National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for long-term global oil

  1. GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Alex

    GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

  2. The economics of long-term global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report is intended to provide an overview of economic issues and research relevant to possible, long-term global climate change. It is primarily a critical survey, not a statement of Administration or Department policy. This report should serve to indicate that economic analysis of global change is in its infancy few assertions about costs or benefits can be made with confidence. The state of the literature precludes any attempt to produce anything like a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis. Moreover, almost all the quantitative estimates regarding physical and economic effects in this report, as well as many of the qualitative assertions, are controversial. Section I provides background on greenhouse gas emissions and their likely climatic effects and on available policy instruments. Section II considers the costs of living with global change, assuming no substantial efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Section III considers costs of reducing these emissions, though the available literature does not contain estimates of the costs of policies that would, on the assumptions of current climate models, prevent climate change altogether. The individual sections are not entirely compartmentalized, but can be read independently if necessary.

  3. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  4. Global recycling services for short and long term risk reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arslan, M.; Grygiel, J.M.; Drevon, C.; Lelievre, F.; Lesage, M.; Vincent, O.

    2013-07-01

    New schemes are being developed by AREVA in order to provide global solutions for safe and non-proliferating management of used fuels, thereby significantly contributing to overall risks reduction and sustainable nuclear development. Utilities are thereby provided with a service through which they will be able to send their used fuels and only get returned vitrified and compacted waste, the only waste remaining after reprocessing. This waste is stable, standard and has demonstrated capability for very long term interim storage. They are provided as well with associated facilities and all necessary services for storage in a demonstrated safely manner. Recycled fuels, in particular MOX, would be used either in existing LWRs or in a very limited number of full MOX reactors (like the EPR reactor), located in selected countries, that will recycle MOX so as to downgrade the isotopic quality of the Pu inventories in a significant manner. Reprocessed uranium also can be recycled. These schemes, on top of offering demonstrated operational advantages and a responsible approach, result into optimized economics for all shareholders of the scheme, as part of reactor financing (under Opex or Capex form) will be secured thanks to the value of the recycled flows. It also increases fuel cost predictability as recycled fuel is not subject to market fluctuations as much and allows, in a limited span of time, for clear risk mitigation. (authors)

  5. Long term testing of peanut oil in engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

  6. Long-term Stability of Global Erosion Rates and1 Weathering during late Cenozoic Cooling2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willenbring, Jeb F.

    1 of 18 Long-term Stability of Global Erosion Rates and1 Weathering during late Cenozoic Cooling2 3 rates15 require a global mechanism to explain them4,5,6 . Accelerated uplift and global16 cooling have caused5 Cenozoic global cooling, and that global cooling had no profound effect on6 spatially

  7. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously information suggest that ethanol is neither clean nor has it been shown that it can slow global warming in the U.S. It will also divert resources from the primary practical solutions to global warming and air

  8. Coordinated Approaches to Quantify Long-Term Ecosystem Dynamics in Response to Global Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Many serious ecosystem consequences of climate change will take decades or even 50 centuries to emerge. Long-term ecological responses to global change are strongly regulated by 51 slow processes, such as changes in species composition, carbon dynamics in soil and by long-52 lived plants, and accumulation of nutrient capitals. Understanding and predicting these processes 53 requires experiments on decadal time scales. But decadal experiments by themselves may not be 54 adequate because many of the slow processes have characteristic time scales much longer than 55 experiments can be maintained. This article promotes a coordinated approach that combines 56 long-term, large-scale global change experiments with process studies and modeling. Long-term 57 global change manipulative experiments, especially in high-priority ecosystems such as tropical 58 forests and high-latitude regions, are essential to maximize information gain concerning future 59 states of the earth system. The long-term experiments should be conducted in tandem with 60 complementary process studies, such as those using model ecosystems, species replacements, 61 laboratory incubations, isotope tracers, and greenhouse facilities. Models are essential to 62 assimilate data from long-term experiments and process studies together with information from 63 long-term observations, surveys, and space-for-time studies along environmental and biological 64 gradients. Future research programs with coordinated long-term experiments, process studies, 65 and modeling have the potential to be the most effective strategy to gain the best information on 66 long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change. 67 68

  9. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGY Global and focal brain volume in long-term breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    EPIDEMIOLOGY Global and focal brain volume in long-term breast cancer survivors exposed to adjuvant of non-CNS directed chemotherapy-exposed breast cancer survivors, on average 21 years post chemotherapy-exposed breast cancer patients, mean age 64.0 (SD = 6.5) years, who had been diagnosed with cancer

  11. Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy. The integrated carbon sequestration in 1994 was 2.1 t C ha-l y-l with a 90% confidence interval due to sampling an overall uncertainty on the annual carbon sequestration in 1994 of --0.3to +0.8 t C ha-l y-l. Keywords

  12. Oil price shocks and their short-and long-term effects on the Chinese economy Weiqi Tang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Adrian

    a historical record of US$147 per barrel in July 2008. The adverse impact of such oil-price shocksOil price shocks and their short- and long-term effects on the Chinese economy Weiqi Tang a , Libo-correction model Oil-price shocks Price transmission mechanisms Investment Output Producer/consumer price index

  13. Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

    2011-10-09

    Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot numbers, is put forward as an explanation. The long-term low-frequency fluctuations in sunspot numbers are not detectable by the DFA in the monthly instrumental records, resulting in the common low Hurst exponents. The same does not hold true for the 2000-year-long reconstructed records, which explains both their higher Hurst exponents and the higher probabilities of strong 100-year temperature fluctuations. A long-term synthetic record that embodies the reconstructed sunspot number fluctuations includes the different Hurst exponents of both the instrumental and the reconstructed records and, therefore, corroborates the conjecture.

  14. Enhancing the resolution of sea ice in long-term global ocean general circulation model (gcm) integrations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joong Tae

    2007-09-17

    Open water in sea ice, such as leads and polynyas, plays a crucial role in determining the formation of deep- and bottom-water, as well as their long-term global properties and circulation. Ocean general circulation models (GCMs) designed...

  15. Observations and modelling of the global distribution and long-term trend of atmospheric 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (IWR), University of Heidelberg, INF 368, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany, now at Electrical Engineering for Australian Weather and Climate Research / CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR), Private Bag No. 1 and sinks, using the coarse-grid carbon cycle model GRACE. Dedicated simulations of global trends and inter

  16. Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lüdecke, Horst-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot ...

  17. A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2?C Climate Change Control Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Rosler, Hilke; Kober, Tom; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; Gernaat, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the long-term global energy technology diffusion patterns required to reach a stringent climate change target with a maximum average atmospheric temperature increase of 2°C. If the anthropogenic temperature increase is to be limited to 2°C, total CO2 emissions have to be reduced massively, so as to reach substantial negative values during the second half of the century. Particularly power sector CO2 emissions should become negative from around 2050 onwards according to most models used for this analysis in order to compensate for GHG emissions in other sectors where abatement is more costly. The annual additional capacity deployment intensity (expressed in GW/yr) for solar and wind energy until 2030 needs to be around that recently observed for coal-based power plants, and will have to be several times higher in the period 2030–2050. Relatively high agreement exists across models in terms of the aggregated low-carbon energy system cost requirements on the supply side until 2050, which amount to about 50 trillion US$.

  18. Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, P.; Wise, M.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conference 2006 Session 11 – Industrial Energy Modeling: What is the State of the Art? Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change ParamitaSinha 1 MarshallWise 2* ,and...StevenSmith 2 1 UniversityofMaryland,CollegePark. 2 PacificNorthwestNationalLaboratory,JointGlobalChangeResearch Institute,CollegePark,MD. 1. Introduction Thispaperpresentsanewapproachtounderstandingthepotentiallong-termevolutionofenergy demandsinthe...

  19. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Six, J; Ogle, S M; Breidt, F J; Conant, R T; Mosier, A R; Paustian, K

    2004-01-01

    The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillageNT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP)soil for purposes of global warming mitigation. Our results

  20. Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herce, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01

    Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

  1. MMS 93-0048 Long-term Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    OCS Study MMS 93-0048 Long-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama Synthesis-0048 Long-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama Synthesis Report Volume II: Technical. and J. B. C. Jackson, eds. 1993. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama

  2. Long-Term Regional Climate Simulations Driven by Two Global Reanalyses and a GCM for the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai R.; Bian, Xindi; Qian, Yun

    2002-01-01

    To take advantage of recent development in the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5), an effort has been organized to develop and evaluate an MM5-based community regional climate model. Several modifications such as the implementation of the PNNL subgrid parameterization of orographic precipitation, representation of cloud-radiation interaction, and additional output capabilities have been made to the recently released MM5 Version 3.4. To evaluate the model, several long-term simulations have been performed over the western U.S. These simulations were driven by the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses respectively for 20 and 13 years beginning at 1980. The western U.S. is marked by diverse topographic features and varied climate conditions such as the maritime climate in the coastal area and the semi-arid climate in the southwest. We will present results based on two domain configurations: a nested domain with a fine domain covering the western U.S. at 40 km resolution, and a single domain at 60 km resolution with the subgrid orographic precipitation scheme applied in the western U.S. Analyses are being performed to evaluate the simulations of the averaged climate and interannual variability and examine the model sensitivity to different boundary conditions. Our analyses focus on the relationships between large-scale circulation and regional climate features, surface energy and water budgets, orographic precipitation, and hydrologic conditions within selected river basins. Regional simulations are also being performed using large-scale conditions simulated by the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM). The regional model was used to downscale the ensemble PCM climate change scenarios for periods of 10-20 years in the current and future climate. Results will be analyzed to study the impacts of greenhouse warming on regional water resources in the western U.S.

  3. LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.; Moss, Richard H.; Kim, Son H.

    2014-01-19

    In this paper, we assess future water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors, by incorporating water demands into a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change – the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Base-year water demands—both gross withdrawals and net consumptive use—are assigned to specific modeled activities in a way that maximizes consistency between bottom-up estimates of water demand intensities of specific technologies and practices, and top-down regional and sectoral estimates of water use. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. We assess future water demands representing six socioeconomic scenarios, with no constraints imposed by future water supplies. The scenarios observe increases in global water withdrawals from 3,578 km3 year-1 in 2005 to 5,987 – 8,374 km3 year-1 in 2050, and to 4,719 – 12,290 km3 year-1 in 2095. Comparing the projected total regional water withdrawals to the historical supply of renewable freshwater, the Middle East exhibits the highest levels of water scarcity throughout the century, followed by India; water scarcity increases over time in both of these regions. In contrast, water scarcity improves in some regions with large base-year electric sector withdrawals, such as the USA and Canada, due to capital stock turnover and the almost complete phase-out of once-through flow cooling systems. The scenarios indicate that: 1) water is likely a limiting factor in climate change mitigation policies, 2) many regions can be expected to increase reliance on non-renewable groundwater, water reuse, and desalinated water, but they also highlight an important role for development and deployment of water conservation technologies and practices.

  4. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    unfettered access to oil resources including the possibleChina’s search for oil resources around the world. However,a survey of China’s oil resources, while others focus

  5. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    current pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentthis point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supply inand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  7. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  8. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

  9. Estimates of the long-term U.S. economic impacts of global climate change-induced drought.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne W.; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-01-01

    While climate-change models have done a reasonable job of forecasting changes in global climate conditions over the past decades, recent data indicate that actual climate change may be much more severe. To better understand some of the potential economic impacts of these severe climate changes, Sandia economists estimated the impacts to the U.S. economy of climate change-induced impacts to U.S. precipitation over the 2010 to 2050 time period. The economists developed an impact methodology that converts changes in precipitation and water availability to changes in economic activity, and conducted simulations of economic impacts using a large-scale macroeconomic model of the U.S. economy.

  10. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy is Associated With Improved Global Quality of Life Among Long-term Survivors of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Vazquez, Esther G.; Lau, Derick H.; Purdy, James A.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the long-term quality of life among patients treated with and without intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: University of Washington Quality of Life instrument scores were reviewed for 155 patients previously treated with radiation therapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer. All patients were disease free and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Eighty-four patients (54%) were treated with IMRT. The remaining 71 patients (46%) were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) by use of initial opposed lateral fields matched to a low anterior neck field. Results: The mean global quality of life scores were 67.5 and 80.1 for the IMRT patients at 1 and 2 years, respectively, compared with 55.4 and 57.0 for the 3D CRT patients, respectively (p < 0.001). At 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy, the proportion of patients who rated their global quality of life as 'very good' or 'outstanding' was 51% and 41% among patients treated by IMRT and 3DCRT, respectively (p = 0.11). At 2 years, the corresponding percentages increased to 73% and 49%, respectively (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis accounting for sex, age, radiation intent (definitive vs. postoperative), radiation dose, T stage, primary site, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and neck dissection, the use of IMRT was the only variable independently associated with improved quality of life (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The early quality of life improvements associated with IMRT not only are maintained but apparently become more magnified over time. These data provide powerful evidence attesting to the long-term benefits of IMRT for head-and-neck cancer.

  11. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, “China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. ” Chinaaccessed April 21, “Venezuela and China sign oil deal. ” BBC

  12. M MS 93-0047 Long-term Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    OCS Study M MS 93-0047 Long-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama Synthesis-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Synthesis Report Panama Volume I: Executive Summary Editors. Jackson, eds. 1993. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama, synthesis report

  13. MMS 93-0048 Long-term Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    OCS Study MMS 93-0048 Long-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama Synthesis Service Gulf of Mexico OCS Region #12;OCS Study MMS 93-0048 bong-term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama, synthesis report, volume II

  14. Long-Term Environmental Stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activities maintenance of barriers and other contaminant structures periodic inspections control of site access posted signs Long-term environmental stewardship (LTES) data access...

  15. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

    2012-11-06

    An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 °C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 °C, 4 °C and -17 °C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

  16. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  17. Long-term Contract Information and Registrations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE/FE orders granting long-term authorization to export liquefied natural gas by vessel require authorization holders to file long-term contract information with DOE/FE for LNG exports and long...

  18. Forecasting long-term gas production Luis Cueto-Felguerosoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    are transforming the United States economy and its energy outlook. Back in 2005, the US Energy Information Adminis in the global energy system (3). Estimates of long-term production and technically re- coverable resources are by increasing the length of a single well within the gas-bearing shale. Hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking" (9

  19. Long-Term Nuclear Industry Outlook - 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.

    2004-09-30

    The nuclear industry has become increasingly efficient and global in nature, but may now be poised at a crossroads between graceful decline and profound growth as a viable provider of electrical energy. Predicted population and energy-demand growth, an increased interest in global climate change, the desire to reduce the international dependence on oil as an energy source, the potential for hydrogen co-generation using nuclear power reactors, and the improved performance in the nuclear power industry have raised the prospect of a “nuclear renaissance” in which nuclear power would play an increasingly more important role in both domestic and international energy market. This report provides an assessment of the role nuclear-generated power will plan in the global energy future and explores the impact of that role on export controls.

  20. Long Term Roadmap for DPNC September 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schibler, Ueli

    Long Term Roadmap for DPNC September 2003 Particle physics is the science to study, at the most experiments, we will organize the roadmap in three paths (the experiments in bold type are those in which

  1. Long term prisoners’ accounts of their sentence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schinkel, Marguerite Lucile

    2013-07-02

    This thesis examines how long-term prisoners make sense of their sentence: what they see as its purpose, whether they think it fair and how they integrate their sentence in their life story. Its findings are based on ...

  2. Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha , Kevin C of a nonconvex Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model for the scheduling of crude oil movement of crude oil and products. Furthermore, detailed scheduling models often require a continuous time

  3. Long-Term Results from Evaluation of Advanced New Construction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long-Term Results from Evaluation of Advanced New Construction Packages in Test Homes: Lake Elsinore, California Re-direct Destination: This report presents the long-term...

  4. Hydrogen Storage Technologies: Long-Term Commercialization Approach...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies: Long-Term Commercialization Approach with First Products First Hydrogen Storage Technologies: Long-Term Commercialization Approach with First Products First Presented...

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory: Long-Term Environmental Stewardship...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Stewardship Long-Term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability Long-Term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability (pdf) From...

  6. Long-term changes in Saturn's troposphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trafton, L.

    1985-09-01

    Attention is given to the results of a long term monitoring study of Saturn's H/sub 2/ quadrupole and CH/sub 4/ band absorptions outside the equatorial zone, over an interval of half a Saturn year that covers most of the perihelion half of Saturn's elliptical orbit (which is approximately bounded by the equinoxes). Marked long term changes are noted in the CH/sub 4/ absorption, accompanied by weakly opposite changes in the H/sub 2/ absorption. Seasonal changes are inferred on the basis of temporal variations in absorption. Spatial measurements have also been made in the 6450 A NH/sub 3/ band since the 1980 equinox. 42 references.

  7. Long-Term Damped Dynamics of the Extensible Suspension Bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivana Bochicchio; Claudio Giorgi; Elena Vuk

    2011-02-04

    This work is focused on the doubly nonlinear equation, whose solutions represent the bending motion of an extensible, elastic bridge suspended by continuously distributed cables which are flexible and elastic with stiffness k^2. When the ends are pinned, long-term dynamics is scrutinized for arbitrary values of axial load p and stiffness k^2. For a general external source f, we prove the existence of bounded absorbing sets.When f is timeindependent, the related semigroup of solutions is shown to possess the global attractor of optimal regularity and its characterization is given in terms of the steady states of the problem.

  8. I strongly urge that the forecasts recognize the high oil prices and gas prices experienced in 2008 and not treat them as an unusual occurrence in the next 20 years. In the long term with cap and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I strongly urge that the forecasts recognize the high oil prices and gas prices experienced in 2008 and the development of carbon capture and storage applied to new coal fired generating stations, gas prices will only that biofuels are made from food crops, the discussion is correct that fertilizer demands will drive gas prices

  9. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  10. Upcoming Long-Term Operating Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 - 19Portal UniversityUpcomingUpcoming Long-Term

  11. Long-Term Stewardship - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCenter (LMI-EFRC)Lodging LodgingLogisticsLong-Term Stewardship

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Long-term Stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque Albuquerque Housing Education RecreationLong-term Stewardship

  13. Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the fascinating things of my job is contemplating questions like: What will the future energy mix look like? This is difficult to predict but it is fair to argue that oil will...

  14. Long-term control of root growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burton, Frederick G. (West Richland, WA); Cataldo, Dominic A. (Kennewick, WA); Cline, John F. (Prosser, WA); Skiens, W. Eugene (Richland, WA)

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  15. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy Management will keep records management as a high priority. (authors)

  16. New Global Oil & Gas Hub in Oklahoma City | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selects Oklahoma City Site for New Global Hub of Oil & Gas Technology Innovation Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click...

  17. Long-Term Surveillance Operations and Maintenance Fiscal Year...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Long-Term Surveillance Operations and Maintenance (LTS-O&M) subtask has a critical long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) role for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)...

  18. Oil and Gas Research| GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientific andComplexOfficeOfficeOil &Oil

  19. Correlation structure and principal components in global crude oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Yue-Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, George J; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the correlation structure of the global crude oil market using the daily returns of 71 oil price time series across the world from 1992 to 2012. We identify from the correlation matrix six clusters of time series exhibiting evident geographical traits, which supports Weiner's (1991) regionalization hypothesis of the global oil market. We find that intra-cluster pairs of time series are highly correlated while inter-cluster pairs have relatively low correlations. Principal component analysis shows that most eigenvalues of the correlation matrix locate outside the prediction of the random matrix theory and these deviating eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors contain rich economic information. Specifically, the largest eigenvalue reflects a collective effect of the global market, other four largest eigenvalues possess a partitioning function to distinguish the six clusters, and the smallest eigenvalues highlight the pairs of time series with the largest correlation coefficie...

  20. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  1. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  2. III. VALUE OF LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Long-term solar radiation data sets are scarce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    indicator of the amount of useful energy that a solar energy system can collect. The variations of monthly5 III. VALUE OF LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Long-term solar radiation data sets are scarce due to the considerable effort and expense of data gathering. Long-term (30-year) solar ra- diation data sets

  3. Oil and Gas Research| GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxideUser WorkEPVisitingOil & Gas We're balancing

  4. Assessing Oil-Related Investments Under a 2 C Global Objective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing Oil-Related Investments Under a 2 C Global Objective by James Hoffele B.A., B.Ed., Brock: James Hoffele Degree: Master of Resource Management Project No.: 618 Title of Project: Assessing Oil constraint would have on global oil markets to 2050, with a focus on the economic outlook for Canadian oil

  5. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  6. Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisholoy Goswami

    2005-10-11

    The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

  7. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China Fletcher, Jerald 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT The project currently is composed of six specific tasks - three...

  8. Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected and Marcellus Formation Water after Hydraulic Fracturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strontium Isotopes...

  9. Hydrogen Storage Technologies: Long-Term Commercialization Approach...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Long-term commercialization approach with first products first Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R&D Workshop Washington, DC Glenn Rambach August 11,...

  10. An Analytical Framework for Long Term Policy for Commercial Deployment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    An Analytical Framework for Long Term Policy for Commercial Deployment and Innovation in Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technology in the United States Jump to: navigation,...

  11. Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence At Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California, From Gps, Leveling, And Insar Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  12. Experimental apparatus and software design for dynamic long-term...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental apparatus and software design for dynamic long-term reliability testing of a spring-mass MEMS device. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental apparatus...

  13. Long-term variability and rainfall control of savanna fire regimes in equatorial East Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Feng Sheng

    Long-term variability and rainfall control of savanna fire regimes in equatorial East Africa D A V Abstract Fires burning the vast grasslands and savannas of Africa significantly influence the global carbon in equatorial East Africa. The charcoal-inferred shifts in local and regional fire regimes were compared

  14. Long-Term Fundamentals of the 2008 Economic Crisis David Mayer-Foulkes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    costs, FDI yields extraordinary profits that generate asymmetric innovation incentives that explain growth can only be recovered by restoring global investment. Lowering interest rates cannot generate very­or investment shortfall­that dramatically lowered long-term real interest rates, led to a housing bubble in many

  15. Hard truths: facing the hard truths about energy. A comprehensive view to 2030 of global oil and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    In response to the questions posed by the US Secretary of Energy in October 2005, the National Petroleum Council conducted a comprehensive study considering the future of oil and natural gas to 2030 in the context of the global energy system. The Council proposed five core strategies to assist markets in meeting the energy challenges to 2030 and beyond. All five strategies are essential; there is no single, easy solution to the multiple challenges we face. However, we are confident that the prompt adoption of these strategies, along with a sustained commitment to implementation, will promote U.S. competitiveness by balancing economic, security, and environmental goals. The United States must: Moderate the growing demand for energy by increasing efficiency of transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial uses; Expand and diversify production from clean coal, nuclear, biomass, other renewables, and unconventional oil and gas; moderate the decline of conventional domestic oil and gas production; and increase access for development of new resources; Integrate energy policy into trade, economic, environmental, security, and foreign policies; strengthen global energy trade and investment; and broaden dialogue with both producing and consuming nations to improve global energy security; Enhance science and engineering capabilities and create long-term opportunities for research and development in all phases of the energy supply and demand system; and Develop the legal and regulatory framework to enable carbon capture and sequestration. In addition, as policymakers consider options to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, provide an effective global framework for carbon management, including establishment of a transparent, predictable, economy-wide cost for carbon dioxide emissions. The report, details findings and recommendations based on comprehensive analyses developed by the study teams. 5 apps.

  16. Cancer survival: global variation and long-term trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2015-03-03

    diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2009, net 5-year survival exceeded 80% in most developed countries, but was probably lower than 60% in Algeria, South Africa, Mongolia, and Jordan.1 Considering the overall number of potentially avoidable years... statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J. Clin. 64, 9–29 (2014). 8. De Angelis, R. et al. Cancer survival in Europe 1999–2007 by country and age: results of EUROCARE--5-a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 15, 23–34 (2014). 9. Perme, M. P., Stare, J. & Estève, J...

  17. LONG-TERM SOLAR CYCLE EVOLUTION: REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    LONG-TERM SOLAR CYCLE EVOLUTION: REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS I. G. USOSKIN1 and K. MURSULA2 1 September 2003) Abstract. The sunspot number series forms the longest directly observed index of solar of the recent achievements and findings in long-term evolution of solar activity cycles such as determinism

  18. Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe Heikki Manninen Technical Report 91, 2014 #12;Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe Heikki Manninen Publisher: European for future oriented market research of engineered wood products (EWP) in Europe. For example, the need for CO

  19. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  20. Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    This analysis focuses on financial and operating trends of the oil and natural gas production business segment, often referred to as upstream operations, of 42 global oil and natural gas producing companies

  1. Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Mercury Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury In addition to banning the export of elemental mercury from the United States as of January 1, 2013, the Mercury...

  2. Insuring Long-Term Care in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkelstein, Amy

    Long-term care expenditures constitute one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly in the United States and thus play a central role in determining the retirement security of elderly Americans. In this ...

  3. Acquiring firm long-term performance and governance characteristics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breazeale, Jonathan Paul

    2004-09-30

    I examine the market reaction to merger announcements and the long-term post-merger stock price performance of newly merged firms. For a sample of 484 acquiring firms completing mergers between 1993 and 2000, the average ...

  4. Long-Term Surveillance Operations and Maintenance Fiscal Year...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 Year-End Summary Report Long-Term Surveillance Operations and Maintenance Fiscal Year 2013 Year-End Summary Report LTS-O&M is at the core of LM efforts to fulfill a strategy that...

  5. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  6. Assessments of long-term uranium supply availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaterman, Daniel R

    2009-01-01

    The future viability of nuclear power will depend on the long-term availability of uranium. A two-form uranium supply model was used to estimate the date at which peak production will occur. The model assumes a constant ...

  7. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  8. version 11apr11a Geopolitics of the Global Oil System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    , types of oil and gas contracts and the concepts of rents, rentismo, the resource curse and Dutch diseaseSYLLABUS version 11apr11a Geopolitics of the Global Oil System The New School University Graduate-group blogs: 1. China Oil Affairs http://chinaoilaffairs.blogspot.com/ 2. Rentismo & Dutch Disease http

  9. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    1 GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS MSc. Hans, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway Abstract A mathematical program for finding the optimal oil production rates in an oil production system is developed. Each well may be manipulated by injecting lift gas and adjusting

  10. Oil & Gas Technology Center Groundbreaking | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsroom > Oil & Gas Technology Center Groundbreaking Oil & Gas Technology Center Groundbreaking Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in...

  11. Long-Term Probability Distribution of Wind Turbine Planetary Bearing Loads (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Z.; Xing, Y.; Guo, Y.; Dong, W.; Moan, T.; Gao, Z.

    2013-04-01

    Among the various causes of bearing damage and failure, metal fatigue of the rolling contact surface is the dominant failure mechanism. The fatigue life is associated with the load conditions under which wind turbines operate in the field. Therefore, it is important to understand the long-term distribution of the bearing loads under various environmental conditions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's 750-kW Gearbox Reliability Collaborative wind turbine is studied in this work. A decoupled analysis using several computer codes is carried out. The global aero-elastic simulations are performed using HAWC2. The time series of the drivetrain loads and motions from the global dynamic analysis are fed to a drivetrain model in SIMPACK. The time-varying internal pressure distribution along the raceway is obtained analytically. A series of probability distribution functions are then used to fit the long-term statistical distribution at different locations along raceways. The long-term distribution of the bearing raceway loads are estimated under different environmental conditions. Finally, the bearing fatigue lives are calculated.

  12. University of Pittsburgh Libraries Long Term Trends (2004-2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    ULS University of Pittsburgh Libraries Long Term Trends (2004-2012) Based on ARL Statistics includes ULS, Law and Health Services libraries · Some analyses show 2012 data only, as some data points Circulation: peer comparison 1 15 #12;ULS Inter Library Loans 1 16 #12;ULS ILL: peer comparison 1 17 #12;ULS

  13. University of Pittsburgh Libraries Long Term Trends (2004-2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    ULS University of Pittsburgh Libraries Long Term Trends (2004-2013) Based on ARL Statistics includes ULS, Law and Health Services libraries · Most analyses show data for 2004-2013 or 2006-2013. Small expenditure as % of total library expenditures - aspirational peer institutions 2012-2013 2012 2013 #12;ULS

  14. Cogeneration of electricity: Cost-effective over long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barger, R.L.; Barham, J. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes the determination of the cost-effectiveness of a cogeneration project five years after it became operational in 1984. The cogeneration project uses digester sludge gas from a wastewater treatment plant. The topics covered include the history of electrical cogeneration at the site, cogeneration economics in the short term and the long term, and the factors in cost-effectiveness.

  15. Long-term Turnaround Planning for Integrated Chemical Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Long-term Turnaround Planning for Integrated Chemical Sites Satya Amaran, Tong Zhang, Nick Company) 1 #12;Problem Statement · Exploit network interactions, storage availability, and prices considerations · Future/current work ­ Medium-term turnaround scheduling under duration uncertainty for manpower

  16. IAEA-TECDOC-1403 The long term stabilization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This includes managing the legacy of accidents and past practices, including that from uranium mining and radioactive substance and of uranium mining and milling sites. In the past, often little or no care was takenIAEA-TECDOC-1403 The long term stabilization of uranium mill tailings Final report of a co

  17. Automated analysis and interpretation of long-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, Robert C.

    Automated analysis and interpretation of long-term soundscape audio recordings Robert C. Maher Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman #12;Outline · Introduction · Long · Interpretation and presentation is difficult due to extreme length of the data · What is needed: ­ Automated

  18. Long-term atomistic simulation of hydrogen diffusion in metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Michael

    in palladium nanofilms and compared our predictions with previous hydrogen desorption results obtainedLong-term atomistic simulation of hydrogen diffusion in metals K.G. Wang a , M. Ortiz b , M-speed, high capacity, reversible hydrogen storage applications, most mesoscopic approaches to date have relied

  19. Algal Biofuels: Long-Term Energy Benefits Drive U.S. Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Algal Biofuels: Long-Term Energy Benefits Drive U.S. Research Algal Biofuels: Long-Term Energy Benefits Drive U.S. Research Algal Biofuels: Long-Term Energy Benefits Drive U.S....

  20. Summary Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Environmental Impact Statement Final LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT AND STORAGE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT AND STORAGE OF...

  1. Using Social Media for Long-Term Branding | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Media for Long-Term Branding Using Social Media for Long-Term Branding Better Buildings Residential Network Marketing and Outreach Peer Exchange Call Series: Using Social Media...

  2. Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment...

  3. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Complete FiberCopper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure...

  4. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  5. Oil transportation in the global landscape : the Murmansk Oil Terminal and Pipeline proposal evaluated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Ankur, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Oil and transportation have been commingled since the first oil reserves were discovered. The importance of energy, namely oil, and the transportation of that energy from the producers to the consumers is persistently ...

  6. Breaking Ground for GE Oil & Gas Tech Center|GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Announces New Technology Partnership with Devon Energy at Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center in Oklahoma City Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share...

  7. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Milton

    Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally Jeremy T (received for review June 20, 2014) Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish

  8. version 11apr11a Geopolitics of the Global Oil System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    ://menapetroleum.blogspot.com/ Short Description This course examines the political economy of global energy, especially oil, and its-group blogs: 1. China Oil Affairs http://chinaoilaffairs.blogspot.com/ 2. Rentismo & Dutch Disease http geopolitical consequences for the Middle East, Latin America, China, and U.S. policy. In Part 1, Resources, we

  9. ZOOMING OUT Seminars About Long-Term Thinking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    . #12;Robert A. Rohde, available under GNU Free Documentation License #12;`Luckily', we'll run out of oil in about a century: #12;But, there's much more left to burn: · Oil: 3 trillion barrels · Natural

  10. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE’s responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation’s nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE’s legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM–50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities.

  11. Smart Sensing Networks for Renewables, Oil & Gas | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reliability and robustness of the data points being collected. sensor-500x333 As oil and gas production moves to unconventional environments, it will require more rugged sensors...

  12. Interactive long-term simulation for power system restoration planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountas, N.A.; Hatziargyriou, N.D. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece)] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece); Orfanogiannis, C.; Tasoulis, A. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

    1997-02-01

    The problem of restoring a power system following a complete blackout is complex and multi-faceted. Many control actions have to be performed on time, while constraints such as power balance and system stability have to be carefully respected. In this paper, the application of long-term dynamic analysis in studying frequency and voltage responses due to load and generation mismatches in isolated systems or during extension of the existing system in the restoration phase is presented. Simulation results covering the main steps of the Hellenic power system restoration process following a recent total blackout are presented and discussed.

  13. Long-Term Stewardship Study | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRDEnergyTurbineProcesses toDepartment ofprepared this Long-term

  14. Long-term Contract Information and Registrations | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRDEnergyTurbineProcesses toDepartment ofprepared thisLong-Term

  15. Long-Term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat PumpsTechnologies |LibraryCenterCenterLinksFacts,Long-Term

  16. Driving Sensing Technology in Oil & Gas | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newest APS Fellow Driving Groundbreaking Sensing Technology in Oil & Gas Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to...

  17. Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new...

  18. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullum, Rod; Brookmire, Tom; Kessler, John; Leblang, Suzanne; Levin, Adam; Martin, Zita; Nesbit, Steve; Nichol, Marc; Pickens, Terry

    2013-07-01

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  19. Long-term Energy Supply Contracts in European Competition Policy: Fuzzy not Crazy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    Long-term supply contracts often have ambiguous effects on the competitive structure, investment and consumer welfare in the long term. In a context of market building, these effects are likely to be worsened and thus even ...

  20. Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  1. Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhanqing; Niu, F.; Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Yangang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol has complex effects on clouds and precipitation that may augment or offset each other contingent upon a variety of variables. As a result, its long-term impact on climate is largely unknown. Using 10 years of the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) measurements, strong aerosol effects of climatologically significance are detected. With increasing total aerosol number concentration (condensation nucleus, CN) measured near the ground, both cloud top height and precipitation change systematically for mix-phase clouds of warm-base (cloud base <1km) and cold-top (above the freezing level), but not for pure liquid and ice clouds. Cloud thickness can increase systematically with the CN concentration by up to a factor of 2. The response of precipitation to CN depends on cloud liquid water path (LWP). As CN increases, rain occurs more frequently for high LWP but less frequently for low LWP. Such strong signals of aerosol long-term impact on cloud and precipitation have not been reported and have significant implications for climate change studies, especially concerning regional and global climate change induced by pollution.

  2. Modelling by homogenization of the long term rock dissolution and geomechanical effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Modelling by homogenization of the long term rock dissolution and geomechanical effects Jolanta modifications of the hydrodynamical as well as geomechanical properties of the reservoir. The long-term safety the modelling of long term geomechanical effects related to CO2 storage are proposed. Of special interest

  3. Forecasting long-term gas production from shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis

    Oil and natural gas from deep shale formations are transforming the United States economy and its energy outlook. Back in 2005, the US Energy Information Administration published projections of United States natural gas ...

  4. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.

  5. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  6. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that includes one of the six (6) cocooned reactors on site. These accomplishments relied upon the transparency between DOE cleanup programs and their contractors working together to successfully transition the land while addressing the challenges that arise. All parties, the three different DOE Programs and their respective prime contractors are dedicated to working together and continuing the progress of transitioning land to LTS, in alignment with the Program Plan and compliant with contractual requirements. This paper highlights the accomplishments and collaborative efforts to address the challenges faced as work progresses from the cleanup to transitioning of land parcels to LTS Program.

  7. LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AT DOE HANFORD SITE - 12575

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOREN RJ; GRINDSTAFF KD

    2012-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)[1], which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation between the contractors and DOE-RL. Information Management (IM) is a key part of the LTS program. The IM Program identifies, locates, stores, protects and makes accessible Hanford LTS records and data to support the transfer of property ultimately to LM. As such, DOE-RL manages the Hanford LTS Program in a manner consistent with LM's goals, policies, and procedures.

  8. LONG-TERM GOAL The long-term goal of this research project is to determine if energy reflectance measurements can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voss, Susan E.

    LONG-TERM GOAL The long-term goal of this research project is to determine if energy reflectance of newborn hearing screening and when middle-ear fluid is suspected. Energy reflectance measures provide presented here is to characterize the energy reflectance of normal- hearing, healthy newborn babies. Keefe

  9. Long-term proliferation and safeguards issues in future technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keisch, B.; Auerbach, C.; Fainberg, A.; Fiarman, S.; Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Lemley, J.R.; O'Brien, J.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the task was to assess the effect of potential new technologies, nuclear and non-nuclear, on safeguards needs and non-proliferation policies, and to explore possible solutions to some of the problems envisaged. Eight subdivisions were considered: New Enrichment Technologies; Non-Aqueous Reprocessing Technologies; Fusion; Accelerator-Driven Reactor Systems; New Reactor Types; Heavy Water and Deuterium; Long-Term Storage of Spent Fuel; and Other Future Technologies (Non-Nuclear). For each of these subdivisions, a careful review of the current world-wide effort in the field provided a means of subjectively estimating the viability and qualitative probability of fruition of promising technologies. Technologies for which safeguards and non-proliferation requirements have been thoroughly considered by others were not restudied here (e.g., the Fast Breeder Reactor). The time scale considered was 5 to 40 years for possible initial demonstration although, in some cases, a somewhat optimistic viewpoint was embraced. Conventional nuclear-material safeguards are only part of the overall non-proliferation regime. Other aspects are international agreements, export controls on sensitive technologies, classification of information, intelligence gathering, and diplomatic initiatives. The focus here is on safeguards, export controls, and classification.

  10. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  11. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  12. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas: What Happens Long Term?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roos, Daniel E., E-mail: daniel.roos@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Potter, Andrew E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Brophy, Brian P. [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes for acoustic neuroma treated with low-dose linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) >10 years earlier at the Royal Adelaide Hospital using data collected prospectively at a dedicated SRS clinic. Methods and Materials: Between November 1993 and December 2000, 51 patients underwent SRS for acoustic neuroma. For the 44 patients with primary SRS for sporadic (unilateral) lesions, the median age was 63 years, the median of the maximal tumor diameter was 21 mm (range, 11-34), and the marginal dose was 14 Gy for the first 4 patients and 12 Gy for the other 40. Results: The crude tumor control rate was 97.7% (1 patient required salvage surgery for progression at 9.75 years). Only 8 (29%) of 28 patients ultimately retained useful hearing (interaural pure tone average {<=}50 dB). Also, although the Kaplan-Meier estimated rate of hearing preservation at 5 years was 57% (95% confidence interval, 38-74%), this decreased to 24% (95% confidence interval, 11-44%) at 10 years. New or worsened V and VII cranial neuropathy occurred in 11% and 2% of patients, respectively; all cases were transient. No case of radiation oncogenesis developed. Conclusions: The long-term follow-up data of low-dose (12-14 Gy) linear accelerator SRS for acoustic neuroma have confirmed excellent tumor control and acceptable cranial neuropathy rates but a continual decrease in hearing preservation out to {>=}10 years.

  13. Running into an out of oil: Scenarios of global oil use and resource depletion to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2002-07-23

    Is a transition from conventional oil imminent? Is it likely to lock the world into a high-carbon energy future? This report attempts to shed some light on these questions.

  14. GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY/OIL SPILL COMMUNITY SEMINAR "Natural and Unnatural Oil in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Initiative, Center for the Environment, Energy Center, Purdue Oil Spill Community, Purdue Water Community to rebound from the pollution dose received due to the 84-day discharge from the BP well. The natural seeps

  15. Site transition framework for long-term surveillance and maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    This document provides a framework for all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and sites where DOE may have anticipated long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTSM) responsibilities. It is a tool to help facilitate a smooth transition from remediation to LTSM, providing a systematic process for affected parties to utilize in analyzing the baseline to understand and manage the actions from EM mission completion through a site’s transition into LTSM. The framework is not meant to provide an exhaustive list of the specific requirement and information that are needed. Sites will have unique considerations that may not be adequately addressed by this tool, and it is anticipated that a team comprised of the transferring and receiving organization will use judgment in utilizing this augmenting with other DOE guidance. However the framework should be followed to the extent possible at each site; and adapted to accommodate unique site-specific requirements, needs, and documents. Since the objective of the tool is facilitate better understanding of the conditions of the site and the actions required for transfer, the transition team utilizing the checklist is expected to consult with management of both the receiving and transferring organization to verify that major concerns are addressed. Ideally, this framework should be used as early in the remediation process as possible. Subsequent applications of the Site Transition Framework (STF) to the site should be conducted periodically and used to verify that all appropriate steps have been or will be taken to close-out the site and that actions by both organization are identified to transfer the site to LTSM. The requirements are provided herein.

  16. Oil & Gas Technology Center | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientific andComplexOfficeOfficeOil &

  17. Subalpine Forest Carbon Cycling Short- and Long-Term Influence ofClimate and Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueppers, L.; Harte, J.

    2005-08-23

    Ecosystem carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change comprise one of the largest remaining sources of uncertainty in global model predictions of future climate. Both direct climate effects on carbon cycling and indirect effects via climate-induced shifts in species composition may alter ecosystem carbon balance over the long term. In the short term, climate effects on carbon cycling may be mediated by ecosystem species composition. We used an elevational climate and tree species composition gradient in Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to quantify the sensitivity of all major ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes to these factors. The climate sensitivities of carbon fluxes were species-specific in the cases of relative above ground productivity and litter decomposition, whereas the climate sensitivity of dead wood decay did not differ between species, and total annual soil CO2 flux showed no strong climate trend. Lodge pole pine relative productivity increased with warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt, while Engelmann spruce relative productivity was insensitive to climate variables. Engelmann spruce needle decomposition decreased linearly with increasing temperature(decreasing litter moisture), while lodgepole pine and subalpine fir needle decay showed a hump-shaped temperature response. We also found that total ecosystem carbon declined by 50 percent with a 2.88C increase in mean annual temperature and a concurrent 63 percent decrease ingrowing season soil moisture, primarily due to large declines in mineral soil and dead wood carbon. We detected no independent effect of species composition on ecosystem C stocks. Overall, our carbon flux results suggest that, in the short term, any change in subalpine forest net carbon balance will depend on the specific climate scenario and spatial distribution of tree species. Over the long term, our carbon stock results suggest that with regional warming and drying, Rocky Mountain subalpine forest will be a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.

  18. LEDS Tool: Step-By-Step Guidance to a Long-Term Framework for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidance to a Long-Term Framework for Continuous Sustainable Development Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization: International Partnership on Mitigation and MRV Partner:...

  19. IMAGE RETRIEVAL OVER NETWORKS: ANT ALGORITHM FOR LONG TERM ACTIVE David Picard1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMAGE RETRIEVAL OVER NETWORKS: ANT ALGORITHM FOR LONG TERM ACTIVE LEARNING David Picard1 , Arnaud of relevant images from the interaction with the user. We carr

  20. The Battle for Development: Economic Growth versus Institutions, Fighting for Long-term Sustainable Outcomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    secure long-term sustainable development have fallen shortlong- term sustainable development. Keywords: Development;SSA) looking to reach sustainable development the question

  1. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prev Next Title: Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's...

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive disposal site Clive, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the South Clive disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  5. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 0-0, M 0, 2001 Long Term Measurements of Radiation Belts by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    of Radiation Belts by SAMPEX and Their Variations Xinlin Li,1 D. N. Baker,1 S. G. Kanekal,1 M. Looper,2 M-altitude and polar- orbiting satellite, has provided a long-term global picture of the radiation belts since its launch on July 3, 1992. While the inner belt (L

  6. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-01-13

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  7. China's Building Energy Demand: Long-Term Implications from a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-10-01

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China’s building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China’s building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China’s building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China’s building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  8. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long- term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific through diversification. In hydroelectric dominated systems, like the PNW, the benefits of wind power can

  9. ENERGY ISSUES WORKING GROUP ON LONG-TERM VISIONS FOR FUSION POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    ENERGY ISSUES WORKING GROUP ON LONG-TERM VISIONS FOR FUSION POWER Don Steiner, Jeffrey Freidberg Farrokh Najmabadi William Nevins , and John Perkins The Energy Issues Working Group on Long-Term Visions energy production in the next century? 2. What is fusion's potential for penetrating the energy market

  10. Report TKK-ENY-9 Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Report TKK-ENY-9 Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2 from flue gases Jens Kohlmann 1 University of Technology was "Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2 from flue gases"; the progress storage by mineral carbonation in Finland (CO2 lagring genom mineral karbonering i Finland)" Ron

  11. Development/Plasticity/Repair Dendritic Spine Dynamics Regulate the Long-Term Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rossum, Mark

    Development/Plasticity/Repair Dendritic Spine Dynamics Regulate the Long-Term Stability of Synaptic Plasticity Cian O'Donnell,1,2 Matthew F. Nolan,3 and Mark C. W. van Rossum1 1Institute for Adaptive of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, United Kingdom Long-term synaptic plasticity requires postsynaptic influx

  12. Development/Plasticity/Repair Simultaneous NMDA-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segal, Menahem

    Development/Plasticity/Repair Simultaneous NMDA-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation of EPSCs and Long activity-dependent long-term plasticity of neuronal networks is the interplay between excitatory, whereas a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor was ineffec- tive. Finally, network-induced plasticity

  13. Prediction of long-term creep behavior of epoxy adhesives for structural applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Chih-Wei

    2005-11-01

    under different environmental conditions. The time-temperature superposition method produces a master curve allowing the long-term creep compliance to be estimated. The physics-based Coupling model is found to fit well the long-term creep master curve...

  14. Long-term investigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludge or digested sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Microbial fuel cell Primary sludge Digested sludge Energy Biogas a b s t r a c t The long-term performance and energy recovery. The use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is a promising approach for direct productionLong-term investigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludge or digested sludge Zheng Ge

  15. Using Control Theory to Model the Long-term Economic Effects of Wildfire1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Control Theory to Model the Long-term Economic Effects of Wildfire1 Hayley Hesseln,2 Douglas of control theory. It explores the long-term relationships among the factors of production and the choice@CNR.Colostate.edu. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-173. 1999. 107 #12;Session III Using Control Theory

  16. 4. Advancement and Long-term Institutional Resources v. Funding Sources and Financial Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    4. Advancement and Long-term Institutional Resources v. Funding Sources and Financial Health NumberofTimes #12;4. Advancement and Long-term Institutional Resources v. Funding Sources and Financial: Information on the financial health and credit ratings of the University of Toronto is useful to governors

  17. Modelling the long-term response of stream water chemistry to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling the long-term response of stream water chemistry to atmospheric pollution and forestry-term response of stream water chemistry to atmospheric pollution and forestry practices in Galloway, SW Scotland.forestry.gov.uk/fr/acidification #12;4 #12;Modelling the long-term response of stream water chemistry to atmospheric pollution

  18. Long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change Instructor: Dr. Igor Kamenkovich, associate professor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change Instructor: Dr. Igor Kamenkovich, associate students to learn about existing theories of abrupt climate changes and climate variability on time scales of long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change. This course compliments current MPO courses

  19. Towards sustainable land administration systems: Designing for long-term value creation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3-7-2014 1 Towards sustainable land administration systems: Designing for long-term value creation Zevenbergen Towards sustainable land administration systems Designing for long-term value creation `There, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 16 ­ 21 June 2014 3-7-2014 2 Towards sustainable land administration systems

  20. Calculating Long-Term Trends in the Real Real Prices of Primary Commodities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calculating Long-Term Trends in the Real Real Prices of Primary Commodities: Deflator Adjustment method for re-assessing all earlier studies on long-term trends in commodity prices by accounting calculating a corrected `real real' commodity price series, as was done recently, for example, in Svedberg

  1. 1 Long-term volumetric eruption rates and magma budgets 2 Scott M. White

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spera, Frank J.

    1 Long-term volumetric eruption rates and magma budgets 2 Scott M. White 3 Department of Geological compilation of 170 time-averaged volumetric volcanic output rates (Qe) is evaluated in terms 12 of composition 2006. 37 White, S. M., J. A. Crisp, and F. A. Spera (2006), Long-term volumetric eruption rates

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  3. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the growing global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial uses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, C; Napier, JA; Clemente, TE; Cahoon, EB

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of oilseed metabolism and in the development of new oilseed platforms and metabolic engineering technologies.

  4. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J.; Lurz, Joshua P.

    2007-12-03

    We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.

  5. Data Archive of the Harvard Forest, a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Since 1907 research and education have been the mission of the Harvard Forest is one of the oldest and most intensively studied forests in North America. Located in Petersham, Massachusetts, its 3000 acres of land have been a center of research and education since 1907. The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, established in 1988 and funded by the National Science Foundation, provides a framework for much of this activity. An understanding of forest responses to natural and human disturbance and environmental change over broad spatial and temporal scales pulls together research topics including biodiversity studies, the effects of invasive organisms, large experiments and permanent plot studies, historical and retrospective studies, soil nutrient dynamics, and plant population and community ecological interactions. Major research in forest-atmosphere exchange, hydrology, and regional studies places the work in regional and global context, aided by modeling tools. Conservation and management research and linkages to policy have been part of the Forest since its beginning, and the approaches used in New England can often apply to international studies. [Copied from http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/research.html] In addition to more than 150 datasets, the Visual Information Access system at Harvard University Library makes nearly 900 images pertaining to Harvard Forest research available online to the public.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plant (LTSP) describes the US Department of energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project`s burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. No ground water monitoring will be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low-yield from the upper-most aquifer.

  9. Plutonium Isotopes in the Terrestrial Environment at the Savannah River Site, USA: A Long-Term Study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Brant, Heather A.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Hall, Gregory; Halverson, Justin E.; Cadieux, James R.

    2015-02-03

    This work presents the findings of a long term plutonium study at Savannah River Site (SRS) conducted between 2003 and 2013. Terrestrial environmental samples were obtained at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in A-area. Plutonium content and isotopic abundances were measured over this time period by alpha spectrometry and three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS). Here we detail the complete sample collection, radiochemical separation, and measurement procedure specifically targeted to trace plutonium in bulk environmental samples. Total plutonium activities were determined to be not significantly above atmospheric global fallout. However, the 238Pu/239+240Pu activity ratios attributed to SRS are above atmospheric global fallout ranges. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios are reasonably consistent from year to year and are lower than fallout, while the 242Pu/239Pu atom ratios are higher than fallout values. Overall, the plutonium signatures obtained in this study reflect a mixture of weapons-grade, higher burn-up, and fallout material. This study provides a blue print for long term low level monitoring of plutonium in the environment.

  10. Plutonium Isotopes in the Terrestrial Environment at the Savannah River Site, USA. A Long-Term Study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Brant, Heather A.; Hall, Gregory; Halverson, Justin E.; Cadieux, James R.

    2015-01-16

    This work presents the findings of a long term plutonium study at Savannah River Site (SRS) conducted between 2003 and 2013. Terrestrial environmental samples were obtained at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in A-area. Plutonium content and isotopic abundances were measured over this time period by alpha spectrometry and three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS). Here we detail the complete sample collection, radiochemical separation, and measurement procedure specifically targeted to trace plutonium in bulk environmental samples. Total plutonium activities were determined to be not significantly above atmospheric global fallout. However, the 238Pu/239+240Pu activity ratios attributed to SRS are abovemore »atmospheric global fallout ranges. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios are reasonably consistent from year to year and are lower than fallout, while the 242Pu/239Pu atom ratios are higher than fallout values. Overall, the plutonium signatures obtained in this study reflect a mixture of weapons-grade, higher burn-up, and fallout material. This study provides a blue print for long term low level monitoring of plutonium in the environment.« less

  11. LONG-TERM CARE INSURANCE Getting caught unprepared for long-term care needs can have a considerable impact on your financial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or 121 days, you are eligible for UNUM Life Insurance Company of America's (UNUM) Long-Term Care Plan underwriting to prove that you are insurable. WHAT ABOUT COVERAGE FOR OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS? Coverage for other eligible family members will be medically underwritten. Each family member must complete a statement

  12. LONG-TERM STABILITY TESTING RESULTS USING SURROGATES AND SORBENTS FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ORGANIC AND AQUEOUS WASTESTREAMS - 10016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  13. Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroecono...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Approach: Create a Long Term Base Case Major Inputs 9 Light Vehicles (Car and Light Truck) Heavy Vehicles (GVW Class 3-8) Medium: Class 3-6 Truck Heavy:...

  14. Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winguth, Arne

    Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model Uwe earth system model con- sisting of an atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean general

  15. RIVERWARE'S INTEGRATED MODELING AND ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR LONG-TERM PLANNING UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RIVERWARE'S INTEGRATED MODELING AND ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR LONG- TERM PLANNING UNDER UNCERTAINTY and reservoir operations under hydrologic uncertainty benefits from modeling capabilities that include 1-objective river and reservoir modeling tool that can represent various planning alternatives and easily run

  16. Incorporating endogenous demand dynamics into long-term capacity expansion power system models for Developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Rhonda LeNai

    2013-01-01

    This research develops a novel approach to long-term power system capacity expansion planning for developing countries by incorporating endogenous demand dynamics resulting from social processes of technology adoption. ...

  17. Do Firms Underinvest in Long-Term Research? Evidence from Cancer Clinical Trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budish, Eric

    We investigate whether private research investments are distorted away from long-term projects. Our theoretical model highlights two potential sources of this distortion: short-termism and the fixed patent term. Our empirical ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office: Long-Term Lightweight Materials Research (Magnesium and Carbon Fiber)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office supports research into magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced composites, which could reduce the weight of some components by 50-75 percent in the long-term.

  19. An overview of atmospheric deposition chemistry over the Alps: present status and long-term trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    An overview of atmospheric deposition chemistry over the Alps: present status and long-term trends data highlights the importance of continuously monitoring atmospheric deposition chemistry Birmensdorf, Switzerland 5 Institute of Analytical Chemistry (IAC), Vienna University of Technology, 1060

  20. Long-term contracts for new investments in power generation capacity : pain or gain?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakhrani, Vivek A. (Vivek Ashok)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a debate has ensued regarding the role of long-term power purchase agreements for securing investments in power generation capacity in organized wholesale markets. This thesis illuminates the issues ...

  1. Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline...

  2. Testing long-term earthquake forecasts: likelihood methods and error diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2009-01-01

    Jackson, 1991. Long-term earthquake clustering, Geophys. J.forecast- ing of earthquakes, J. geophys. Res. , 99(B7),G. M. & Y. Y. Kagan, 1992. Earthquake prediction and its

  3. Long term infrastructure investments under uncertainty in the electric power sector using approximate dynamic programming techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seelhof, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A computer model was developed to find optimal long-term investment strategies for the electric power sector under uncertainty with respect to future regulatory regimes and market conditions. The model is based on a ...

  4. Long-term functional plasticity in plant hydraulic architecture in response to supplemental moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Long-term functional plasticity in plant hydraulic architecture in response to supplemental of nearby individuals growing where soil moisture had been supplemented for 14 years. Traditional parameters receiving supplemental moisture consistently showed significant responses in all considered traits related

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  9. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  10. Development of a new test of accelerated long-term forgetting in epilepsy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Katie

    2010-11-24

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a novel form of memory impairment in which epilepsy patients demonstrate intact recall and recognition after standard delays, but they show an accelerated rate of forgetting in ...

  11. Long-term care facilities in Ontario, Canada: A waste management overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gales, John; Roy-Poirier, A; Champagne, P

    2009-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) facilities are growing in number in the province of Ontario. Typically, Canadian LTC facilities house an average of over 100 residents. Environmental concerns associated to waste management in LTC ...

  12. Short-term and long-term reliability studies in the deregulated power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yishan

    2006-04-12

    then investigate new ways to improve composite power system adequacy in the long-term. Specifically, we propose to use Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) such as Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Thyristor...

  13. Distributed Energy: Modeling Penetration in Industrial Sector Over the Long-Term 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greening, L.

    2006-01-01

    : Modeling Penetration in Industrial Sector over the Long-Term Lorna Greening, Private Consultant, Los Alamos, NM Distributed energy (DE) sources provide a number of benefits when utilized. For industrial facilities in the past, turbines have provided...

  14. Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. on Feb. 26, 2014 during the opening session of the 2013 NREL PV Module Reliability Workshop. It summarizes the study of long-term, field-aged...

  15. Illiquid Housing as Self-Insurance: The Case of Long Term Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DAVIDOFF, THOMAS

    2007-01-01

    D. Wise, 2000, Aging and housing equity, NBER Working Paperand the liquidity of housing wealth, Journal Of The AmericanIlliquid Housing as Self-Insurance: The Case of Long Term

  16. Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

    2012-12-11

    The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

  17. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

  18. Designing for long-term human-robot interaction and application to weight loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidd, Cory David, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Human-robot interaction is now well enough understood to allow us to build useful systems that can function outside of the laboratory. This thesis defines sociable robot system in the context of long-term interaction, ...

  19. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Integrin Dynamics Produce a Delayed Stage of Long-Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    of memory research. Evidence that long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of plasticity closely related-mimetic peptides, selective toxins, genetic manipu- lations, or neutralizing antisera has little effect

  20. Long-Term Passivation of Strongly Interacting Metals with Single-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weatherup, Robert S.; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Caneva, Sabina; Blume, Raoul; Robertson, John; Schlögl, Robert; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-10-24

    The long-term (>18 months) protection of Ni surfaces against oxidation under atmospheric conditions is demonstrated by coverage with single-layer graphene, formed by chemical vapor deposition. In situ, depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  1. TECHNICAL NOTES Long-Term Behavior of Water Content and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Champaign, Ill. in 1987. A pond of water 0.31 m deep was maintained on top of the 7.3 m X 14.6 m X 0.9 mTECHNICAL NOTES Long-Term Behavior of Water Content and Density in an Earthen Liner Timothy E of a compacted earthen liner by monitoring the long-term changes in water content and density. The water content

  2. Long term trends in sporadic E layers and electric field over Fortaleza, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Muralikrishna, P.; Sobral, J.H.A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)] [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports a study of long term trends in sporadic E observations from an equatorial site, collected from ionosoned data. The secular drift of the magnetic equator, and changes in the equatorial electrojet have manifested substantial long term changes at this site. The authors present trend studies of the different types of Es events and correlate these with electric field and wind variations in the ionosphere.

  3. Experiences of care planning in England: interviews with patients with long term conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newbould, Jenny; Burt, Jenni; Bower, Peter; Blakeman, Tom; Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Roland, Martin

    2012-07-25

    such as the stratifi- cation of people with long term conditions according to Cambridge, UK Full list of author information is available at the end of the articlein multimorbidity, with an estimated two thirds of older people having two or more long term conditions. [2... • Thorough peer review • No space constraints or color figure charges • Immediate publication on acceptance • Inclusion in PubMed, CAS, Scopus and Google Scholar • Research which is freely available for redistribution26. Protheroe J, Nutbeam D, Rowlands G...

  4. Behavioral Response to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Refueling: A Comparative Analysis of Short- and Long-Term Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliot; Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy; Lidicker, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE Elliot Martin Graduate StudentREFERENCES 1. Shaheen, Susan, Elliot Martin, and Timothy

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Stable Long-Term Operation of Semiconductor Magnetic Sensors in ITER-Relevant Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental Evaluation of Stable Long-Term Operation of Semiconductor Magnetic Sensors in ITER-Relevant Environment

  6. On the Emissivity of Silver Coated Panels, Effect of Long Term Stability and Effect of Coating Thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Emissivity of Silver Coated Panels, Effect of Long Term Stability and Effect of Coating Thickness

  7. Cotton Could Clean Up Toxic Oil Spills, Say Texas Tech Researchers -India West: Global Indian http://www.indiawest.com/news/global_indian/cotton-could-clean-up-toxic-oil-spills-say-texas-tech/article_5737b73a-404f-11e4-b1d6-d3b81a397f39.html[9/22/2014 8:1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Cotton Could Clean Up Toxic Oil Spills, Say Texas Tech Researchers - India West: Global Indian http://www.indiawest.com/news/global_indian/cotton-could-clean-up-toxic-oil: Cotton Could Clean Up Toxic Oil Spills, Say Texas Tech Researchers Posted: Friday, September 19, 2014 4

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, Disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal site, which will be referred to as the Lowman site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. The radioactive sands at the Lowman site were stabilized on the site. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or a state, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office.

  14. Final long-term surveillance plan for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    A general license for the custody and long-term care of DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and became effective on November 29, 1990. The general license will be in effect for a specific disposal site when the NRC accepts the disposal site`s long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) and concurs that remedial action is complete at that site. This document describes in detail the long-term surveillance activities for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site, including monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license, and to ensure that the disposal cell continues to comply with the UMTRA design standards.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  16. High Temperature Steam Electrolysis: Demonstration of Improved Long-Term Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; R. C. O'Brien; G. Tao

    2011-11-01

    Long-term performance is an ongoing issue for hydrogen production based on high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). For commercial deployment, solid-oxide electrolysis stacks must achieve high performance with long-term degradation rates of {approx}0.5%/1000 hours or lower. Significant progress has been achieved toward this goal over the past few years. This paper will provide details of progress achieved under the Idaho National Laboratory high temperature electrolysis research program. Recent long-term stack tests have achieved high initial performance with degradation rates less than 5%/khr. These tests utilize internally manifolded stacks with electrode-supported cells. The cell material sets are optimized for the electrolysis mode of operation. Details of the cells and stacks will be provided along with details of the test apparatus, procedures, and results.

  17. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in ?’ strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing ?’, typical in intermediate ?’ volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing ?’ to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450?F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

  18. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  19. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  20. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  1. Analysis of the accounting treatment for long-term leases and their disclosure in financial statements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Thomas E

    1964-01-01

    . ' tinily reduced rantaM Where long-term losses a?e used as e substitute for caner ship~dacrtgago borrouiag&, a quostkon4giseh es ge the smtant-of diauloaure tc be made Xn finanCiel. atatemenfe Of Ag fhCed annual amounts payable cnd other Important terms...

  2. Flexibility and reliability in long-term planning exercises dedicated to the electricity sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Flexibility and reliability in long-term planning exercises dedicated to the electricity sector of these options. This paper focuses on the electricity sector and on problems of flexibility and reliability are assessed through the level of electrical losses they induced and a related cost. These approaches

  3. 4. Advancement and Long-term Institutional Resources iii. Library and IT Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    provide some measure of the perceived quality of our library resources. LibQUAL+ survey is a national4. Advancement and Long-term Institutional Resources iii. Library and IT Resources Figures a-b University of Toronto Performance Indicators 2011 Library Resources Performance Relevance: Library resources

  4. 4. Advancement and Long-term Institutional Resources iii. Library and IT Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    provide some measure of the perceived quality of our library resources. LibQUAL+ survey is a national4. Advancement and Long-term Institutional Resources iii. Library and IT Resources Figures a-b University of Toronto Performance Indicators 2010 Library Resources Performance Relevance: Library resources

  5. The OHSU Library achieved success and made progress toward both short and long term goals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    and for the future. #12;Collections and Facilities Digital Resources Library The OHSU Digital Resources Library (drl and a new server for the Digital Resources Library. Page 2 OHSU Library Annual Report Collaborative LearningThe OHSU Library achieved success and made progress toward both short and long term goals

  6. EIFAC 2006: DAMS, WEIRS AND FISH Long-term effects of hydropower installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, T.K.

    Abstract The Shannon, Ireland's largest river, is used for hydroelectricity generation since 1929 in juvenile recruitment resulting from the installation of hydroelectric facilities, management was focused programmes are reviewed in this article. In addition to the long-term effects the hydroelectric facilities

  7. An Interior-Point Method for Long Term Scheduling of Large Scale Hydrothermal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Aurélio R. L.

    that embraces time frames ranging from the long term energy hydroelectric resources control to electric of the reservoirs in order to maximize the hydroelectric production and, as a result, minimize the thermoelectric storage target. It should comprise a detailed representation of both: hydroelectric plants hydraulic

  8. A long-term investment planning model for mixed energy infrastructure integrated with renewable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A long-term investment planning model for mixed energy infrastructure integrated with renewable- mental friendly. Compared with fossil energy, it is expensive to transport renewable energy for a long distance. Another problem of renewable energy is fluctuation and it is not so stable as fossil energy

  9. Estimating long-term world coal production with logit and probit transforms David Rutledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Estimating long-term world coal production with logit and probit transforms David Rutledge form 27 October 2010 Accepted 27 October 2010 Available online 4 November 2010 Keywords: Coal reserves Coal resources Coal production estimates IPCC Logistic model Cumulative normal model An estimate

  10. Insurable Storage Services: Creating a Marketplace for Long-Term Document Archival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simha, Rahul

    Insurable Storage Services: Creating a Marketplace for Long-Term Document Archival K. Gopinath1 Washington, DC 20052, USA simha@gwu.edu Abstract Digital storage is a key element not only of computing-capacity storage. At the same time, the storage needs of users have now become more sophisticated and diverse. Some

  11. Structure of Earth's outer radiation belt inferred from long-term electron flux dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

    mapped the radiation-belt structure by quantifying the electron flux variability over the entire radialStructure of Earth's outer radiation belt inferred from long-term electron flux dynamics D September 2003; published 15 October 2003. [1] We map the spatial structure of the electron belts over

  12. Hawaii's Marine Fisheries: Some History, Long-term Trends, and Recent Developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawaii's Marine Fisheries: Some History, Long-term Trends, and Recent Developments Introduction Recently Hawaii's commercial ma rine fishery has experienced a period of rapid growth and structural change Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822-2396. ABSTRACT - This paper provides an overview ofHawaii

  13. CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE IN SOUTHERN IDENTIFYING THE LONG TERM LIABILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA IDENTIFYING THE LONG TERM LIABILITIES A THESIS of emissions is a promising strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Before this technology can indicate that overall, the Cuyama Basin is better suited to use as a storage site than others in this study

  14. LONG-TERM DYNAMICS AND THE ORBITAL INCLINATIONS OF THE CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael E.

    LONG-TERM DYNAMICS AND THE ORBITAL INCLINATIONS OF THE CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS Marc J in the region of the classical Kuiper belt (41 AU a 47 AU) to explore the role of dynamical instabilities in sculpting the inclination distribution of the classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). We find

  15. Long-term SLOs for reclaimed cloud computing resources Marcus Carvalho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Long-term SLOs for reclaimed cloud computing resources Marcus Carvalho Universidade Federal de Google Inc., USA johnwilkes@google.com Abstract The elasticity promised by cloud computing does not come.1145/2670979.2670999 Keywords Cloud computing, Capacity planning, Quality of Service 1. Introduction Although marketing

  16. Some Basic Ideas Migration is a long-term (> daily) movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Christopher A.

    1 Migration Humpbacked Whales Some Basic Ideas Migration is a long-term (> daily) movement from one migrate yearly to find suitable substrate/water level/water temperature Costs and Benefits of Migration of breeding individuals Costs of migration include: Increased risk of predation or death from natural events

  17. Why do some small islands lack vegetation? Evidence from long-term introduction experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Lloyd W.

    , and only two naturally vegetated islands lost all vegetation. Experimental introductions of two species Á and hurricanes appeared to have reduced the establishment success and possibly long-term survival of the introductions, although some populations survived four major hurricanes. Turnover rates of both introduced

  18. LONG TERM RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF A NUTRIENT ADDITION ON A BARRIER ISLAND DUNE ECOSYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    LONG TERM RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF A NUTRIENT ADDITION ON A BARRIER ISLAND DUNE ECOSYSTEM by Susan M EFFECTS OF A NUTRIENT ADDITION ON A BARRIER ISLAND DUNE ECOSYSTEM Susan M. Heyel Old Dominion University, 2000 Director: Dr. Frank P. Day In 1991, 150 m2 were fertilized with nitrogen on three dunes on Hog

  19. Long-term pilot scale investigation of novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . · FO water flux was maintained constant for more than four months with the UFO-MBR. G R A P H I C A L membrane bioreactor (OMBR) and a novel hybrid ultrafiltration OMBR (UFO-MBR) were investigated for extended bioreactor (UFO-MBR). Results from long-term OMBR and UFO-MBR investigations revealed that the overall

  20. Revisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    /or Runoff. Most regions in the world lie in the continuum between the water and energy limits, reachingRevisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance, evaporative flux and runoff simulated by the water balance model underlying the Palmer Drought Severity Index

  1. Long-Term Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Rio Chagres Basin: Implications for Panama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, Kyle K.

    Chapter 19 Long-Term Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Rio Chagres Basin: Implications: We measured in situ-produced cosmogenic 10 Be in 17 sand-sized sediment samples (0.25 to 0.85 mm) to estimate the rate and distribution of sediment generation in the upper Chagres watershed over the last 10

  2. LONG-TERM REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT IN WESTERN GULLS: CONSEQUENCES OF ALTERNATE TACTICS IN DIET CHOICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annett, Cynthia A.; Pierotti, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    of Western Gulls, Larus occidentalis. Of 112 pairs for which we have either long-term ($5 yr) or lifetime reproductive output, 44% bred for only a single year, and an additional 25% bred for only 2–3 yr. A few pairs bred successfully for 6–12 yr and showed...

  3. RESEARCH Open Access Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by offsetting fossil fuel electricity generation emissions, and potentially by avoided pyrogenic emissions dueRESEARCH Open Access Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled bioenergy electricity production are offset by avoided fossil fuel electricity emissions. The carbon benefit

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive Disposal Site, Clive, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CRF Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the South Clive disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the South Clive site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the South Clive disposal site performs as designed. The program`s primary activity is site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  6. Parks Research Forum of Ontario ~ 197 ~ Long-term population estimates and synchronous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Parks Research Forum of Ontario ~ 197 ~ Long-term population estimates and synchronous variation in two populations of black rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) in Eastern Ontario Marie-Ange Gravel and Gabriel Ontario. The Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate population size. The population sizes tended to vary

  7. Characterisation of long term behaviour of polyester fibres and fibre assemblies for offshore mooring lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgoyne, Chris

    Characterisation of long term behaviour of polyester fibres and fibre assemblies for offshore: Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), which is already used for offshore mooring, and Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN for offshore mooring application, its higher stiffness resulting in lower offset and smaller mooring lines

  8. INTERCOMPARISON OF LONG TERM SINGLE-COLUMN MODEL SIMULATIONS OF CLOUDS AT THE ARM SGP SITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTERCOMPARISON OF LONG TERM SINGLE-COLUMN MODEL SIMULATIONS OF CLOUDS AT THE ARM SGP SITE Hua Song simulated clouds with observations at the ARM SGP site. The six SCMs from GFDL AM2 and AM3, KNMI distributions between SCMs and ARM observation under both ascending and descending regimes. The cloud

  9. long-Term Tritium Transport through Field-Scale Compacted Soil Liner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was conducted by the illinois State Geological Survey to detennine the long-term performance of compacted soil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801. 5Geochemist, Illinois State Geological Survey., Natural Resources Building, 615 Peabody Dr., Champaign, IL 61820. 6professor, Dept

  10. Wireless Sensing Framework for Long-Term Measurements of Electric Organ Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Satyajayant

    Wireless Sensing Framework for Long-Term Measurements of Electric Organ Discharge Michael Harris1, wireless system, electric fish. I. INTRODUCTION Technical advances in computer and wireless network tech Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM USA 3 Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New

  11. EXTENSIONS TO AN EFFICIENT OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR LONG-TERM PRODUCTION PLANNING 1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the footwall. Once started, mining restrictions require continuous production of the blocks within a machine three raw ore products used to supply four ore post- processing plants, or mills. Phosphorus is the mainEXTENSIONS TO AN EFFICIENT OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR LONG-TERM PRODUCTION PLANNING 1 Introduction LKAB

  12. The Snackbot: Documenting the Design of a Robot for Long-term Human-Robot Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crabbe, Frederick

    The Snackbot: Documenting the Design of a Robot for Long-term Human-Robot Interaction Min Kyung Lee Glaser3 , Sara Kiesler1 1 HCI Institute, 2 Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave@usna.edu ABSTRACT We present the design of the Snackbot, a robot that will deliver snacks in our university

  13. Improving the long-term stability of PBDTTPD polymer solar cells through material purification aimed at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Improving the long-term stability of PBDTTPD polymer solar cells through material purification M. J. Fr´echetbc and Michael D. McGehee*a While bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells fabricated to those observed in high Mn PBDTTPD solar cells can be induced in low Mn devices through intentional

  14. A test for detecting long-term sensorimotor dysfunction in the mouse after focal cerebral ischemia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schallert, Tim

    A test for detecting long-term sensorimotor dysfunction in the mouse after focal cerebral ischemia, therefore, developed a sensorimotor functional test (corner test) and applied this test to a model of focal after ischemia. The corner test, which is sensitive to chronic sensorimotor and postural symmetries

  15. Long-term fire history in northern Quebec: implications for the northern limit of commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asselin, Hugo

    Long-term fire history in northern Quebec: implications for the northern limit of commercial in Sustainable Forest Management, 445 boul. de l'Universite, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec J9X 5E4, Canada; 2 Centre d'Etude de la For^et, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada; 3 Centre de Bio

  16. The Solar Roofpod: Implications for New York City's Long-Term Sustainability Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    The Solar Roofpod: Implications for New York City's Long-Term Sustainability Plan Objective: Present an analysis of the costs and benefits of City College's "Solar Roofpod" prototype pavilion as a finalist in the 2011 Solar Decathlon, a bi- annual competition among schools of architecture

  17. Using Long-Term Census Data to Inform Restoration Methods for Coastal Dune Vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Using Long-Term Census Data to Inform Restoration Methods for Coastal Dune Vegetation Elise S Barrier Island . Coastal ecology . Dune zone . Disturbance . Dune vegetation . Storm response Introduction), with varied results. Restoration strategies can be difficult to implement successfully in coastal dune systems

  18. Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount R. del Moral1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Moral, Roger

    (Jumpponen et al. 1998; Jones and del Moral 2005), slack dunes (Berendse et al. 1998), coastal dunes (Olff et-1 Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens R. del Moral1 surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes

  19. Exchange of groundwater and surfacewater mediated by permafrost response to seasonal and long term air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Exchange of groundwater and surfacewater mediated by permafrost response to seasonal and long term impact hydrologic cycle processes by promoting or impeding groundwater and surface water exchange. Under between groundwater and surface water. A coupled heat transport and groundwater flow model, SUTRA

  20. A Solar Energy System for Long-Term Deployment of AUVs David A. Patch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Solar Energy System for Long-Term Deployment of AUVs David A. Patch Technology Systems Inc. P #12;History of the Solar AUV (SAUV) Program: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) development began to an AUVs ability to perform missions of importance to a user is its onboard energy system. If a mission

  1. Long-Term Data Maintenance in Wide-Area Storage Systems: A Quantitative Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubiatowicz, John D.

    Long-Term Data Maintenance in Wide-Area Storage Systems: A Quantitative Approach Hakim Weatherspoon-Term Data Maintenance in Wide-Area Storage Systems: A Quantitative Approach Hakim Weatherspoon, Byung data replication levels is a fundamental process of wide-area storage systems; replicas must be created

  2. Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests, Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Elleson, J.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for ASHRAE Research Project 1004-RP: Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests. This report presents the results of the development and application of the methodology to Case Study #2...

  3. Long-term middle atmospheric influence of very large solar proton events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    011415. 1. Introduction [2] Large solar eruptions can cause huge fluxes of high- energy solar protonsLong-term middle atmospheric influence of very large solar proton events Charles H. Jackman,1-term (more than a few months) effects of solar proton events (SPEs). Extremely large solar proton events

  4. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF LONG TERM UNSATURATED FLOW AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE AT WASTE ROCK PILES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubertin, Michel

    NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF LONG TERM UNSATURATED FLOW AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE AT WASTE ROCK PILES Omar present a numerical modeling study of unsaturated water flow and acid mine drainage in idealized (but of oxygen diffusion and acid mine drainage through the waste rock piles showed that oxygen is generally

  5. Edinburgh Research Explorer Comparison of models for estimation of long-term exposure to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    -term exposure to air pollution in cohort studies' Atmospheric Environment, vol 62, pp. 530-539., 10.1016/j to Air Pollution in Cohort Studies Beverland, I.J.* Department of Civil Engineering, University.L. and Agius, R.M. (2012) Comparison of models for estimation of long-term exposure to air pollution in cohort

  6. LONG TERM DURABILITY OF CARBON FRP COMPOSITES APPLIED TO RC BRIDGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ring, Terry A.

    and non-destructive testing the long-term durability of the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite system, used as a seismic retrofit of State Street Bridge on Interstate 80. Non-destructive bents, and monitoring the daily measurements. Destructive testing was performed on several different

  7. LONG-TERM VARIATION IN THE SUN'S ACTIVITY CAUSED BY MAGNETIC ROSSBY WAVES IN THE TACHOCLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    LONG-TERM VARIATION IN THE SUN'S ACTIVITY CAUSED BY MAGNETIC ROSSBY WAVES IN THE TACHOCLINE (10Be and 14C) on the Earth reveal the variation of the Suns magnetic activity over hundreds during the first half of this century. Key words: Sun: activity ­ Sun: interior ­ Sun: oscillations 1

  8. Integrating short-term demand response into long-term investment planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Cedric; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-03-20

    the importance of integrating short-term demand response to time-varying prices into those investment models. Three different methodologies are suggested to integrate short-term responsiveness into a long-term model assuming that consumer response can be modelled...

  9. Formaldehyde in residences: long-term indoor concentrations and influencing factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Formaldehyde in residences: long-term indoor concentrations and influencing factors Introduction Formaldehyde is a hazardous air pollutant that is widespread in residential buildings. It is a potent irritant. (2009) and Sax et al. (2006) concluded that formaldehyde was the highest contrib- utor to the cumulative

  10. Superexponential Long-term Trends in Information Technology Bla Nagy1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superexponential Long-term Trends in Information Technology Béla Nagy1, , J. Doyne Farmer1 series of data documenting progress in information technology gathered by Koh and Magee (2006). We 87501 USA 2Engineering Systems Division Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts

  11. Finite element modeling of long-term fluid-structure interaction problems in geological media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    A model is developed to predict long-term thermal creep and creep rupture in geological structures under multiaxial stress states and under elevated temperature conditions. An example of the method is given showing the behavior of the crust and mantle while undergoing intrusion by a low density diaper. (ACR)

  12. LONG-TERM VARIATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN OSCILLATION, EL NINO, AND CHILEAN SUBTROPICAL RAINFALL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LONG-TERM VARIATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN OSCILLATION, EL NINO, AND CHILEAN SUBTROPICAL RAINFALL WILLIAM et a1. (1978) we compiled evidence on El Nino developments, their intensities, and their fre- quency of occurrence. However, at that time we did not consider the possibility oflong-term variations in El Nino

  13. A Microfluidic Device for Temporally Controlled Gene Expression and Long-Term Fluorescent Imaging in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siggia, Eric

    A Microfluidic Device for Temporally Controlled Gene Expression and Long-Term Fluorescent Imaging of the cell cycle. Over the past ten years, microfluidic techniques in cell biology have emerged that allow a microfluidic flow cell to grow Saccharomyces Cerevisiae for more than 8 generations (

  14. Long-term underwater camera surveillance for monitoring and analysis of fish populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Bob

    Long-term underwater camera surveillance for monitoring and analysis of fish populations Bastiaan J software to detect and recognise fish species. This footage is processed on supercomput- ers, which allow using a web-interface that allows them to display counts of fish species in the camera footage. 1

  15. Long-Term Monitoring Using Deep Seafloor Boreholes Penetrating the Seismogenic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    Long-Term Monitoring Using Deep Seafloor Boreholes Penetrating the Seismogenic Zone Masanao, because it has, until now, been impossible to penetrate to such depths below the sea floor. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), scheduled to begin in ,**-, plans to drill boreholes beneath the ocean

  16. Mixer pump long term operations plan for Tank 241-SY-101 mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1994-09-07

    This document provides the general Operations Plan for performance of the mixer pump long term operations for Tank 241-SY-101 mitigation of gas retention and periodic release in Tank 101-SY. This operations plan will utilize a 112 kW (150 hp) mixing pump to agitate/suspend the particulates in the tank.

  17. Long-term directional changes in upland Quercus forests throughout Oklahoma, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Michael W.

    Long-term directional changes in upland Quercus forests throughout Oklahoma, USA Ryan D. De? Location: Oklahoma, USA. Methods: We re-sampled 30 forest stands originally sampled in the 1950s across; Juniperus virginiana; mesophication; Oak; Oklahoma; Quercus marilandica; Quercus stellata; Species

  18. LONG TERM AND RECENT CLIMATE CHANGES RECORDED IN NORTH ATLANTIC OCEANIC ARCHIVES AROUND ICELAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 LONG TERM AND RECENT CLIMATE CHANGES RECORDED IN NORTH ATLANTIC OCEANIC ARCHIVES AROUND ICELAND natural variability and the underlying forcing mechanisms. A focus will be made on peri-icelandic marine of the Icelandic sector 1.1. A "hot spot" for oceanographers! The North Atlantic Ocean has always been the focus

  19. Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements, provides multiple land surface temperature (LST) products on a daily basis. However, these products have LST products, MOD11_L2 (version 4) and MOD07_L2 (version 4), using the FLUXNET and Carbon Europe

  20. U.S. Energy Infrastructure Investment: Long-Term Strategic Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and seven percent demand growth rates. Demand growth was relatively predictable so forecasting could almostU.S. Energy Infrastructure Investment: Long-Term Strategic Planning to Inform Policy Development/University Cooperative Research Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Intentionally Blank Page #12;U.S. Energy Infrastructure

  1. a contaminant in decline: long-term tbt monitoring at a naval base in Western australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgman, Mark

    a contaminant in decline: long-term tbt monitoring at a naval base in Western australia john a, following the recognition of detrimental environmental effects attributable to TBT from antifouling paints planulatus) in and around the RAN naval base in Cockburn Sound, WesternAustralia, was initiated and continued

  2. Evolution of gene expression and expression plasticity in long-term experimental populations of Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fry, James D.

    Evolution of gene expression and expression plasticity in long-term experimental populations to a particular type of stress involves changes in the within- generation (`plastic') responses of gene expression to the stress. We used microarrays to quantify gene expression plasticity in response to ethanol in laboratory

  3. Phoenix clones: recovery after long-term defoliation-induced dormancy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    REPORT Phoenix clones: recovery after long-term defoliation- induced dormancy Patrice A. Morrow1 years later. In a single growing season these Phoenix clones reoccupy segments or the entirety hypotheses to explain the en masse reappearance of ramets in Phoenix clones. H1: ramets are of recent

  4. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    geological limits, global production of crude oil next yearGlobal production of crude petroleum. Notes: Bold line: From EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil,

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The use of petroleum for liquid-transportation fuels has strained the environment and caused the global crude oil reserves to diminish. Therefore, there exists a need to replace petroleum as the primary fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the global crude oil reserves to diminish. Therefore, there exists a need to replace petroleum as the primary

  7. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

  8. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-08

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these "legacy" sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead to improved monitoring while simultaneously reducing costs. This paradigm is being tested at the SRS F-Area where an innovative passive remedial system is being monitored and evaluated over the long term prior to traditional regulatory closure. Contaminants being addressed at this site are uranium, strontium-90, iodine-129, and tritium. We believe that the proposed strategies will be more effective in early identification of potential risks; these strategies will also be cost effective because controlling variables are relatively simple to measure. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume 'ages'. This transformational long-term monitoring paradigm will generate large cost savings to DOE, other federal agencies and industry and will provide improved performance and leading indicators of environmental management performance.

  9. Predictors of Long-Term Healthy Arterial Aging: Coronary Artery Calcium Nondevelopment in the MESA Study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of Long-Term Healthy Arterial Aging Coronary Artery Calciumpredictors of healthy arterial aging. BACKGROUND Long-terma marker of healthy arterial aging. The predictors of this

  10. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  11. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  12. Long-term risk stabilization of the Rocky Flats Plant residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melberg, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    The liquid and solid residues continue to be a concern at Rocky Flats, primarily due to safety aspects of long-term storage and of the need for processing them into a form for ultimate disposal. Currently, Rocky Flats is processing the low-level solutions from bottles and tanks by direct cementation for storage and disposal. Plans for actinide precipitation of the high-level solutions are being finalized with an anticipated completion date of 2 to 3 yr. The solid residues present a more difficult challenge because of the numerous forms that these exist. Rocky Flats is developing several strategies to handle these materials for safe long-term storage and eventual disposal.

  13. On the long-term correlations and multifractal properties of electric arc furnace time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livi, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Antonello; Sadeghian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study long-term correlations and multifractal properties elaborated from time series of three-phase current signals coming from an industrial electric arc furnace plant. Implicit sinusoidal trends are suitably detected in the scaling of the fluctuation function of such time series. Time series are then initially filtered via a Fourier based analysis, removing hence such strong periodicities. In the filtered time series we detected long-term, positive correlations. The presence of persistent correlations is in agreement with the typical V--I characteristic (hysteresis) of the electric arc furnace, justifying thus the memory effects found in the current time series. The multifractal signature is strong enough in the filtered time series to be effectively classified as multifractal.

  14. Long-term management of AAR-affected structures - An international perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charlwood, R.G.; Solymar, Z.V.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the paper is to review international practice and comment on progress made in the long-term management of existing AAR-affected dams and hydroelectric plants. A updated detailed worldwide listing which now includes 104 AAR-affected structures constructed since 1900 will be presented. The listing gives summary data on the year of construction, the year that significant problems were noted, aggregate and cement types, measured expansion rates, test data, time to initial deterioration, duration of reaction, damage to the structures and effects on equipment, and repairs or replacement. A comprehensive bibliography will also be given. Analysis of the database and significant case histories will be used to identify issues affecting dam safety, plant operations, remedial measures and long-term performance of AAR-affected structures. The presentation will be illustrated by several case histories where remedial measures have been implemented.

  15. Test methods for determining short and long term VOC emissions from latex paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krebs, K.; Lao, H.C.; Fortmann, R.; Tichenor, B.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses an evaluation of latex paint (interior, water based) as a source of indoor pollution. A major objective of the research is the development of methods for predicting emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over time. Test specimens of painted gypsumboard are placed in dynamic flow-through test chambers. Samples of the outlet air are collected on Tenax sorbents and thermally desorbed for analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. These tests produce short- and long-term data for latex paint emissions of Texanol, 2-2(-butoxyethoxy)-ethanol, and glycols. Evaluation of the data shows that most of the Texanol emissions occur within the first few days, and emissions of the glycols occur over several months. This behavior may be described by an evaporative mass transfer process that dominates the short-term emissions, while long-term emissions are limited by diffusion processes within the dry paint-gypsumboard.

  16. Global production through 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-12-01

    Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

  17. Investigation of in-vivo skin autofluorescence lifetimes under long-term cw optical excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lihachev, A; Ferulova, I; Vasiljeva, K; Spigulis, J

    2014-08-31

    The main results obtained during the last five years in the field of laser-excited in-vivo human skin photobleaching effects are presented. The main achievements and results obtained, as well as methods and experimental devices are briefly described. In addition, the impact of long-term 405-nm cw low-power laser excitation on the skin autofluorescence lifetime is experimentally investigated. (laser biophotonics)

  18. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-06-30

    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  19. The Public Utility and Industry: A Customer- Supplier Relationship for Long-Term Survival 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janson, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    AND INDUSTRY: A CUSTOMER-SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP FOR LONG-TERM SURVIVAL JAMES R. JANSON Superintendent of Utilities Vulcan Chemicals Geismar, Louisiana ABSTRACT other was due to better quality products than we as a nation could produce. The entire... people feel they are involved in the total process. How does all of this relate to the utility and industrial sector of the business community? As mentioned previously, the five points to improve an organization can bring about a customer-supplier...

  20. A C++ Framework for Conducting High-Speed, Long-Term Particle Tracking Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabel, A.C.; /SLAC

    2006-02-06

    For the purpose of conducting parallel, long-term tracking studies of storage rings such as the ones described in [3], [4], maximum execution speed is essential. We describe an approach involving metaprogramming techniques in C++ which results in execution speeds rivaling hand-optimized assembler code for a particular tracking lattice while retaining the generality and flexibility of an all-purpose tracking code.

  1. EIS-0480: Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan for the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two agencies of the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation and National Park Service, are jointly preparing a Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan for the Glen Canyon Dam and an EIS for adoption of the Plan. The Glen Canyon Dam, on the Colorado River in northern, Arizona, generates hydroelectric power that is marketed by DOE's Western Area Power Administration, a cooperating agency.

  2. Long-term spectroscopic monitoring of the Luminous Blue Variable HD160529

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otmar Stahl; Thomas Gaeng; Chris Sterken; Andreas Kaufer; Thomas Rivinius; Thomas Szeifert; Bernhard Wolf

    2002-12-20

    We have spectroscopically monitored the galactic Luminous Blue Variable HD 160529 and obtained an extensive high-resolution data set that covers the years 1991 to 2002. During this period, the star evolved from an extended photometric minimum phase towards a new visual maximum. In several observing seasons, we covered up to four months with almost daily spectra. Our spectra typically cover most of the visual spectral range with a high spectral resolution (about 20,000 or more). This allows us to investigate the variability in many lines and on many time scales from days to years. We find a correlation between the photospheric HeI lines and the brightness of the star, both on a time scale of months and on a time scale of years. The short-term variations are smaller and do not follow the long-term trend, strongly suggesting different physical mechanisms. Metal lines also show both short-term and long-term variations in strength and also a long-term trend in radial velocity. Most of the line-profile variations can be attributed to changing strengths of lines. Propagating features in the line profiles are rarely observed. We find that the mass-loss rate of HD 160529 is almost independent of temperature, i.e. visual brightness.

  3. Influence of membrane-electrode interface on long-term performance of direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y. S. (Yu Seung); Pivovar, B. S. (Bryan Scott)

    2004-01-01

    Long-term stability of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is one of the most critical requirements for the successful launch of this technology to commercial market. When a DMFC is operated for extended periods of time, performance decreases continuously. The performance decay in continuous operation of DMFCs is caused by several different attributes, such as surface oxidation of platinum at the cathode, loss of catalytic active surface area, interfacial failure between membrane and electrode, changing hydrophobicity of backing layers or ruthenium crossover. Among those attributes, the interfacial incompatibility between membrane and electrode becomes more important when alternative polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) are used with Nafion-bonded electrode. In earlier work, we demonstrated that the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) using alternative fully aromatic hydrocarbon based PEMs initially outperformed the DMFCs using industrial standard Nafion membranes. Nonetheless, the longer-term performance of the alternative system deteriorated rather faster probably due to the interfacial incompatibility. In this presentation, the effect of interfacial incompatibility of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) on long-term DMFC performance is presented in a systematic manner. A series of disulfonated poly(arylene ether) copolymers having different ion exchange capacity and fluorine content was prepared. The effects of chemical structure of the PEMs on interfacial compatibility and long-term performance were investigated and compared with Nation control membraneelectrode assembly.

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment.For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  6. X-ray enhancement and long-term evolution of swift J1822.3–1606

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benli, Onur; Çal??kan, ?.; Ertan, Ü.; Alpar, M. A. [Sabanc? University, Orhanl?-Tuzla, ?stanbul 34956 (Turkey); Trümper, J. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Geissenbachstrasse, 85740 Garching bei München (Germany); Kylafis, N. D., E-mail: onurbenli@sabanciuniv.edu [Physics Department and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the X-ray enhancement and the long-term evolution of the recently discovered second 'low-B magnetar' Swift J1822.3-1606 in the frame of the fallback disk model. During a soft gamma burst episode, the inner disk matter is pushed back to larger radii, forming a density gradient at the inner disk. Subsequent relaxation of the inner disk could account for the observed X-ray enhancement light curve of Swift J1822.3-1606. We obtain model fits to the X-ray data with basic disk parameters similar to those employed to explain the X-ray outburst light curves of other anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters. The long period (8.4 s) of the neutron star can be reached by the effect of the disk torques in the long-term accretion phase ((1-3) × 10{sup 5} yr). The currently ongoing X-ray enhancement could be due to a transient accretion epoch, or the source could still be in the accretion phase in quiescence. Considering these different possibilities, we determine the model curves that could represent the long-term rotational and the X-ray luminosity evolution of Swift J1822.3-1606, which constrain the strength of the magnetic dipole field to the range of (1-2) × 10{sup 12} G on the surface of the neutron star.

  7. Molecular Constraints on Synaptic Tagging and Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation: A Predictive Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Smolen; Douglas A. Baxter; John H. Byrne

    2012-08-03

    Protein synthesis-dependent, late long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) at glutamatergic hippocampal synapses are well characterized examples of long-term synaptic plasticity. Persistent increased activity of the enzyme protein kinase M (PKM) is thought essential for maintaining LTP. Additional spatial and temporal features that govern LTP and LTD induction are embodied in the synaptic tagging and capture (STC) and cross capture hypotheses. Only synapses that have been "tagged" by an stimulus sufficient for LTP and learning can "capture" PKM. A model was developed to simulate the dynamics of key molecules required for LTP and LTD. The model concisely represents relationships between tagging, capture, LTD, and LTP maintenance. The model successfully simulated LTP maintained by persistent synaptic PKM, STC, LTD, and cross capture, and makes testable predictions concerning the dynamics of PKM. The maintenance of LTP, and consequently of at least some forms of long-term memory, is predicted to require continual positive feedback in which PKM enhances its own synthesis only at potentiated synapses. This feedback underlies bistability in the activity of PKM. Second, cross capture requires the induction of LTD to induce dendritic PKM synthesis, although this may require tagging of a nearby synapse for LTP. The model also simulates the effects of PKM inhibition, and makes additional predictions for the dynamics of CaM kinases. Experiments testing the above predictions would significantly advance the understanding of memory maintenance.

  8. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. A robust suite of relatively inexpensive tools is commercially available to measure these variables. Traditional plume/contaminant variables are various measures of contaminant concentration including traditional analysis of chemicals in groundwater samples. An innovative long term monitoring strategy has been developed for acidic or caustic groundwater plumes contaminated with metals and/or radionuclides. Not only should the proposed strategy be more effective at early identification of potential risks, this strategy should be significantly more cost effective because measurement of controlling boundary conditions and master variables is relatively simple. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume 'ages'. This transformational long-term monitoring paradigm will generate significant cost savings to DOE, other federal agencies and industry and will provide improved performance and leading indicators of environmental management performance.

  9. Long-term activity-induced changes in the brain : a study of translational regulation and structural plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindarajan, Arvind

    2005-01-01

    Long-lasting changes must take place in the brain to store the skills and memories that have been learned by the organism throughout its history. Long-term memory (LTM), and its cellular correlate, the late-phase of long-term ...

  10. Long-Term Creep Of Commercially Produced Plastic Lumber Kenneth E. Van Ness, Ph.D., Washington and Lee University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the mechanical properties of plastic lumber. Any attempt to design for long-term performance, utilizing ASTM-term mechanical properties of plastic lumber in load-bearing applications. An earlier work outlined a theoryLong-Term Creep Of Commercially Produced Plastic Lumber Kenneth E. Van Ness, Ph.D., Washington

  11. A molecular explanation for the long-term suppression of circadian rhythms by a single light pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldbeter, Albert

    A molecular explanation for the long-term suppression of circadian rhythms by a single light pulse explanation for the long-term suppression of circadian rhythms by a single light pulse. Am J Physiol rhythms in Drosophila based on transcriptional regulation, we show how a single, critical pulse of light

  12. Predicting the Long-Term Behavior of a Micro-Solar Power System JAEIN JEONG, Cisco Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    35 Predicting the Long-Term Behavior of a Micro-Solar Power System JAEIN JEONG, Cisco Systems DAVID CULLER, University of California, Berkeley Micro-solar power system design is challenging because it must address long-term system behavior under highly variable solar energy conditions and consider a large space

  13. Canonical symplectic particle-in-cell method for long-term large-scale simulations of the Vlasov-Maxwell system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Hong; Xiao, Jianyuan; Zhang, Ruili; He, Yang; Wang, Yulei; Burby, Joshua W; Ellison, Leland; Zhou, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation is the most important numerical tool in plasma physics and accelerator physics. However, its long-term accuracy has not been established. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a canonical symplectic PIC method for the Vlasov-Maxwell system by discretizing the Marsden-Weinstein bracket. A fast local algorithm to solve the symplectic implicit time advance is discovered without root researching or global matrix inversion, enabling applications of the proposed method to very large-scale plasma simulations with many, e.g., $10^{9}$, degrees of freedom.

  14. SHORT AND LONG-TERM FIRE IMPACTS ON HANFORD BARRIER PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Mandis, M. L.; Buelow, Laura C.

    2009-03-05

    A critical unknown in long-term engineered barrier use is the post-fire hydrologic function where institutional controls are in-tact but there are no resources to implement maintenance activities such as re-planting. This objective of this study was to simulate wild fire on an engineered barrier at the Hanford Site and document the post-fire changes in barrier performance. Soil physical, chemical, and hydrologic conditions; plant floristics and density; and animal use were characterized pre- and post-burn. Fuel load on the surface ranged from 4.7 to 5.71 tons/acre. Fire was initiated by drip torch and measurements of flame height and temperature were made at nine locations on the barrier surface. Flame heights exceeded 30 ft and temperatures ranged from 250 C at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 C at 1 m above the surface. Soil organic matter, soil wettability, and hydraulic conductivity all decreased significantly relative to pre-fire conditions. Post-fire samples showed an increase in major soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity measured in 1:1 extracts whereas organic matter decreased. Decreases in wettabilty and organic matter are indicative of conditions more conducive to runoff and soil loss. The results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of post-fire recovery in a post-institutional control environment. This should lead to enhanced stakeholder acceptance regarding the long-term efficacy of ET barriers. This study will also support improvements in the design of ET barriers and performance monitoring systems. Such improvements are needed to best meet the long-term commitment to the safe in-place isolation of waste for hundreds if not thousands of years.

  15. Predicting long-term moisture contents of earthen covers at uranium mill tailings sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-09-01

    The three methods for long-term moisture prediction covered in this report are: estimates from water retention (permanent wilting point) data, correlation with climate and soil type, and detailed model simulation. The test results have shown: soils vary greatly in residual moisture. Expected long-term moisture saturation ratios (based on generalized soil characteristics) range from 0.2 to 0.8 for soils ranging in texture from sand to clay, respectively. These values hold for noncompacted field soils. Measured radon diffusion coefficients for soils at 15-bar water contents ranged from 5.0E-2 cm/sup 2//s to 5.0E-3 cm/sup 2//s for sands and clays, respectively, at typical field densities. In contrast, fine-textured pit-run earthen materials, subjected to optimum compaction (>85% Proctor density) and dried to the 15-bar water content, ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 moisture saturation. Compacted pit-run soils at these moisture contents exhibited radon diffusion coefficients as low as 3.0E-4 cm/sup 2//s. The residual moisture saturation for cover soils is not known since no engineered barrier has been in place for more than a few years. A comparison of methods for predicting moisture saturation indicates that model simulations are useful for predicting effects of climatic changes on residual soil moisture, but that long-term moisture also can be predicted with some degree of confidence using generalized soil properties or empirical correlations based both on soils and climatic information. The optimal soil cover design will likely include more than one layer of soil. A two-layer system using a thick (1-m minimum) plant root zone of uncompacted soil placed over a moistened, tightly compacted fine-textured soil is recommended. This design concept has been tested successfully at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings piles.

  16. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  17. Long-Term Results of Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy (Targit) Boost During Breast-Conserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidya, Jayant S., E-mail: jayant.vaidya@ucl.ac.uk [Research Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Baum, Michael [Research Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Tobias, Jeffrey S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Wenz, Frederik [Radiation Oncology and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre of Mannheim (Germany); Massarut, Samuele [Surgery and Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO), Aviano (Italy); Keshtgar, Mohammed [Research Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Hilaris, Basil [Radiation Oncology, Our Lady of Mercy, New York Medical College, New York (United States); Saunders, Christobel [Institute of Health and Rehabilitation Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia (Australia); Williams, Norman R.; Brew-Graves, Chris [Research Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Corica, Tammy [Institute of Health and Rehabilitation Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia (Australia); Roncadin, Mario [Surgery and Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO), Aviano (Italy); Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Suetterlin, Marc [Radiation Oncology and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre of Mannheim (Germany); Bulsara, Max [Institute of Health and Rehabilitation Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia (Australia); Joseph, David [Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: We have previously shown that delivering targeted radiotherapy to the tumour bed intraoperatively is feasible and desirable. In this study, we report on the feasibility, safety, and long-term efficacy of TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (Targit), using the Intrabeam system. Methods and Materials: A total of 300 cancers in 299 unselected patients underwent breast-conserving surgery and Targit as a boost to the tumor bed. After lumpectomy, a single dose of 20 Gy was delivered intraoperatively. Postoperative external beam whole-breast radiotherapy excluded the usual boost. We also performed a novel individualized case control (ICC) analysis that computed the expected recurrences for the cohort by estimating the risk of recurrence for each patient using their characteristics and follow-up period. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. The median follow up was 60.5 months (range, 10-122 months). Eight patients have had ipsilateral recurrence: 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate for ipsilateral recurrence is 1.73% (SE 0.77), which compares well with that seen in the boosted patients in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer study (4.3%) and the UK STAndardisation of breast RadioTherapy study (2.8%). In a novel ICC analysis of 242 of the patients, we estimated that there should be 11.4 recurrences; in this group, only 6 recurrences were observed. Conclusions: Lumpectomy and Targit boost combined with external beam radiotherapy results in a low local recurrence rate in a standard risk patient population. Accurate localization and the immediacy of the treatment that has a favorable effect on tumour microenvironment may contribute to this effect. These long-term data establish the long-term safety and efficacy of the Targit technique and generate the hypothesis that Targit boost might be superior to an external beam boost in its efficacy and justifies a randomized trial.

  18. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  19. Gas Generation Rates as an Indicator for the Long Term Stability of Radioactive Waste Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steyer, S.; Brennecke, P.; Bandt, G.; Kroger, H.

    2007-07-01

    Pursuant to the 'Act on the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards' (Atomic Energy Act) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) is legally responsible for the construction and operation of federal facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. Within the scope of this responsibility, particular due to par. 74(1) Ordinance on Radiation Protection, BfS defines all safety-related requirements on waste packages envisaged for disposal, establishes guidelines for the conditioning of radioactive waste and approves the fulfillment of the waste acceptance requirements within the radioactive waste quality control system. BfS also provides criteria to enable the assessment of methods for the treatment and packaging of radioactive waste to produce waste packages suitable for disposal according to par. 74(2) Ordinance on Radiation Protection. Due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany, quality control measures for all types of radioactive waste products are carried out prior to interim storage with respect to the future disposal. As a result BfS approves the demonstrated properties of the radioactive waste packages and confirms the fulfillment of the respective requirements. After several years of storage the properties of waste packages might have changed. By proving, that such changes have no significant impact on the quality of the waste product, the effort of requalification could be minimized. Therefore, data on the long-term behavior of radioactive waste products need to be acquired and indicators to prove the long-term stability have to be quantified. Preferably, such indicators can be determined easily with non-destructive methods, even for legacy waste packages. A promising parameter is the gas generation rate. The relationship between gas generation rate and long term stability is presented as first result of an ongoing study on behalf of BfS. Permissible gas generation rates that ensure adequate product stability with respect to future disposal are to be identified. (authors)

  20. Tritium: a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carsten, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The somatic, cytogenetic and genetic effects of single and chronic tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice was investigated. This study serves not only as an evaluation of tritium toxicity (TRITOX) but due to its design involving long-term low concentration ingestion of HTO may serve as a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure in general. Long-term studies involved animals maintained on HTO at concentrations of 0.3 ..mu..Ci/ml, 1.0 ..mu..Ci/ml, 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml or depth dose equivalent chronic external exposures to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays. Maintenance on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml resulted in no effect on growth, life-time shortening or bone marrow cellularity, but did result in a reduction of bone marrow stem cells, an increase in DLM's in second generation animals maintained on this regimen and cytogenetic effects as indicated by increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells, increased chromosome aberrations in the regenerating liver and an increase in micronuclei in red blood cells. Biochemical and microdosimetry studies showed that animals placed on the HTO regimen reached tritium equilibrium in the body water in approximately 17 to 21 days with a more gradual increase in bound tritium. When animals maintained for 180 days on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml HTO were placed on a tap water regimen, the tritium level in tissue dropped from the equilibrium value of 2.02 ..mu..Ci/ml before withdrawal to 0.001 ..mu..Ci/ml at 28 days. 18 references.

  1. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  2. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  3. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  4. Improvement of capabilities of the Distributed Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for investigating SOFC long term performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez Galdamez, Rinaldo A.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.

    2012-04-30

    This report provides an overview of the work performed for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) modeling during the 2012 Winter/Spring Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A brief introduction on the concept, operation basics and applications of fuel cells is given for the general audience. Further details are given regarding the modifications and improvements of the Distributed Electrochemistry (DEC) Modeling tool developed by PNNL engineers to model SOFC long term performance. Within this analysis, a literature review on anode degradation mechanisms is explained and future plans of implementing these into the DEC modeling tool are also proposed.

  5. LONG-TERM SURVEILLANCE PLAN FOR THE GREEN RIVER, UTAH DISPOSAL SITE Ttable of Contents

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1.Reports1E~LONG-TERM SURVEILLANCE PLAN FOR

  6. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996 EMBG-PLN-0036 Rev. 6Committee | Department ofFinal Long-Term Management

  7. Long-Term Storage of Cesium and Strontium at the Hanford Site

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED1,400 Jobs | Department ofEnergyAlgalLong-Term

  8. Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L

    2007-02-01

    The global energy system faces sweeping changes in the next few decades, with potentially critical implications for the global economy and the global environment. It is important that global institutions have the tools necessary to predict, analyze and plan for such massive change. This report summarizes the proceedings of an international workshop concerning methods of forecasting, analyzing, and planning for global energy transitions and their economic and environmental consequences. A specific case, it focused on the transition from conventional to unconventional oil and other energy sources likely to result from a peak in non-OPEC and/or global production of conventional oil. Leading energy models from around the world in government, academia and the private sector met, reviewed the state-of-the-art of global energy modeling and evaluated its ability to analyze and predict large-scale energy transitions.

  9. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receivingmore »nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P « less

  10. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receivingmore »nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P « less

  11. Long Term Stewardship Challenges at the St. Louis District FUSRAP Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell'Orco, L.; Chambers, D.

    2002-02-27

    Non-Federally owned radioactively contaminated sites in St. Louis, Missouri are currently being remediated by the St. Louis District Corps of Engineers under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). When FUSRAP remediation is complete, inaccessible soils which have levels of contamination greater than unrestricted use standards, will remain. The purpose of this paper is to document the initial challenges facing the project team during its development of the Long Term Stewardship plan for the management of these soils. These soils are located under buildings, roads, railroads and bridges. The Long Term Stewardship plan for the majority of the sites is being developed simultaneously with the remedy selection process. A living document, it will ultimately document the remedial action end state and location of inaccessible soils and implement the plan for ensuring these soils are not a threat to human health and the environment. Although these soils are protective in their current configuration, at some point in time, when activities such as maintenance, utility or property improvement occur, the soils will become accessible and need to be addressed by the federal government. Up until that point in time they will need to be effectively managed to ensure they remain protective. The St. Louis District is in the process of collaboratively developing this plan with its regulators, affected stakeholders and interested parties.

  12. Simulation of the long-term accumulation of radiocontaminants in crop plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreckhise, R.G.

    1980-03-01

    Most radiological dose assessment models ignore the long-term buildup of radiocontaminants in the soil. When they estimate levels in crop plants from root uptake, these models account only for the annual input from the source into the soil. Almost all of the models ignore the build-up of contaminants in the soil profile due to the accumulation in the roots and the build-up from the above-ground plant material that is buried by plowing. The model described in this report simulates the entire system involved in the cycling and accumulation of radionuclides in cultivated land. The model, named CROPRE, was developed to predict both the long-term accumulation of radionuclides and the resulting concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation. This model was designed to include: (1) the chronic input of contaminated irrigation water into both the soil compartment and directly onto the surface of the vegetation; (2) the incorporation of radiocontaminants in the soil organic matter pool and their eventual release for re-uptake by subsequent crops; (3) the removal of contaminants from the system when the crops are harvested; and (4) the downward movement of radionuclides and their loss from the system by percolation. The CROPRE model more realistically simulates the cycling of radiocontaminants in crop plants over long periods of time than does the other models. It is recommended that it be incorporated into existing radiation dose commitment models.

  13. Planning India's long-term energy shipment infrastructures for electricity and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian H. Bowen; Devendra Canchi; Vishal Agarwal Lalit; Paul V. Precke; F.T. Sparrow; Marty W. Irwin

    2010-01-15

    The Purdue Long-Term Electricity Trading and Capacity Expansion Planning Model simultaneously optimizes both the expansion of transmission and generation capacity. Most commercial electricity system planning software is limited to only transmission planning. An application of the model to India's national power grid, for 2008-2028, indicates substantial transmission expansion is the cost-effective means of meeting the needs of the nation's growing economy. An electricity demand growth rate of 4% over the 20-year planning horizon requires more than a 50% increase in the Government's forecasted transmission capacity expansion, and 8% demand growth requires more than a six-fold increase in the planned transmission capacity expansion. The model minimizes the long-term expansion costs (operational and capital) for the nation's five existing regional power grids and suggests the need for large increases in load-carrying capability between them. Changes in coal policy affect both the location of new thermal power plants and the optimal pattern inter-regional transmission expansions. 15 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Long term laboratory corrosion monitoring of calcine bin set materials exposed to zirconia calcine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk, W.J.

    1994-06-01

    Corrosion testing of Type 1025 carbon steel, 405, 304, 304L, 316L, and 347 stainless steels, and 6061-T6 aluminum were conducted in synthetic zirconia calcine to model long term corrosion performance of bin set material. Testing was conducted over a period of 17 years. The existing calcine bin set {number_sign}1 is constructed of Type 405 stainless steel, 2 through 4 are constructed of Type 304 stainless steel and 5 through 7 are constructed of Type 304L stainless steel. The highest rate observed for Type 304L stainless steel was 8.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} inches per month. This would equal a wall thickness loss of about 5 mils after 500 years of storage. Currently, the established schedule for removal of corrosion test coupons from the calcine storage bins is at the end of the 10th, 100th, 250th, and 450th year of solid storage service. Very low corrosion rates and metal oxide data determined from the long term laboratory test, in conjunction with corrosion rates from the coupon assessment of the second bin set, indicate this schedule should be revised from 10 years to 50 years for the first assessment.

  15. Long-term impacts of aerosols on vertical development of cloud and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Z.; Liu Y.; Niu, F.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ding, Y.

    2011-11-13

    Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term impact of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and rainfall frequencies, using a 10-year dataset of aerosol, cloud and meteorological variables collected in the Southern Great Plains in the United States. We show that cloud-top height and thickness increase with aerosol concentration measured near the ground in mixed-phase clouds-which contain both liquid water and ice-that have a warm, low base. We attribute the effect, which is most significant in summer, to an aerosol-induced invigoration of upward winds. In contrast, we find no change in cloud-top height and precipitation with aerosol concentration in clouds with no ice or cool bases. We further show that precipitation frequency and rain rate are altered by aerosols. Rain increases with aerosol concentration in deep clouds that have a high liquid-water content, but declines in clouds that have a low liquid-water content. Simulations using a cloud-resolving model confirm these observations. Our findings provide unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation.

  16. Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-02-01

    Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

  17. Infants were exposed on spatially alternating (left-right) sequence of events. Infants' long-term memory was tested 24

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Scott A.

    . Rovee-Collier, C. (1999). The development of infant memory.Ê Current Directions in Psychological Science Research Council grants 503860 and 506430 to Scott A. Adler. Long-Term Memory and Visual Expectations

  18. DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON – The Department of Energy has prepared a Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement to analyze the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven locations

  19. Revisiting the Long-Term Hedge Value of Wind Power in an Era of Low Natural Gas Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects. Berkeley, Calif. :J. and K. Porter. 2011. Wind Power and Electricity Markets.different purchasers of wind power in the U.S. , long- term

  20. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors : comparison of long-term health effects and costs between proton therapy and IMRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, An T. (An Thien)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important component of pediatric brain tumor treatment. However, radiation-induced damage can lead to adverse long-term health effects. Proton therapy has the ability to reduce the dose delivered ...

  1. Long-term trends observed in the middle atmosphere temperatures using ground based LIDARs and satellite borne measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    lower thermosphere region: 2. Solar response, J. Geo- phys.of the 27-day and 11-year solar cycles: Radiative and/orD. M. : Long-term and solar cycle changes in the atmospheric

  2. Long-term management and discounting of groundwater resources with a case study of KukioÌ? HawaiiÌ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duarte, Thomas Kae̕ o, 1973-

    2002-01-01

    Long-term management strategies for groundwater resources are examined with theoretical examples and with a case study of Kuki'o, Hawai'i. In Part I a groundwater mining and a dryland salinization optimal management problem ...

  3. Vesicular Zinc Promotes Presynaptic and Inhibits Postsynaptic Long-Term Potentiation of Mossy Fiber-CA3 Synapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Enhui

    The presence of zinc in glutamatergic synaptic vesicles of excitatory neurons of mammalian cerebral cortex suggests that zinc might regulate plasticity of synapses formed by these neurons. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is ...

  4. Engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.M.; Kier, P.H.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    2001-01-24

    This report contains an engineering analysis of long-term storage of uranium metal in boxes as an option for long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Three storage facilities are considered: buildings, vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are considered: either all, half, or a quarter of the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted UF{sub 6} is stored at the facility. The analysis of these alternatives is based on a box design used in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, report DOE/EIS-0269, published in 1999 by the US Department of Energy. This box design does not appear to effectively use space within the box. Hence, an alternative box design that allows for a reduced storage area is addressed in the appendices for long-term storage in buildings.

  5. Cancer survivorship research: the challenge of recruiting adult long term cancer survivors from a cooperative clinical trials group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    quality of life among long-term survivors of breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1996;39(3):261–73. doi:B, Bower JE. Breast Cancer in Younger Women: Reproductive

  6. Long-Term Assessment of Isotopic Exchange of Carbon Dioxide in a Subalpine Forest (Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux Site)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowling, David

    2014-12-31

    In 2005 we began a long-term measurement program of CO{sub 2} and its stable isotopes at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site. Measurements are ongoing.

  7. New cost structure approach in green buildings : cost-benefit analysis for widespread acceptance and long-term practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhiyong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Engineering Systems Division

    2013-01-01

    Although the concepts of sustainable building have been widely accepted in the market, there are unavoidable challenges toward widespread acceptance and long-term practice. Crossing green building development, there is ...

  8. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    Komiyama, "Japan's Energy Outlook for 2050 with Stochastic2008 (10) EIA/DOE, "Annual Energy Outlook 2008," 2008 (11)its long-term energy supply/demand outlook (Reference No.

  9. Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulden, ML; Munger, JW; Song-Miao, F; Daube, BC; Wofsy, SC

    1996-01-01

    182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddyerror. The integrated carbon sequestration in 1994 was 2.1 ton the annual carbon sequestration in 1994 of -0.3 to +0.8 t

  10. Mathematical models as tools for probing long-term safety of CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    and depth, and proximity to gas storage fields as well as toof oil and gas production and storage, geothermal energyfor the Storage of Greenhouse Gases in Sedimentary Basins,

  11. The Differential Effects of Oil Demand and Supply Shocks on the Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cashin, Paul; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Maziar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2012-11-01

    . The GVAR literature almost exclusively focuses on business cycle linkages among ad- vanced and major emerging market economies, with limited attention to growth spillovers to/from major oil exporters (e.g. the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting... it comes to oil supply, the MENA region.5 Of the 50 countries included in our sample, 17 are oil exporters, of which 10 are current members of the OPEC and one is a former member (Indonesia left OPEC in January 2009). We were not able to include Angola...

  12. Oil & Gas Tech Center Breaks Ground in Oklahoma | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Reasons Why We're Excited about the New Oil & Gas Technology Center Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share...

  13. Long-Term Monitoring of Mini-Split Ductless Heat Pumps in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Loomis, H.

    2015-06-01

    Transformations, Inc. has extensive experience building their high performance housing at a variety of Massachusetts locations, in both a production and custom home setting. The majority of their construction uses mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs) for space conditioning. This research covered the long-term performance of MSHPs in Zone 5A; it is the culmination of up to 3 years' worth of monitoring in a set of eight houses. This research examined electricity use of MSHPs, distributions of interior temperatures and humidity when using simplified (two-point) heating systems in high-performance housing, and the impact of open-door/closed-door status on temperature distributions. The use of simplified space conditioning distribution (through use of MSHPs) provides significant first cost savings, which are used to offset the increased investment in the building enclosure.

  14. Long-term desorption behavior of uranium and neptunium in heterogeneous volcanic tuff materials /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Cynthia A.

    2010-05-01

    Uranium and neptunium desorption were studied in long-term laboratory experiments using four well-characterized volcanic tuff cores collected from southeast of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objectives of the experiments were to 1. Demonstrate a methodology aimed at characterizing distributions of sorption parameters (attributes of multiple sorption sites) that can be applied to moderately-sorbing species in heterogeneous systems to provide more realistic reactive transport parameters and a more realistic approach to modeling transport in heterogeneous systems. 2. Focus on uranium and neptunium because of their high solubility, relatively weak sorption, and high contributions to predicted dose in Yucca Mountain performance assessments. Also, uranium is a contaminant of concern at many DOE legacy sites and uranium mining sites.

  15. Discrimination and characterization of Parkinsonian rest tremors by analyzing long-term correlations and multifractal signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze 48 signals of rest tremor velocity related to 12 distinct subjects affected by Parkinson's disease. The subjects belong to two different groups, formed by four and eight subjects with, respectively, high- and low-amplitude rest tremors. Each subject is tested in four settings, given by combining the use of deep brain stimulation and L-DOPA medication. We develop two main feature-based representations of such signals, which are obtained by considering (i) the long-term correlations and multifractal properties, and (ii) the power spectra. The feature-based representations are initially utilized for the purpose of characterizing the subjects under different settings. In agreement with previous studies, we show that deep brain stimulation does not significantly characterize neither of the two groups, regardless of the adopted representation. On the other hand, the medication effect yields statistically significant differences in both high- and low-amplitude tremor groups. We successively...

  16. Long Term Simulations Of Astrophysical Jets; Energy Structure and Quasi-Periodic Ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed Ibrahim; Kazunari Shibata

    2007-04-23

    We have performed self-consistent 2.5-dimensional nonsteady MHD numerical simulations of jet formation as long as possible, including the dynamics of accretion disks. Although the previous nonsteady MHD simulations for astrophysical jets revealed that the characteristics of nonsteady jets are similar to those of steady jets, the calculation time of these simulations is very short compared with the time scale of observed jets. Thus we have investigated long term evolutions of mass accretion rate, mass outflow rate, jet velocity, and various energy flux. We found that the ejection of jet is quasi-periodic. The period of the ejection is related to the time needed for the initial magnetic filed to be twisted to generate toroidal filed. We compare our results with both the steady state theory and previous 2.5-dimensional nonsteady MHD simulations.

  17. Long-Term Results for Trigeminal Schwannomas Treated With Gamma Knife Surgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, Toshinori, E-mail: h-toshi@komakihp.gr.jp; Kato, Takenori; Iizuka, Hiroshi; Kida, Yoshihisa

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection is considered the desirable curative treatment for trigeminal schwannomas. However, complete resection without any complications remains challenging. During the last several decades, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment modality. Information regarding long-term outcomes of SRS for patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas is limited because of the rarity of this tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term tumor control and functional outcomes in patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas treated with SRS, specifically with gamma knife surgery (GKS). Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas treated with GKS were evaluated. Of these, 2 patients (4%) had partial irradiation of the tumor, and 34 patients (64%) underwent GKS as the initial treatment. The median tumor volume was 6.0 cm{sup 3}. The median maximum and marginal doses were 28 Gy and 14 Gy, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 98 months. On the last follow-up image, 7 patients (13%) had tumor enlargement, including the 2 patients who had partial treatment. Excluding the 2 patients who had partial treatment, the actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 90% and 82%, respectively. Patients with tumors compressing the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle had significantly lower PFS rates. If those patients with tumors compressing the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle are excluded, the actuarial 5- and 10-year PFS rates increased to 95% and 90%, respectively. Ten percent of patients had worsened facial numbness or pain in spite of no tumor progression, indicating adverse radiation effect. Conclusions: GKS can be an acceptable alternative to surgical resection in patients with trigeminal schwannomas. However, large tumors that compress the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle should be surgically removed first and then treated with GKS when necessary.

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio dos, E-mail: marcosrxt@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Bustos Perez de Salcedo, Jose; Gutierrez Diaz, Jose Angel [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Samblas, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain); Marsiglia, Hugo [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Sallabanda, Kita [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSM) have an elevated risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. Recurrence is often observed after partial resection. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), either alone or combined with surgery, represents an important advance in CSM management, but long-term results are lacking. Methods and Materials: A total of 88 CSM patients, treated from January 1991 to December 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up was 86.8 months (range, 17.1-179.4 months). Among the patients, 22 were followed for more than 10 years. There was a female predominance (84.1%). The age varied from 16 to 90 years (mean, 51.6). In all, 47 patients (53.4%) received SRS alone, and 41 patients (46.6%) had undergone surgery before SRS. A dose of 14 Gy was prescribed to isodose curves from 50% to 90%. In 25 patients (28.4%), as a result of the proximity to organs at risk, the prescribed dose did not completely cover the target. Results: After SRS, 65 (73.8%) patients presented with tumor volume reduction; 14 (15.9%) remained stable, and 9 (10.2%) had tumor progression. The progression-free survival was 92.5% at 5 years, and 82.5% at 10 years. Age, sex, maximal diameter of the treated tumor, previous surgery, and complete target coverage did not show significant associations with prognosis. Among the 88 treated patients, 17 experienced morbidity that was related to SRS, and 6 of these patients spontaneously recovered. Conclusions: SRS is an effective and safe treatment for CSM, feasible either in the primary or the postsurgical setting. Incomplete coverage of the target did not worsen outcomes. More than 80% of the patients remained free of disease progression during long-term follow-up.

  19. Mitomycin-C- or Cisplatin-Based Chemoradiotherapy for Anal Canal Carcinoma: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivatto, Luis O.; Cabral, Vania; Rosa, Arthur; Bezerra, Marcos; Santarem, Erick; Fassizoli, Ana; Castro, Leonaldson; Simoes, Jose Humberto; Small, Isabele A.; Ferreira, Carlos Gil

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of concurrent radiotherapy with mitomycin-C (MMC)-based or cisplatin (CP)-based combinations in a cohort of patients with locally advanced anal canal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 2000, 179 patients with locally advanced anal canal carcinoma were treated at the Instituto Nacional de Cancer with two cycles of chemotherapy during Weeks 1 and 5 of radiotherapy. 5-Fluorouracil (750 mg/m{sup 2} 120-hour infusion or 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} 96-hour infusion) plus CP (100 mg/m{sup 2}) on the first day of each cycle or MMC (10-15 mg/m{sup 2}) on the first day of Cycle 1 was administered concurrent with radiotherapy (total dose, 55-59.4 Gy). Of the 179 patients, 60% were included from a randomized trial initiated at the Instituto Nacional de Cancer in 1991 that compared concurrent chemoradiotherapy with MMC vs. CP. Results: The median follow-up for the whole chemoradiotherapy group was 83 months. The median patient age was 58 years, 57% had Stage T3-T4 tumors, and 35% had N-positive disease. The 5-year cumulative colostomy rate was not significantly different between the CP group (22%) and MMC group (29%; p = .28). The actuarial 10-year overall survival and disease-free survival rate for the CP group was 54% and 49% and for the MMC group was 52% and 53%, respectively (p = .32 and p = .92, respectively). On multivariate analysis, male gender (p = .042) and advanced Stage T3-T4 disease (p <.0001) were statistically significant for worse disease-free survival. Stage T3-T4 (p = .039) and N+ (p = .039) disease remained independently significant for overall survival. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up has confirmed the good results of chemoradiotherapy with CP plus 5-fluorouracil, which seem to provide results equivalent to those with MMC plus 5-fluorouracil.

  20. The Long-Term Economic Impacts of Implementing the Energy Security Leadership Council's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    .9 MBD through efficiency measures such as redesigned and stricter corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. Another 0.9 MBD of the savings is the result of substitution measures that displace oil through America's oil dependence. This package includes proposals to significantly improve the fuel efficiency

  1. Long-term contracts and asset specificity revisited : an empirical analysis of producer-importer relations in the natural gas industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumann, Anne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze structural changes in long-term contracts in the international trade of natural gas. Using a unique data set of 262 long-term contracts between natural gas producers and importers, we estimate the ...

  2. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  3. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  4. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  5. Achieving Long-Term Surveillance in VigilNet Tian He, Pascal Vicaire, Ting Yan, Qing Cao, Gang Zhou, Lin Gu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankovic, John A.

    Achieving Long-Term Surveillance in VigilNet Tian He, Pascal Vicaire, Ting Yan, Qing Cao, Gang Zhou-dimensional power management strategies in VigilNet, a major recent effort to support long- term surveillance using-efficient sensor systems. I. INTRODUCTION VigilNet is a recent major effort to support long-term military

  6. Aggregation and transport kinetics of crude oil and sediment in estuarine waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterling, Michael Conroy, Jr.

    2004-09-30

    Modeling the transport and fate of spilled crude oil is important for estimating short and long-term toxicity effects in coastal ecosystems. This research project investigates the partitioning of hydrocarbons from a surface crude oil slick...

  7. Long-Term Energy Scenario Models: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    What primary energy resources will replace conventional oil and gas? A key finding of this study is that energy demands can be satisfied by a wide range of energy resources.

  8. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing unconventional oil resources (cxlra-lieavy oil.oil. In this respect, Japan will have to improve the nuclear energy resources

  9. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    industrial sector, oil demand will decrease due particularlyand commercial sectors, oil demand will decline on a shifttransportation sector, oil demand will shrink on a fall in

  10. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    growth, population, crude oil prices, industrial materialsin 2050. The imported crude oil price assumption is based onas energy security amid crude oil price spikes. Under the

  11. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including the physical decay half-life and the environmental dispersion half-life) is provided. The ''creek mouth'' fisherman is the next most critical pathway at SRS. On an annual basis, three species of fish (panfish, catfish, and bass) are sampled from the mouths of the five SRS streams. Three composites of up to five fish of each species are analyzed from each sampling location. Long-term trending of the Cs-137 concentrations in fish and the subsequent doses from consumption of SRS fish is provided.

  12. Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Don; Barton, David; Case, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities. Preliminary construction activities for the Port Hope LTWMF commenced in 2012 and are scheduled to continue over the next few years. The first cell of the engineered containment mound is scheduled to be constructed in 2015 with waste placement into the Port Hope LTWMF anticipated over the following seven year period. (authors)

  13. A Perspective on Long-Term Recovery Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident - 12075

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.Y. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The tragic events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station began occurring on March 11, 2011, following Japan's unprecedented earthquake and tsunami. The subsequent loss of external power and on-site cooling capacity severely compromised the plant's safety systems, and subsequently, led to core melt in the affected reactors and damage to spent nuclear fuel in the storage pools. Together with hydrogen explosions, this resulted in a substantial release of radioactive material to the environment (mostly Iodine-131 and Cesium- 137), prompting an extensive evacuation effort. The latest release estimate places the event at the highest severity level (Level 7) on the International Nuclear Event Scale, the same as the Chernobyl accident of 1986. As the utility owner endeavored to stabilize the damaged facility, environmental contamination continued to propagate and affect every aspect of daily life in the affected region of Japan. Elevated levels of radioactivity (mostly dominated by Cs-137 with the passage of time) were found in soil, drinking water, vegetation, produce, seafood, and other foodstuffs. An estimated 80,000 to 90,000 people were evacuated; more evacuations are being contemplated months after the accident, and a vast amount of land has become contaminated. Early actions were taken to ban the shipment and sale of contaminated food and drinking water, followed by later actions to ban the shipment and sale of contaminated beef, mushrooms, and seafood. As the event continues to evolve toward stabilization, the long-term recovery effort needs to commence - a process that doubtless will involve rather complex decision-making interactions between various stakeholders. Key issues that may be encountered and considered in such a process include (1) socio-political factors, (2) local economic considerations, (3) land use options, (4) remediation approaches, (5) decontamination methods, (6) radioactive waste management, (7) cleanup levels and options, and (8) government policies, among others. This paper offers a perspective on this likely long and arduous journey toward establishing a 'new normal' that will ultimately take shape. Toward this end, it is important to evaluate the 'optimization' process advocated by the international community in achieving long-term recovery from this particularly fateful event in Fukushima. In the process, experience and lessons learned from past events will be fully evaluated and considered. (author)

  14. Collaboration in Long-Term Stewardship at DOE's Hanford Site - 13019

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moren, Rick; Brown, David [Mission Support Alliance, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)] [Mission Support Alliance, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Feist, Ella [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland WA (United States)] [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland WA (United States); Grindstaff, Keith; Zeisloft, Jamie [US Department of Energy, Richland Operations, Richland WA (United States)] [US Department of Energy, Richland Operations, Richland WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan [1]. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years,, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that includes one of the six (6) cocooned reactors on site. These accomplishments relied upon the transparency between DOE cleanup programs and their contractors working together to successfully transition the land while addressing the challenges that arise. All parties, the three different DOE Programs and their respective prime contractors are dedicated to working together and continuing the progress of transitioning land to LTS, in alignment with the Program Plan and compliant with contractual requirements. (authors)

  15. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: Policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-14

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  16. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: Policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-14

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declinedmore »faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.« less

  17. Formation of Interfacial Layer and Long-Term Cylability of Li-O-2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Mehdi, Beata L.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Masse, Robert C.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Gu, Meng; Bennett, Wendy D.; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Chong M.; Browning, Nigel D.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-08-27

    Extended cycling of the Li-O2 battery under full discharge/charge conditions is achievable upon selection of appropriate electrode materials and cycling protocol. However, the decomposition of the side products also contribute to the observed good cycling behavior of high capacity Li-O2 batteries. Quantitative analyses of the discharge and charge products reveals a quick switch from the predominant formation of Li2O2 to the predominant formation of side products during the first a few cycles of the Li-O2 batteries. After the switch, cycling stabilizes with a repeatable formation of Li2O2/side products at ~1:2 ratio. CNTs/Ru composite electrodes exhibits lower charge voltage and deliver 50 full discharge-charge cycles without sharp capacity drop. Ru coated glass carbon electrode can lead to more than 500 cycles without change in its cycling profiles. The better understanding on Li-O2 reaction processes developed in this work may lead to the further improvement on the long term cycling behavior of high capacity Li-O2 batteries.

  18. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  19. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Records: Maintaining Access to the Knowledge - 13122

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, John; Gueretta, Jeanie; McKinney, Ruth; Anglim, Cliff

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of DOE's strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. In the area of environmental legacy management, records management is crucial to the protection of health, environmental, and legal interests of the Department and the public. LM is responsible for maintaining long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) records in performance of its mission. Maintaining access to the knowledge contained in these record collections is one of LM's primary responsibilities. To fulfill this responsibility, LM established a consolidated records management facility, the LM Business Center (LMBC), to house physical media records and electronic records. A new electronic record keeping system (ERKS) was needed to replace an obsolete system while helping to ensure LM is able to meet ongoing responsibilities to maintain access to knowledge and control the life cycle management of records. (authors)

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

  1. Chaotic mean wind in turbulent thermal convection and long-term correlations in solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2009-12-25

    It is shown that correlation function of the mean wind velocity in a turbulent thermal convection (Rayleigh number $Ra \\sim 10^{11}$) exhibits exponential decay with a very long correlation time, while corresponding largest Lyapunov exponent is certainly positive. These results together with the reconstructed phase portrait indicate presence of a chaotic component in the examined mean wind. Telegraph approximation is also used to study relative contribution of the chaotic and stochastic components to the mean wind fluctuations and an equilibrium between these components has been studied. Since solar activity is based on the thermal convection processes, it is reasoned that the observed solar activity long-term correlations can be an imprint of the mean wind chaotic properties. In particular, correlation function of the daily sunspots number exhibits exponential decay with a very long correlation time and corresponding largest Lyapunov exponent is certainly positive, also relative contribution of the chaotic and stochastic components follows the same pattern as for the convection mean wind.

  2. Hanford Site Long-term Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1994 highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, plus preventing or minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. A team of scientists from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) direct the barrier development effort. ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, in conjunction with WHC and PNL, developed design drawings and construction specifications for a 5-acre prototype barrier. The highlight of efforts in FY 1994 was the construction of the prototype barrier. The prototype barrier was constructed on the Hanford Site at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit of the 200 East Area. Construction was completed in August 1994 and monitoring instruments are being installed so experiments on the prototype barrier can begin in FY 1995. The purpose of the prototype barrier is to provide insights and experience with issues regarding barrier design, construction, and performance that have not been possible with individual tests and experiments conducted to date. Additional knowledge and experience was gained in FY 1994 on erosion control, physical stability, water infiltration control, model testing, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) comparisons, biointrusion control, long-term performance, and technology transfer.

  3. Long-Term Operation Of Ground-Based Atmospheric Sensing Systems In The Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivey, Mark; Jones, Larry J.; Porch, W. M.; Apple, Monty L.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2004-10-14

    Three semi-autonomous atmospheric sensing systems were installed in the tropical western Pacific region. The first of these Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Stations (ARCS) began operation in 1996. Each ARCS is configured as a system-of-systems since it comprises an ensemble of independent instrument systems. The ARCS collect, process, and transmit large volumes of cloud, solar and thermal radiation, and meteorological data to support climate studies and climate-modeling improvements as part of the U.S Department of Energy’s Atmospheric and Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Data from these tropical ARCS stations have been used for satellite ground-truth data comparisons and validations, including comparisons for MTI and AQUA satellite data. Our experiences with these systems in the tropics led to modifications in their design. An ongoing international logistics effort is required to keep gigabytes per day of quality-assured data flowing to the ARM program’s archives. Design criteria, performance, communications methods, and the day-to-day logistics required to support long-term operations of ground-based remote atmospheric sensing systems are discussed. End-to-end data flow from the ARCS systems to the ARM Program archives is discussed.

  4. Use of non evaporable getter pumps to ensure long term performances of high quantum efficiency photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sertore, Daniele Michelato, Paolo; Monaco, Laura; Manini, Paolo; Siviero, Fabrizio

    2014-05-15

    High quantum efficiency photocathodes are routinely used as laser triggered emitters in the advanced high brightness electron sources based on radio frequency guns. The sensitivity of “semiconductor” type photocathodes to vacuum levels and gas composition requires special care during preparation and handling. This paper will discuss the results obtained using a novel pumping approach based on coupling a 20?l s{sup ?1} sputter ion getter pump with a CapaciTorr® D100 non evaporable getter (NEG) pump. A pressure of 8?10{sup ?8}?Pa was achieved using only a sputter ion pump after a 6?day bake-out. With the addition of a NEG pump, a pressure of 2?10{sup ?9}?Pa was achieved after a 2?day bake-out. These pressure values were maintained without power due to the ability of the NEG to pump gases by chemical reaction. Long term monitoring of cathodes quantum efficiencies was also carried out at different photon wavelengths for more than two years, showing no degradation of the photoemissive film properties.

  5. Long-term hydrologic monitoring program. Rulison Event Site, Grand Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Hydrologic Program Advisory Group reviewed the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program proposed for the Rulison site at their December 12, 1971, meeting. Samples are collected annually, at about the same dates each year. The hydraulic head, temperature in /sup 0/C, pH, and electrical conductance are recorded at the time of sample collection. Prior to October 1, 1979, each sample was analyzed for gamma emitters and tritium. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity measurements were made on all samples collected. After October 1, 1979, these analyses were discontinued in favor of high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a GeLi detector. For each sample location, samples of raw water and filtered and acidified watar are collected. The raw water samples are analyzed for tritium by the conventional method. Those samples with concentrations that are below the detection level for this method are then analyzed by the enrichment method. Portions of the filtered and acidified samples are analyzed for gamma emitters.

  6. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance at Rocky Flats: Early Experiences and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surovchak, S.; Kaiser, L.; DiSalvo, R.; Boylan, J.; Squibb, G.; Nelson, J.; Darr, B.; Hanson, M.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Site was established in 1951 as part of the United States' nationwide nuclear weapons complex to manufacture nuclear weapons components. In 1992 weapons production halted, and the Rocky Flats mission changed to include environmental investigations, cleanup, and site closure. In October 2005, DOE and its contractor completed an accelerated 10-year, $7 billion cleanup of chemical and radiological contamination left from nearly 50 years of production. The cleanup required the decommissioning, decontamination, demolition, and removal of more than 800 structures; removal of more than 500,000 cubic meters of low-level radioactive waste; and remediation of more than 360 potentially contaminated environmental sites. The final remedy for the site was selected in September 2006 and included institutional controls, physical controls, and continued monitoring for the former industrial portion of the site. The remainder of the site, which served as a buffer zone surrounding the former industrial area, was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in July 2007 for a national wildlife refuge. DOE's Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long-term surveillance and maintenance of Rocky Flats, which includes remedy implementation activities and general site maintenance. Several factors have complicated the transition from closure to post-closure at Rocky Flats. The early experiences associated with the two years since the physical cleanup and closure work were completed have led to several valuable lessons learned. (authors)

  7. Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies for resolution of long-term nuclear waste concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    The paper provides a rationale for resolution of the long-term waste disposition issue based on complete destruction of fissile material and all higher actinides. It begins with a brief history of geologic storage leading to the present impasse in the US. The proliferation aspects of commercial plutonium are presented in a new light as a further driver for complete destruction. The special problems in Russia and the US of the disposition of the highly enriched spent naval reactor fuel and spent research reactor fuel are also presented. The scale of the system required for complete destruction is also examined and it is shown that a practical system for complete destruction of commercial and defense fissile material must be widely dispersed rather than concentrated at a single site. Central tenants of the US National Academy of Sciences recommendations on waste disposition are examined critically and several technologies considered for waste destruction are described briefly and compared Recommendations for waste disposition based on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology suitable for both the US and Russia are presented.

  8. Long-term leaching test of incinerator bottom ash: Evaluation of Cu partition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Cheng-Fang Wu, Chung-Hsin; Liu, Yen-Chiun

    2007-07-01

    Two types of leaching tests were performed on the bottom ash from municipal solid waste incinerators. A short-term batch test specified by the America Nuclear Society (ANS) and long-term column tests with acetic acid (pH 5.2) as leaching solution were used to evaluate copper leachability. The Cu leaching after the 5-d ANS test is about 1% of the original Cu content of 5300 mg/kg. Upon addition of a stabilizing agent, the Cu leaching quantity is reduced; the extent of reduction depends on the type of chemical used (phosphate, carbonate and sulfide). The 1.6% Na{sub 2}S addition showed negligible Cu leaching, and Na{sub 2}S was, therefore, used in subsequent column tests. The 30-d column test indicates a steady increase of Cu leaching amount with time and reaches about 1.5% of the original Cu content after 30 d. A 180-d column test further increased the Cu leaching to about 5.1% of the original Cu content, whereas no appreciable Cu leaching was found with the addition of 1.6% Na{sub 2}S. A sequential extraction was conducted on the raw ash, ash with the addition of Na{sub 2}S and the residue ash after 30 d of operation to characterize Cu affinity for different solid fractions. The data were used to evaluate the fate of Cu through these interactions.

  9. A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship. Volume I - Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as for other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over a 100 sites in 30 States and one U.S. Territory. Hundreds of thousands of acres of residually contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, surface water and sediment contamination, and contaminated buildings are present at many sites across the country. These sites range in size from less than one acre, containing only a single facility, to large sites spanning over 100,000 acres with huge uranium enrichment plants and plutonium processing canyons. Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program has made significant progress in addressing this environmental legacy. Millions of cubic meters of waste have been removed, stabilized, or disposed of, resulting in significant risk and cost reduction. In addition, DOE began disposing of transuranic (i.e., plutonium-contaminated) waste in the nation’s first deep geologic repository – the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. DOE is now carrying out its long-term stewardship obligations at dozens of sites, including smaller sites where DOE has completed cleanup work for the entire site and many larger sites where DOE has remediated portions of the site.

  10. A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship. Volume II, Site Summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as for other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over a 100 sites in 30 States and one U.S. Territory. Hundreds of thousand of acres of residually contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, surface water and sediment contamination, and contaminated buildings are present at many sites across the country. These sites range in size from less than one acre, containing only a single facility, to large sites spanning over 100,000 acres with huge uranium enrichment plants and plutonium processing canyons. Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program has made significant progress in addressing this environmental legacy. Millions of cubic meters of waste have been removed, stabilized, or disposed of, resulting in significant risk and cost reduction. In addition, DOE began disposing of transuranic (i.e., plutonium-contaminated) waste in the nation’s first deep geologic repository – the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. DOE is now carrying out its long-term stewardship obligations at dozens of sites, including smaller sites where DOE has completed cleanup work for the entire site and many larger sites where DOE has remediated portions of the site.

  11. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gin, Stephane [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoda (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps.

  12. The U.S. regulatory framework for long-term management of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smythe, C.; Bierley, D.; Bradshaw, M.

    1995-03-01

    The US established the regulatory structure for the management, disposal, and long-term care of uranium mill tailings in 1978 with the passage of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Pub. L. 95-604). This legislation has governed the cleanup and disposal of uranium tailings at both inactive and active sites. The passage of the UMTRCA established a federal regulatory program for the cleanup and disposal of uranium mill tailings in the US. This program involves the DOE, the NRC, the EPA, various states and tribal governments, private licensees, and the general public. The DOE has completed surface remediation at 14 sites, with the remaining sites either under construction or in planning. The DOE`s UMTRA Project has been very successful in dealing with public and agency demands, particularly regarding disposal site selection and transportation issues. The active sites are also being cleaned up, but at a slower pace than the inactive sites, with the first site tentatively scheduled for completion in 1996.

  13. Var C: Long-term photometric and spectral variability of an LBV in M33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burggraf, B; Bomans, D J; Henze, M; Meusinger, H; Sholukhova, O; Zharova, A; Pellerin, A; Becker, A

    2015-01-01

    So far the highly unstable phase of luminous blue variables (LBVs) has not been understood well. It is still uncertain why and which massive stars enter this phase. Investigating the variabilities by looking for a possible regular or even (semi-)periodic behaviour could give a hint at the underlying mechanism for these variations and might answer the question of where these variabilities originate. Finding out more about the LBV phase also means understanding massive stars better in general, which have (e.g. by enriching the ISM with heavy elements, providing ionising radiation and kinetic energy) a strong and significant influence on the ISM, hence also on their host galaxy. Photometric and spectroscopic data were taken for the LBV Var C in M33 to investigate its recent status. In addition, scanned historic plates, archival data, and data from the literature were gathered to trace Var C's behaviour in the past. Its long-term variability and periodicity was investigated. Our investigation of the variability i...

  14. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  15. Long-term sealing analyses for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, B.

    1994-02-01

    It is inevitable that sealing and abandonment will someday occur in a SPR cavern or caverns. To gain insight into the long-term behavior of a typical SPR cavern following sealing and abandonment, a suite of mechanical finite-element calculations was performed. The initial analyses predict how quickly and to what extent a cavern pressurizes after it is plugged. The analyses also examine the stability of the cavern as it changes shape due to the excessive pressures generated as the salt creeps and the brine in the cavern thermally expands. These large-scale analyses do not include the details of the plug but assume a good seal is established in the cavern wells. In another series of analyses, the potential for forming a leak at the plug is evaluated. A cement plug, emplaced in the casing seat of a cavern well, is loaded using the predicted brine pressures from the cavern analyses. The plugged casing analyses examine the potential for forming a leak path in and along the interfaces of salt, casing, and cement plug. In the last set of analysis, the dimensional scale of the problem is further reduced to examine a preexisting crack along a casing/salt interface. The cracked interface is assumed to be fluid filled and fully pressurized by the cavern fluids. The analyses address the potential for the fluid path to extend upwards along a plugged casing should an open microannulus surround the casing after it is plugged.

  16. Heat extracted from the long term flow test in the Fenton Hill HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Paul; Robinson, Bruce

    1994-01-20

    A long-term flow test was carried out in the Fenton Hill HDR Phase-2 reservoir for 14 months during 1992-1993 to examine the potential for supplying thermal energy at a sustained rate as a commercial demonstration of HDR technology. The test was accomplished in several segments with changes in mean flowrate due to pumping conditions. Re-test estimates of the extractable heat content above a minimum useful temperature were based on physical evidence of the size of the Fenton Hill reservoir. A numerical model was used to estimate the extent of heat extracted during the individual flow segments from the database of measured production data during the test. For a reservoir volume of 6.5x10{sup 6}m{sup 3}, the total heat content above a minimum temperature of 150{degree} C was 1.5x10{sup 15}J. For the total test period at the three sustained mean flowrates, the integrated heat extracted was 0.088x10{sup 15}J, with no discernable temperature decline of the produced fluid. The fraction of energy extracted above the abandonment temperature was 5.9%. On the basis of a constant thermal energy extraction rate, the lifetime of the reservoir (without reservoir growth) to the abandonment temperature would be 13.3 years, in good agreement with the pre-test estimate of 15.0 years for the given reservoir volume.

  17. Long-term and transient forcing of the low ionosphere monitored by SAVNET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Bertoni, Fernando C. P.; Gavilan, Hernan R.; Samanes, Jorge C. [Centro de Radioastronomia e Astrofisica Mackenzie-Escola de Engenharia Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie Rua da Consolacao 896, 01302-907, Sao Paulo, SP Brazil (Brazil)

    2010-10-20

    In this paper we present the main findings obtained by the South America VLF NETwork since its installation in the South America territory. In particular we show the capability of the VLF technique to monitor the long-term solar activity and transient solar and geomagnetic disturbances. On long timescales they are indices on the possibility of monitoring the Lyman-{alpha} solar radiation. On shorter timescales we show that the VLF technique is a very sensitive mean of detecting solar X-ray flares. Those small events with a peak power {>=}5x10{sup -7} W/m{sup 2} are detected with a 100% probability. A lower limit for the X-ray power of {approx}2.7 10{sup -7} W/m{sup 2} has been found in order to produce a ionospheric disturbance, and we confirm the important role of the Lyman-{alpha} radiation to form and maintain the low ionospheric D-region. SAVNET has also observed for the first time the ionospheric disturbances produced by outbursts from the magnetar SGR 1550-5408. This genuine detection suggests the possibility of monitoring on a routine basis these objects of fundamental importance in high-energy astrophysics. Finally, we show that SAVNET is well suited for participating to the search for seismo-ionospheric disturbances in order to study the possibility of earthquake events prediction.

  18. Long-Term Planning for Nuclear Energy Systems Under Deep Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Lance Kyungwoo

    2011-01-01

    5.3.2 Nuclear Energy System Model . . . . . . . . . . .scenarios of global nuclear energy demand . . . . . . . .Brief History of Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . Nuclear Fuel

  19. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    The imported crude oil price assumption is based on a U.S.assumptions including economic growth, population, crude oil

  20. Long-term monitoring data to describe the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Deepwater Horizon oil submerged off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Clement Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, AL 36849 The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe had considerable impact on the 50 km long sandy beach sys- tem over the open ocean system in the Gulf of Mexico. Light PAHs, such as naphthalenes, were fully depleted

  1. Long-term changes in spatial and temporal distributions of disease and contaminant body burden in Gulf of Mexico oysters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yung-Kul

    1995-01-01

    LONG-TERM CHANGES IN SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF DISEASE AND CONTAMINANT BODY BURDEN IN GULF OF MEXICO OYSTERS A Thesis by YUNG-KUL KIM Submitted to the Olftce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1995 Major Subject: Oceanography LONG-TERM CHANGES IN SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF DISEASE AND CONTAMINANT BODY BURDEN IN GULF OF MEXICO OYSTERS A Thesis by Submitted to Texas A...

  2. Biological effects of long-term exposure to low dose-rate radiation -- Comparisons of WAM model and LQ model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wada, Takahiro; Nakamura, Issei; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Bando, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Newly proposed Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model which is to be used to estimate the biological effects of artificial radiations is compared with conventionally used Linear-Quadratic model. Basic properties of WAM model are discussed emphasizing on the dose-rate dependence. By adopting the parameters that are determined to fit the mega mouse experiments, biological effects of long-term exposure to extremely low dose-rate radiation are discussed. In WAM model, the effects of the long-term exposure show a saturation property, which makes a clear distinction from the LNT hypothesis which predicts a linear increase of the effects with time.

  3. Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arkin, A.; Baliga, N.; Braam, J.; Church, G.; Collins, J; Cottingham, R.; Ecker, J.; Gerstein, M.; Gilna, P.; Greenberg, J.; Handelsman, J.; Hubbard, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Liao, J.; Looger, L.; Meyerowitz, E.; Mjolness, E.; Petsko, G.; Sayler, G.; Simpson, M.; Stacey, G.; Sussman, M.; Tiedje, J.; Bader, D.; Cessi, P.; Collins, W.; Denning, S.; Dickinson, R.; Easterling, D.; Edmonds, J.; Feddema, J.; Field, C.; Fridlind, A.; Fung, I.; Held, I.; Jackson, R.; Janetos, A.; Large, W.; Leinen, M.; Leung, R.; Long, S.; Mace, G.; Masiello, C.; Meehl, G.; Ort, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Penner, J.; Prather, M.; Randall, D.; Rasch, P.; Schneider, E.; Shugart, H.; Thornton, P.; Washington, W.; Wildung, R.; Wiscombe, W.; Zak, D.; Zhang, M.; Bielicki, J.; Buford, M.; Cleland, E.; Dale, V.; Duke, C.; Ehleringer, J.; Hecht, A.; Kammen, D.; Marland, G.; Pataki, D.; Riley, M. Robertson, P.; Hubbard, S.

    2010-12-01

    The interactions and feedbacks among plants, animals, microbes, humans, and the environment ultimately form the world in which we live. This world is now facing challenges from a growing and increasingly affluent human population whose numbers and lifestyles are driving ever greater energy demand and impacting climate. These and other contributing factors will make energy and climate sustainability extremely difficult to achieve over the 20-year time horizon that is the focus of this report. Despite these severe challenges, there is optimism that deeper understanding of our environment will enable us to mitigate detrimental effects, while also harnessing biological and climate systems to ensure a sustainable energy future. This effort is advanced by scientific inquiries in the fields of atmospheric chemistry and physics, biology, ecology, and subsurface science - all made possible by computing. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science has a long history of bringing together researchers from different disciplines to address critical national needs in determining the biological and environmental impacts of energy production and use, characterizing the interplay of climate and energy, and collaborating with other agencies and DOE programs to improve the world's most powerful climate models. BER science focuses on three distinct areas: (1) What are the roles of Earth system components (atmosphere, land, oceans, sea ice, and the biosphere) in determining climate? (2) How is the information stored in a genome translated into microbial, plant, and ecosystem processes that influence biofuel production, climate feedbacks, and the natural cycling of carbon? (3) What are the biological, geochemical, and physical forces that govern the behavior of Earth's subsurface environment? Ultimately, the goal of BER science is to support experimentation and modeling that can reliably predict the outcomes and behaviors of complex biological and environmental systems, leading to robust solutions for DOE missions and strategic goals. In March 2010, the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee held the Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision workshop to identify scientific opportunities and grand challenges for BER science in the coming decades and to develop an overall strategy for drafting a long-term vision for BER. Key workshop goals included: (1) Identifying the greatest scientific challenges in biology, climate, and the environment that DOE will face over a 20-year time horizon. (2) Describing how BER should be positioned to address those challenges. (3) Determining the new and innovative tools needed to advance BER science. (4) Suggesting how the workforce of the future should be trained in integrative system science. This report lays out grand research challenges for BER - in biological systems, climate, energy sustainability, computing, and education and workforce training - that can put society on a path to achieve the scientific evidence and predictive understanding needed to inform decision making and planning to address future energy needs, climate change, water availability, and land use.

  4. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970's vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE's program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a seamless digital environment to enhance nuclear safety, increase productivity, and improve overall plant performance. The long-term goal is to transform the operating model of the nuclear power plants (NPP)s from one that is highly reliant on a large staff performing mostly manual activities to an operating model based on highly integrated technology with a smaller staff. This digital transformation is critical to addressing an array of issues facing the plants, including aging of legacy analog systems, potential shortage of technical workers, ever-increasing expectations for nuclear safety improvement, and relentless pressure to reduce cost. The Future Vision is based on research is being conducted in the following major areas of plant function: (1) Highly integrated control rooms; (2) Highly automated plant; (3) Integrated operations; (4) Human performance improvement for field workers; and (5) Outage safety and efficiency. Pilot projects will be conducted in each of these areas as the means for industry to collectively integrate these new technologies into nuclear plant work activities. The pilot projects introduce new digital technologies into the nuclear plant operating environment at host operating plants to demonstrate and validate them for production usage. In turn, the pilot project technologies serve as the stepping stones to the eventual seamless digital environment as described in the Future Vision.

  5. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Thomas; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970’s vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE’s program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a seamless digital environment to enhance nuclear safety, increase productivity, and improve overall plant performance. The long-term goal is to transform the operating model of the nuclear power plants (NPP)s from one that is highly reliant on a large staff performing mostly manual activities to an operating model based on highly integrated technology with a smaller staff. This digital transformation is critical to addressing an array of issues facing the plants, including aging of legacy analog systems, potential shortage of technical workers, ever-increasing expectations for nuclear safety improvement, and relentless pressure to reduce cost. The Future Vision is based on research is being conducted in the following major areas of plant function: 1. Highly integrated control rooms 2. Highly automated plant 3. Integrated operations 4. Human performance improvement for field workers 5. Outage safety and efficiency. Pilot projects will be conducted in each of these areas as the means for industry to collectively integrate these new technologies into nuclear plant work activities. The pilot projects introduce new digital technologies into the nuclear plant operating environment at host operating plants to demonstrate and validate them for production usage. In turn, the pilot project technologies serve as the stepping stones to the eventual seamless digital environment as described in the Future Vision.

  6. PROJECTED IMPACT OF SULFATE ATTACK ON THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF A CONCRETE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.

    2009-12-11

    Saltstone is a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the DOE Savannah River Site with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime. The wet mix is poured into a concrete repository for on-site disposal. Solidified Saltstone is a dense, alkaline, reducing, micro-porous, monolithic, cementitious matrix, containing a solution of salts within its pore structure. Sodium sulfate concentrations in the pore fluid are around 0.15 mol/L, and external sulfate attack on concrete barriers is expected to occur over time. To predict the long-term performance of concrete repositories, the STADIUM{reg_sign} code was used to simulate the reactive transport processes leading to formation of ettringite, an expansive mineral phase often associated with spalling or cracking. STADIUM{reg_sign} is a multi-ionic transport model based on a split operator approach that separates ionic movement and chemical reactions. Ionic transport is described by the extended Nernst-Planck equation for unsaturated media, and accounts for electrical coupling between ionic species, chemical activity, transport due to water content gradient, and temperature effects. STADIUM{reg_sign} does not predict whether physical damage will occur, or the impact on transport properties should fracturing occur. Thus the presence of ettringite was assumed to coincide with physical damage for the purpose of estimating effective transport properties. Effective properties for concrete barriers were estimated assuming complete hydraulic failure behind the ettringite front and unaltered properties ahead of the front. The ettringite front advances at a rate dependent on the diffusion coefficient assumed for the failed zone. A sensitivity study indicates a service life ranging from thousands to tens of thousands of years, depending on the barrier thickness and sulfate exposure conditions among other factors.

  7. Off-gas recycle for long-term low temperature gas phase uranium decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, R.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

    1994-07-01

    In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile UF{sub 6}, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric ClF{sub 3} for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. Laboratory-scale experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of using LTLT gas phase decontamination with ClF{sub 3} to remove uranium deposits from this equipment. A mobile gas phase system is being designed to demonstrate the decontamination process on a full scale. If used to decontaminate the GDPs, the LTLT process would use large amounts of ClF{sub 3} and exhaust large volumes of by-product gases (ClF, C1O{sub 2}F, etc.). Initially, the excess ClF{sub 3} and reaction byproducts will be destroyed in a KOH scrubber. This paper describes a proposed system that could recover the excess ClF{sub 3}and regenerate the reaction by-products into ClF{sub 3} for use in decontamination of additional equipment. Use of this regeneration and recovery system would reduce raw material costs and also reduce the waste scrubber sludge disposal costs by reducing the amount of corrosive gases fed to the scrubber.

  8. Percutaneous Treatment of Central Venous Stenosis in Hemodialysis Patients: Long-Term Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young Chul; Won, Jong Yun Choi, Sun Young; Ko, Heung-kyu; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Do Yun; Kang, Byung-Chul; Kim, Seung-Jung

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of endovascular treatment of central venous stenosis in patients with arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) for hemodialysis. Five hundred sixty-three patients with AVFs who were referred for a fistulogram were enrolled in this study. Among them, 44 patients showed stenosis (n = 35) or occlusions (n = 9) in the central vein. For the initial treatment, 26 patients underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and 15 patients underwent stent placements. Periods between AVF formation and first intervention ranged from 3 to 144 months. Each patient was followed for 14 to 60 months. Procedures were successful in 41 of 44 patients (93.2%). Primary patency rates for PTA at 12 and 36 months were 52.1% and 20.0%, and assisted primary patency rates were 77.8% and 33.3%, respectively. Primary patency rates for stent at 12 and 36 months were 46.7% and 6.7%, and assisted primary patency rates were 60.0% and 20.0%, respectively. Fifteen of 26 patients with PTAs underwent repeated interventions because of restenosis. Fourteen of 15 patients with a stent underwent repeated interventions because of restenosis and combined migration (n = 1) and shortening (n = 6) of the first stent. There was no significant difference in patency between PTAs and stent placement (p > 0.05). Average AVF patency duration was 61.8 months and average number of endovascular treatments was 2.12. In conclusion, endovascular treatments of central venous stenosis could lengthen the available period of AVFs. There was no significant difference in patency between PTAs and stent placement.

  9. Thoracic irradiation in Hodgkin's disease: Disease control and long-term complications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, N.J.; Thompson, L.; Mauch, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    A total of 590 patients with Stage IA-IIIB Hodgkin's disease received mantle irradiation at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy between April 1969 and December 1984 as part of their initial treatment. Recurrence patterns as well as pulmonary, cardiac and thyroid complications were analyzed. Pulmonary recurrence was more frequently seen in patients with large mediastinal adenopathy (LMA); 11% of patients with LMA recurred in the lung in contrast to 3.1% with small or no mediastinal disease, p = 0.003. Hilar involvement, when corrected for size of mediastinal involvement, was not predictive of lung relapse. Patients with LMA also had a high rate of nodal relapse above the diaphragm (40%) following radiation therapy (RT) alone as compared to similarly treated patients with small or no mediastinal adenopathy (6.5%), p less than 0.0001. This risk of nodal recurrence was greatly reduced (4.7%) for LMA patients receiving combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy (CMT), p less than 0.0001. Sixty-seven patients (11%) with hilar or large mediastinal involvement received prophylactic, low dose, whole lung irradiation. No decrease in the frequency of lung recurrence was seen with the use of whole lung irradiation. Radiation pneumonitis was seen in 3% of patients receiving radiation therapy alone. In contrast, the use of whole lung irradiation was associated with a 15% risk of pneumonitis, p = 0.006. The risk of pneumonitis was also significantly increased with the use of chemotherapy (11%), p = 0.0001. Cardiac complications were uncommon with pericarditis being the most common complication (2.2%). Thyroid dysfunction was seen in 25% of patients and appeared to be age-related. These data suggest that the long-term complications of mantle irradiation are uncommon with the use of modern radiotherapeutic techniques.

  10. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "DeepTrek"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CSI Technologies

    2007-08-31

    The purpose of this project is to formulate a 'Supercement' designed for improving the long-term sealing integrity in HPHT wells. Phase I concentrated on chemistry studies and screening tests to design and evaluate Portland-based, hybrid Portland, and non-Portland-based cement systems suitable for further scale-up testing. Phase II work concentrated on additional lab and field testing to reduce the candidate materials list to two systems, as well as scaleup activities aimed at verifying performance at the field scale. Phase II was extended thorough a proposal to develop additional testing capabilities aimed at quantifying cementing material properties and performance that were previously not possible. Phase III focused on bringing the material(s) developed in previous Phases to commercialization, through Field Trials, Cost/Benefit Analysis, and Technology Transfer. Extensive development and testing work throughout the project led to Phase III commercialization of two very different materials: (1) Highly-expansive cement (Portland-based), patent pending as 'PRESTRESSED CEMENT'; and (2) Epoxy Resin (non-Portland-based), patent pending. Trade name is Ultra Seal-R. In Phase III, work concentrated on application of the Supercement materials in various increasingly-challenging wells. Previous testing revealed that PRESTRESSED CEMENT, when applied in weak or unconsolidated formations, tends to expand away from the central pipe, restricting the applicability of this material to competent formations. Tests were devised to quantify this effect so the material could be applied in appropriate wells. Additionally, the testing was needed because of industry resistance to expansive cements, due to previous marketing attempts with other materials that were less than successful. Field trials with the Epoxy Resin currently numbers in the hundreds of jobs at up to 295 deg F, with a large percentage being completely successful. Both the PRESTRESSED CEMENT as well as the Ultra Seal-R represent materials fulfilling the objectives of the DeepTrek project.

  11. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "Deep Trek"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin D. Edgley; Fred L. Sabins; Larry T. Watters

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this project is to formulate a ''Supercement'' designed for improving the long-term sealing integrity in HPHT wells. Phase I concentrated on chemistry studies and screening tests to design and evaluate Portland-based, hybrid Portland, and non-Portland-based cement systems suitable for further scale-up testing. Phase II work concentrated on additional lab and field testing to reduce the candidate materials list to two systems, as well as scale up activities aimed at verifying performance at the field scale. Phase II was extended thorough a proposal to develop additional testing capabilities aimed at quantifying cementing material properties and performance that were previously not possible. Two materials are being taken into Phase III for field testing and commercialization: {lg_bullet} Highly-expansive cement (Portland-based), patent pending as ''Pre-Stressed Cement'' {lg_bullet} Epoxy Resin (non-Portland-based), patent pending In Phase II, significant effort was expended on scaling up the processes for handling resin in the field, as it is quite different than conventional Portland-based cements in mixing, personnel protection, and cleanup. Through this effort, over fifty (50) field jobs were done at a variety of temperatures and depths, most with excellent results. Large-scale field testing was less relevant with Pre-stressed Cement, because the materials and surface processes do not vary from those that have been developed for conventional Portland materials over the last eighty (80) years. The formulation is quite unique, however, and performs very differently than conventional Portland cements downhole.

  12. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ?5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  13. Long-Term Outcomes of Vestibular Schwannomas Treated With Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, Sumit; Batra, Sachin [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carson, Kathryn [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Shuck, John; Kharkar, Siddharth; Gandhi, Rahul [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jackson, Juan; Wemmer, Jan; Terezakis, Stephanie; Shokek, Ori; Kleinberg, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rigamonti, Daniele, E-mail: dr@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We assessed clinical outcome and long-term tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for unilateral schwannoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2007, 496 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD); 385 patients had radiologic follow-up that met the inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was treatment failure. Secondary endpoints were radiologic progression and clinical outcome. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association of age, race, tumor side, sex, and pretreatment symptoms. Results: In 11 patients (3%) treatment failed, and they required salvage (microsurgical) treatment. Radiologic progression was observed in 116 patients (30.0%), including 35 patients (9%) in whom the treatment volume more than doubled during the follow-up period, although none required surgical resection. Tumors with baseline volumes of less than 1 cm{sup 3} were 18.02 times more likely to progress than those with tumor volumes of 1 cm{sup 3} or greater (odds ratio, 18.02; 95% confidence interval, 4.25-76.32). Treatment-induced neurologic morbidity included 8 patients (1.6%) with new facial weakness, 12 patients (2.8%) with new trigeminal paresthesias, 4 patients (0.9%) with hydrocephalus (1 communicating and 3 obstructive), and 2 patients (0.5%) with possibly radiation-induced neoplasia. Conclusions: Although the rate of treatment failure is low (3%), careful follow-up shows that radiologic progression occurs frequently. When reporting outcome, the 'no salvage surgery needed' and 'no additional treatment needed' criteria for treatment success need to be complemented by the radiologic data.

  14. Long-Term Degradation Testing of High-Temperature Electrolytic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.M. Stoots; J.E. O'Brien; J.S. Herring; G.K. Housley; D.G. Milobar; M.S. Sohal

    2009-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed a new cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. This report presents results of the INL's testing of this new solid oxide cell design as an electrolyzer. Gas composition, operating voltage, and other parameters were varied during testing. Results to date show the NASA cell to be a promising design for both high power-to-weight fuel cell and electrolyzer applications.

  15. Two Different Long-term Behaviors in Black-Hole Candidates: Evidence for Two Accretion Flows?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. M. Smith; W. A. Heindl; J. H. Swank

    2001-12-20

    We discuss the results of long-term hard x-ray monitoring of Galactic black-hole candidates 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258, Cyg X-1, GX 339-4, and Cyg X-3 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The objects divide into two classes. In the first class, exemplified by Cyg X-1, luminosity and spectral hardness evolve simultaneously. In the second class, the relation is more complicated: the softest spectra occur while the count rate is dropping. Most models of accretion, tailored to Cyg X-1, do not predict the second sort of behavior. One interpretation is a simple model with two simultaneous, independent accretion flows: a thin disk and a hot halo. A drop in the accretion rate affecting both flows would propagate through the halo immediately but might take up to several weeks to propagate through the disk. While the inner halo is thus temporarily depleted compared to the disk, a temporary soft state is expected. This picture is supported by the observation that those sources which show delays (1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258, and GX 339-4) are expected to have low-mass companions, and those which do not (Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3) are known or thought to have high-mass companions. Low-mass companions imply accretion by Roche-lobe overflow, with a high specific angular momentum in the accreting material, and therefore a large disk with a long viscous timescale. Wind accretion from massive companions is expected to result in a much smaller disk, and thus little viscous delay.

  16. Modeling long-term fire regimes of southern California shrublands1 (Suggested running head: "Modeling fire regimes with HFire")3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    1 Modeling long-term fire regimes of southern California shrublands1 2 (Suggested running head: "Modeling fire regimes with HFire")3 4 Seth H. Petersona , Max A. Moritzb , Marco E. Moraisc , Philip E for Fire Research & Outreach, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management,10 UC Berkeley, CA

  17. A FUSION METHOD FOR CREATING SUB-HOURLY DNI-BASED TMY FROM LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A FUSION METHOD FOR CREATING SUB-HOURLY DNI-BASED TMY FROM LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED AND SHORT, it is highly recommended to use sub-hourly DNI information. Due to limitation in spatial and temporal in term of any sub- hourly temporal variability. To overcome this limitation, we propose an innovative

  18. Long-Term Trends in California Mobile Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations of Black Carbon and Organic Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    mobile source emissions of BC and OA (primary + secondary). Over time, as on-road engine emissions haveLong-Term Trends in California Mobile Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations of Black Carbon, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1710, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: A fuel

  19. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . [1] Among the interplanetary activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlatedLong-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4

  20. The long-term spectroscopic misadventures of AG Dra with a nod toward V407 Cyg: Degenerates behaving badly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shore, S N; Wahlgren, G M

    2011-01-01

    We present some results of an ongoing study of the long-term spectroscopic variations of AG Dra, a prototypical eruptive symbiotic system. We discuss the effects of the environment and orbital modulation in this system and some of the physical processes revealed by a comparison with the nova outburst of the symbiotic-like recurrent nova V407 Cyg 2010.

  1. Long-Term Climate Commitments Projected with ClimateCarbon Cycle Models G.-K. PLATTNER,a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Long-Term Climate Commitments Projected with Climate­Carbon Cycle Models G.-K. PLATTNER,a,n R IAC, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland c Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada h The Open

  2. Ecological & Environmental Acoustic Remote Sensor (EcoEARS) Application for Long-Term Monitoring and Assessment of Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, Robert C.

    Ecological & Environmental Acoustic Remote Sensor (EcoEARS) Application for Long-Term Monitoring and Assessment of Wildlife Gonzalo Sanchez; President, Sanchez Industrial Design, Inc., 3510 Beltline Hwy and installation of specialized electronic hardware used to collect both acoustic and environmental data. He holds

  3. 210 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2004 Toward Long-Term Retention-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    210 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2004 Toward Long-Term Retention, nanotechnology, quantum dots. I. INTRODUCTION BOTH nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) dot [1] and oxide- silicon-controlled memory node positioning, relying on modern nanotechnologies [6], [7]. Therefore, a memory architecture

  4. PICARD SOL, a new ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurements: first results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    PICARD SOL, a new ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurements: first results M solar radius measured in space and on ground and to better understand and calibrate atmospheric effects observations and corrections for atmospheric refraction, first estimates of the mean solar radius at the five

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of a Drilled Shaft Retaining Wall in Expansive Clay: Behavior Before and During Excavation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Long-Term Monitoring of a Drilled Shaft Retaining Wall in Expansive Clay: Behavior Before are that the instrumentation survived construction and is working, residual stresses developed in the drilled shafts prior The motivation for this work is uncertainty in the design of drilled shaft retaining walls in expansive clay

  6. The impact of Hurricane Ike on the geomorphology of Follett's Island, Texas - short and long term effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harter, Craig

    2015-07-09

    deposits can reach the bay, thus incrementally contributing to landward migration of the barrier island. Leatherman noted that these observations are specific to sediment-starved systems with prevalent offshore winds [22]. A schematic of a typical...-Term Waves .......................................................................................... 19 2.1.3. Long-Term Winds........................................................................................... 24 2.1.4. Short-Term Metocean...

  7. Summary To determine whether long-term growth in en-riched CO2 atmospheres changes the woody tissue respiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    the response of forest stand growth to enriched CO2 atmospheres. Keywords: construction cost, maintenanceSummary To determine whether long-term growth in en- riched CO2 atmospheres changes the woody ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentrations in open- top field chambers located in Placerville, CA. Total

  8. Development and characterization of a new MgSO4-zeolite composite for long-term thermal energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the material. For that specific purpose, a new thermal energy storage composite material has been developed. Keywords: thermal energy storage; thermochemical process; long-term storage; zeolites; magnesium sulphate; seasonal storage; building application 1. Introduction Thermal energy storage systems could make

  9. Grid Harvest Service: A System for Long-term, Application-level Task Scheduling Xian-He Sun, Ming Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Xian-He

    Grid Harvest Service: A System for Long-term, Application-level Task Scheduling Xian-He Sun, Ming Wu Department of Computer Science Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois 60616, USA {sun. While this new complex environment provides the potential computing power, it also introduces a big

  10. Change in body mass associated with long-term fasting in a marine reptile: the case of green

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hays, Graeme

    NOTE Change in body mass associated with long-term fasting in a marine reptile: the case of green at a reduced level, so their ability to endure peri- ods of fasting may have important implications reserves and metabolic rate, all other things being equal, fasting endurance will be greater in larger

  11. A tropomyosin-related kinase B ligand is required for ERK activation, long-term synaptic facilitation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Shiv K.

    A tropomyosin-related kinase B ligand is required for ERK activation, long-term synaptic of BDNF to the TrkB receptor initiates a wide range of downstream signaling events, including ERK in Aplysia, and that this enhancing effect of BDNF in LTF induction requires ERK signaling (Fig. 1A and ref

  12. Evaluating soil resilience in long-term cultivation: a study of pre-Columbian terraces from the Paca Valley, Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, Brian M.

    Evaluating soil resilience in long-term cultivation: a study of pre-Columbian terraces from Received in revised form 31 May 2008 Accepted 4 June 2008 Keywords: Agriculture Andes Geoarchaeology Soil micromorphology Resilience Terraces a b s t r a c t This study evaluated the soil properties of pre-Hispanic stone

  13. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-05-20

    Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

  14. EM Publishes Federal Register Notice of Intent to Prepare Supplement to Long-Term Mercury Storage EIS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM on Tuesday published a notice of intent in the Federal Register to prepare a supplement to its January 2011 Environmental Impact Statement for the Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury to analyze additional alternatives, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act.

  15. eShare: A Capacitor-Driven Energy Storage and Sharing Network for Long-Term Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    eShare: A Capacitor-Driven Energy Storage and Sharing Network for Long-Term Operation Ting Zhu, Yu it feasible to build distributed energy storage systems that can robustly ex- tend the lifetime of networked by providing designs for energy routers (i.e., energy storage and routing devices) and related energy access

  16. Methodology Development for Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T.A.; Elleson, J.S.; Haberl, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    ), IPMVP (1997), ARI (1998), Standard 150-2000 (ASHRAE 2000), and Guideline 14P (ASHRAE 2001), there are no widely accepted standard methods or protocols to conduct long-term evaluations of entire cool storage systems in the field (i.e., in-situ). Therefore...

  17. Long Term Thermal Stability In Air Of Ionic Liquid Based Alternative Heat Transfer Fluids For Clean Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Elise B; Kendrick, Sarah E.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aging on the thermal stability and chemical structure of seven different ILs so as to explore their suitability for use as a heat transfer fluid. This was accomplished by heating the ILs for 15 weeks at 200?C in an oxidizing environment and performing subsequent analyses on the aged chemicals.

  18. Prion Protein is Expressed on Long-term Repopulating Hematopoietic Stem Cells and is Necessary for their Self-renewal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lodish, Harvey F.

    We show that the prion protein (PrP) is expressed on the surface of bone marrow cell populations enriched in long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells. Affinity purification of the PrP-positive and PrP-negative ...

  19. Evaluation of an 18-year CMAQ simulation: Seasonal variations and long-term temporal changes in sulfate and nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    largely captures the seasonal and long-term changes in sulfur compounds. The modeling system generally and measured concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in wet and dry deposition over an 18-year period resulted in large decreases in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 1995, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) trading

  20. Evaluating the Long-term Impact of a Continuously Increasing Harmonic Load Demand on Feeder Level Voltage Distortion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    this paper the authors analyze the long-term feeder level distortion possibilities based on a large number of nonlinear devices within residential households has led some electric utility companies to become more. With an expectation of higher penetrations of electric vehicle chargers and renewable energy devices

  1. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2001; 83: 283-284 Long-term DNA survival in ethanol-preserved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2001; 83: 283-284 Report Long-term DNA survival in ethanol-preserved archivalBologna, Bologna, Italy W e have examined a number of ethanol-preserved specimens for the presence of both OF THE DNA IN ETHANOL-PRESERVED ARCHIVAL MATERIAL amplifications were successful for a positive control

  2. eShare: A Capacitor-Driven Energy Storage and Sharing Network for Long-Term Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhi-Li

    Terms Measurement, Design, Performance, Experimentation Keywords Energy, Capacitor, Networks, GreeneShare: A Capacitor-Driven Energy Storage and Sharing Network for Long-Term Operation Ting Zhu, Yu, Twin Cities {tzhu, yugu, tianhe, zhzhang}@cs.umn.edu Abstract The ability to move energy around makes

  3. Brazil’s Biofuels Scenario: What are the Main Drivers Which will Shape Investments in the Long Term?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3C—Fostering Technology Adoption III: International Market Opportunities in Bioenergy Brazil’s Biofuels Scenario: What are the Main Drivers Which will Shape Investments in the Long Term? Artur Milanez, Manager of Biofuels Department, Brazilian Development Bank

  4. Oil and gas seeps, often the result of geological defor-mation of the oil-saturated strata, are a common global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Milton

    1-12 2-1 Oil and gas seeps, often the result of geological defor- mation of the oil, is just one of many seeps found in California. Offshore, seeps are visible on the ocean surface as oil slicks or gas bubbles.As noted by California ResourcesAgency(1971),"Some[seeps]remaindormant for extended

  5. Strategy for Long-Term Stewardship and Monitoring of Amchitka Island - 12190

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kautsky, Mark; Nguyen, Jason; Darr, Paul S.; Picel, Mary

    2012-07-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for Amchitka details how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fulfill its mission to maintain protection of human health and the environment at and around the sites on Amchitka Island. The LTSMP calls for monitoring to be performed every 5 years, at least in the initial phase of the project. The purpose of the monitoring is to develop a baseline of activity concentrations for selected radionuclides in biota, water, and soil, both on Amchitka and at the reference location on Adak Island, approximately 322 km (200 miles) northeast of Amchitka. Data compiled by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP, 2006) are being included as part of the baseline data set. The specific biological, water, and sediment samples collected during the 2011 sampling event were developed through close coordination with the primary stakeholders, including the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Amchitka is managed by the USFWS as part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Two plans were developed to address specific needs of the biological- and the terrestrial-monitoring programs. Results from these monitoring programs will help determine whether the environment is being impacted by radionuclide migration and uptake, and if subsistence and commercial-catch seafood is safe for human consumption. The RESRAD-BIOTA code is being used to evaluate ecological health relative to the radionuclide levels determined from this sampling event. The samples were sent to three laboratories for analysis. With the exception of the seawater samples, most of the samples were sent to the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A smaller subset of rock-weed samples, Star reindeer lichen samples, and soil samples collected from beneath the lichen were sent to UAF for cesium-137 analysis. Marine sediment samples were also collected and sent to UAF for testing. The seawater samples were sent to the University of Miami Tritium Laboratory for enriched tritium analysis. Results from the seawater samples for tritium were received in September 2011. Results from the 2011 sampling are expected to be available on the LM web site in 2012. (authors)

  6. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    30% (Fig. 4-3), with oil consumption declining 54% from 2005to the substantial oil consumption decline will include thesource (Fig. 4-7), oil consumption will continue to decline.

  7. Needed : a realistic strategy for global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Schmalensee, Richard.

    Through a brief look at the science and economics of climate, the authors show that if climate change turns out to be a serious threat, an effective response will require a substantial and very long-term global effort. ...

  8. Arctic ocean long-term acoustic monitoring : ambient noise, environmental correlates, and transients north of Barrow, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Ethan H.

    2008-01-01

    residual energy of seismic exploration reflecting off thesources such as seismic exploration and shipping activitynoise sources like seismic oil exploration, eventual oil and

  9. Revisiting the Long-Term Hedge Value of Wind Power in an Era of Low Natural Gas Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    are more closely linked to oil prices) than it is in thepropane, and butane) or shale oil. To summarize, with gas

  10. RACORO LONG-TERM, SYSTEMATIC AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS OF BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). This type of cloud is common globally, and the Earth's radiative energy balance is particularly sensitive Contract No. DE-AC02- 98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others

  11. 2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses Yu-Lin Chang & Leo Oey # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract An accurate method for long-term (weeks to months) projections of oil spill released at the northern Gulf of Mexico spill site is demonstrated during the 2010 oil spill

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy decisions for the ultimate disposition of its inventory of used nuclear fuel presently in, and to be received and stored in, the L Basin at the Savannah River Site, and schedule for project execution have not been established. A logical decision timeframe for the DOE is following the review of the overall options for fuel management and disposition by the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC). The focus of the BRC review is commercial fuel; however, the BRC has included the DOE fuel inventory in their review. Even though the final report by the BRC to the U.S. Department of Energy is expected in January 2012, no timetable has been established for decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy on alternatives selection. Furthermore, with the imminent lay-up and potential closure of H-canyon, no ready path for fuel disposition would be available, and new technologies and/or facilities would need to be established. The fuel inventory in wet storage in the 3.375 million gallon L Basin is primarily aluminum-clad, aluminum-based fuel of the Materials Test Reactor equivalent design. An inventory of non-aluminum-clad fuel of various designs is also stored in L Basin. Safe storage of fuel in wet storage mandates several high-level 'safety functions' that would be provided by the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) of the storage system. A large inventory of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, and other nonaluminum fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy is in wet storage in L Basin at the Savannah River Site. An evaluation of the present condition of the fuel, and the Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) necessary for its wet storage, and the present programs and storage practices for fuel management have been performed. Activities necessary to validate the technical bases for, and verify the condition of the fuel and the SSCs under long-term wet storage have also been identified. The overall conclusion is that the fuel can be stored in L Basin, meeting general safety functions for fuel storage, for an additional 50 years and possibly beyond contingent upon continuation of existing fuel management activities and several augmented program activities. It is concluded that the technical bases and well-founded technologies have been established to store spent nuclear fuel in the L Basin. Methodologies to evaluate the fuel condition and characteristics, and systems to prepare fuel, isolate damaged fuel, and maintain water quality storage conditions have been established. Basin structural analyses have been performed against present NPH criteria. The aluminum fuel storage experience to date, supported by the understanding of the effects of environmental variables on materials performance, demonstrates that storage systems that minimize degradation and provide full retrievability of the fuel up to and greater than 50 additional years will require maintaining the present management programs, and with the recommended augmented/additional activities in this report.

  13. Long-term photometry of the Wolf-Rayet stars WR 137, WR 140, WR 148, and WR 153

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyril P. Panov; Martin Altmann; Wilhelm Seggewiss

    2000-02-10

    In 1991, a long term UBV-photometry campaign of four Wolf-Rayet stars was started using the 60 cm telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen, Bulgaria. Here we report on our observational results and discuss the light variations. The star WR 137 showed only random light variations, which are probably due to dynamical wind instabilities but not to eclipses. WR 140 featured a dip in the light curve, the amplitude increasing towards shorter wavelengths. The probable cause is electron and Rayleigh scattering when the star was eclipsed by a dust envelope. In the case of WR 148 we found a period of 4.3 days and significant scatter in the light curves. Additionally there seems to be a long term variation with a period of 4 years. Our photometry of WR 153 is consistent with the quadruple model for this star.

  14. A unique radioisotopic label as a new concept for safeguarding and tagging of long-term stored items and waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernikova, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The present paper discuss a novel method of tagging and labeling of waste casks, copper canisters, spent fuel containers, mercury containers, waste pack- ages and other items. In particular, it is related to the development of new long-term security identification tags/labels that can be applied to articles for carrying information about the content, inventory tracking, prevention of falsifi- cation and theft etc. It is suggested to use a unique combination of radioisotopes with different predictable length of life, as a label of the items. The possibil- ity to realize a multidimensional bar code symbology is proposed as an option for a new labeling method. The results of the first tests and evaluations of this are shown and discussed in the paper. The invention is suitable for use in items assigned to long-term (hundreds of years) storing or for final repositories. Alternative field of use includes fresh nuclear fuel handling and shipment of goods.

  15. A unique radioisotopic label as a new concept for safeguarding and tagging of long-term stored items and waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dina Chernikova; Kare Axell

    2015-01-15

    The present paper discuss a novel method of tagging and labeling of waste casks, copper canisters, spent fuel containers, mercury containers, waste pack- ages and other items. In particular, it is related to the development of new long-term security identification tags/labels that can be applied to articles for carrying information about the content, inventory tracking, prevention of falsifi- cation and theft etc. It is suggested to use a unique combination of radioisotopes with different predictable length of life, as a label of the items. The possibil- ity to realize a multidimensional bar code symbology is proposed as an option for a new labeling method. The results of the first tests and evaluations of this are shown and discussed in the paper. The invention is suitable for use in items assigned to long-term (hundreds of years) storing or for final repositories. Alternative field of use includes fresh nuclear fuel handling and shipment of goods.

  16. Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Kinney and William D. Barrick

    2008-09-01

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, “Integrated Safety Management System Manual.” This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes.

  17. Primary Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Focal Lesions of Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta: Long Term Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lastovickova, Jarmila, E-mail: jala@medicon.cz; Peregrin, Jan H. [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/self-expandable nitinol stent placement of infrarenal abdominal aorta focal lesions. Materials and Methods. Eighteen patients underwent PTA of focal atherosclerotic occlusive disease of distal abdominal aorta. Two symptomatic occlusions and 16 stenoses in 10 male and 8 female patients (mean age 68.2 years) were treated with primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement. Results. Primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement was technically successful in all 18 procedures; clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients. No complications associated with the procedure occurred. During the 49.4 months of mean follow up (range 3-96, 4 months) all treated aortic segments remained patent. Conclusions. Endovascular treatment (primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement) of focal atherosclerotic lesions of distal abdominal aorta is a safe method with excellent primary technical and clinical success rates and favourable Long term results.

  18. Diffusion of low-carbon technologies and the feasibility of long-term climate targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Hultman, Nathan; Eom, Jiyong; McJeon, Haewon C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilizing the global climate will require large-scale global deployment of low-carbon technologies. Even in the presence of aggressive climate policies, however, the diffusion of such technologies may be limited by several, institutional, behavioral, and social factors. In this paper, we review the literature on the sources of such diffusion constraints, and explore the potential implications of such non-economic constraints based on the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our analysis highlights that non-economic factors that limit technology deployment may have sizeable impacts on the feasibility and mitigation costs of achieving stringent stabilization targets. And such impacts are greatly amplified with major delays in serious climate policies. The results generally indicate that constraints on the expansions of CCS and renewables are more costly than those on nuclear or bioenergy, and jointly constraining these technologies leaves some scenarios infeasible.

  19. Revisiting Copano Bay, Texas: an exceptional long-term record of ecological communities and their associated death assemblages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebnother, Danielle Dawn

    2006-10-30

    -1 REVISITING COPANO BAY, TEXAS: AN EXCEPTIONAL LONG-TERM RECORD OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES AND THEIR ASSOCIATED DEATH ASSEMBLAGES A Thesis by DANIELLE DAWN EBNOTHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... DEATH ASSEMBLAGES A Thesis by DANIELLE DAWN EBNOTHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair...

  20. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  1. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of U by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittman, Bruce; Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender

    2013-12-31

    This four-year project’s overarching aim was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of reduced U(IV) formed under sulfate-reducing conditions when subjected to re-oxidizing conditions. As stated in this final report, significant progress was achieved through the collaborative research effort conducted at Arizona State University (ASU) and the University of Michigan (UM).

  2. Long-term pulse profile study of the Be/X-ray pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Camero Arranz; C. A. Wilson; M. H. Finger; V. Reglero

    2007-03-03

    Aims. We present the first long-term pulse profile study of the X-ray pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545. Our main goal is to study the pulse shape correlation either with luminosity, time or energy. Methods. This Be/X-ray binary system was observed from 1999 to 2004 by RXTE PCA, and by INTEGRAL from 2002 to 2005, during the Performance and Verification (PV) phase and the Galactic Plane Scan survey (GPS). X-ray pulse profiles were obtained in different energy ranges. The long-term spectral variability of this source is studied. The long-term flux, frequency and spin-up rate histories are computed. A new set of orbital parameters are also determined. Results. The pulse shape is complex and highly variable either with time or luminosity. However, an energy dependence pattern was found. Single, double, triple or even quadruple peaks pulse profile structure was obtained. It was confirmed that SAX J2103.5+4545 becomes harder when the flux is higher. The new orbital solution obtained is: P_orb= 12.66528+-0.00051 days, e = 0.401+-0.018, w = 241.36+-2.18 and a_xsin i = 80.81+-0.67 lt-s.

  3. Long-term oxidation behavior of spinel-coated ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua D.

    2013-06-01

    Long-term tests (>8,000 hours) indicate that AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel coated with a Mn-Co spinel protection layer is a promising candidate material system for IT-SOFC interconnect applications. While uncoated AISI 441 showed a substantial increase in area-specific electrical resistance (ASR), spinel-coated AISI 441 exhibited much lower ASR values (11-13 mOhm-cm2). Formation of an insulating silica sublayer beneath the native chromia-based scale was not observed, and the spinel coatings reduced the oxide scale growth rate and blocked outward diffusion of Cr from the alloy substrate. The structure of the scale formed under the spinel coatings during the long term tests differed from that typically observed on ferritic stainless steels after short term oxidation tests. While short term tests typically indicate a dual layer scale structure consisting of a chromia layer covered by a layer of Mn-Cr spinel, the scale grown during the long term tests consisted of a chromia matrix with discrete regions of Mn-Cr spinel distributed throughout the matrix. The presence of Ti in the chromia scale matrix and/or the presence of regions of Mn-Cr spinel within the scale may have increased the scale electrical conductivity, which would explain the fact that the observed ASR in the tests was lower than would be expected if the scale consisted of pure chromia.

  4. Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC- (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC)- 14-88-LNG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Office of Fossil Energy gives notice of receipt of an application filed on May 13, 2014, by Venture Global LNG, LLC (VGP) requesting long-term, multi-contract authority to export (in addition...

  5. Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea Robin Robertson*, Martin Visbeck, Arnold L. Gordon, and E. Fahrbach1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Robin

    Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea Robin Robertson*, Martin Visbeck November 28, 2001 #12;Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea 2 Abstract Warming of the deep water in the Weddell Sea has important implications for Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation

  6. Long Term Digital Preservation of Earth Science Data with Fedora Robert R. Downs (rdowns@ciesin.columbia.edu), Alex de Sherbinin, Robert S. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Long Term Digital Preservation of Earth Science Data with Fedora Robert R. Downs (rdowns de Sherbinin to the NASA Data Center Managers Meeting, May 4-6, 2010 Abstract: Fedora architecture enables the long-term preservation of digital scientific data. This poster presents Fedora and explores

  7. Long-term evaluation of the Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil-Vegetation Scheme's frozen ground/permafrost component using observations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    Long-term evaluation of the Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil-Vegetation Scheme's frozen ground/permafrost component of the hydro-thermodynamic soil-vegetation scheme (HTSVS) was evaluated by means of permafrost computational time. Citation: Mo¨lders, N., and V. E. Romanovsky (2006), Long-term evaluation of the Hydro

  8. The dynamical structure of the MEO region: long-term stability, chaos, and transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daquin, Jerome; Deleflie, Florent; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Valsecchi, Giovanni B; Rossi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suspected that the Global Navigation Satellite Systems exist in a background of complex resonances and chaotic motion; yet, the precise dynamical character of these phenomena remains elusive. Recent studies have shown that the occurrence and nature of the resonances driving these dynamics depend chiefly on the frequencies of nodal and apsidal precession and the rate of regression of the Moon's nodes. Woven throughout the inclination and eccentricity phase space is an exceedingly complicated web-like structure of lunisolar secular resonances, which become particularly dense near the inclinations of the navigation satellite orbits. A clear picture of the physical significance of these resonances is of considerable practical interest for the design of disposal strategies for the four constellations. Here we present analytical and semi-analytical models that accurately reflect the true nature of the resonant interactions, and trace the topological organization of the manifolds on which the chaoti...

  9. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUseful LinksGlass Stronger thanGlenn T.4Global

  10. The Solar Energy Institute: A long-term investment in America's youth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arwood, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Unlike students of a generation ago, today's high school students have had limited personal experience with the energy issues that influence their everyday lives. They have no personal knowledge of the Arab Oil Embargo or the long lines at gas pumps that students in the 1970s encountered. Unlike their counterparts of the 1980s, who demonstrated against nuclear power plant construction projects, today's students have had very little exposure to energy debates of any national or international consequence. What's more, they have only vague memories of the Persian Gulf War and the fight over energy supplies. Fearing that the absence of crucial, real-life experiences has negatively impacted the energy literacy of today's students, numerous entities have implemented programs designed to introduce young people to a cornucopia of diverse energy issues that affect every aspect of daily life. As part of this educational movement, the Arizona Department of Commerce Energy Office recognized the fact that young people face an increasingly uncertain energy picture and, as such, one must provide them an education that will allow them to make informed energy decisions in the future. To this end, the Energy Office founded the Solar Energy Institute. What the author has gathered from his two years of experience operating the Solar Energy Institute is that the energy IQ of America's youth, specifically their solar energy IQ, is deficient. The other conclusion he has been able to draw from the program of study is that this summer camp is having a positive impact on students' energy literacy as measured by test scores and a follow-up survey of participants.

  11. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Summary and Guide for Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  12. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  13. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, P.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Economy, K. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rudeen, D.K. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  14. Long-term effects on reproductive parameters in female rats after translactational exposure to PCBs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, D.B.; Girard, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States))

    1994-07-01

    In an integrated series of experiments, we assessed effects of translactational exposure to Aroclor 1254 at three different ages: As young adults (2-4.5 months), as mature adults (5-8 months), and as older adults (8.5-13 months). Developing female rats were exposed postnatally to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via oral treatment of the dams on Days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 of lactation at the following doses: 8 [mu]g/g (PCBI), 32 [mu]g/g (PCBII), and 64 [mu]g/g (PCBIII) in peanut oil. Puberty, both vaginal opening and first estrus, was delayed in PCBII and PCBIII offspring. PCB exposure at all doses had a pronounced and consistent effect on uterine response. In mature PCBII and PCBIII adults, uterine wet weights were reduced at all stages of the estrous cycle and in light-induced persistent vaginal estrus (PVE). PCBI offspring exhibited a decreased uterine weight in proestrus and in light-induced PVE. Analysis of estrous cycles for 40 days at all ages indicated increases in diestrus. Fertility in young adults and mature adults was affected, with PCBIII young adults exhibiting less success with preimplantation stages, and PCBII and PCBIII mature adults showing an effect at pre- and/or postimplantation stages. As determined by patterns in estrous cycling and rate of development of PVE in 64 days of constant light, exposure to PCBs did not hasten reproductive aging at any of the ages examined. Instead, PCBIII young adults and PCBII and PCBIII older adults exhibited a delay in onset of light-induced PVE. This study demonstrates that translactational exposure to a PCB mixture that has little notable effect on the dams, not only delays puberty in the female offspring, but also several months later results in decreased uterine response, impairment of fertility, and irregular cycle patterns. Reproductive aging, however, is not hastened, and even may be delayed. Many of these effects could be explained, in part, by interference with estrogen. 67 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Evaluating, Migrating, and Consolidating Databases and Applications for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Rocky Flats Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surovchak, S.; Marutzky, S.; Thompson, B.; Miller, K.; Labonte, E.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is assuming responsibilities for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during fiscal year 2006. During the transition, LM is consolidating databases and applications that support these various functions into a few applications which will streamline future management and retrieval of data. This paper discussed the process of evaluating, migrating, and consolidating these databases and applications for LTS and M activities and provides lessons learned that will benefit future transitions. (authors)

  16. Locked into Copenhagen pledges - Implications of short-term emission targets for the cost and feasibility of long-term climate goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riahi, Keywan; Kriegler, Elmar; Johnson, Nils; Bertram, Christoph; den Elzen, Michel; Eom, Jiyong; Schaeffer, Michiel; Edmonds, James A.; Isaac, Morna; Krey, Volker; Longden, Thomas; Luderer, Gunnar; Mejean, Aurelie; McCollum, David; Mima, Silvana; Turton, Hal; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Wada, Kenichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Capros, Pantelis; Criqui, Patrick; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kainuma, M.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the AMPERE intermodeling comparison with focus on the implications of near-term policies for the costs and attainability of long-term climate objectives. Ten modeling teams participated in the project to explore the consequences of global emissions following the proposed policy stringency of the national pledges from the Copenhagen Accord and Cancún Agreements to 2030. Specific features compared to earlier assessments are the explicit consideration of near-term 2030 emissions targets as well as the systematic sensitivity analysis for the availability and potential of mitigation technologies. Our estimates show that a 2030 mitigation effort comparable to the pledges would result in a further "lock-in" of the energy system into fossil fuels and thus impede the required energy transformation to reach low greenhouse-gas stabilization levels (450ppm CO2e). Major implications include significant increases in mitigation costs, increased risk that low stabilization targets become unattainable, and reduced chances of staying below the proposed temperature change target of 2C. With respect to technologies, we find that following the pledge pathways to 2030 would narrow policy choices, and increases the risks that some currently optional technologies, such as nuclear or carbon capture and storage (CCS), will become "a must" by 2030.

  17. LWR spent fuel reduction by the removal of U and the compact storage of Pu with FP for long-term nuclear sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukasawa, T.; Hoshino, K. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Takano, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Sato, S. [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Shimazu, Y. [Fukui University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Fast breeder reactors (FBR) nuclear fuel cycle is needed for long-term nuclear sustainability while preventing global warming and maximum utilizing the limited uranium (U) resources. The 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by the Japanese government on October 2005 stated that commercial FBR deployment will start around 2050 under its suitable conditions by the successive replacement of light water reactors (LWR) to FBR. Even after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident which made Japanese tendency slow down the nuclear power generation activities, Japan should have various options for energy resources including nuclear, and also consider the delay of FBR deployment and increase of LWR spent fuel (LWR-SF) storage amounts. As plutonium (Pu) for FBR deployment will be supplied from LWR-SF reprocessing and Japan will not possess surplus Pu, the authors have developed the flexible fuel cycle initiative (FFCI) for the transition from LWR to FBR. The FFCI system is based on the possibility to stored recycled materials (U, Pu)temporarily for a suitable period according to the FBR deployment rate to control the Pu demand/supply balance. This FFCI system is also effective after the Fukushima accident for the reduction of LWR-SF and future LWR-to-FBR transition. (authors)

  18. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan ; Chang, Yu-Chao; Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ? Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ? Si-Snail blocked xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells.

  19. Evaluation of the long-term energy analysis program used for the 1978 EIA Administrator's Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peelle, R. W.; Weisbin, C. R.; Alsmiller, Jr., R. G.

    1981-10-01

    An evaluation of the Long-Term Energy Analysis Program (LEAP), a computer model of the energy portion of the US economy that was used for the 1995-2020 projections in its 1978 Annual Report to Congress, is presented. An overview of the 1978 version, LEAP Model 22C, is followed by an analysis of the important results needed by its users. The model is then evaluated on the basis of: (1) the adequacy of its documentation; (2) the local experience in operating the model; (3) the adequacy of the numerical techniques used; (4) the soundness of the economic and technical foundations of the model equations; and (5) the degree to which the computer program has been verified. To show which parameters strongly influence the results and to approach the question of whether the model can project important results with sufficient accuracy to support qualitative conclusions, the numerical sensitivities of some important results to model input parameters are described. The input data are categorized and discussed, and uncertainties are given for some parameters as examples. From this background and from the relation of LEAP to other available approaches for long-term energy modeling, an overall evaluation is given of the model's suitability for use by the EIA.

  20. Characterization of options and their analysis requirements for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rosen, R.S.; Zoller, J.N.; Harri, J.W.; Schwertz, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is examining alternative strategies for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) currently stored at the gaseous diffusion plants at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, and on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the methodology for the comprehensive and ongoing technical analysis of the options being considered. An overview of these options, along with several of the suboptions being considered, is presented. The long-term management strategy alternatives fall into three broad categories: use, storage, or disposal. Conversion of the depleted UF6 to another form such as oxide or metal is needed to implement most of these alternatives. Likewise, transportation of materials is an integral part of constructing the complete pathway between the current storage condition and ultimate disposition. The analysis of options includes development of pre-conceptual designs; estimates of effluents, wastes, and emissions; specification of resource requirements; and preliminary hazards assessments. The results of this analysis will assist DOE in selecting a strategy by providing the engineering information necessary to evaluate the environmental impacts and costs of implementing the management strategy alternatives.

  1. Development of a novel ultrasonic temperature probe for long-term monitoring of dry cask storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Wang, K.; Elmer, T. W.; Koehl, E.; Raptis, A. C. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    With the recent cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository and the limited availability of wet storage utilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), more attention has been directed toward dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for long-term storage of SNF. Consequently, more stringent guidelines have been issued for the aging management of dry storage facilities that necessitate monitoring of the conditions of DCSSs. Continuous health monitoring of DCSSs based on temperature variations is one viable method for assessing the integrity of the system. In the present work, a novel ultrasonic temperature probe (UTP) is being tested for long-term online temperature monitoring of DCSSs. Its performance was evaluated and compared with type N thermocouple (NTC) and resistance temperature detector (RTD) using a small-scale dry storage canister mockup. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the UTP system developed at Argonne is able to achieve better than 0.8 Degree-Sign C accuracy, tested at temperatures of up to 400 Degree-Sign C. The temperature resolution is limited only by the sampling rate of the current system. The flexibility of the probe allows conforming to complex geometries thus making the sensor particularly suited to measurement scenarios where access is limited.

  2. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    global warming problem will be the promotion of energy conservation at all energy consumptionenergy consumption substantially. Industrial countries' C 0 emission cuts alone may fail to address global

  3. Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC- FE Dkt. No.- 15-25-LNG

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy gives notice of receipt of an Application filed February 9, 2015, by Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC (Venture Global), seeking a long-term multi-contract...

  4. Industrial Potential for Substitution of Electricity for Oil and Natural Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    outlook for electric utilities. By and large, energy substitution decisions will be based on their economic and technical feasibility. In view of projections of the long-term price escalations of oil and natural gas, the economic of choosing electricity...

  5. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA), China’s Worldwide QuestSecurity, (Paris: OCED/IEA, 2000), 74. Thomas Woodrow, “TheInternational Energy Agency (IEA), China’s Worldwide Quest

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    America,” CRS Report for Congress (Library of Congress:Commission, “2007 Report to Congress,” (Washington: USCC,Commission, “2007 Report to Congress,” (Washington: USCC,

  7. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    attributed to seeking energy security, and many argue thats Worldwide Quest for Energy Security, (Paris: OCED/IEA,s Worldwide Quest for Energy Security, (Paris: OCED/IEA,

  8. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    assumption of four distinct motivations in pursuing international oilassumption that China has a unified strategy for international oiloil demand as staying consistent into the future, but this is perhaps an unreasonable assumption;

  9. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    China and the Middle East: Energy First,” Middle EastChina and the Middle East: Energy First,” Middle EastChina and the Middle East: Energy First,” Middle East

  10. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    s Worldwide Quest for Energy Security, (Paris: OCED/IEA,s Worldwide Quest for Energy Security, (Paris: OCED/IEA,China’s Quest for Energy Security, (Washington: RAND Project

  11. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  12. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Julia. “ World Stocks Sag as Oil Price Surges. ” The NewCollapse: Grain and Oil,” On the Issues, Am. Enterpriseet. al. , “Unrelenting Oil Addiction,” Russ. in Global

  13. Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests; Literature Review and Site Selection, Nov. 1997 (Revised Feb. 1998) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Reddy, T. A.; Elleson, J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the preliminary report contains the literature review and site selection recommendations for ASHRAE Research Project RP 1004 — "Determining Long-term Performance of Cool Storage Systems From Short-term Tests"....

  14. Collaborative methods in social movement organizing : a case study of long-term alliance development and energy efficiency planning in Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackres, Eric Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Some social movement organizations have begun to use collaborative methods to create decentralized network power for shared action through long-term alliance development and participation in collaborative public decision-making ...

  15. Experimental investigations of long-term interactions of molten UO/sub 2/ with MgO and concrete at Argonne National Laboratory. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, R.P.; Farhadieh, R.; Pedersen, D.R.; Gunther, W.H.; Purviance, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental work at Argonne is being performed to investigate the long-term molten-core-debris retention capability of the ex-vessel cavity following a postulated meltdown accident. The eventual objective of the work is to determine if normal structural material (concrete) or a specifically selected sacrificial material (MgO) located in the ex-vessel cavity region can effectively contain molten core debris. The materials under investigation at ANL are various types of concrete (limestone, basalt and magnetite) and commercially-available MgO brick. Results are presented of the status of real material experimental investigation at ANL into (1) molten UO/sub 2/ pool heat transfer, (2) long-term molten UO/sub 2/ penetration into concrete and (3) long-term molten UO/sub 2/ penetration into refractory substrates. The decay heating in the fuel has been simulated by direct electrical heating permitting the study of the long-term interaction.

  16. A study of long-term potentiation in transgenic mice over-expressing mutant forms of both amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzjohn, Stephen M.; Kuenzi, Frederick; Morton, Robin A.; Rosahl, Tomas W.; Lewis, Huw D.; Smith, David; Seabrook, Guy R.; Collingridge, Graham L.

    2010-07-14

    Abstract Synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices have been studied during ageing of a double transgenic mouse strain relevant to early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). This strain, which...

  17. Long-term Operation of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser-based Trace-gas Sensor for Building Air Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.

    2013-11-03

    We analyze the long-term performance and stability of a trace-gas sensor based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser using data collected over a one-year period in a building air monitoring application.

  18. EIS-0226: Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship at the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the range of reasonable alternatives to decommission and/or maintain long-term stewardship at WNYNSC. The alternatives analyzed in the EIS...

  19. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    In the residential and commercial sectors, oil demand willthe residential and commercial sectors, electricity demandwater heating demand in the residential sector. At present,

  20. World Oil Prices in AEO2007 (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Over the long term, the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 (AEO) projection for world oil prices -- defined as the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners -- is similar to the AEO2006 projection. In the near term, however, AEO2007 projects prices that are $8 to $10 higher than those in AEO2006.