusions regarding the accuracy of the models are presented.

Hall, I.J.; Prairie, R.R.; Anderson, H.E.; Boes, E.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION SAFETY is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students who are directly or indirectly involved in the use of radioisotopes or radiation-producing machines. In July 1963, the State of Texas granted The University of Texas at Austin a broad radioactive materials license for research, development and instruction. While this means a minimum of controls by the state, it requires that The University establish and pursue an effective Radiation Safety Program. The Radiation Safety Committee is responsible for The University's radiation control program outlined in this manual. The use of radiation in a university, where a large number of people may be unaware of their exposure to radiation hazards, makes strict adherence to procedures established by federal and state authorities of paramount importance for the protection of The University and the safety of its faculty, staff and students. It is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students involved in radiation work to familiarize themselves thoroughly with The University's radiation control program and to comply with its requirements and all applicable federal and state regulations. I hope you will always keep in mind that radiation safety depends on a continuous awareness of potential hazards and on the acceptance

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Probing brain oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. This technique allows to measure the oxygenation of the brain tissue. The particular problems involved in detecting regional brain oxygenation (rSO2) are discussed. The dominant chromophore (light absorber) in tissue is water. Only in the NIR light region of 650-1000 nm, the overall absorption is sufficiently low, and the NIR light can be detected across a thick layer of tissues, among them the skin, the scull and the brain. In this region, there are many absorbing light chromophores, but only three are important as far as the oxygenation is concerned. They are the hemoglobin (HbO2), the deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) and cytochrome oxidase (CtOx). In the last 20 years there was an enormous growth in the instrumentation and applications of NIRS. . The devices that were used in our experiments were : Somanetics's INVOS Brain Oximeter (IBO) and Toomim's HEG spectrophotometer. The performances of both devices were compared including their merits and draw...

Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Quantitative infrared analysis of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant where hydrogen fluoride is produced upon the hydrolysis of UF{sub 6}. This poses a problem for in this setting and a method for determining the mole percent concentration was desired. HF has been considered to be a non-ideal gas for many years. D. F. Smith utilized complex equations in his HF studies in the 1950s. We have evaluated HF behavior as a function of pressure from three different perspectives. (1) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of pressure for 100% HF. (2) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of increasing partial pressure HF. Total pressure = 300 mm HgA maintained with nitrogen. (3) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} for constant partial pressure HF. Total pressure is increased to greater than 800 mm HgA with nitrogen. These experiments have shown that at partial pressures up to 35mm HgA, HIF follows the ideal gas law. The absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} can be quantitatively analyzed via infrared methods.

Manuta, D.M.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Infrared Transmission Spectra for Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Among the hot Jupiters that transit their parent stars known to date, the two best candidates to be observed with transmission spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (MIR) are HD189733b and HD209458b, due to their combined characteristics of planetary density, orbital parameters and parent star distance and brightness. Here we simulate transmission spectra of these two planets during their primary eclipse in the MIR, and we present sensitivity studies of the spectra to the changes of atmospheric thermal properties, molecular abundances and C/O ratios. Our model predicts that the dominant species absorbing in the MIR on hot Jupiters are water vapor and carbon monoxide, and their relative abundances are determined by the C/O ratio. Since the temperature profile plays a secondary role in the transmission spectra of hot Jupiters compared to molecular abundances, future primary eclipse observations in the MIR of those objects might give an insight on EGP atmospheric chemistry. We find here that the absorption features caused by water vapor and carbon monoxide in a cloud-free atmosphere, are deep enough to be observable by the present and future generation of space-based observatories, such as Spitzer Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope. We discuss our results in light of the capabilities of these telescopes.

G. Tinetti; M. C. Liang; A. Vidal-Madjar; D. Ehrenreich; A. Lecavelier des Etangs; Y. Yung

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

358

Infrared Thermographic Study of Laser Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet. The experimental apparatus used to make these observations is described. The temperature distributions recorded are shown to be in good agreement with those predicted by heat transfer theory. Heat content values calculated from the observed temperature distributions are used to calculate thermal and kinetic parameters for several samples. These values are found to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

Mohler, Jonathan H.; Chow, Charles T. S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE  

SciTech Connect

Carbon fiber-reinforced bisphenol-A epoxy matrix composite was evaluated for gamma radiation resistance. The composite was exposed to total gamma doses of 50, 100, and 200 Mrad. Irradiated and baseline samples were tested for tensile strength, hardness and evaluated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) for structural changes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Mechanical testing of the composite bars revealed no apparent change in modulus, strain to failure, or fracture strength after exposures. However, testing of only the epoxy matrix revealed changes in hardness, thermal properties, and FTIR results with increasing gamma irradiation. The results suggest the epoxy within the composite can be affected by exposure to gamma irradiation.

Hoffman, E

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

360

Posters Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Measured  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Posters Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Measured by Combined Lidar, Radar, and Infrared Radiometer W. L. Eberhard and J. M. Intrieri National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. P. Chan and G. Feingold Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Boulder, Colorado also an order of magnitude smaller. These features make simple approximations in scattering calculations adequate for some applications, e.g., Eberhard (1993a). They also provide some unique capabilities, especially the technique described below for measuring drop sizes. One of the four IDP tasks is to characterize cloud signatures obtained by CO 2 lidar. For instance, our earlier work discovered that depolarization from ice particles was almost

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Electroweak Radiative Corrections to the Parity-violating Asymmetry for SLAC Experiment E158  

SciTech Connect

Electroweak radiative corrections to observable quantities of Moeller scattering of polarized particles are calculated. We emphasize the contribution induced by infrared divergent parts of cross section. The covariant method is used to remove infrared divergences, so that our results do not involve any unphysical parameters. When applied to the kinematics of SLAC E158 experiment, these corrections reduce the parity violating asymmetry by about -6.5% at E = 48 GeV and y = 0.5, and kinematically weighted 'hard' bremsstrahlung effect for SLAC E158 is {approx} 1%.

Zykunov, Vladimir A.; /Gomel State Tech. U.

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

362

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

363

RADIATION WAVE DETECTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

Wouters, L.F.

1960-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

Effects of atomic radiation  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the lifelong effects of atomic radiation exposure in language understandable by the concerned layperson or the specialist in another field. The base of knowledge used is the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor since 1975 the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Within the range of Chronic effects on human health the book provides a thorough review, although effects of nonionizing radiation, effects on structures, effects on other living species, and acute effects are not discussed.

Schull, W.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared Data Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared Data Abstract Remote sensing is a cost-effective tool that can be used to cover large areas for the purpose of geothermal exploration. A particular application is the use of satellite thermal infrared (TIR) imagery from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard an orbiting satellite. It can be used to search remotely for elevated surface temperatures, which may be associated with geothermal resources. The study region is in the central part of eastern California, with emphasis on the Coso geothermal field. Nighttime scenes are most

366

Mesoscale Cloud State Estimation from Visible and Infrared Satellite Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on cloudy atmosphere state estimation from high-resolution visible and infrared satellite remote sensing measurements and a mesoscale model with explicit cloud prediction. The cloud state is defined as 3D spatially distributed ...

T. Vukicevic; T. Greenwald; M. Zupanski; D. Zupanski; T. Vonder Haar; A. S. Jones

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Cirrus Infrared Parameters and Shortwave Reflectance Relations from Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A summary of experimental observations and analysis of cirrus from high-altitude aircraft remote sensing is presented. The vertical distribution of cirrus optical and infrared cross-section parameters and the relative effective emittance and ...

James D. Spinhirne; William D. Hart; Dennis L. Hlavka

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Aerial Thermal Infrared Mapping Of The Waimangu-Waiotapu Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aerial Thermal Infrared Mapping Of The Waimangu-Waiotapu Geothermal Region, New Zealand - M A Mongillo, Geothermics, 23(5-6), 1994, Pp 511-526 Jump to: navigation, search...

369

Infrared Thermal Imagery of Cloud Base in Tornadic Supercells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the spring seasons of 2003 and 2004, an infrared thermal camera was deployed in and around supercell thunderstorms in an attempt to retrieve the temperature at the cloud base of a mesocyclone prior to tornadogenesis. The motivation for ...

Robin L. Tanamachi; Howard B. Bluestein; Stephen S. Moore; Robert P. Madding

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Estimating Tropical Cyclone Intensity from Infrared Image Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes results from a near-real-time objective technique for estimating the intensity of tropical cyclones from satellite infrared imagery in the North Atlantic Ocean basin. The technique quantifies the level of organization or ...

Miguel F. Pieros; Elizabeth A. Ritchie; J. Scott Tyo

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Infrared Thermography (IRT) Anomalies Manual (Revision 1 - 2001)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual provides both an overview of the basic concepts of infrared thermography (IRT) technology and an examination of applications of the technology for equipment used to produce and deliver electric power.

2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

372

The Multi-Channel Infrared Sea Truth Radiometric Calibrator (MISTRC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new multichannel infrared sea truth radiometer has been designed and built to improve validation of satellite-determined sea surface temperature. Horizontal grid polarized filters installed on the shortwave channels are very effective in ...

M. J. Suarez; W. J. Emery; G. A. Wick

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Infrared Continental Surface Emissivity Spectra Retrieved from AIRS Hyperspectral Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS; NASA Aqua platform) observations over land are interpreted in terms of monthly mean surface emissivity spectra at a resolution of 0.05 ?m and skin temperature. For each AIRS observation, an estimation of the ...

E. Pquignot; A. Chdin; N. A. Scott

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Pilot aerial infrared roof top survey. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of a pilot aerial infrared roof top study conducted by the Minnesota Energy Agency. Infrared surveys of 27 Minnesota cities were conducted during the fall and winter of the 1976-1977 heating season. In addition, conventional daytime color photographs were taken of several cities. Film processing was done by the Environmental Protection Agency. The University of Minnesota conducted ground tests to verify the aerial infrared imagery. Thermograph dissemination centers were established in each city and training seminars and materials were prepared and delivered to dissemination center staff. A survey of homeowners who viewed their thermograph at a dissemination center were used to determine the energy savings resulting from the program. An Aerial Infrared Program Users Manual was prepared by the Energy Agency and the Remote Sensing Institute of Brookings, South Dakota.

1979-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned...

376

An Infrared Hygrometer for Atmospheric Research and Routine Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and testing of a field durable, infrared differential absorption hygrometer is described. This noncontact hygrometer offers reliable operation in harsh environments while maintaining subsecond response speed. A modified ...

Todd A. Cerni

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

The NCAR Airborne Infrared Lidar System: Status and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Center for Atmospheric Research Airborne Infrared Lidar System is being developed for Doppler wind measurements using heterodyne detection. Its design is based on a pulsed CO2 laser transmitter and a single continuous-wave CO2 laser ...

R. L. Schwiesow; M. P. Spowart

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

SciTech Connect

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Radiation Shielding Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shielding Radiation Shielding Applications Heavy concrete is standard concrete in which conventional aggregate (typically gravel) is replaced with aggregate composed of a dense...

380

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

382

Quick Reference Information - Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma and x-rays are photons. Protons: Positively charged elementary particles found in atomic nuclei. Radiation: The propagation of energy through space, or some other medium,...

383

Synchrotron Radiation Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Radiation Effects in the IR Solenoid Flux Excluder Peter Tenenbaum LCC-Note-0007 Draft 23-September-1998 Abstract We examine the emittance dilution due to synchrotron...

384

Human Radiation Experiments: Multimedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the oral histories of researchers and others possessing firsthand knowledge of human radiation experimentation during World War II and the Cold War. Film Clips: Document...

385

Living with radiation  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an account of the hopes and fears associated with ionizing radiation, extending from nuclear energy and medical radiation to nuclear weapons. They argue that a justified fear of nuclear weapons has led to a widespread, unjustified, and unreasoning fear of the beneficial applications of radiation. Although these two aspects of atomic energy are tied together-they both involve the nucleus of the atom and its radioactive rays-a deep misunderstanding of this relationship by the general public has evolved since the time of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The authors' aim is to place the beneficial applications of nuclear radiation in perspective.

Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Ketchum, L.E. (Proclinica, Inc., New York, NY (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study Science Objective This field campaign is designed to increase scientific knowledge about the evolution of black carbon, primary organic...

387

Pomeron fan diagrams with an infrared cutoff and running coupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By direct numerical calculations the influence of a physically relevant infrared cutoff and running coupling on the gluon density and structure function of a large nucleus is studied in the perturbative QCD approach. It is found that the infrared cutoff changes the solutions very little. Running of the coupling produces a bigger change, considerably lowering both the saturation momentum and values of the structure functions.

M. A. Braun

2003-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

388

Miniaturized Mid-Infrared Sensor Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental vibrational and rotational modes associated with most inorganic and organic molecules are spectroscopically accessible within the mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 {micro}m) regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The interaction between MIR photons and organic molecules provides particularly sharp transitions, which - despite the wide variety of organic molecules - provide unique MIR absorption spectra reflecting the molecularly characteristic arrangement of chemical bonds within the probed molecules via the frequency position of the associated vibrational and rotational transitions. Given the inherent molecular selectivity and achievable sensitivity, MIR spectroscopy provides an ideal platform for optical sensing applications. Despite this potential, early MIR sensing applications were limited to localized applications due to the size of the involved instrumentation, and limited availability of appropriately compact MIR optical components including light sources, detectors, waveguides, and spectrometers. During the last decades, engineering advances in photonics and optical engineering have facilitated the translation of benchtop-style MIR spectroscopy into miniaturized optical sensing schemes providing a footprint compatible with portable instrumentation requirements for field deployable analytical tools. In this trend article, we will discuss recent advances and future strategies for miniaturizing MIR sensor technology. The Beer-Lambert law implies that achievable limit of detection (LOD) for any optical sensor system improves by increasing the interaction length between photons and target analyte species such as e.g., folding the optical path multiple times as in multi-pass gas phase sensing; however, this governing paradigm naturally leads to an increase in system dimensions. Hence, miniaturization of optical sensing system requires scaling down of each optical component, yet improving the performance of each optical element within a smaller form factor for overall at least maintaining, or ideally improving the achievable sensitivity.

Kim, S; Young, C; Mizaikoff, B

2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

389

High-sensitivity, and cost-effective system for infrared imaging of concealed objects in dynamic mode.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel, cost-efficient, and highly-sensitive IR imaging systems play an important role in homeland security functions. Technical limitations in the areas of sensitivity, contrast ratio, bandwidth and cost continue to constrain imaging capabilities. We have designed and prototyped a compact computer-piloted high sensitivity infrared imaging system. The device consists of infrared optics, cryostat, low-noise pre-amplifier, Analog-to-Digital hardware, feedback electronics, and unique image processing software. Important advantages of the developed system are: (i) Eight electronic channels are available for simultaneous registration of IR and visible images in multiple spectral ranges, (ii) Capability of real-time analysis such as comparing the 'sensed' image with 'reference' images from a database, (iii) High accuracy temperature measurement of multiple points on the image by referencing the radiation intensity from the object to a black body model, (iv) Image generation by real-time integration of images from multiple sensors operating from the visible to the terahertz range. The device was tested with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled, single-pixel HgCdTe detector for imaging in 8-12 microns range. The demonstrated examples of infrared imaging of concealed objects in static and dynamic modes include a hammer (metal head and wooden handle), plastic imitator of handguns hidden under clothes, powder in an envelope, and revealing complex wall structures under decorative plaster.

Gordiyenko, E.; Yefremenko, V.; Pearson, J.; Bader, S.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

390

Selective radiative cooling with MgO and/or LiF layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A selective radiation cooling material which is absorptive only in the 8 to 13 microns wavelength range is accomplished by placing ceramic magnesium oxide and/or polycrystalline lithium fluoride on an infrared-reflective substrate. The reflecting substrate may be a metallic coating, foil or sheet, such as aluminum, which reflects all atmospheric radiation from 0.3 to 8 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride being nonabsorptive at those wavelengths. <10% of submicron voids in the material is permissible in which case the MgO and/or LiF layer is diffusely scattering, but still nonabsorbing, in the wavelength range of 0.3 to 8 microns. At wavelengths from 8 to 13 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride radiate power through the ''window'' in the atmosphere, and thus remove heat from the reflecting sheet of material and the attached object to be cooled. At wavelengths longer than 13 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride reflects the atmospheric radiation back into the atmosphere. This high reflectance is only obtained if the surface is sufficiently smooth: roughness on a scale of 1 micron is permissible but roughness on a scale of 10 microns is not. An infrared-transmitting cover or shield is mounted in spaced relationship to the material to reduce convective heat transfer. If this is utilized in direct sunlight, the infrared transmitting cover or shield should be opaque in the solar spectrum of 0.3 to 3 microns.

Berdahl, P.H.

1984-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

391

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation, increasing the near-surface temperature.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

392

DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF RADIATION PRESSURE-DRIVEN TURBULENCE AND WINDS IN STAR CLUSTERS AND GALACTIC DISKS  

SciTech Connect

The pressure exerted by the radiation of young stars may be an important feedback mechanism that drives turbulence and winds in forming star clusters and the disks of starburst galaxies. However, there is great uncertainty in how efficiently radiation couples to matter in these high optical depth environments. In particular, it is unclear what levels of turbulence the radiation can produce, and whether the infrared radiation trapped by the dust opacity can give rise to heavily mass-loaded winds. In this paper, we report a series of two-dimensional flux-limited diffusion radiation-hydrodynamics calculations performed with the code ORION in which we drive strong radiation fluxes through columns of dusty matter confined by gravity in order to answer these questions. We consider both systems where the radiation flux is sub-Eddington throughout the gas column, and those where it is super-Eddington at the midplane but sub-Eddington in the atmosphere. In the latter, we find that the radiation-matter interaction gives rise to radiation-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which drives supersonic turbulence at a level sufficient to fully explain the turbulence seen in Galactic protocluster gas clouds, and to make a non-trivial contribution to the turbulence observed in starburst galaxy disks. However, the instability also produces a channel structure in which the radiation-matter interaction is reduced compared to time-steady analytic models because the radiation field is not fully trapped. For astrophysical parameters relevant to forming star clusters and starburst galaxies, we find that this effect reduces the net momentum deposition rate in the dusty gas by a factor of {approx}2-6 compared to simple analytic estimates, and that in steady state the Eddington ratio reaches unity and there are no strong winds. We provide an approximation formula, appropriate for implementation in analytic models and non-radiative simulations, for the force exerted by the infrared radiation field in this regime.

Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thompson, Todd A., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org, E-mail: thompson@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Infrared emission spectra or uranium and thorium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The region between 1 and 5.5 ..mu..m has been observed with a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. See-through hollow cathode lamps with calcium fluoride windows were operated at high current. Special precautions were required to minimize interference by blackbody radiation from the hot cathode. Observed lines were measured to an absolute accuracy of about 0.001 cm/sup -1/ and about 5% relative intensity accuracy. The argon carrier gas lines were readily distinguished by their much wider Doppler-broadened linewidths. Many lines were assigned to neutral or singly-ionized thorium on the basis of predicted transition wavenumbers calculated from accurate level lists. However, many lines remain to be assigned. This new spectral data connects to, and extends similar, spectral information given in our uranium and thorium atlases which cover the ultraviolet and visible regions.

Palmer, B.A.; Phillips, M.V.; Engleman, R. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

The whitehouse effect: shortwave radiative forcing of climate by anthropogenic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Increases in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other infrared active gases over the industrial period are thought to have increased the average flux of longwave (thermal infrared) radiation between the surface of the earth and the lower atmosphere, leading to an increase in global mean temperature. Over the same period it is though that concentrations of aerosol particles in the troposphere have similarly increased as a consequence of industrial emissions and that these increased concentrations of particles have increased the earth`s reflectivity of shortwave (solar) radiation incident on the planet both directly, by scattering radiation, and indirectly, by increasing the reflectivity of clouds. The term ``whitehouse effect`` is introduced to refer to this increased scattering of shortwave radiation by analogy to the term ``greenhouse effect,`` which refers to the enhanced trapping of longwave radiation resulting from increased concentrations of infrared active gases. Each of these phenomena is referred to as a ``forcing`` of the earth`s climate, that is a secular change imposed on the system; such a forcing is to be distinguished from a ``response`` of the system, such as a change in global mean temperature or other index of global climate. The forcing due to the direct and indirect effects induced by anthropogenic aerosols has been estimated to be comparable in global- average magnitude to that due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, but it is of opposite direction, that is exerting a cooling influence. The shortwave radiative influence of anthropogenic aerosols may thus be considered to be offsetting some, perhaps a great fraction, of the longwave radiative influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases.

Schwartz, S.E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

Solar radiation modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sun is the main energy source of the life on the Earth. Thus, solar radiation energy data and models are important for many areas of research and applications. Many parameters influence the amount of solar energy at a particular standing point of ... Keywords: Digital elevation model, Energy of quasiglobal radiation, Meteorology, Shadows, Virtual Sun motion

Klemen Zakek; Toma Podobnikar; Kritof Otir

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electromagnetic radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

Benson, Jay L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hansen, Gordon J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Radiation detection system  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments This database contains information on records collections related to human radiation...

399

Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

Bos, Adrie J. J. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)

2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

400

Underwater radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.

Jerry Y. Harrington

2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

402

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

403

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Slide Shows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dose Health Effects of Radiation Health Effects of Radiation Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation PDF Background Radiation PDF Bystander Effects PDF Dirty Bombs PDF DNA Damage...

404

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Funding Radiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Funding Radiation Research Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Centers for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological and...

405

National Solar Radiation Data Base

The National Solar Radiation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) is the most comprehensive collection of solar data freely available. The 1991 - 2005 NSRDB contains hourly solar radiation (including...

406

The Properties of Undulator Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Dedicated Synchrotron Radiation Facility," IEEE Trans.1983), "Characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation and of itsHandbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E. -E. Koch.1A. 65-172,

Howells, M.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Coherent Radiation in an Undulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solving the particle-radiation system in a self-consistentto clarify the coherent radiation mechanism. References 1.the Proceedings Coherent Radiation in an Undulator Y,H. Chin

Chin, Y.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the laser, and they presented a physical model that shows how this occurs under the proper conditions. Such a mechanism makes it possible to control the instability onset and to exploit its gain for the generation of pulses of terahertz CSR of unprecedented power. Terahertz radiation with a wavelength from about 1 cm to about 100 microns between the microwave and the infrared would provide access to a large number of fundamental phenomena. To mention only some of them: excited electrons orbit, small molecules rotate, proteins vibrate, superconducting energy gaps resonate, and gaseous and solid-state plasmas oscillate at terahertz frequencies. But generating terahertz radiation is ordinarily a challenging task for any kind of source, including storage-ring-based synchrotron light sources. The new findings by the ALS group could represent a significant step toward satisfying the need for powerful terahertz sources.

409

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the laser, and they presented a physical model that shows how this occurs under the proper conditions. Such a mechanism makes it possible to control the instability onset and to exploit its gain for the generation of pulses of terahertz CSR of unprecedented power. Terahertz radiation with a wavelength from about 1 cm to about 100 microns between the microwave and the infrared would provide access to a large number of fundamental phenomena. To mention only some of them: excited electrons orbit, small molecules rotate, proteins vibrate, superconducting energy gaps resonate, and gaseous and solid-state plasmas oscillate at terahertz frequencies. But generating terahertz radiation is ordinarily a challenging task for any kind of source, including storage-ring-based synchrotron light sources. The new findings by the ALS group could represent a significant step toward satisfying the need for powerful terahertz sources.

410

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

411

ENSEMBLE VARIABILITY OF NEAR-INFRARED-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the properties of the ensemble variability V for nearly 5000 near-infrared active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the catalog of Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (13th Edition) and the SDSS-DR7 quasar catalog. From three near-infrared point source catalogs, namely, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), Deep Near Infrared Survey (DENIS), and UKIDSS/LAS catalogs, we extract 2MASS-DENIS and 2MASS-UKIDSS counterparts for cataloged AGNs by cross-identification between catalogs. We further select variable AGNs based on an optimal criterion for selecting the variable sources. The sample objects are divided into subsets according to whether near-infrared light originates by optical emission or by near-infrared emission in the rest frame; and we examine the correlations of the ensemble variability with the rest-frame wavelength, redshift, luminosity, and rest-frame time lag. In addition, we also examine the correlations of variability amplitude with optical variability, radio intensity, and radio-to-optical flux ratio. The rest-frame optical variability of our samples shows negative correlations with luminosity and positive correlations with rest-frame time lag (i.e., the structure function, SF), and this result is consistent with previous analyses. However, no well-known negative correlation exists between the rest-frame wavelength and optical variability. This inconsistency might be due to a biased sampling of high-redshift AGNs. Near-infrared variability in the rest frame is anticorrelated with the rest-frame wavelength, which is consistent with previous suggestions. However, correlations of near-infrared variability with luminosity and rest-frame time lag are the opposite of these correlations of the optical variability; that is, the near-infrared variability is positively correlated with luminosity but negatively correlated with the rest-frame time lag. Because these trends are qualitatively consistent with the properties of radio-loud quasars reported by some previous studies, most of our sample objects are probably radio-loud quasars. Finally, we also discuss the negative correlations seen in the near-infrared SFs.

Kouzuma, S. [School of International Liberal Studies, Chukyo University, Toyota 470-0393 (Japan); Yamaoka, H., E-mail: skouzuma@lets.chukyo-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yamaoka@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

413

NVLAP Radiation Detection Instruments LAP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Detection Instruments LAP. Leticia Pibida uses a hand-held radiation detection device to check cargo. Photo: Copyright Robert Rathe. ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

414

Human Radiation Experiments: What's New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Defense Report Finding Aids Department of Defense Report on Search for Human Radiation Experiments Records 1944-1994 Exit Human Radiation Experiments Site This...

415

Radiation Effects in Nanoporous Gold  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Foams with filament and porous sizes in the range of nanometers could be unusually resistant to radiation because radiation induced point defects cannot...

416

Mid-Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Nearby Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Spitzer Space Telescope is pushing into new frontiers in high redshift astronomy. Closer to home, Spitzer is making an equally large impact on our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. In this contribution we present mid-infrared diagnostics based largely on data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). Our main result is that these mid-infrared diagnostics effectively constrain a target's dominant power source. The combination of a high ionization line index and PAH strength serves as an efficient discriminant between AGN and star-forming nuclei, confirming progress made with ISO spectroscopy on starbursting and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The sensitivity of Spitzer allows us to probe fainter nuclei and star-forming regions within galaxy disks. We find that both star-forming nuclei and extranuclear regions stand apart from nuclei that are powered by Seyfert or LINER activity. In fact, we identify areas within three diagnostic diagrams containing >90% Seyfert/LINER nuclei or >90% HII regions/HII nuclei. We also find that, compared to starbursting nuclei, extranuclear regions typically separate even further from AGN, especially for low-metallicity extranuclear environments. In addition, instead of the traditional mid-infrared approach to differentiating between AGN and star-forming sources that utilizes relatively weak high-ionization lines, we show that strong low-ionization cooling lines of X-ray dominated regions like [SiII] 34.82 micron can alternatively be used as excellent discrimants.

Daniel A. Dale; the SINGS Team

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

419

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

METHOD FOR MEASURING RADIATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring an unknown integrated quantity of radiation with a condenser ionization chamber is described. The chamber is initially charged to a predetermined voltage by a voltage source. The chamber is then removed from the source and exposed to an unknown quantity of radiation for a period of time. The quantity of radiation to which the chamber was exposed is then measured by detecting the magnitude of the pulse of current necessary to recharge the chamber of its initial value through a suitable impedance. The current pulse is amplified and measured directly by a suitable pulse height analyzing system. (AEC)

Roesch, W.C.; McCall, R.C.

1961-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cool colors for Summer: Characterizing the Radiative Properties of Pigments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool colors for Summer: Characterizing the Radiative Properties of Pigments Cool colors for Summer: Characterizing the Radiative Properties of Pigments for Cool Roofs Speaker(s): Ronnen Levinson Date: April 22, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 In recent years roofing manufacturers have incorporated near-infrared (NIR) reflecting pigments in coatings applied to a variety of nonwhite roofing products, such as metal panels and clay tiles. We have developed and validated a model for computation of solar spectral absorption (K) and backscattering (S) coefficients, and used it to characterize a wide variety of pigments that may be used in architectural coatings.Measured values of backscattering coefficients for generic titanium dioxide (rutile) white pigment are in rough agreement with values computed from Mie theory. Pigments in widespread use are examined, with particular emphasis on those

422

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from the University of California at San Diego, Columbia University, and the ALS has succeeded in probing the dynamical properties of the charge carriers in graphene with an accuracy never before achieved. Their results have uncovered signatures of many-body interactions in graphene and have demonstrated the potential of graphene for novel applications in optoelectronics.

423

Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal Exploration At The Salton Sea, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal Exploration At The Salton Sea, California Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Salton Sea geothermal field straddles the southeast margin of the Salton Sea in California, USA. This field includes approximately 20km2 of mud volcanoes and mud pots and centered on the Mullet Island thermal anomaly. The area has been previously exploited for geothermal power; there are currently seven power plants in the area that produce 1000 MW. The field itself is relatively un-vegetated, which provides for unfettered

424

Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T. Griffith ASHRAE Member, Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh P.E. ASHRAE Member Building Technologies Program Environment Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley CA 94720 USA August 2, 2001 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs, Office of Building Systems of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. Surface Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith 1 , Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh

425

Application Of Airborne Thermal Infrared Imagery To Geothermal Exploration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Infrared Imagery To Geothermal Exploration Thermal Infrared Imagery To Geothermal Exploration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Application Of Airborne Thermal Infrared Imagery To Geothermal Exploration Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Burlington Northern (BN) conducted TIR surveys using a fixed wing aircraft over 17 different geothermal prospects in Washington, Montana and Wyoming because of this remote sensing tool's ability to detect variations in the heat emitted from the earth's surface. The surveys were flown at an average elevation of 5000 ft. above the ground surface which gave a spatial resolution of approximately 7 feet diameter. BN found thermal activity which had not been recognized previously in some prospects (e.g., Lester,

426

ARM - Evaluation Product - Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsAirborne Visible/Infrared Imaging ProductsAirborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) 1997.08.01 - 1997.08.01 Site(s) SGP General Description AVIRIS is an optical sensor that delivers calibrated images of the upwelling spectral radiance in 224 contiguous spectral channels (bands) with wavelengths from 400 to 2500 nanometers. AVIRIS has been flown on two aircraft platforms: a NASA ER-2 jet and the Twin Otter turboprop. The main objective of the AVIRIS project is to identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures. Research with

427

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from the University of California at San Diego, Columbia University, and the ALS has succeeded in probing the dynamical properties of the charge carriers in graphene with an accuracy never before achieved. Their results have uncovered signatures of many-body interactions in graphene and have demonstrated the potential of graphene for novel applications in optoelectronics.

428

Cryogenic Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier for Astronomical Infrared Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a new capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) that can be operated at 2 K, and have good performance as readout circuits of astronomical far-infrared array detectors. The circuit design of the present CTIA consists of silicon p-MOSFETs and other passive elements. The process is a standard Bi-CMOS process with 0.5$mu$m design rule. The open-loop gain of the CTIA is more than 300, resulting in good integration performance. The output voltage swing of the CTIA was 270 mV. The power consumption for each CTIA is less than 10$mu$W. The noise at the output showed a$1/rm f$noise spectrum of 4$mu$V/$surdhbox Hz$at 1 Hz. The performance of this CTIA nearly fulfills the requirements for the far-infrared array detectors onboard ASTRO-F, Japanese infrared astronomical satellite to be launched in 2005.

Hirohisa Nagata; Hiroshi Shibai; Takanori Hirao; Toyoki Watabe; Manabu Noda; Yasunori Hibi; Mitsunobu Kawada; Takao Nakagawa

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Apparatus for generating coherent infrared energy of selected wavelength  

SciTech Connect

A tunable source (11) of coherent infrared energy includes a heat pipe (12) having an intermediate region (24) at which cesium (22) is heated to vaporizing temperature and end regions (27, 28) at which the vapor is condensed and returned to the intermediate region (24) for reheating and recirculation. Optical pumping light (43) is directed along the axis of the heat pipe (12) through a first end window (17) to stimulate emission of coherent infrared energy which is transmitted out through an opposite end window (18). A porous walled tubulation (44) extends along the axis of the heat pipe (12) and defines a region (46) in which cesium vapor is further heated to a temperature sufficient to dissociate cesium dimers which would decrease efficiency by absorbing pump light (43). Efficient generation of any desired infrared wavelength is realized by varying the wavelength of the pump light (43).

Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing  

SciTech Connect

Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

431

FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS) Proposal Team: L. Carr 1 , D. Dolan 2 , R. Hemley 3 , S. Jacobson 4 , S. Karato 5 , Z. Liu 3 , W. Panero 6 , M. Pravica 7 , and T. Zhou 8 1 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2 Sandia National Laboratories, 3 Carnegie Institution of Washington, 4 Northwestern University, 5 Yale University, 6 Ohio State University, 7 University of Nevada, 8 New Jersey Institute of Technology TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS SPECIFIC PROJECTS / ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * TECHNIQUE(S): Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Raman and visible spectroscopy; Diamond anvil cell techniques for static high pressure; Gas-gun launchers for dynamic compression; Cryogenic techniques combined with DACs;

432

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from the University of California at San Diego, Columbia University, and the ALS has succeeded in probing the dynamical properties of the charge carriers in graphene with an accuracy never before achieved. Their results have uncovered signatures of many-body interactions in graphene and have demonstrated the potential of graphene for novel applications in optoelectronics.

433

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

434

Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

435

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principal of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, L.H.

1989-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

436

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

438

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Portal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Radiation Stress Estimators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation stresses Sij associated with the propagation of wind-generated waves are principal driving forces for several important surf-zone processes. The accurate estimation of the onshore flux of longshore-directed mean momentum Syx, using ...

S. S. Pawka; D. L. Inman; R. T. Guza

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum

443

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The aromatic infrared bands as seen by ISO-SWS: probing the PAH model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the Aromatic Infrared Band (AIB) profiles observed by ISO-SWS towards a number of bright interstellar regions where dense molecular gas is illuminated by stellar radiation. Our sample spans a broad range of excitation conditions (exciting radiation fields with effective temperature, Teff, ranging from 23,000 to 45,000 K). The SWS spectra are decomposed coherently in our sample into Lorentz profiles and a broadband continuum. We find that the individual profiles of the main AIBs at 3.3, 6.2, 8.6 and 11.3 microns are well represented with at most two lorentzians. Furthermore, we show that the positions and widths of these AIBs are remarkably stable (within a few cm-1). We then extract the profiles of individual AIBs from the data and compare them to a model of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) cation emission which includes the temperature dependence of the AIB profiles. The present similarity of the AIB profiles requires that the PAH temperature distribution remains roughly the same whatever the radiation field hardness. Deriving the temperature distribution of interstellar PAHs, we show that its hot tail, which controls the AIB spectrum, sensitively depends on Nmin (the number of C-atoms in the smallest PAH) and Teff. Comparing the observed profiles of the individual AIBs to our model results, we can match most of the AIB profiles if Nmin is increased with Teff. We then discuss our results in the broader context of ISO observations of fainter interstellar regions where PAHs are expected to be in neutral form.

L. Verstraete; C. Pech; Claire Moutou; K. Sellgren; C. M. Wright; M. Giard; A. Leger; R. Timmermann; S. Drapatz

2001-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

445

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

446

Radiation and viral DNA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation and viral DNA Radiation and viral DNA Name: Loretta L Lamb Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can viral DNA be changed through exposure to radiation? If so, what type of radiation will do this? Can these irradiated viruses cause changes in the genome of any human cells they may infect? Can these (or any) viruses actually cause cancer, or do they merely act as triggering devices for cancer? Replies: In theory, any nucleic acid (viral or otherwise) can be changed by exposure to many kinds of radiation. Depending on the type of virus, these may then change the human cells that they infect. Although there are many different things that are being implicated in causing cancers, it looks like a fairly common model involves the sequential "knockout" of several human genes. Viruses may be one cause of such gene changes, radiation and other environmental causes may also contribute. Some of these changes may be inherited through families, so it becomes more likely that the environmental factors may happen to "hit" the right places in cells to cause cancers in these families. If you ask something more specific, perhaps I can focus my response a bit more

447

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Long waves in water over a visco-elastic muddy seabed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The propagation of surface waves over a flat muddy seabed are studied. Mud is first considered as a Newtonian fluid. Water and mud equations are derived in order to obtain governing equation for surface and interface waves. ...

Garnier, Erell-Isis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advancement in infrared imaging technology has allowed the thermal imaging to detect and visualize several gases, mostly hydrocarbon gases. In addition, infrared cameras could potentially be used as a non-contact temperature measurement for gas and vapor. However, current application of infrared imaging techniques for gas measurements are still limited due to several uncertainties in their performance parameters. The aim of this research work was to determine the key factors in the application of infrared imaging technology for gas visualization and a non-contact temperature measurement. Furthermore, the concentration profile and emission rate of the gas are predicted by combining the application of the infrared imaging method with gas dispersion modeling. In this research, infrared cameras have been used to visualize liquefied natural gas (LNG) plumes from LNG spills on water. The analyses of the thermograms showed that the apparent temperatures were different from the thermocouple measurement which occurred due to the assumption of that the object emissivity was always equal to unity. The emissivity for pure methane gas and a mixture of methane and atmospheric gases were then evaluated in order to obtain the actual temperature distribution of the gas cloud. The results showed that by including the emissivity value of the gas, the temperature profile of the dispersed gas obtained from a thermal imaging measurement was in good agreement with the measurement using the thermocouples. Furthermore, the temperature distribution of the gas was compared to the concentration of a dispersed LNG vapor cloud to obtain a correlation between the temperature and the concentration of the cloud. Other application of infrared imaging technique was also conducted for leak detection of natural gas from a pipeline. The capability of an infrared camera to detect a fugitive gas leak was combined with the simulation of vapor discharge and dispersion in order to obtain a correlation between the emission rates and the sizes of the gas plume to the minimum detectable concentration. The relationship of the methane gas cloud size to the gas emission rate was highly dependent to the prevailing atmospheric condition. The results showed that the correlation were best to predict the emission rate less than 0.2 kg/s. At higher emission rate, the increase in gas release rate did not change the size of the cloud significantly.

Safitri, Anisa

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies G. M. McFarquhar and T. Nousiainen Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois M. S. Timlin, S. F. Iacobellis, and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Cloud radiative feedback is the most important effect determining climate response to human activity. Ice clouds reflect solar radiation and absorb thermal emission from the ground and the lower atmosphere and emit infrared radiation to space. The representation of these processes in models affects future climate predictions and there is much uncertainty in the representation of these processes. The size and

451

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES 1998 - NISTIR 6268 IONIZING RADIATION DIVISION. The Neutron Interferometer. The neutron ...

452

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Technical Activities 2000" - Table of Contents, Division home page. Ionizing Radiation Division. ...

453

Thermal correction to the Casimir force, radiative heat transfer, and an experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The low-temperature asymptotic expressions for the Casimir interaction between two real metals described by Leontovich surface impedance are obtained in the framework of thermal quantum field theory. It is shown that the Casimir entropy computed using the impedance of infrared optics vanishes in the limit of zero temperature. By contrast, the Casimir entropy computed using the impedance of the Drude model attains at zero temperature a positive value which depends on the parameters of a system, i.e., the Nernst heat theorem is violated. Thus, the impedance of infrared optics withstands the thermodynamic test, whereas the impedance of the Drude model does not. We also perform a phenomenological analysis of the thermal Casimir force and of the radiative heat transfer through a vacuum gap between real metal plates. The characterization of a metal by means of the Leontovich impedance of the Drude model is shown to be inconsistent with experiment at separations of a few hundred nanometers. A modification of the impedance of infrared optics is suggested taking into account relaxation processes. The power of radiative heat transfer predicted from this impedance is several times less than previous predictions due to different contributions from the transverse electric evanescent waves. The physical meaning of low frequencies in the Lifshitz formula is discussed. It is concluded that new measurements of radiative heat transfer are required to find out the adequate description of a metal in the theory of electromagnetic fluctuations.

V. B. Bezerra; G. Bimonte; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko; C. Romero

2007-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

454

Radiation in Particle Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle simulations of fusion ignition plasmas including the important effects of radiation emission and absorption.

More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

455

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

doi:10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.21533  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Earth's climate has been calculated using global temperature, forcing and heating rate data for the period 19702010. We have assumed increased long-wave radiative forcing...

457

Wide-fieldInfraredSurvey ExplorerLaunch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system's main asteroid belt. By measuring the objects' infrared light, astronomers will get the first solar system· To better understand the evolution of planets, stars and galaxies· why the sun looks red are estimated to reside in our solar system, but most have gone unidenti- fied. WISE will detect hundreds

458

Releasable infrared metamaterials J. A. D'Archangela)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-type resonating elements. These particles would be suitable for implementation in a paint if dispersed in an IR design was symmetric about a Cr ground plane). Infrared spectral reflectivity measurements from collected flakes were compared to infinite-surface simulations in Ansoft HFSS and spectral reflectance meas

Boreman, Glenn D.

459

Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between atmosphere and ocean References part at high frequencies delivers the exchange time. Cool skin of the ocean the net heat flux between gas exchange and wind speed over the ocean, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7373-7381, 1992, Nightingale, P

Jaehne, Bernd

460

Beyond HDF - Searching for Early Star Formation in the Infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The success of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) data in identifying galaxies at redshifts up to ~3 has been quite spectacular. It is possible to extend this to even higher redshifts using infrared techniques, several of which are briefly described in this paper.

D. Thompson

1997-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Highly Confined Tunable Mid-Infrared Plasmonics in Graphene Nanoresonators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly Confined Tunable Mid-Infrared Plasmonics in Graphene Nanoresonators Victor W. Brar,, Min observed in the 2-6 THz range, and active graphene plasmonic devices operating in that regime have been explored. However there is great interest in under- standing the properties of graphene plasmons across

462

Facial expression recognition from near-infrared videos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Facial expression recognition is to determine the emotional state of the face regardless of its identity. Most of the existing datasets for facial expressions are captured in a visible light spectrum. However, the visible light (VIS) can change with ... Keywords: Component-based facial features, Facial expression recognition, Near-infrared (NIR), Spatiotemporal descriptors, Visible light (VIS)

Guoying Zhao; Xiaohua Huang; Matti Taini; Stan Z. Li; Matti PietikInen

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Wind-Driven Response of Ocean Surface Infrared Signals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the course of archiving positions of the edge of the Loop Current from satellite infrared (IR) data, we have found a substantial amount of energy at periods in the wind-driven band. Using a technique patterned after that of Price et al., we ...

W. Sturges; S. Welsh

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

AREA RADIATION MONITOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

1962-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

466

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

468

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

Phelps, J.E.

1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

469

Remote Sounding of High Clouds. V: Infrared Properties and Structures of Tropical Thunderstorm Anvils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The infrared properties and structures of some anvils emanating from local thunderstorms were studied by lidar and infrared radiometry at Darwin, tropical Northern Australia. The anvils were typically from 1 to 2 km deep, at altitudes from 7 to ...

C. M. R. Platt; A. C. Dilley; J. C. Scott; I. J. Barton; G. L. Stephens

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Multi-mode two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of peptides and proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, a methodology for understanding structural stability of proteins through multi-mode two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy is developed. The experimental framework for generation of broadband infrared ...

DeFlores, Lauren P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.30.1% with simultaneous ...

Lunt, Richard R.

472

Limitations of Bispectral Infrared Cloud Phase Determination and Potential for Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determining cloud thermodynamic phase using infrared satellite observations typically requires a priori assumptions about relationships between cloud phase and cloud temperature. In this study, limitations of an approach using two infrared ...

Shaima L. Nasiri; Brian H. Kahn

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A decadal gridded hyperspectral infrared record for climate sep 1st 2002--aug 31st 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a gridded Fundamental Decadal Data Record (FDDR) of Brightness Temperatures (BT) from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) from ten years of hyperspectral Infrared Radiances onboard the NASA EOS Aqua satellite. Although global surface ...

David Raymond Chapman / Milton Halem

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

An Instrument for the Measurement of Precipitation Rate by Near-Infrared Extinction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design, construction and performance of a near-infrared atmospheric precipitation sensing device is described. An infrared light emitting diode was used to generate a sensing beam of 0.92 ?m wavelength. The collimated sensing beam traversed ...

F. J. Nedvidek; Z. Kucerovsky; E. Brannen

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Section 117  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of GOES-7 to a Radiation Budget for April and Validation of GOES-7 to a Radiation Budget for April and July 1994 ARM/IOP Using ScaRaB/Meteor-3/7 Data A. Trishchenko and Z. Li Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Abstract Data from the ScaRaB radiometer flown on board the Meteor- 3/7 satellite were employed for validating a TOA Earth radiation budget product generated from GOES-7 for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Com- parisons were made between coincident and collocated short- wave and long-wave radiative quantities derived from ScaRaB and GOES sensors over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, U.S.A., during April and July 1994. Calibrations for both visible and infrared window channels appear to be adequate, but narrow- to broad-band conversion of short-wave measure-

476

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

477

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

478

Audible radiation monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

Odell, D.M.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

480

Infrared Cloud Imager Measurements of Cloud Statistics from the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 22-26, 2004 identified from radiative transfer calculations using different MODTRAN atmospheric models. To process ICI data from the CIC deployment, we developed four...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "long-wave infrared radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Infra-red transparent glass as per ancient Indian text ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The test results revealed that new glass could be compared with Calcium Fluoride Glass. ... Optical Response of Laser Materials in High Radiation Environments.

482

Near Infrared Surface Plasmon Resonance Phase Imaging and Nanoparticle-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Phase Imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

utilized a near-infrared 860 nm light emitting diode (LED) light source and a wedge depolarizer to create

483

Polarimetric Remote Sensing in the Visible to Near Infrared James R. Shell II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarimetric Remote Sensing in the Visible to Near Infrared by James R. Shell II B.S. Physics Title of Dissertation: Polarimetric Remote Sensing in the Visible to Near Infrared I, James R. Shell II Remote Sensing in the Visible to Near Infrared by James R. Shell II Submitted to the Chester F. Carlson

Salvaggio, Carl

484

Retrieval of Ice Cloud Properties from AIRS and MODIS Observations Based on a Fast High-Spectral-Resolution Radiative Transfer Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computationally efficient high-spectral-resolution cloudy-sky radiative transfer model (HRTM) in the thermal infrared region (7001300 cm?1, 0.1 cm?1 spectral resolution) is advanced for simulating the upwelling radiance at the top of atmosphere ...

Chenxi Wang; Ping Yang; Steven Platnick; Andrew K. Heidinger; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas Greenwald; Zhibo Zhang; Robert E. Holz

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Iso, Satoshi; Zhang, Sen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

487

A Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Reflection of Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rapid analytical radiative transfer model for reflection of solar radiation in plane-parallel atmospheres is developed based on the Sobolev approach and the delta function transformation technique. A distinct advantage of this model over ...

X. Xiang; E. A. Smith; C. G. Justus

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Toward Radiation-Resistant Ionic Liquids. Radiation Stability...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Resistant Ionic Liquids. Radiation Stability of Sulfonyl Imide Anions I. A. Shkrob, T. W. Marin, Sergey D. Chemerisov, J. L. Hatcher, and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B...

489

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, Dimitrios C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos S. L. Soares

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

492

Hyperon radiative decay  

SciTech Connect

The radiative decay widths of the low-lying strange baryons are calculated both within the relativistic quark bag model and the nonrelativistic potential model. These widths are found to depend sensitively upon the quark-model dynamics through multiplet mixing and q/sup 4/q-bar admixtures. The comparison between our calculated results and the very limited experimental data is discussed.

Kaxiras, E.; Moniz, E.J.; Soyeur, M.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

SciTech Connect

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

495

STANFORD SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LIGHTSOURCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-926-4100 SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the U.S. Department of Energy SSRL Facility Research Associate for Small Angle X-ray Scattering The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) has) program. This position has a component (roughly 50%) that involves beam line development at SSRL

Ford, James

496

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

497

Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Management Commitment B. Training C. Monitoring of Individual Radiation Exposures D. Program Reviews 1 of Radiation A. Research Applications 1. Non-Human User 2. Animal Use 3. Human Use B. Clinical Applications C Materials Chapter VI: Occupational Exposure to Radiation and Personnel Monitoring and Bioassay Program #12;A

Grishok, Alla

498

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Character of Solar and Circumsolar Radiation. Proceedings ~all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from thethat attenuate the solar radiation available to terres-

Grether, Donald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from thea suitable site for solar radiation measurements. A requestused to estimate the solar radiation per unit wavelength at

Grether, D.F.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

"Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the...