Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Clean Cities: Lone Star Clean Fuels Alliance (Central Texas) coalition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Lone Star Clean Fuels Alliance (Central Texas) Coalition Lone Star Clean Fuels Alliance (Central Texas) Coalition The Lone Star Clean Fuels Alliance (Central Texas) coalition works with vehicle fleets, fuel providers, community leaders, and other stakeholders to reduce petroleum use in transportation. Lone Star Clean Fuels Alliance (Central Texas) coalition Contact Information Stacy Neef 512-773-8794 stacy.neef@lonestarcfa.org Coalition Website Clean Cities Coordinator Stacy Neef Photo of Stacy Neef Stacy Neef has served as the coordinator for Lone Star Clean Fuels Alliance (Austin) (LSCFA) promoting and advancing the use of alternative fuel and vehicles for fleets in central Texas since 2000. The central Texas region includes Bastrop, Caldwell, Hays, Travis, Williamson Counties; Fort Hood and City of Temple, Texas. LSCFA works closely with other Texas Clean

2

Lone Star I (Q3) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

I (Q3) Wind Farm I (Q3) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Lone Star I (Q3) Wind Farm Facility Lone Star I (Q3) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Horizon Developer RES/Horizon Energy Purchaser Direct Energy Location Callahan and Shackelford counties TX Coordinates 32.594885°, -99.506464° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.594885,"lon":-99.506464,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

3

Lone Star I (Q2) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Q2) Wind Farm Q2) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Lone Star I (Q2) Wind Farm Facility Lone Star I (Q2) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Horizon Developer RES/Horizon Energy Purchaser Direct Energy Location Callahan and Shackelford counties TX Coordinates 32.594885°, -99.506464° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.594885,"lon":-99.506464,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

4

Lone Star Wind Alliance LSWA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind Alliance LSWA Wind Alliance LSWA Jump to: navigation, search Name Lone Star Wind Alliance (LSWA) Place Houston, Texas Sector Wind energy Product Texas-based research centres, focusing on large composite structures, wind engineering, electromechanical controls and power electronics. The organisation is led by the University of Houston. Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

5

Lone Star I (4Q07) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lone Star I (4Q07) Wind Farm Lone Star I (4Q07) Wind Farm Facility Lone Star I (4Q07) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Horizon Developer RES/Horizon Energy Purchaser Direct Energy Location Callahan and Shackleford Counties TX Coordinates 32.594885°, -99.506464° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.594885,"lon":-99.506464,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

6

Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. 80% review report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar steam system for the Lone Star Brewery is described in detail. It consists of a roof-mounted parabolic trough collector field heating Monsanto's Therminol T-55 heat transfer fluid, a solar-fired boiler, a heat transfer fluid circulation pump, and all the associated piping. The comparison of various collectors and heat transfer fluids surveyed is reviewed. Also included are discussions of the system performance analysis, economic analysis, safety analysis, data collection, and environmental impact assessment. Numerous drawings illustrate the system, particularly the parallel trough collectors. (LEW)

Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Watkins, P.V.; Hugg, S.B.; Kulesz, J.J.; Decker, H.E.; Powell, R.C.

1979-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report outlines the detailed design and system analysis of a solar industrial process steam system for the Lone Star Brewery. The industrial plant has an average natural gas usage of 12.7 MMcf per month. The majority of this energy goes to producing process steam of 125 psi and 353/sup 0/F at about 50,000 lb/h, with this load dropping to about 6000 lb/h on the weekends. The maximum steam production of the solar energy system is about 1700 lb/h. The climatic conditions at the industrial site give 50% of the possible amount of sunshine during the winter months and more than 70% during the summer months. The long-term yearly average daily total radiation on a horizontal surface is 1574 Btu/day-ft/sup 2/, the long-term yearly average daytime ambient temperature is 72/sup 0/F, and the percentage of clear day insolation received on the average day of the year is 62%. The solar steam system will consist of 9450 ft/sup 2/ of Solar Kinetics T-700 collectors arranged in fifteen 90-ft long rows through which 67.5 gpm of Therminol T-55 is pumped. This hot Therminol then transfers the heat collected to a Patterson-Kelley Series 380 unfired steam boiler. The solar-produced steam is then metered to the industrial process via a standard check valve. The thermal performance of this system is projected to produce about 3 million lbs of steam during an average weather year, which is approximately 3 billion Btu's. As with any prototype system, this steam system cannot be justified for purely economic reasons. It is estimated, however, that if the cost of the collectors can be reduced to a mass production level of $3 per lb then this type of system would be cost effective in about six years with the current government incentives and a fuel escalation rate of 10%. This period can be shortened by a combination of an increased investment tax credit and an accelerated depreciation.

Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Watkins, P.V.; Hugg, S.B.; Kulesz, J.J.; Decker, H.E.; Powell, R.C.

1979-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

8

Lone Star II (1Q08) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1Q08) Wind Farm 1Q08) Wind Farm Facility Lone Star II (1Q08) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Horizon Developer RES/Horizon Energy Purchaser JAron Location Callahan and Shackelford counties TX Coordinates 32.594885°, -99.506464° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.594885,"lon":-99.506464,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

9

Lone Star II (4Q07) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4Q07) Wind Farm 4Q07) Wind Farm Facility Lone Star II (4Q07) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Horizon Wind Energy Developer RES/Horizon Energy Purchaser JAron Location Callahan and Shackleford Counties TX Coordinates 32.594885°, -99.506464° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.594885,"lon":-99.506464,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

10

Southern California Gas Co  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Southern California Gas Co ... 236,147,041 98,326,527 274,565,356 690,930 139,093,560 748,823,414 Lone Star Gas Co......

11

STAR FORMATION IN ATOMIC GAS  

SciTech Connect

Observations of nearby galaxies have firmly established, over a broad range of galactic environments and metallicities, that star formation occurs exclusively in the molecular phase of the interstellar medium (ISM). Theoretical models show that this association results from the correlation between chemical phase, shielding, and temperature. Interstellar gas converts from atomic to molecular only in regions that are well shielded from interstellar ultraviolet (UV) photons, and since UV photons are also the dominant source of interstellar heating, only in these shielded regions does the gas become cold enough to be subject to Jeans instability. However, while the equilibrium temperature and chemical state of interstellar gas are well correlated, the timescale required to reach chemical equilibrium is much longer than that required to reach thermal equilibrium, and both timescales are metallicity-dependent. Here I show that the difference in timescales implies that, at metallicities below a few percent of the solar value, well shielded gas will reach low temperatures and proceed to star formation before the bulk of it is able to convert from atomic to molecular. As a result, at extremely low metallicities, star formation will occur in a cold atomic phase of the ISM rather than a molecular phase. I calculate the observable consequences of this result for star formation in low-metallicity galaxies, and I discuss how some current numerical models for H{sub 2}-regulated star formation may need to be modified.

Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Gas/Star Offsets in Tidal Tails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use numerical simulations to study the development of gas/star offsets in the tidal tails of merging galaxies. These offsets are shown to be a natural consequence of the radially extended HI spatial distribution in disk galaxies, coupled with internal dissipation in the gaseous component driven by the interaction. This mechanism explains the observed gas/star offsets in interacting galaxies without invoking interactions with a hot (unseen) gaseous component.

Mihos, C

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Gas/Star Offsets in Tidal Tails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use numerical simulations to study the development of gas/star offsets in the tidal tails of merging galaxies. These offsets are shown to be a natural consequence of the radially extended HI spatial distribution in disk galaxies, coupled with internal dissipation in the gaseous component driven by the interaction. This mechanism explains the observed gas/star offsets in interacting galaxies without invoking interactions with a hot (unseen) gaseous component.

Chris Mihos

2000-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

14

From Gas to Stars Over Cosmic Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From the time the first stars formed over 13 billion years ago to the present, star formation has had an unexpectedly dynamic history. At first, the star formation rate density increased dramatically, reaching a peak 10 billion years ago more than ten times the present day value. Observations of the initial rise in star formation remain difficult, poorly constraining it. Theoretical modeling has trouble predicting this history because of the difficulty in following the feedback of energy from stellar radiation and supernova explosions into the gas from which further stars form. Observations from the ground and space with the next generation of instruments should reveal the full history of star formation in the universe, while simulations appear poised to accurately predict the observed history.

Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Baltimore Gas & Electric Company- Home Performance with Energy Star Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (BG&E) offers the Home Performance with Energy Star Program that provides incentives for residential customers who have audits performed by...

16

Vectren Energy Delivery of Ohio (Gas) - Energy Star Home Rebate |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vectren Energy Delivery of Ohio (Gas) - Energy Star Home Rebate Vectren Energy Delivery of Ohio (Gas) - Energy Star Home Rebate Vectren Energy Delivery of Ohio (Gas) - Energy Star Home Rebate < Back Eligibility Construction Installer/Contractor Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Program Info State Ohio Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Full Adoption of Energy Star (Version 2.5) Standards: $750 Vectren Gold Star - HERS rating of 70 or less: $750 Furnace: $300 Boiler: $500 Tankless Water Heater: $150 Storage Water Heater: $50-$150 Programmable Thermostat: $20 Provider Vectren Energy Delivery of Ohio Vectren Energy Delivery of Ohio offers a flat rebate to builders of residential single-family Energy Star certified homes that receive gas

17

ENERGY STAR Qualified Gas Furnaces | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Furnaces Gas Furnaces Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data ENERGY STAR Qualified Gas Furnaces Dataset Summary Description Gas Furnaces that have earned the ENERGY STAR are more efficient than standard models. ENERGY STAR is the trusted symbol for energy efficiency helping consumers save money and protect the environment through energy-efficient products and practices. More information on ENERGY STAR is available at www.energystar.gov. Tags {Furnaces,"Energy Star",products,"energy efficiency",efficient,"greenhouse gas emissions",climate,utility,utilities,household,savings,labels,partners,certification} Dataset Ratings Overall 0 No votes yet Data Utility

18

Lone Star Transmission LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LLC Place Juno Beach, Florida Zip 33408 Product Wholly owned subsidiary of FPL Energy, developing transmission lines. First project is the DFW Express high voltage DC...

19

Missouri Gas Energy (MGE) - Home Performance with ENERGY STAR | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Missouri Gas Energy (MGE) - Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Missouri Gas Energy (MGE) - Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Missouri Gas Energy (MGE) - Home Performance with ENERGY STAR < Back Eligibility Construction Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Maximum Rebate Total Incentives: $600 ($1200 with KCP&L rebate) Wall Insulation: $600 Floor Insulation: $400 Attic Insulation: $500 Air Sealing: $400 Duct Sealing: $200 Window or Door: $400 Program Info Funding Source MGE State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Single Family Energy Assessment: $400/unit Multi Family Energy Assessment: $200/unit Attic Insulation: $0.01-$0.02 x R-Value Added x sq. ft.

20

Minnesota Energy Resources (Gas) - Energy Star New Homes Program For  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minnesota Energy Resources (Gas) - Energy Star New Homes Program Minnesota Energy Resources (Gas) - Energy Star New Homes Program For Builders Minnesota Energy Resources (Gas) - Energy Star New Homes Program For Builders < Back Eligibility Construction Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 500, 1,000, or 5/MCF saved Provider Minnesota Energy Resources Minnesota Energy Resources offers the Home Energy Excellence Program to encourage builders to build energy efficient homes. As part of the program, Minnesota Energy Resources will review the home blueprints and make recommendations prior to construction; perform up to three on-site inspections with more recommendations and improvements during construction;

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Formation of Massive Primordial Stars in a Reionized Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with unprecedented resolution to study the formation of primordial stars in an ionized gas at high redshifts. Our approach includes all the relevant atomic and molecular physics to follow the thermal evolution of a prestellar gas cloud to very high densities of ~10^{18} cm^{-3}. We locate a star-forming gas cloud within a reionized region in our cosmological simulation. The first run-away collapse is triggered when the gas cloud's mass is ~40 Msun. We show that the cloud core remains stable against chemo-thermal instability and also against gravitational deformation throughout its evolution. Consequently, a single proto-stellar seed is formed, which accretes the surrounding hot gas at the rate ~10^{-3} Msun/year. We carry out proto-stellar evolution calculations using the inferred accretion rate. The resulting mass of the star when it reaches the zero-age main sequence is M_ZAMS ~40 Msun. We argue that, since the obtained M_ZAMS is as large as the mass of the collapsing parent cloud, the final stellar mass should be close to this value. Such massive, rather than exceptionally massive, primordial stars are expected to cause early chemical enrichment of the Universe by exploding as black hole-forming super/hypernovae, and may also be progenitors of high redshift gamma-ray bursts. The elemental abundance patterns of recently discovered hyper metal-poor stars suggest that they might have been born from the interstellar medium that was metal-enriched by supernovae of these massive primordial stars.

Naoki Yoshida; Kazuyuki Omukai; Lars Hernquist

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

22

Baltimore Gas and Electric Company - Home Performance with Energy Star  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Baltimore Gas and Electric Company - Home Performance with Energy Baltimore Gas and Electric Company - Home Performance with Energy Star Rebates Baltimore Gas and Electric Company - Home Performance with Energy Star Rebates < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Heating Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate HVAC (Equipment Installation/Duct Sealing/Tune-up): $1,150 Air Sealing/Insulation/Gas Tankless Water Heater: $2,000 Total: $3,150 Program Info Funding Source Maryland Energy Administration State Maryland Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Comprehensive Home Energy Audit: Reduced cost of $100

23

How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Learn the benefits Get started Use Portfolio Manager The new ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager How Portfolio Manager helps you save The benchmarking starter kit Identify your property type Enter data into Portfolio Manager The data quality checker

24

The Development of Gas/Star Offsets in Tidal Tails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present models of interacting galaxies in order to study the development of spatial offsets between the gaseous and stellar components in tidal tails. Observationally, such offsets are observed to exist over large scales (e.g., NGC 3690; Hibbard et al. 2000), suggesting an interaction between the tidal gas and some (unseen) hot ISM. Instead, our models show these offsets are a natural consequence of the radially extended HI spatial distribution in disk galaxies, coupled with internal dissipation in the gaseous component driven by the interaction. This mechanism is most effective in systems involved in very prograde interactions, and explains the observed gas/star offsets in interacting galaxies without invoking interactions with a hot ISM, starburst ionization, or dust obscuration within the tails.

Chris Mihos

2000-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Development of Gas/Star Offsets in Tidal Tails  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present models of interacting galaxies in order to study the development of spatial offsets between the gaseous and stellar components in tidal tails. Observationally, such offsets are observed to exist over large scales (e.g., NGC 3690; Hibbard et al. 2000), suggesting an interaction between the tidal gas and some (unseen) hot ISM. Instead, our models show these offsets are a natural consequence of the radially extended HI spatial distribution in disk galaxies, coupled with internal dissipation in the gaseous component driven by the interaction. This mechanism is most effective in systems involved in very prograde interactions, and explains the observed gas/star offsets in interacting galaxies without invoking interactions with a hot ISM, starburst ionization, or dust obscuration within the tails.

Mihos, C

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

CA-TRIBE-PAIUTE-SHOSHONE INDIANS OF THE LONE PINE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Program or Field Office: Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Project Title CA-TRIBE-PAIUTE-SHOSHONE INDIANS OF THE LONE PINE COMMUNITY Location: Tribe CA-TRIBE-PAIUTE- SHOSHONE INDIANS OF THE LONE PINE COMMUNITY CA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed Action or Project Description The Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Lone Pine Community propose to prepare a feasibility study for

27

Northern Illinois Gas Co IL  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Northern Northern Illinois Gas Co ............................ IL 254,574,988 4.60 Southern California Gas Co ...................... CA 233,632,354 6.89 Columbia Gas Dist Co............................... OH,KY,PA,MD 196,322,935 6.64 Pacific Gas and Elec Co............................ CA 190,864,262 5.83 Consumers Pwr Co ................................... MI 188,587,672 4.81 Michigan Consol Gas Co........................... MI 160,809,168 5.16 East Ohio Gas Co ..................................... OH 146,802,045 5.44 Pub Svc Elec and Gas Co......................... NJ 140,712,209 6.62 Peoples Gas Lt and Coke Co.................... IL 126,356,925 6.40 Brooklyn Union Gas Co............................. NY 106,349,594 9.43 Atlanta Gas Lt Co ...................................... GA 106,075,815 6.66 Lone Star Gas Co......................................

28

Molecular gas in early-type galaxies: Fuel for residual star formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Molecular gas in early-type galaxies: Fuel for residual star formation Timothy A. Davis Survey 2. The ATLAS3D CARMA Survey 3. Kinematic Misalignments 4. Origin of the molecular gas The ATLAS3D results: - 23% of early-type galaxies have significant molecular gas reservoirs - Detection rate

Bureau, Martin

29

Linked evolution of gas and star formation in galaxies over cosmic history  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare the cosmic evolution of star formation rates in galaxies with that of their neutral hydrogen densities. We highlight the need for neutral hydrogen to be continually replenished from a reservoir of ionized gas to maintain the observed star formation rates in galaxies. Hydrodynamic simulations indicate that the replenishment may occur naturally through gas infall, although measured rates of gas infall in nearby galaxies are insufficient to match consumption. We identify an alternative mechanism for this replenishment, associated with expanding supershells within galaxies. Pre-existing ionized gas can cool and recombine efficiently in the walls of supershells, molecular gas can form in situ in shell walls, and shells can compress pre-existing molecular clouds to trigger collapse and star formation. We show that this mechanism provides replenishment rates sufficient to maintain both the observed HI mass density and the inferred molecular gas mass density over the redshift range 0

A. M. Hopkins; N. M. McClure-Griffiths; B. M. Gaensler

2008-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

30

Linked evolution of gas and star formation in galaxies over cosmic history  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare the cosmic evolution of star formation rates in galaxies with that of their neutral hydrogen densities. We highlight the need for neutral hydrogen to be continually replenished from a reservoir of ionized gas to maintain the observed star formation rates in galaxies. Hydrodynamic simulations indicate that the replenishment may occur naturally through gas infall, although measured rates of gas infall in nearby galaxies are insufficient to match consumption. We identify an alternative mechanism for this replenishment, associated with expanding supershells within galaxies. Pre-existing ionized gas can cool and recombine efficiently in the walls of supershells, molecular gas can form in situ in shell walls, and shells can compress pre-existing molecular clouds to trigger collapse and star formation. We show that this mechanism provides replenishment rates sufficient to maintain both the observed HI mass density and the inferred molecular gas mass density over the redshift range 0

Hopkins, A M; Gaensler, B M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Molecular gas and triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The environments surrounding nine Wolf-Rayet stars were studied in molecular emission. Expanding shells were detected surrounding these WR stars (see left panels of Figure 1). The average masses and radii of the molecular cores surrounding these WR stars anti-correlate with the WR stellar wind velocities (middle panels of Figure 1), indicating the WR stars has great impact on their environments. The number density of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is enhanced in the molecular shells at $\\sim$5 arcmin from the central WR star (lower-right panel of Figure 1). Through detailed studies of the molecular shells and YSOs, we find strong evidences of triggered star formation in the fragmented molecular shells (\\cite[Liu et al. 2010]{liu_etal12}

Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Clean Cities: Lone Star Clean Fuels Alliance (Central Texas)...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

case1": "Next video in 1", "other": "Next video in " This video is currently unavailable. Your browser does not currently recognize any of the video formats available. Click here...

33

Xcel Energy (Electric and Gas) - Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Xcel Energy (Electric and Gas) - Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Xcel Energy (Electric and Gas) - Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Rebates Xcel Energy (Electric and Gas) - Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Rebates < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Appliances & Electronics Construction Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,200 Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount See Xcel's web site for current levels This program is available only to Minnesota residents who take both electric and natural gas service from Xcel Energy. Customers must undertake a low-cost energy audit ($60) before implementing energy-efficiency

34

The chemical composition of the Orion star forming region: stars, gas and dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a summary of main results from the studies performed in the series of papers "The chemical composition of the Orion star forming region". We reinvestigate the chemical composition of B-type stars in the Orion OB1 association by means of state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere codes, atomic models and techniques, and compare the resulting abundances with those obtained from the emission line spectra of the Orion nebula (M42), and recent determinations of the Solar chemical composition.

Simn-Daz, S; Przybilla, N; Stasi?ska, G

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Gravitational Runaway and Turbulence Driving in Star-Gas Galactic Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galactic disks consist of both stars and gas. The gas is more dynamically responsive than the stars, and strongly nonlinear structures and velocities can develop in the ISM even while stellar surface density perturbations remain fractionally small. We use 2D numerical simulations to explore formation of bound clouds and turbulence generation in the gas of two-component galactic disks. We represent the stars with collisionless particles and follow their orbits using a PM method, and treat the gas as an isothermal, unmagnetized fluid. The two components interact through a combined gravity. Using stellar parameters typical of mid-disk conditions, we find that models with gaseous Toomre parameter Q_g gas-only models, indicating that the destabilizing effect of live stars is offsets the reduced self-gravity of thick disks. This result is also consistent with empirical studies showing that star formation is suppressed when Q_g > 1-2. The bound gaseous clouds that form have mass 6x10^7 Msun each; these represent superclouds that would subsequently fragment into GMCs. Self-gravity and sheared rotation also interact to drive turbulence in the gas when Q_g > Q_c. This turbulence is anisotropic, with more power in sheared than compressive motions. The gaseous velocity dispersion is ~ 0.6 times the thermal speed when Q_g ~ Q_c. This suggests that gravity is important in driving ISM turbulence in many spiral galaxies, since the low efficiency of star formation naturally leads to a state of marginal instability.

Woong-Tae Kim; Eve C. Ostriker

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

36

THE EGNoG SURVEY: MOLECULAR GAS IN INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present the Evolution of molecular Gas in Normal Galaxies (EGNoG) survey, an observational study of molecular gas in 31 star-forming galaxies from z = 0.05 to z = 0.5, with stellar masses of (4-30) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and star formation rates of 4-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. This survey probes a relatively un-observed redshift range in which the molecular gas content of galaxies is expected to have evolved significantly. To trace the molecular gas in the EGNoG galaxies, we observe the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) and CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) rotational lines using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detect 24 of 31 galaxies and present resolved maps of 10 galaxies in the lower redshift portion of the survey. We use a bimodal prescription for the CO to molecular gas conversion factor, based on specific star formation rate, and compare the EGNoG galaxies to a large sample of galaxies assembled from the literature. We find an average molecular gas depletion time of 0.76 {+-} 0.54 Gyr for normal galaxies and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 Gyr for starburst galaxies. We calculate an average molecular gas fraction of 7%-20% at the intermediate redshifts probed by the EGNoG survey. By expressing the molecular gas fraction in terms of the specific star formation rate and molecular gas depletion time (using typical values), we also calculate the expected evolution of the molecular gas fraction with redshift. The predicted behavior agrees well with the significant evolution observed from z {approx} 2.5 to today.

Bauermeister, A.; Blitz, L.; Wright, M. [Department of Astronomy and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bolatto, A.; Teuben, P. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bureau, M. [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Leroy, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ostriker, E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wong, T., E-mail: amberb@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, MC-221, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

37

Warm Gas in the Inner Disks around Young Intermediate Mass Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The characterization of gas in the inner disks around young stars is of particular interest because of its connection to planet formation. In order to study the gas in inner disks, we have obtained high-resolution K-band and M-band spectroscopy of 14 intermediate mass young stars. In sources that have optically thick inner disks, i.e. E(K-L)>1, our detection rate of the ro-vibrational CO transitions is 100% and the gas is thermally excited. Of the five sources that do not have optically thick inner disks, we only detect the ro-vibrational CO transitions from HD 141569. In this case, we show that the gas is excited by UV fluorescence and that the inner disk is devoid of gas and dust. We discuss the plausibility of the various scenarios for forming this inner hole. Our modeling of the UV fluoresced gas suggests an additional method by which to search for and/or place stringent limits on gas in dust depleted regions in disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars.

Sean Brittain; Theodore Simon; Joan Najita; Terrence Rettig

2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

38

Dense Star-forming Gas and Dust in the Magellanic Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The early stages of star formation are closely related to the ambient conditions in the interstellar medium. Important questions such as dust abundance, size distribution, temperature distribution, fraction of molecular gas, fraction of dense gas, gas surface density and total amount of gas and dust require separation of metallicity and radiation effects. The Magellanic Clouds provide an ideal laboratory to carry out such studies. They are prominent targets for space observatories (Spitzer, Herschel), but an important role remains for large groundbased facilities, such as a 25 m class sub-millimeter telescope on Dome C.

Israel, F P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

SHORT GAS DISSIPATION TIMESCALES: DISKLESS STARS IN TAURUS AND CHAMAELEON I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-ultraviolet (FUV) study of H{sub 2} gas in 12 weak T Tauri stars in nearby star-forming regions. The sample consists of sources which have no evidence of inner disk dust. Our new FUV spectra show that in addition to the dust, the gas is depleted from the inner disk. This sample is combined with a larger FUV sample of accretors and non-accretors with ages between 1 and 100 Myr, showing that as early as 1-3 Myr, systems both with and without gas are found. Possible mechanisms for depleting gas quickly include viscous evolution, planet formation, and photoevaporation by stellar radiation fields. Since these mechanisms alone cannot account for the lack of gas at 1-3 Myr, it is likely that the initial conditions (e.g., initial disk mass or core angular momentum) contribute to the variety of disks observed at any age. We estimate the angular momentum of a cloud needed for most of the mass to fall very close to the central object and compare this to models of the expected distribution of angular momenta. Up to 20% of cloud cores have low enough angular momenta to form disks with the mass close to the star, which would then accrete quickly; this percentage is similar to the fraction of diskless stars in the youngest star-forming regions. With our sample, we characterize the chromospheric contribution to the FUV luminosity and find that L{sub FUV}/L{sub bol} saturates at {approx}10{sup -4.1}.

Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Briceno, Cesar [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

A Resolved Molecular Gas Disk around the Nearby A Star 49 Ceti  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The A star 49 Ceti, at a distance of 61 pc, is unusual in retaining a substantial quantity of molecular gas while exhibiting dust properties similar to those of a debris disk. We present resolved observations of the disk around 49 Ceti from the Submillimeter Array in the J=2-1 rotational transition of CO with a resolution of 1.0x1.2 arcsec. The observed emission reveals an extended rotating structure viewed approximately edge-on and clear of detectable CO emission out to a distance of ~90 AU from the star. No 1.3 millimeter continuum emission is detected at a 3-sigma sensitivity of 2.1 mJy/beam. Models of disk structure and chemistry indicate that the inner disk is devoid of molecular gas, while the outer gas disk between 40 and 200 AU from the star is dominated by photochemistry from stellar and interstellar radiation. We determine parameters for a model that reproduces the basic features of the spatially resolved CO J=2-1 emission, the spectral energy distribution, and the unresolved CO J=3-2 spectrum. We investigate variations in disk chemistry and observable properties for a range of structural parameters. 49 Ceti appears to be a rare example of a system in a late stage of transition between a gas-rich protoplanetary disk and a tenuous, virtually gas-free debris disk.

A. M. Hughes; D. J. Wilner; I. Kamp; M. R. Hogerheijde

2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Molecular gas and star formation in M81  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present IRAM 30m observations of the central 1.6 kpc of the spiral M81 galaxy. The molecular gas appears weak and with an unusual excitation physics. We discuss a possible link between low CO emission and weak FUV surface brightness.

Casasola, V; Galletta, G; Bettoni, D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Molecular gas and star formation in M81  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present IRAM 30m observations of the central 1.6 kpc of the spiral M81 galaxy. The molecular gas appears weak and with an unusual excitation physics. We discuss a possible link between low CO emission and weak FUV surface brightness.

V. Casasola; F. Combes; G. Galletta; D. Bettoni

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

43

GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. I. THE FLOCCULENT GALAXY M 33  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass M{sub max} and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the flocculent galaxy M 33, using published gas data and a catalog of more than 600 young star clusters in its disk. By comparing the radial distributions of gas and most massive cluster masses, we find that M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 4.7{+-}0.4}{sub gas}, M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1.3{+-}0.1}{sub H{sub 2}}, and M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1.0{+-}0.1}{sub SFR}. We rule out that these correlations result from the size of the sample; hence, the change of the maximum cluster mass must be due to physical causes.

Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

44

Dust-to-gas ratio and star formation history of blue compact dwarf galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the origin of the observed large variety in dust-to-gas ratio among blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). By applying our chemical evolution model, we find that the dust destruction can largely suppress the dust-to-gas ratio when the metallicity of a BCD reaches $12+\\log{\\rm (O/H)}\\sim 8$, i.e., a typical metallicity level of BCDs. We also show that dust-to-gas ratio is largely varied owing to the change of dust destruction efficiency that has two effects: (i) a significant contribution of Type Ia supernovae to total supernova rate; (ii) variation of gas mass contained in a star-forming region. While mass loss from BCDs was previously thought to be the major cause for the variance of dust-to-gas ratio, we suggest that the other two effects are also important. We finally discuss the intermittent star formation history, which naturally explains the large dispersion of dust-to-gas ratio among BCDs.

H. Hirashita; Y. Y. Tajiri; H. Kamaya

2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

45

Stellar populations in gas-rich galaxy mergers I. Dependence on star formation history  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the nature of stellar populations of major galaxy mergers between late-type spirals considerably abundant in interstellar medium by performing numerical simulations designed to solve both the dynamical and chemical evolution in a self-consistent manner. We particularly consider that the star formation history of galaxy mergers is a crucial determinant for the nature of stellar populations of merger remnants, and therefore investigate how the difference in star formation history between galaxy mergers affects the chemical evolution of galaxy mergers. We found that the rapidity of star formation, which is defined as the ratio of the dynamical time-scale to the time-scale of gas consumption by star formation, is the most important determinant for a number of fundamental characteristics of stellar populations of merger remnants. We mainly demonstrate that even the chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies can be strongly affected by the details of dynamical evolution of galaxy merging. Based upon the present numerical results, we adopt a specific assumption of the luminosity dependence of the rapidity of star formation and thereby discuss how successfully the present merger model can reproduce a number of fundamental chemical, photometric, and spectroscopic characteristics of elliptical galaxies.

Kenji Bekki; Yasuhiro Shioya

1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

46

A MOLECULAR STAR FORMATION LAW IN THE ATOMIC-GAS-DOMINATED REGIME IN NEARBY GALAXIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use the IRAM HERACLES survey to study CO emission from 33 nearby spiral galaxies down to very low intensities. Using 21 cm line atomic hydrogen (H I) data, mostly from THINGS, we predict the local mean CO velocity based on the mean H I velocity. By re-normalizing the CO velocity axis so that zero corresponds to the local mean H I velocity we are able to stack spectra coherently over large regions. This enables us to measure CO intensities with high significance as low as I{sub CO} {approx} 0.3 K km s{sup -1} ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}{approx}1 M{sub sun} pc{sup -2}), an improvement of about one order of magnitude over previous studies. We detect CO out to galactocentric radii r{sub gal} {approx} r{sub 25} and find the CO radial profile to follow a remarkably uniform exponential decline with a scale length of {approx}0.2 r{sub 25}. Here we focus on stacking as a function of radius, comparing our sensitive CO profiles to matched profiles of H I, H{alpha}, far-UV (FUV), and Infrared (IR) emission at 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m. We observe a tight, roughly linear relationship between CO and IR intensity that does not show any notable break between regions that are dominated by molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}>{Sigma}{sub H{sub i}}) and those dominated by atomic gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}gas with little dependence on the local total gas surface density. While galaxies display small internal variations in the SFR-to-H{sub 2} ratio, we do observe systematic galaxy-to-galaxy variations. These galaxy-to-galaxy variations dominate the scatter in relationships between CO and SFR tracers measured at large scales. The variations have the sense that less massive galaxies exhibit larger ratios of SFR-to-CO than massive galaxies. Unlike the SFR-to-CO ratio, the balance between atomic and molecular gas depends strongly on the total gas surface density and galactocentric radius. It must also depend on additional parameters. Our results reinforce and extend to lower surface densities, a picture in which star formation in galaxies can be separated into two processes: the assembly of star-forming molecular clouds and the formation of stars from H{sub 2}. The interplay between these processes yields a total gas-SFR relation with a changing slope, which has previously been observed and identified as a star formation threshold.

Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Dumas, Gaelle; Sandstrom, Karin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); De Blok, W. J. G. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Kramer, Carsten [IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora 7, 18012 Granada (Spain); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Schuster, Karl [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 St. Martin d'Heres (France); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, C/Alfonso XII, 3, 28014, Madrid (Spain); Weiss, Axel; Wiesemeyer, Helmut, E-mail: schruba@mpia.de [MPIfR, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Geometric Offsets Across Spiral Arms in M51: Nature of Gas and Star Formation Tracers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report measurements of geometric offsets between gas spiral arms and associated star forming regions in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51. These offsets are a suggested measure of the star formation timescale after the compression of gas at spiral arm entry. A surprising discrepancy, by an order of magnitude, has been reported in recent offset measurements in nearby spiral galaxies. Measurements using CO and H-alpha emission find large and ordered offsets in M51. On the contrary, small or non-ordered offsets have been found using the HI 21cm and 24 micron emissions, possible evidence against gas flow through spiral arms, and thus against the conventional density-wave theory with a stationary spiral pattern. The goal of this paper is to understand the cause of this discrepancy. We investigate potential causes by repeating those previous measurements using equivalent data, methods, and parameters. We find offsets consistent with the previous measurements and conclude that the difference of gas tracers, i.e....

Louie, M; Egusa, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Gas Dynamics and Star Formation in the Galaxy Pair NGC1512/1510  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abridged) Here we present HI line and 20-cm radio continuum data of the nearby galaxy pair NGC1512/1510 as obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. These are complemented by GALEX UV-, SINGG Halpha- and Spitzer mid-infrared images, allowing us to compare the distribution and kinematics of the neutral atomic gas with the locations and ages of the stellar clusters within the system. For the barred, double-ring galaxy NGC1512 we find a very large HI disk, about 4x its optical diameter, with two pronounced spiral/tidal arms. Both its gas distribution and the distribution of the star-forming regions are affected by gravitational interaction with the neighbouring blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC1510. The two most distant HI clumps, at radii of about 80 kpc, show signs of star formation and are likely tidal dwarf galaxies. Star formation in the outer disk of NGC1512 is revealed by deep optical- and two-color ultraviolet images. Using the latter we determine the properties of about 200 stellar clusters and ...

Koribalski, Baerbel S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

The Global Gas and Dust budge of the Large Magellanic Cloud --- Importance of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is still an unresolved problem how much AGB stars can contribute to the overall gas and dust enrichment processes in the interstellar medium within galaxies. We start tackling this problem, by using our test case observational data from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), from which we obtain the global gas and dust budget. The photometric data from the LMC is obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We established an infrared colour classification scheme to select AGB stars, which are based on spectroscopically identified AGB stars. We further confirm a correlation between the Spitzer colour and mass-loss rate, which leads to a measurement of the total mass-loss rate from the entire AGB population in the LMC. Indeed, AGB stars are an important gas and dust source.

Matsuura, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Nuclear Bar, Star Formation and Gas Fueling in the Active Galaxy NGC 4303  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 and NICMOS images are used to investigate the gas/dust and stellar structure inside the central 300 pc of the nearby active galaxy NGC 4303. The NICMOS H-band (F160W) image reveals a bright core and a nuclear elongated bar-like structure of 250 pc in diameter. The bar is centered on the bright core, and its major axis is oriented in proyection along the spin axis of the nuclear gaseous rotating disk recently detected (Colina & Arribas 1999). The V-H (F606W - F160W) image reveals a complex gas/dust distribution with a two-arm spiral structure of about 225 pc in radius. The southwestern arm is traced by young star-forming knots while the northeastern arm is detected by the presence of dust lanes. These spirals do not have a smooth structure but rather they are made of smaller flocculent spirals or filament-like structures. The magnitudes and colors of the star-forming knots are typical of clusters of young stars with masses of 0.5 to 1 x $10^5 M_{solar}, and ages of 5 to 25 million years. The overall structure of the nuclear spirals as well as the size, number and masses of the star-forming knots are explained in the context of a massive gaseous nuclear disk subject to self-gravitational instabilities and to the gravitational field created by the nuclear bar. According to the model, the gaseous disk has a mass of about 5 x 10^7 M_{solar} inside a radius of 400 pc, the bar has a radius of 150 pc and a pattern speed of about 0.5 Myr^{-1}, and the average mass accretion rate into the core (R < 8 pc) is about 0.01 M_{solar}$ yr^{-1} for about 80 Myr.

L. Colina; K. Wada

1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

51

Effect of dark matter annihilation on gas cooling and star formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the current paradigm of cosmic structure formation, dark matter plays a key role on the formation and evolution of galaxies through its gravitational influence. On microscopic scales, dark matter particles are expected to annihilate amongst themselves into different products, with some fraction of the energy being transferred to the baryonic component. It is the aim of the present work to show that, in the innermost regions of dark matter halos, heating by dark matter annihilation may be comparable to the cooling rate of the gas. We use analytical models of the dark matter and gas distributions in order to estimate the heating and cooling rates, as well as the energy available from supernova explosions. Depending on the model parameters and the precise nature of dark matter particles, the injected energy may be enough to balance radiative cooling in the cores of galaxy clusters. On galactic scales, it would inhibit star formation more efficiently than supernova feedback. Our results suggest that dark matter annihilation prevents gas cooling and star formation within at least $0.01-1$ per cent of the virial radius.

Y. Ascasibar

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

52

On the morphologies, gas fractions, and star formation rates of small galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations and analytic arguments to show that the presence of an effective temperature floor in the interstellar medium at T_F ~ 10^4 K naturally explains the tendency for low-mass galaxies to be more spheroidal, more gas rich, and less efficient in converting baryons into stars than larger galaxies. The trend arises because gas pressure support becomes important compared to angular momentum support in small dark matter haloes. We suggest that dwarf galaxies with rotational velocities ~ 40 km/s do not originate as thin discs, but rather are born as thick, puffy systems. If accreted into larger haloes, tenuous dwarfs of this kind will be more susceptible to gas loss or tidal transformation than scaled-down versions of larger spirals. For a constant temperature floor, pressure support becomes less important in large haloes, and this produces a tendency for massive isolated galaxies to have thinner discs and more efficient star formation than their less...

Kaufmann, Tobias; Bullock, James S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

On the morphologies, gas fractions, and star formation rates of small galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations and analytic arguments to show that the presence of an effective temperature floor in the interstellar medium at T_F ~ 10^4 K naturally explains the tendency for low-mass galaxies to be more spheroidal, more gas rich, and less efficient in converting baryons into stars than larger galaxies. The trend arises because gas pressure support becomes important compared to angular momentum support in small dark matter haloes. We suggest that dwarf galaxies with rotational velocities ~ 40 km/s do not originate as thin discs, but rather are born as thick, puffy systems. If accreted on to larger haloes, tenuous dwarfs of this kind will be more susceptible to gas loss or tidal transformation than scaled-down versions of larger spirals. For a constant temperature floor, pressure support becomes less important in large haloes, and this produces a tendency for massive isolated galaxies to have thinner discs and more efficient star formation than their less massive counterparts, as observed.

Tobias Kaufmann; Coral Wheeler; James S. Bullock

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past 10 years ENERGY STAR has developed a track record as a certification mark to hang buildings performance hat on. By implementing upgrade strategies and pursuing operations and maintenance issues simultaneously, ENERGY STAR has led the nation and many states to pursue greenhouse gas reduction initiatives using energy efficiency as a model program. In developing these partnerships with industry, states and local government, what has occurred is a variety of program approaches that works to accomplish strategically a reduction in emissions. Through its development, ENERGY STAR has become an integral player with many Green Buildings Program to help them carry the energy efficiency banner to higher levels of cooperation. What is occurring today is that more and more local programs are looking to green buildings as an approach to reducing problems they face in air pollution, water pollution, solid waste, needed infrastructure and better of resources needs and the growth of expensive utility infrastructures. EPA - Region 6's ENERGY STAR and Green Building Program assistance has led to some unique solutions and the beginning workups for the integrated expansion of effort to support State Implementation Plans in new innovative voluntary approaches to transform certain markets, similarly to those of energy efficient products. This presentation will be an overview of activity that is being spearheaded in Texas in the DFW and Houston metro areas in ENERGY STAR and Green Buildings. The voluntary programs impacts are reducing energy consumption, creating markets for renewables, reducing air polluting chemicals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions using verifiable approaches.

Patrick, K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Effect of dark matter annihilation on gas cooling and star formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the current paradigm of cosmic structure formation, dark matter plays a key role on the formation and evolution of galaxies through its gravitational influence. On microscopic scales, dark matter particles are expected to annihilate amongst themselves into different products, with some fraction of the energy being transferred to the baryonic component. It is the aim of the present work to show that, in the innermost regions of dark matter halos, heating by dark matter annihilation may be comparable to the cooling rate of the gas. We use analytical models of the dark matter and gas distributions in order to estimate the heating and cooling rates, as well as the energy available from supernova explosions. Depending on the model parameters and the precise nature of dark matter particles, the injected energy may be enough to balance radiative cooling in the cores of galaxy clusters. On galactic scales, it would inhibit star formation more efficiently than supernova feedback. Our results suggest that dark matte...

Ascasibar, Y

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the measurement and tracking of electricity, gas, and water data, through the use of the ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager tool. Goals included completion rates for critical and...

57

MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC LINE SURVEYS OF GALAXIES. I. THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS PHASE AS A BEACON  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), (2) a value for {epsilon}{sub *} = SFR/M{sub dense}(H{sub 2}) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z {approx} 10-12) [C II] emitters in the {>=}ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of {approx}0.1-1 hr{sup -1} (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of {approx}40-70 hr{sup -1}. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr{sup -1} in Bands 4-6.

Geach, James E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Papadopoulos, Padelis P., E-mail: jimgeach@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: padelis@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

StarWars Laser Technology Applied to Drilling and Completing Gas Wells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

u' m .,. . Society of Petroleum Engineers u I SPE 49259 StarWars Laser Technology Applied to Drilling and Completing Gas Wells R.M. Graves, SPE, Colorado School of Mines; and D.G. O'Brien, PE, SPE, Solutions Engineering Copyr@ht 1998, Scdety of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. This paper was prapared for presentation at the 1998 SPE Annual Technicar Conference and Exhibition bald in New Orteans, Lcuisiana, 27-30 September 1998, This paper waa selected for presentation by en SPE Program Commiftee folrowing review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(a). Contents of the paper, as prasented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The materiar, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the .%ciety of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers prasented at SPE meetings

59

MILKY WAY STAR-FORMING COMPLEXES AND THE TURBULENT MOTION OF THE GALAXY'S MOLECULAR GAS  

SciTech Connect

We analyze Spitzer GLIMPSE, Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) images of the Milky Way to identify 8 {mu}m and free-free sources in the Galaxy. Seventy-two of the 88 WMAP sources have coverage in the GLIMPSE and MSX surveys suitable for identifying massive star-forming complexes (SFCs). We measure the ionizing luminosity functions of the SFCs and study their role in the turbulent motion of the Galaxy's molecular gas. We find a total Galactic free-free flux f{sub {nu}} = 46,177.6 Jy; the 72 WMAP sources with full 8 {mu}m coverage account for 34,263.5 Jy ({approx}75%), with both measurements made at {nu} = 94 GHz (W band). We find a total of 280 SFCs, of which 168 have unique kinematic distances and free-free luminosities. We use a simple model for the radial distribution of star formation to estimate the free-free and ionizing luminosity for the sources lacking distance determinations. The total dust-corrected ionizing luminosity is Q = (2.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53} photons s{sup -1}, which implies a Galactic star formation rate of M-dot{sub *}= 1.2{+-}0.2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We present the (ionizing) luminosity function of the SFCs and show that 24 sources emit half the ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy. The SFCs appear as bubbles in GLIMPSE or MSX images; the radial velocities associated with the bubble walls allow us to infer the expansion velocity of the bubbles. We calculate the kinetic luminosity of the bubble expansion and compare it to the turbulent luminosity of the inner molecular disk. SFCs emitting 80% of the total Galactic free-free luminosity produce a kinetic luminosity equal to 65% of the turbulent luminosity in the inner molecular disk. This suggests that the expansion of the bubbles is a major driver of the turbulent motion of the inner Milky Way molecular gas.

Lee, Eve J.; Rahman, Mubdi [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Murray, Norman, E-mail: elee@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: rahman@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: elee@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: murray@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

60

The Formation of the First Low-Mass Stars From Gas With Low Carbon and Oxygen Abundances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first stars in the Universe are predicted to have been much more massive than the Sun. Gravitational condensation accompanied by cooling of the primordial gas due to molecular hydrogen, yields a minimum fragmentation scale of a few hundred solar masses. Numerical simulations indicate that once a gas clump acquires this mass, it undergoes a slow, quasi-hydrostatic contraction without further fragmentation. Here we show that as soon as the primordial gas - left over from the Big Bang - is enriched by supernovae to a carbon or oxygen abundance as small as ~0.01-0.1% of that found in the Sun, cooling by singly-ionized carbon or neutral oxygen can lead to the formation of low-mass stars. This mechanism naturally accommodates the discovery of solar mass stars with unusually low (10^{-5.3} of the solar value) iron abundance but with a high (10^{-1.3} solar) carbon abundance. The minimum stellar mass at early epochs is partially regulated by the temperature of the cosmic microwave background. The derived critical abundances can be used to identify those metal-poor stars in our Milky Way galaxy with elemental patterns imprinted by the first supernovae.

Volker Bromm; Abraham Loeb

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

STAR FORMATION AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF GAS AND DUST IN THE CIRCINUS CLOUD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present results of a study on the Circinus cloud based on {sup 13}CO (J = 1 - 0) data as well as visual to near-infrared (JHK{sub S}) extinction maps, to investigate the distributions of gas and dust around the cloud. The global {sup 13}CO distribution of the Circinus cloud is revealed for the first time, and the total molecular mass of the cloud is estimated to be 2.5 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} for the assumed distance 700 pc. Two massive clumps in the cloud, called Circinus-W and Circinus-E, have a mass of {approx}5 x 10{sup 3} M{sub sun}. These clumps are associated with a number of young stellar objects (YSOs) searched for in the literature, indicating that they are the most active star-forming sites in Circinus. All of the extinction maps show good agreement with the {sup 13}CO distribution. We derived the average N({sup 13}CO)/A{sub V} ratio in the Circinus cloud to be 1.25 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1} by comparing the extinction maps with the {sup 13}CO data. The extinction maps also allowed us to probe into the reddening law over the Circinus cloud. We found that there is a clear change in dust properties in the densest regions of Circinus-W and Circinus-E, possibly due to grain growth in the dense cloud interior. Among the YSOs found in the literature, we attempted to infer the ages and masses of the H{alpha} emission-line stars forming in the two clumps, and found that they are likely to be younger than 1 Myr, having a relatively small mass of {approx}<2 M{sub sun} at the zero-age main sequence.

Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito, E-mail: ikura@u-gakugei.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

62

Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although not a new technology at the time, neither was the gas engine. But now in the 19901s, gas engine-drive (GED) chillers have "hit" the air conditioning market with a "bang". In the Lone Star Gas Company area in 1995, GED chillers are now being considered in as many projects as are Absorption. units. Where once the only studies being analyzed were absorption vs. electric chiller operation costs. Now, the choice is: Why, Where, and How to choose between gas fired Absorption and GED chillers. WHY Absorption or Engine ? . Absorption uses the most environmentally friendly refrigerant - water. . Absorption chillers are chiller/heaters Absorption chillers are manufactured by the four US major manufacturers Absorption chillers have few moving parts . Engine chillers provide "free" hot water Engine chillers retrofit with DX systems . Engine chillers use less gas per ton WHERE Do Absorption And Engine Chillers Belong? . Absorption: Office buildings, restaurants, industries, churches, universities . Engine: Hospitals, universities, hotels, apartments, industries HOW To Choose Between Absorption And Engine Chillers? Energy cost Operation and maintenance costs Equipment cost Environmental concerns Thermal requirements . Space requirements Staff experience

Phillips, J. N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

GAS DISTRIBUTION, KINEMATICS, AND EXCITATION STRUCTURE IN THE DISKS AROUND THE CLASSICAL Be STARS {beta} CANIS MINORIS AND {zeta} TAURI  

SciTech Connect

Using CHARA and VLTI near-infrared spectro-interferometry with hectometric baseline lengths (up to 330 m) and with high spectral resolution (up to {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 12, 000), we studied the gas distribution and kinematics around two classical Be stars. The combination of high spatial and spectral resolution achieved allows us to constrain the gas velocity field on scales of a few stellar radii and to obtain, for the first time in optical interferometry, a dynamical mass estimate using the position-velocity analysis technique known from radio astronomy. For our first target star, {beta} Canis Minoris, we model the H+K-band continuum and Br{gamma}-line geometry with a near-critical rotating stellar photosphere and a geometrically thin equatorial disk. Testing different disk rotation laws, we find that the disk is in Keplerian rotation (v(r){proportional_to}r{sup -0.5{+-}0.1}) and derive the disk position angle (140 Degree-Sign {+-} 1.{sup 0}7), inclination (38.{sup 0}5 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign ), and the mass of the central star (3.5 {+-} 0.2 M{sub Sun }). As a second target star, we observed the prototypical Be star {zeta} Tauri and spatially resolved the Br{gamma} emission as well as nine transitions from the hydrogen Pfund series (Pf 14-22). Comparing the spatial origin of the different line transitions, we find that the Brackett (Br{gamma}), Pfund (Pf 14-17), and Balmer (H{alpha}) lines originate from different stellocentric radii (R{sub cont} < R{sub Pf} < R{sub Br{gamma}} {approx} R{sub H{alpha}}), which we can reproduce with an LTE line radiative transfer computation. Discussing different disk-formation scenarios, we conclude that our constraints are inconsistent with wind compression models predicting a strong outflowing velocity component, but support viscous decretion disk models, where the Keplerian-rotating disk is replenished with material from the near-critical rotating star.

Kraus, S.; Monnier, J. D.; Che, X.; Baron, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 918 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1090 (United States); Schaefer, G.; Ten Brummelaar, T. A.; McAlister, H. A.; Turner, N. H.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L. [CHARA Array, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3965, Atlanta, GA 30302-3965 (United States); Touhami, Y.; Gies, D. R. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Aufdenberg, J. P. [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach FL 32114 (United States); Thureau, N., E-mail: stefankr@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

H2O Maser Emission in Circumstellar Envelopes around AGB Stars: Physical Conditions in Gas-Dust Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pumping of 22.2-GHz H$_2$O masers in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch stars has been simulated numerically. The physical parameters adopted in the calculations correspond to those of the circumstellar envelope around IK Tau. The one-dimensional plane-parallel structure of the gas-dust cloud is considered. The statistical equilibrium equations for the H$_2$O level populations and the thermal balance equations for the gas-dust cloud are solved self-consistently. The calculations take into account 410 rotational levels belonging to the five lowest vibrational levels of H$_2$O. The stellar radiation field is shown to play an important role in the thermal balance of the gas-dust cloud due to the absorption of emission in rotational-vibrational H$_2$O lines. The dependence of the gain in the 22.2-GHz maser line on the gas density and H$_2$O number density in the gas-dust cloud is investigated. Gas densities close to the mean density of the stellar wind, 10$^7-10^8$ cm$^{-3}$, and a high re...

Nesterenok, Aleksandr

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. Conceptual design report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project conceptual design activities are divided into six parts: Industrial Plant, Conceptual System Design, Collector Selection, Heat Transfer Fluid Selection, Site Fabrication, and Engineered Equipment. Included is an overview of the solar steam system and a brief discussion on the environmental impact of the project as well as the safety considerations of the system design. The effect of the solar system on the environment is negligible, and the safety analysis of the system indicates the considerations to be taken to minimize any potential safety hazard due to contamination of the food product or to fire. Both of these potential hazards are discussed in detail. Both the question of product contamination and the question of potential fire hazards will be presented to the industrial partner's safety committee so that the selection of the heat transfer fluid meets with their approval.

Deffenbaugh, D.M.

1978-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

66

THE PROPERTIES OF THE STAR-FORMING INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AT z = 0.8-2.2 FROM HiZELS: STAR FORMATION AND CLUMP SCALING LAWS IN GAS-RICH, TURBULENT DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We present adaptive optics assisted integral field spectroscopy of nine H{alpha}-selected galaxies at z = 0.84-2.23 drawn from the HiZELS narrowband survey. Our observations map the kinematics of these star-forming galaxies on {approx}kpc scales. We demonstrate that within the interstellar medium of these galaxies, the velocity dispersion of the star-forming gas ({sigma}) follows a scaling relation {sigma}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1/n} {sub SFR} + constant (where {Sigma}{sub SFR} is the star formation surface density and the constant includes the stellar surface density). Assuming the disks are marginally stable (Toomre Q = 1), this follows from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation ({Sigma}{sub SFR} = A{Sigma} {sup n} {sub gas}), and we derive best-fit parameters of n = 1.34 {+-} 0.15 and A = 3.4{sup +2.5} {sub -1.6} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, consistent with the local relation, and implying cold molecular gas masses of M {sub gas} = 10{sup 9-10} M {sub Sun} and molecular gas fractions of M {sub gas}/(M {sub gas} + M {sub *}) = 0.3 {+-} 0.1, with a range of 10%-75%. We also identify 11 {approx}kpc-scale star-forming regions (clumps) within our sample and show that their sizes are comparable to the wavelength of the fastest growing mode. The luminosities and velocity dispersions of these clumps follow the same scaling relations as local H II regions, although their star formation densities are a factor {approx}15 {+-} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than typically found locally. We discuss how the clump properties are related to the disk, and show that their high masses and luminosities are a consequence of the high disk surface density.

Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Theuns, T. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Sobral, D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Best, P. N. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH19 3HJ (United Kingdom); Geach, J. E., E-mail: a.m.swinbank@dur.ac.uk [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

User Developed Applications and Information Systems Success: A Test of DeLone and McLean's Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DeLone and McLean's 1992 model of information systems success has received much attention amongst researchers. This study provides the first empirical test of an adaptation of DeLone and McLean's model in the user-developed application domain. The model ...

Tanya McGill; Valerie Hobbs; Jane Klobas

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals that leave noticeable voids in the crystal structure. At the ALS, researchers from the U.K., Ireland, and the U.S. have now obtained definitive experimental evidence that this lone-pair model must be revised. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) have clarified the subtle electronic origins of the prototypical distortions in these crystal structures. The results have important implications for the tantalizing possibility of spintronic or superconducting devices combining ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties.

69

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals that leave noticeable voids in the crystal structure. At the ALS, researchers from the U.K., Ireland, and the U.S. have now obtained definitive experimental evidence that this lone-pair model must be revised. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) have clarified the subtle electronic origins of the prototypical distortions in these crystal structures. The results have important implications for the tantalizing possibility of spintronic or superconducting devices combining ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties.

70

Energy Star Portfolio Manager  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

May 2013 What's New in Portfolio Manager ? EPA's ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager tool helps you measure and track energy use, water use, and greenhouse gas emissions of your...

71

The gas temperature in flaring disks around pre-main sequence stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model is presented which calculates the gas temperature and chemistry in the surface layers of flaring circumstellar disks using a code developed for photon-dominated regions. Special attention is given to the influence of dust settling. It is found that the gas temperature exceeds the dust temperature by up to several hundreds of Kelvins in the part of the disk that is optically thin to ultraviolet radiation, indicating that the common assumption that Tgas=Tdust is not valid throughout the disk. In the optically thick part, gas and dust are strongly coupled and the gas temperature equals the dust temperature. Dust settling has little effect on the chemistry in the disk, but increases the amount of hot gas deeper in the disk. The effects of the higher gas temperature on several emission lines arising in the surface layer are examined. The higher gas temperatures increase the intensities of molecular and fine-structure lines by up to an order of magnitude, and can also have an important effect on the line shapes.

B. Jonkheid; F. G. A. Faas; G. -J. van Zadelhoff; E. F. van Dishoeck

2004-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

72

TRACING THE PECULIAR DARK MATTER STRUCTURE IN THE GALAXY CLUSTER Cl 0024+17 WITH INTRACLUSTER STARS AND GAS  

SciTech Connect

Intracluster light (ICL) is believed to originate from the stars stripped from cluster galaxies. They are no longer gravitationally bound to individual galaxies, but to the cluster, and their smooth distribution potentially makes them serve as much denser tracers of the cluster dark matter than the sparsely distributed cluster galaxies. We present our study of the ICL in the galaxy cluster Cl 0024+17 using both Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Subaru data, where we previously reported the discovery of a ring-like dark matter structure with gravitational lensing. The ACS images provide much lower sky levels than ground-based data, and enable us to measure relative variation of surface brightness reliably. This analysis is repeated with the Subaru images to examine if consistent features are recovered despite a different reduction scheme and different instrumental characteristics. We find that the ICL profile clearly resembles the peculiar mass profile, which stops decreasing at r {approx} 50'' ({approx}265 kpc) and slowly increases until it turns over at r {approx} 75'' ({approx}397 kpc). This feature is seen in both ACS and Subaru images for nearly all available passband images while the features are in general stronger in red filters. The consistency across different filters and instruments strongly rules out the possibility that the feature might come from any residual, uncorrected calibration errors. In addition, our re-analysis of the cluster X-ray data shows that the peculiar mass structure is also indicated by a non-negligible (3.7{sigma} in Chandra and 2.4{sigma} in XMM-Newton) bump in the intracluster gas profile when the geometric center of the dark matter ring, not the peak of the X-ray emission, is chosen as the center of the radial bin. The location of the gas ring is closer to the center by {approx}15'' ({approx}80 kpc), raising an interesting possibility that the ring-like structure is expanding and the gas ring is lagging behind perhaps because of the ram pressure if both features in mass and gas share the same dynamical origin.

Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

HI Narrow Self-Absorption in Dark Clouds: Correlations with Molecular Gas and Implications for Cloud Evolution and Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of a comparative study of HI narrow self-absorption (HINSA), OH, 13CO, and C18O in five dark clouds. The HINSA follows the distribution of the emission of the carbon monoxide isotopologues, and has a characteristic size close to that of 13CO. This confirms that the HINSA is produced by cold HI which is well mixed with molecular gas in well-shielded regions. The ratio of the atomic hydrogen density to total proton density for these sources is 5 to 27 x 10^{-4}. Using cloud temperatures and the density of HI, we set an upper limit to the cosmic ray ionization rate of 10^{-16} s^{-1}. Comparison of observed and modeled fractional HI abundances indicates ages for these clouds to be 10^{6.5} to 10^{7} yr. The low values of the HI density we have determined make it certain that the time scale for evolution from an atomic to an almost entirely molecular phase, must be a minimum of several million years. This clearly sets a lower limit to the overall time scale for star formation and the lifetime of molecular clouds.

P. F. Goldsmith; D. Li

2004-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

74

INVESTIGATION OF DUAL ACTIVE NUCLEI, OUTFLOWS, SHOCK-HEATED GAS, AND YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN MARKARIAN 266  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of observations with the Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes are presented for the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) merger Markarian 266. The SW (Seyfert 2) and NE (LINER) nuclei reside in galaxies with Hubble types SBb (pec) and S0/a (pec), respectively. Both companions are more luminous than L* galaxies and they are inferred to each contain a Almost-Equal-To 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} black hole. Although the nuclei have an observed hard X-ray flux ratio of f{sub X} (NE)/f{sub X} (SW) = 6.4, Mrk 266 SW is likely the primary source of a bright Fe K{alpha} line detected from the system, consistent with the reflection-dominated X-ray spectrum of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Optical knots embedded in an arc with aligned radio continuum radiation, combined with luminous H{sub 2} line emission, provide evidence for a radiative bow shock in an AGN-driven outflow surrounding the NE nucleus. A soft X-ray emission feature modeled as shock-heated plasma with T {approx} 10{sup 7} K is cospatial with radio continuum emission between the galaxies. Mid-infrared diagnostics provide mixed results, but overall suggest a composite system with roughly equal contributions of AGN and starburst radiation powering the bolometric luminosity. Approximately 120 star clusters have been detected, with most having estimated ages less than 50 Myr. Detection of 24 {mu}m emission aligned with soft X-rays, radio continuum, and ionized gas emission extending {approx}34'' (20 kpc) north of the galaxies is interpreted as {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} of dust entrained in an outflowing superwind. At optical wavelengths this Northern Loop region is resolved into a fragmented morphology indicative of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in an expanding shell of ionized gas. Mrk 266 demonstrates that the dust 'blow-out' phase can begin in a LIRG well before the galaxies fully coalesce during a subsequent ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phase, and rapid gas consumption in luminous dual AGNs with kiloparsec-scale separations early in the merger process may explain the paucity of detected binary QSOs (with parsec-scale orbital separations) in spectroscopic surveys. An evolutionary sequence is proposed representing a progression from dual to binary AGNs, accompanied by an increase in observed L{sub x} /L{sub ir} ratios by over two orders of magnitude.

Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B. H. P. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Iwasawa, K., E-mail: mazz@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: bchan@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: kazushi.iwasawa@icc.ub.edu [ICREA and Institut del Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

March 3-7, 2013 Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center San ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Advance Materials & Innovative Solutions for Oil and Gas I. WED. AM. Lone Star Salon A. 178. Materials Challanges in Hostile Environments.

76

ENERGY STAR | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ENERGY STAR ENERGY STAR Jump to: navigation, search Logo: ENERGY STAR Name ENERGY STAR Year founded 1992 Notes Partnered with more than 20,000 public sector organizations. Website https://www.energystar.gov/ind References About ENERGY STAR[1] LinkedIn Connections Contents 1 About ENERGY STAR 1.1 For the Home 1.2 For Business 1.3 References About ENERGY STAR ENERGY STAR is a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy helping us all save money and protect the environment through energy efficient products and practices. Results are already adding up. Americans, with the help of ENERGY STAR, saved enough energy in 2010 alone to avoid greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to those from 33 million cars - all while saving nearly $18 billion on their

77

ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas & North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rebates Central Air Conditioner Unit 14 SEER or above: 350 Central Air Conditioner Unit Energy Star rated: 500 Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas & North Shore Gas Furnace: 200 - 500...

78

Free stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free stars are certain subsets of a poset, first defined by me in [1]. Free stars are closely related with filters, namely free stars on a boolean lattice bijectively correspond to filters on this lattice. This article introduces consideration of free stars. Some questions are raised. Free stars are useful in my further (yet unpublished) research (in general topology).

Victor Porton; Shay Agnon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Work, poverty and welfare reform: welfare-to-work programmes for lone parents in depressed local labour markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix I: Interview questions for follow-up interviews with Buffalo lone parents Appendix J: Network view of 'Experience of employment' BIBLIOGRAPHY 220 220 224 225 229 231 232 235 245 247 247 254 258 262 265 267 275 278 279 283... and the US Lake . _~. ___ .J ;/ Ontario , I , ,.~. I , I I , I , I --I \\ , I I I I I I , I , , , "------~--------- I I I I I ~ - - - - - J-'" - ... - - ... -,'" _ ... I I New: ~.... York: ). C - ",,_ Ity.,~ o km 100 I I...

Casebourne, Joanna Jane

2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

80

WASP-10b: a 3M_J, gas-giant planet transiting a late-type K star  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the discovery of WASP-10b, a new transiting extrasolar planet (ESP) discovered by the WASP Consortium and confirmed using NOT FIES and SOPHIE radial velocity data. A 3.09 day period, 29 mmag transit depth, and 2.36 hour duration are derived for WASP-10b using WASP and high precision photometric observations. Simultaneous fitting to the photometric and radial velocity data using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo procedure leads to a planet radius of 1.28R_J, a mass of 2.96M_J and eccentricity of ~0.06. WASP-10b is one of the more massive transiting ESPs, and we compare its characteristics to the current sample of transiting ESP, where there is currently little information for masses greater than ~2M_J and non-zero eccentricities. WASP-10's host star, GSC 2752-00114 (USNO-B1.0 1214-0586164) is among the fainter stars in the WASP sample, with V=12.7 and a spectral type of K5. This result shows promise for future late-type dwarf star surveys.

D. J. Christian; N. P. Gibson; E. K. Simpson; R. A. Street; I. Skillen; D. Pollacco; A. Collier Cameron; Y. C. Joshi; F. P. Keenan; H. C. Stempels; C. A. Haswell; K. Horne; D. R. Anderson; S. Bentley; F. Bouchy; W. I. Clarkson; B. Enoch; L. Hebb; G. Hbrard; C. Hellier; J. Irwin; S. R. Kane; T. A. Lister; B. Loeillet; P. Maxted; M. Mayor; I. McDonald; C. Moutou; A. J. Norton; N. Parley; F. Pont; D. Queloz; R. Ryans; B. Smalley; A. M. S. Smith; I. Todd; S. Udry; R. G. West; P. J. Wheatley; D. M. Wilson

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Home : ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Who dared imagine? Who dared imagine? Our newest video celebrates 20 years of success with our innovative ENERGY STAR partners. See the Video EPA Logo ENERGY STAR is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency voluntary program that helps businesses and individuals save money and protect our climate through superior energy efficiency. Learn more about ENERGY STAR. A comprehensive review of ENERGY STAR and other EPA climate protection partnerships. See 2011 Annual Report. Basic information on climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change science. See Climate Change. With help from ENERGY STAR, by 2012, Americans had cumulatively prevented more than 1.8 billion metric tons of GHG emissions. See 2012 Achievements. Energy Efficiency For Your Home

82

The CRIRES Search for Planets Around the Lowest-Mass Stars. I. High-Precision Near-Infrared Radial Velocities with an Ammonia Gas Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radial velocities measured from near-infrared spectra are a potentially powerful tool to search for planets around cool stars and sub-stellar objects. However, no technique currently exists that yields near-infrared radial velocity precision comparable to that which is routinely obtained in the visible. We describe a method for measuring high-precision relative radial velocities of cool stars from K-band spectra. The method makes use of a glass cell filled with ammonia gas to calibrate the spectrograph response similar to the iodine cell technique that has been used so successfully in the visible. Stellar spectra are obtained through the ammonia cell and modeled as the product of a Doppler-shifted template spectrum of the object and a spectrum of the cell, convolved with a variable instrumental profile model. A complicating factor is that a significant number of telluric absorption lines are present in the spectral regions containing useful stellar and ammonia lines. The telluric lines are modeled simultaneou...

Bean, Jacob L; Hartman, Henrik; Nilsson, Hampus; Wiedemann, Guenter; Reiners, Ansgar; Dreizler, Stefan; Henry, Todd J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

What is Energy Star? ENERGY STAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What is Energy Star? ENERGY STAR® qualified products and practices help you save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by meeting strict energy efficiency guidelines set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy. You can help reduce electricity usage and its

van Tiggelen, Bart

84

STAR Search STAR Search5 30  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STAR Search "" STAR STAR Search5 30 Tokyo Tech STAR STAR Search Tech OCW T2R2 Google Web T2R2 Tokyo Tech OCW Web #12; STAR STAR Search DB DB T2R2 Tokyo Tech OCW T2R2 Tokyo Tech OCW STAR Search STAR Search T2R2 Tokyo Tech OCW STAR

85

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

86

Energy Star | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Star Star Jump to: navigation, search Energystarlogo.jpg Contents 1 What's new 2 About ENERGY STAR 3 For the Home 4 For Business 5 History 6 References What's new On March 15, 2012, the EPA released a press release announcing 2012's ENERGY STAR award winners, and celebrating the 20 year anniversary of the award. Overall, the EPA estimates that American's have saved nearly $230 billion over two decades of the award. About ENERGY STAR ENERGY STAR is a joint program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Department of Energy helping us all save money and protect the environment through energy efficient products and practices. Results are already adding up. Americans, with the help of ENERGY STAR, saved enough energy in 2009 alone to avoid greenhouse gas emissions

87

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

88

Overview of EPA's ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager: A Tool to Measure...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Overview of EPA's ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager: A Tool to Measure and Track Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview of EPA's ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager: A Tool...

89

ENERGY STAR Snapshot | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

90

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. 8, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, May 5, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 27, 2011) Mild temperatures coupled with continued strong domestic production resulted in natural gas cash market prices dropping modestly at nearly all domestic pricing points over the week. The lone exception was the Henry Hub price which rose a token 2 cents per million Btu (MMBtu) (0.5 percent) to $4.35 per MMBtu on April 27. Working natural gas in storage rose to 1,685 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of Friday, April 22, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR). The implied increase for the week was 31 Bcf, with storage volumes positioned

91

ENERGY STAR in action | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Benchmark energy use ENERGY STAR in action Programs and policies using ENERGY STAR Green buildings and ENERGY STAR Communicate and educate Find out who's partnered with...

92

NIST Stars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Weather and climate research satellites could use SI Stars for on orbit calibration of their spectroradiometers and astronomers ... Facilities/Tools Used ...

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

93

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

such as: Choosing ENERGY STAR certified appliances and electronics. Maintaining home heating and cooling systems to improve efficiency. Ensuring homes are well sealed...

94

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Other and Other Climate Protection Partnerships 2011 Annual Report CONTENTS Letter from the Administrator ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Highlights of 2011 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 ENERGY STAR Overview ......................................................................................................................................................................................

95

Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars Supermassive stars in the early universe gave supermassive black holes a head start March 25, 2013 simulations suggest that star formation conditions back then allowed the first stars to become supermassive themselves In this simulation, a black hole that was just formed by the collapse of a supermassive star is surrounded by a distribution of gas (color indicates density). Because the black hole (located at the center but too small to see) grows by consuming the available gas, simulations like this one help determine how quickly the black hole can grow. The progenitor of this black

96

TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853  

SciTech Connect

The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

97

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR certified buildings > photo of a room in the W Hotel, San Francisco, CA W HOTEL, San Francisco, Calif. In 2007, hotel employees submitted a petition asking management to...

98

Earn recognition | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year Award ENERGY STAR plant certification ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry Success stories: Industrial energy management Market impacts: Improvements...

99

STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically {approx}1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of {approx}2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Protection Agency program helping businesses and individuals fight global warming through superior energy efficiency. Bring Your Green to Work with ENERGY STAR ® 1 Give It a rest Use the ENERGY STAR power management settings on your computer and monitor so they go into power save mode when not in use. Also use a power strip as a central "turn off" point when you are using equipment to completely disconnect the power supply. 2 Unplug It Unplug electronics such as cell phones and laptops once they are charged. Adapters plugged into outlets use energy even if they are not charging. 3 Light Up Your Work Life Replace the light bulb in your desk lamp with an ENERGY STAR qualified bulb. It will last up to 10 times longer and use about 75 percent less energy. Turn off the lights when

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chameleon stars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [Institute for Basic Research, Eurasian National University, Astana, 010008 (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, 265 a, Chui Street, Bishkek, 720071 (Kyrgyzstan); Folomeev, Vladimir [Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, 265 a, Chui Street, Bishkek, 720071 (Kyrgyzstan); Singleton, Douglas [Institute for Basic Research, Eurasian National University, Astana, 010008 (Kazakhstan); Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, California 93740-8031 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Toy Stars in two dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Toy Stars are gas masses where the compressibility is treated without approximations but gravity is replaced by a force which, for any pair of masses, is along their line of centres and proportional to their separation. They provide an invaluable resource for testing the suitability of numerical codes for astrophysical gas dynamics. In this paper we derive the equations for both small amplitude oscillations and non linear solutions for rotating and pulsating Toy Stars in two dimensions, and show that the solutions can be reduced to a small number of ordinary differential equations. We compare the accurate solutions of these equations with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. The two dimensional Toy Star solutions are found to provide an excellent benchmark for SPH algorithms, highlighting many of the strengths and also some weaknesses of the method.

J. J. Monaghan; D. J. Price

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

103

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR plant certification ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry See who has taken the Challenge See who has achieved the Challenge See who is promoting the Challenge ENERGY...

104

Southwest Gas Corporation - Southwest Gas Corporation - Residential...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Insulation: 0.15sq ft Floor Insulation: 0.30sq ft Builders Energy Star Certified Home: 450 Natural Gas Tankless Water Heater: 450 Attic Insulation: 0.15sq ft Equipment...

105

Star Formation from Galaxies to Globules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The empirical laws of star formation suggest that galactic-scale gravity is involved, but they do not identify the actual triggering mechanisms for clusters in the final stages. Many other triggering processes satisfy the empirical laws too, including turbulence compression and expanding shell collapse. The self-similar nature of the gas and associated young stars suggests that turbulence is more directly involved, but the small scale morphology of gas around most embedded clusters does not look like a random turbulent flow. Most clusters look triggered by other nearby stars. Such a prominent local influence makes it difficult to understand the universality of the Kennicutt and Schmidt laws on galactic scales. A unified view of multi-scale star formation avoids most of these problems. Ambient self-gravity produces spiral arms and drives much of the turbulence that leads to self-similar structures, while localized energy input from existing clusters and field supernovae triggers new clusters in pre-existing clouds. The hierarchical structure in the gas made by turbulence ensures that the triggering time scales with size, giving the Schmidt law over a wide range of scales and the size-duration correlation for young star fields. The efficiency of star formation is determined by the fraction of the gas above a critical density of around 10^5 m(H2)/cc. Star formation is saturated to its largest possible value given the fractal nature of the interstellar medium.

Bruce G. Elmegreen

2002-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

106

Boson stars: Chemical potential and quark condensates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the properties of a star made of self-gravitating bosons gas in a mean-field approximation. A generalized set of Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov(TOV) equations is derived to incorporate the effect of chemical-potential in the general relativistic frame work. The metric-dependence of the chemical-potential gives a new class of solutions for the boson stars. It is demonstrated that the maximum mass and radius of the star change in a significant way when the effect of finite chemical-potential is considered. We also discuss the case of a boson star made of quark-condensates. It is found that when the self-interaction between the condensates is small as compared to their mass, the typical density is too high to form a diquark-boson star. Our results indicate that the star of quark-condensate may be formed in a low-density and high-pressure regime.

Jitesh R. Bhatt; V. Sreekanth

2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

107

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Air and Radiation * For more information www.energystar.gov or call 1.888.STAR.YES (1.888.782.7937) * (6202J) EPA 430-H-08-002 * December 2008 * Recycled/Recyclable - Printed with Vegetable Oil Based Inks on Recycled Paper (Minimum 50% Post-consumer Content) of Air and Radiation * For more information www.energystar.gov or call 1.888.STAR.YES (1.888.782.7937) * (6202J) EPA 430-H-08-002 * December 2008 * Recycled/Recyclable - Printed with Vegetable Oil Based Inks on Recycled Paper (Minimum 50% Post-consumer Content) Enable power management settings so they automatically enter a low-power mode when not in use. monitor/computer Use a power strip as a central "turn off" point when you are done using office equipment to completely disconnect the power supply. power strip Unplug electronics

108

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

SNAPSHOT … THE ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fall 2008 Introduction At mid-year 2008*, commercial and industrial (C&I) leaders continued to make great progress in their efforts to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions across their buildings and facilities. In the first six months of 2008, key indicators of progress have already exceeded activity levels from 2007. More than 1,500 organizations and individuals now participate in the ENERGY STAR Challenge Close to 2 billion new square feet of commercial building floor space rated in the first half of the year bringing the total to about 9.5 billion over 71,000 buildings Labels awarded through June 2008 almost equal the 2007 total, with about 5,000 facilities now qualified as ENERGY STAR ENERGY STAR Leader activity on the rise this year; almost 60 commercial partners achieved key

111

RHIC | STAR Detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The STAR Detector The STAR detector specializes in tracking the thousands of particles produced by each ion collision at RHIC. Weighing 1,200 tons and as large as a house, STAR is...

112

Home : ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR logo Skip directly to page content Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR products are independently certified to save energy without sacrificing...

113

ENERGY STAR Challenge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR Challenge for Industry Participant Handbook June 2013 ENERGY STAR is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Program helping organizations and individuals fight climate change...

114

Participation Form | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

application. Select the ENERGY STAR program you intend to participate in, and choose your primary contacts. Return this form to ENERGY STAR for consideration as a partner....

115

ENERGY STAR Certified New Homes : ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

little label with a big message. Better is better. The blue ENERGY STAR label on a new home means: Peace of Mind Enduring Quality Wall-to-Wall Comfort Proven Value ENERGY STAR...

116

ENERGY STAR plant certification | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip to main content ENERGY STAR logo Skip directly to page content Facebook Twitter YouTube Our Blog Search Search Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR...

117

ENERGY STAR Congregations Handout | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

handout to learn a summary of ENERGY STAR offerings for congregations, quick tips for saving energy in religious worship facilities, and how to sign up for the ENERGY STAR...

118

ENERGY STAR industrial partnership | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip to main content ENERGY STAR logo Skip directly to page content Facebook Twitter YouTube Our Blog Search Search Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR...

119

ENERGY STAR communications toolkit | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip to main content ENERGY STAR logo Skip directly to page content Facebook Twitter YouTube Our Blog Search Search Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR...

120

The value of ENERGY STAR | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

122

ENERGY STAR for existing buildings | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

123

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Energy Technology 2754 Compass Drive, Grand Junction, CO 81506 Business: Energy Management Services/Consulting Sarah Faverman Phone: 970-243-0255 / Fax: 970-245-4268 Email: sarah@newenergytech.net Customer JCPenney Company, Inc. 6501 Legacy Drive, Plano, TX 75024 Business: Retail Rob Keller, P.E., Energy Management & Engineering Services Director Phone: 972-431-1788 / Fax: 972-531-1788 Email: rkeller@jcpenney.com New Energy Technology helped JCPenney earn the first ENERGY STAR labels for retail buildings and Partner of the Year Award. Project Scope New Energy Technology (NET) supports JCPenney's (JCP) energy conservation culture through three programs focused on high-quality energy data and energy management. Through its automated benchmarking

124

ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Green Team Checklist Green Team Checklist One person cannot do it all! So when it comes to making your workplace greener and more energy efficient, nothing beats a team. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has learned from ENERGY STAR partners that forming a green team with coworkers is a great way to help increase energy efficiency and reduce office waste. Consider the following checklist of creative ideas from EPA to help your green team get started. Once you've formed your team, start by planting the seeds for success with small changes in individual workspaces. Then move through the list and help success bloom with bigger changes that can affect the whole organization. Together, these actions can help your green team build a better world! Start Off Right-Meet with management to get approval and buy-in for the idea of forming a green team. Not only does support

125

2014 ENERGY STAR Awards : ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Partner Resources Partner Resources Manufacturers Retailers New Home Industry Utilities/EEPS Residential & Commercial Products Programs Service & Product Providers Buildings & Plants Small Businesses Congregations For Contractors For Federal Agencies Join ENERGY STAR Home > Partner Resources > ENERGY STAR Awards 2014 ENERGY STAR Awards The application submission period for the 2014 ENERGY STAR Awards has closed. Each year, the ENERGY STAR program honors organizations that have made outstanding contributions to protecting the environment through energy efficiency. Please save the date for our awards ceremony on April 29, 2014. Ceremony registration information will be available on this website in January 2014. If you have any questions, please contact Rebecca Hudson, at

126

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MAPPING OF YOUNG STARS IN THE INNER 180 pc OF NGC 1068: CORRELATION WITH MOLECULAR GAS RING AND STELLAR KINEMATICS  

SciTech Connect

We report the first two-dimensional mapping of the stellar population and non-stellar continua within the inner 180 pc (radius) of NGC 1068 at a spatial resolution of 8 pc, using integral field spectroscopy in the near-infrared. We have applied the technique of spectral synthesis to data obtained with the instrument NIFS and the adaptive optics module ALTAIR at the Gemini North Telescope. Two episodes of recent star formation are found to dominate the stellar population contribution: the first occurred 300 Myr ago, extending over most of the nuclear region; the second occurred just 30 Myr ago, in a ring-like structure at Almost-Equal-To 100 pc from the nucleus, where it is coincident with an expanding ring of H{sub 2} emission. Inside the ring, where a decrease in the stellar velocity dispersion is observed, the stellar population is dominated by the 300 Myr age component. In the inner 35 pc, the oldest age component (age {>=} 2 Gyr) dominates the mass, while the flux is dominated by blackbody components with temperatures in the range 700 K {<=} T {<=} 800 K which we attribute to the dusty torus. We also find some contribution from blackbody and power-law components beyond the nucleus which we attribute to dust emission and scattered light.

Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Vale, Tiberio Borges [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A.; Diniz, Marlon R. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); McGregor, Peter J., E-mail: thaisa@ufrgs.br [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

127

Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

upgrades and improvements. Incentives are currently available to residential homeowners for natural gas boiler, furnaces, insulation, certain ENERGY STAR appliances, and...

128

Magnetic fields and radiative feedback in the star formation process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Star formation is a complex process involving the interplay of many physical effects, including gravity, turbulent gas dynamics, magnetic fields and radiation. Our understanding of the process has improved substantially in recent years, primarily as a result of our increased ability to incorporate the relevant physics in numerical calculations of the star formation process. In this contribution we present an overview of our recent studies of star cluster formation in turbulent, magnetised clouds using self-gravitating radiation-magnetohydrodynamics calculations (Price and Bate 2008, 2009). Our incorporation of magnetic fields and radiative transfer into the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method are discussed. We highlight how magnetic fields and radiative heating of the gas around newborn stars can solve several of the key puzzles in star formation, including an explanation for why star formation is such a slow and inefficient process. However, the presence of magnetic fields at observed strengths in collaps...

Price, Daniel J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

VARIABILITY AND STAR FORMATION IN LEO T, THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY STAR-FORMING GALAXY KNOWN TODAY  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the first combined study of variable stars and star formation history (SFH) of the Milky Way 'ultra-faint' dwarf (UFD) galaxy Leo T, based on F606W and F814W multi-epoch archive observations obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We have detected 14 variable stars in the galaxy. They include one fundamental-mode RR Lyrae star and 11 Anomalous Cepheids with periods shorter than 1 day, thus suggesting the occurrence of multiple star formation episodes in this UFD, of which one about 10 Gyr ago produced the RR Lyrae star. A new estimate of the distance to Leo T of 409{sup +29}{sub -27} kpc (distance modulus of 23.06 {+-} 0.15 mag) was derived from the galaxy's RR Lyrae star. Our V, V - I color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Leo T reaches V {approx} 29 mag and shows features typical of a galaxy in transition between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal types. A quantitative analysis of the SFH, based on the comparison of the observed V, V - I CMD with the expected distribution of stars for different evolutionary scenarios, confirms that Leo T has a complex SFH dominated by two enhanced periods about 1.5 and 9 Gyr ago, respectively. The distribution of stars and gas shows that the galaxy has a fairly asymmetric structure.

Clementini, Gisella; Cignoni, Michele; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Federici, Luciana; Tosi, Monica [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria, E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: rodrigo.contreras@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: luciana.federici@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: monica.tosi@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: michele.cignoni@unibo.it, E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it, E-mail: marcella@na.astro.it, E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

130

A SAURON STUDYOF STARS ANDGAS IN SABULGES J. FalconBarroso 1# , R. Bacon 2 , M. Bureau 3 , M. Cappellari 1 , R. L. Davies 3 ,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formation. The velocity dispersion of the ionised gas is also low (#50 km s -1 ) along the star dispersion (in km s -1 ), and v) ionised­gas velocity dispersion (in km s -1 ). The formation of star cor­ relation between star formation and the velocity dispersion of the ionised gas in these rings

Bureau, Martin

131

Building Technologies Program: ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Program: ENERGY STAR on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Program: ENERGY STAR on Delicious Rank Building...

132

Building Technologies Office: ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: ENERGY STAR on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: ENERGY STAR on Delicious Rank Building...

133

STAR Test Environment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR Test Environment STAR Test Environment STAR Test Environment These instructions describe how to set up the STAR environment independent of the production environment in order to test different installations in $OPTSTAR and $GROUP_DIR. If you want to modify those installations you will need access to the starofl account. Bypass STAR envionment login Edit your ~/.pdsf_setup file changing the STAR_LINUX_SETUP to "use_none" and start a new session. You should not see all the STAR environmental variables defined when you do this (and it will probably be much quicker than usual, too). Do a manual STAR login If you want to modify what test environment you use copy the test login scripts to your own working area: cp -r /common/star/startest /path/to/myworkdir/. If you don't want to modify these files you can source them directly from

134

Become an ENERGY STAR partner | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Become an ENERGY STAR partner Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction...

135

Earn ENERGY STAR certification | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earn ENERGY STAR certification Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction...

136

Sample ENERGY STAR performance documents | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Verify and document your savings Sample ENERGY STAR performance documents Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers...

137

Green buildings and ENERGY STAR | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Green buildings and ENERGY STAR Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction...

138

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new...

139

ENERGY STAR for small business | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR, you can improve your small business's financial performance by reducing energy waste and energy costs, while protecting the environment. Join the network When you join...

140

ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois) ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info Start Date 01/01/2013 Expiration Date 04/30/2013 State Illinois Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount ComEd Rebates Central Air Conditioner Unit 14 SEER or above: $350 Central Air Conditioner Unit Energy Star rated: $500 Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas Furnace: $200 - $500 (varies based on gas company and unit installed) Provider ComEd Energy ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas are offering a Complete System Replacement Rebate Program to residential customers. The program is

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Photoionising feedback in star cluster formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first ever hydrodynamic calculations of star cluster formation that incorporate the effect of feedback from ionising radiation. In our simulations, the ionising source forms in the cluster core at the intersection of several dense filaments of inflowing gas. We show that these filaments collimate ionised outflows and suggest such an environmental origin for at least some observed outflows in regions of massive star formation. Our simulations show both positive feedback (i.e. promotion of star formation in neutral gas compressed by expanding HII regions) and negative feedback (i.e. suppression of the accretion flow in to the central regions). We show that the volume filling factor of ionised gas is very different in our simulations than would result from the case where the central source interacted with an azimuthally smoothed gas density distribution. As expected, gas density is the key parameter in determining whether clusters are unbound by photoionising radiation. Nevertheless, we find - on account of the acceleration of a small fraction of the gas to high velocities in the outflows - that the deposition in the gas of an energy that exceeds the binding energy of the cluster is not a sufficient criterion for unbinding the bulk of the cluster mass.

J. E. Dale; I. A. Bonnell; C. J. Clarke; M. R. Bate

2005-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

142

ENERGY STAR service and product provider training series | ENERGY...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

you'll need to convey to your customers how you can help them save energy, save money, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions with ENERGY STAR. Browse the training sessions on...

143

ENERGY STAR SNAPSHOT … Spring 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

09 09 Introduction In 2008, leading commercial and industrial organizations outpaced their 2007 efforts to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Rating activity continued to be strong, particularly for offices and schools; and new organizations partnering with ENERGY STAR nearly tripled. Recognition for improvement and top performance grew significantly in 2008. Almost 3,300 buildings earned the ENERGY STAR, bringing the overall total to more than 6,200 facilities representing over 1 billion square feet. Twenty-seven partners reduced overall energy use to be designated as an ENERGY STAR Leader, 14 for the first time. By the end of the year, a total of 65 partners had demonstrated reaching such milestones. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot provides an at-a-glance summary of the key performance indicators

144

PECO Energy (Gas) Heating Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The PECO Smart Gas Efficiency Upgrade Program offers rebates and incentives to commercial or residential customers that install an ENERGY STAR qualified high-efficiency natural gas furnace or...

145

ENERGY STAR SNAPSHOT - Spring 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Progress in the Measuring Progress in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors Fall 2009 Summary By mid-year 2009, key commercial and industrial organizations have already surpassed their 2008 efforts to improve energy performance and reduce greenhouse gas emissions: * More buildings have been rated at mid year 2009 than in all of last year. This brings the total number of buildings with energy performance ratings to more than 97,000. * Nearly 1,850 buildings have earned the ENERGY STAR in 2009, ahead of the 2008 mid-year total. * Almost 30 organizations, mostly among our nation's public school districts, have already achieved significant portfolio-wide energy improvements or top performance. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot provides an at-a-glance summary of the key performance indicators behind

146

NVLAP Recognized by ENERGY STAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NVLAP Recognized by ENERGY STAR. For ... criteria. Details of the program can be found on the ENERGY STAR website. ...

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

147

Competitor resources | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

148

Federal agencies | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

149

ENERGY STAR Challenge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR Challenge STAR Challenge for Industry Participant Handbook June 2013 ENERGY STAR is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Program helping organizations and individuals fight climate change through superior energy efficiency. Learn more at energystar.gov/buildings. 2 Contents Overview ............................................................................................................................. 3 Participation Eligibility .......................................................................................................... 4 How to Participate ............................................................................................................... 5 Step 1: Establish an energy intensity metric ................................................................ 5

150

Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Construction Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 7/1/2009 State Wyoming Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Star Home Certification: $500 Storage Water Heater: $50 Tankless Water Heater: $300 Furnace: $300 Boiler: $400 Provider Questar Gas Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for both energy efficient gas equipment and whole home Energy Star certification. All equipment and

151

The 21cm Signature of the First Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We predict the 21-cm signature of the first metal-free stars. The soft X-rays emitted by these stars penetrate the atomic medium around their host halos, generating Lyman alpha photons that couple the spin and kinetic temperatures. These creates a region we call the Lyman alpha sphere, visible in 21-cm against the CMB, which is much larger than the HII region produced by the same star. The spin and kinetic temperatures are strongly coupled before the X-rays can substantially heat the medium, implying that a strong 21-cm absorption signal from the adiabatically cooled gas in Hubble expansion around the star is expected when the medium has not been heated previously. A central region of emission from the gas heated by the soft X-rays is also present although with a weaker signal than the absorption. The Lyman alpha sphere is a universal signature that should be observed around any first star illuminating its vicinity for the first time. The 21-cm radial profile of the Lyman alpha sphere can be calculated as a function of the luminosity, spectrum and age of the star. For a star of a few hundred solar masses and zero metallicity (as expected for the first stars), the physical radius of the Lyman alpha sphere can reach tens of kiloparsecs. The first metal-free stars should be strongly clustered because of high cosmic biasing; this implies that the regions producing a 21-cm absorption signal may contain more than one star and will generally be irregular and not spherical, because of the complex distribution of the gas. We discuss the feasiblity of detecting these Lyman alpha spheres, which would be present at redshifts $z\\sim 30$ in the Cold Dark Matter model. Their observation would represent a direct proof of the detection of a first star.

Xuelei Chen; Jordi Miralda-Escude

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

152

Molecular cloud regulated star formation in galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a numerical implementation of star formation in disk galaxies, in which the conversion of cooling gas to stars in the multiphase interstellar medium is governed by the rate at which molecular clouds are formed and destroyed. In the model, clouds form from thermally unstable ambient gas and get destroyed by feedback from massive stars and thermal conduction. Feedback in the ambient phase cycles gas into a hot galactic fountain or wind. We model the ambient gas hydrodynamically using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). However, we cannot resolve the Jeans mass in the cold and dense molecular gas and, therefore, represent the cloud phase with ballistic particles that coagulate when colliding. We show that this naturally produces a multiphase medium with cold clouds, a warm disk, hot supernova bubbles and a hot, tenuous halo. Our implementation of this model is based on the Gadget N-Body code. We illustrate the model by evolving an isolated Milky Way-like galaxy and study the properties of a disk formed in a rotating spherical collapse. Many observed properties of disk galaxies are reproduced well, including the molecular cloud mass spectrum, the molecular fraction as a function of radius, the Schmidt law, the stellar density profile and the appearance of a galactic fountain.

C. M. Booth; T. Theuns; T. Okamoto

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

Xenon in Mercury-Manganese Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous studies of elemental abundances in Mercury-Manganese (HgMn) stars have occasionally reported the presence of lines of the ionized rare noble gas Xe II, especially in a few of the hottest stars with Teff ~ 13000--15000 K. A new study of this element has been undertaken using observations from Lick Observatory's Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph. In this work, the spectrum synthesis program UCLSYN has been used to undertake abundance analysis assuming LTE. We find that in the Smith & Dworetsky sample of HgMn stars, Xe is vastly over-abundant in 21 of 22 HgMn stars studied, by factors of 3.1--4.8 dex. There does not appear to be a significant correlation of Xe abundance with Teff. A comparison sample of normal late B stars shows no sign of Xe II lines that could be detected, consistent with the expected weakness of lines at normal abundance. The main reason for the previous lack of widespread detection in HgMn stars is probably due to the strongest lines being at longer wavelengths than the photographic blue. The lines used in this work were 4603.03A, 4844.33A and 5292.22A.

M. M. Dworetsky; J. L. Persaud; K. Patel

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Architects | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Race to Denver 2012 Race to DC 2011 Race to New Orleans 2010 Race to Miami 2009 Race to San Francisco 2008 Race to Boston 2007 Race to San Antonio ENERGY STAR Challenge for...

155

Forming a Primordial Star in a Relic HII Region  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been considerable theoretical debate over whether photoionization and supernova feedback from the first Population III stars facilitate or suppress the formation of the next generation of stars. We present results from an Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement simulation demonstrating the formation of a primordial star within a region ionized by an earlier nearby star. Despite the higher temperatures of the ionized gas and its flow out of the dark matter potential wells, this second star formed within 23 million years of its neighbor's death. The enhanced electron fraction within the HII region catalyzes rapid molecular hydrogen formation that leads to faster cooling in the subsequent star forming halos than in the first halos. This ''second generation'' primordial protostar has a much lower accretion rate because, unlike the first protostar, it forms in a rotationally supported disk of {approx} 10-100 M{center_dot}. In contrast to unpreprocessed regions, such configurations may allow binaries or multiple systems of lower mass stars to form. These first high resolution calculations offer insight into the impact of feedback upon subsequent populations of stars and clearly demonstrate how primordial chemistry promotes the formation of subsequent generations of stars even in the presence of the entropy injected by the first stars into the IGM.

O'Shea, Brian

2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

156

Cushman & Wakefield Environmental Challenge | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR in action Communicate and educate ENERGY STAR communications toolkit Bring Your Green to Work with ENERGY STAR Motivate with a competition ENERGY STAR National Building...

157

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. 8, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, May 5, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 27, 2011) Mild temperatures coupled with continued strong domestic production resulted in natural gas cash market prices dropping modestly at nearly all domestic pricing points over the week. The lone exception was the Henry Hub price which rose a token 2 cents per million Btu (MMBtu) (0.5 percent) to $4.35 per MMBtu on April 27. Working natural gas in storage rose to 1,685 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of Friday, April 22, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR). The implied increase for the week was 31 Bcf, with storage volumes positioned

158

star-shaped polygon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST. star-shaped polygon. (definition). Definition: A polygon P in which there exists an interior point p such that all the boundary ...

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

159

Press room | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

improve their efficiency, and earn recognition. Learn more about the program Facts and statistics See who's partnered with ENERGY STAR Find certified buildings and plants...

160

Energy guides | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

track, and benchmark Improve energy performance ENERGY STAR industrial partnership Energy guides Energy efficiency and air regulation Plant energy auditing Industrial...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A Star on Earth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 2, 2009 ... The world's highest-energy laser system, capable of creating temperatures and pressures that now only exist in the cores of stars, was unveiled...

162

Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (BGE) offers rebates for residential customers to improve the energy efficiency of eligible homes. Rebates are available for Energy Star clothes washers,...

163

Ten reasons to pursue ENERGY STAR certification | ENERGY STAR...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

substantial. For example, ENERGY STAR certified office buildings cost 0.50 less per square foot to operate than their peers. Currently, ENERGY STAR certified buildings are...

164

ENERGY STAR certification | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR certification ENERGY STAR certification Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section How can we help you? Find out who's partnered with ENERGY STAR Become an ENERGY STAR partner Find ENERGY STAR certified buildings and plants ENERGY STAR certification Featured research and reports Facts and stats Climate change and buildings ENERGY STAR certification

165

EPA's ENERGY STAR National Building Competition | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR communications toolkit Motivate with a competition EPA's ENERGY STAR National Building Competition Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio...

166

ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year Award | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Partner of the Year profiles in leadership ENERGY STAR plant certification ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry Success stories: Industrial energy management Market impacts:...

167

Join ENERGY STAR as a partner | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

we help you? Build an energy program Improve building and plant performance Earn the ENERGY STAR and other recognition Benchmark energy use ENERGY STAR in action Communicate and...

168

EPA's ENERGY STAR National Building Competition | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How can we help you? Communicate and educate ENERGY STAR communications toolkit Motivate with a competition EPA's ENERGY STAR National Building Competition...

169

The value of ENERGY STAR certification | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

building as ENERGY STAR. Below is a summary of several studies that evaluated the added market value of ENERGY STAR certified buildings. Chart showing price advantages of ENERGY...

170

ENERGY STAR Homes in the News : ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR logo Skip directly to page content Facebook Twitter YouTube Our Blog Search Search Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR products are...

171

STAR METRICS | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

STAR METRICS STAR METRICS May 4, 2011 - 4:47pm Addthis Energy continues to define Phase II of the STAR METRICS program, a collaborative initiative to track Research and Development...

172

ENERGY STAR Score for Offices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 2013 ENERGY STAR Score for Offices in the United States Page 1 ENERGY STAR Score for Offices in the United States Technical Reference OVERVIEW The ENERGY STAR Score for...

173

Spitzer spectroscopy of carbon stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present Spitzer Space telescope spectroscopic observations of 14 carbon-rich AGB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. SiC dust is seen in most of the carbon-rich stars but it is weak compared to LMC stars. The SiC feature is strong only for stars with significant dust excess, opposite to what is observed for Galactic stars. We argue that in the SMC, SiC forms at lower temperature than graphite dust, whereas the reverse situation occurs in the Galaxy where SiC condenses at higher temperatures and forms first. Dust input into the interstellar medium by AGB stars consists mostly of carbonaceous dust, with little SiC or silicate dust. Only the two coolest stars show a 30-micron band due to MgS dust. We suggest that this is due to the fact that, in the SMC, mass-losing AGB stars generally have low circumstellar (dust) optical depth and therefore effective heating of dust by the central star does not allow temperatures below the 650 K necessary for MgS to exist as a solid. Gas phase C$_2$H$_2$ bands are stronger...

Lagadec, E; Sloan, G C; Matsuura, M; Wood, P; Harris, G J; Van Loon, J T; Blommaert, J A D L; Hony, S; Groenewegen, M A T; Feast, M W; Whitelock, P A; Menzies, J W; Cioni, M R; Waters, L B F M; Lagadec, Eric; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Matsuura, Mikako; Wood, Peter; Loon, Jacco Th. van

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Commercial new construction | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6: Complete the ENERGY STAR lifecycle See projects that have been Designed to Earn the ENERGY STAR 1 World Green Building Trends: Business Benefits Driving New and Retrofit...

175

Star Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Name Star Biomass Place India Sector Biomass Product Plans to set up biomass projects in Rajasthan. References Star Biomass1 LinkedIn...

176

ENERGY STAR Score for Hospitals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hospitals in the United States Page 1 ENERGY STAR Score for Hospitals in the United States Technical Reference OVERVIEW The ENERGY STAR Score for Hospitals applies to general...

177

A Minimum Column Density of 1 g cm^-2 for Massive Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Massive stars are very rare, but their extreme luminosities make them both the only type of young star we can observe in distant galaxies and the dominant energy sources in the universe today. They form rarely because efficient radiative cooling keeps most star-forming gas clouds close to isothermal as they collapse, and this favors fragmentation into stars ~ 1 g cm^-2 can avoid fragmentation and form massive stars. This threshold, and the environmental variation of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) that it implies, naturally explain the characteristic column densities of massive star clusters and the difference between the radial profiles of Halpha and UV emission in galactic disks. The existence of a threshold also implies that there should be detectable variations in the IMF with environment within the Galaxy and in the characteristic column densities of massive star clusters between galaxies, and that star formation rates in some galactic environments may have been systematically underestimated.

Mark R. Krumholz; Christopher F. McKee

2008-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

178

Protoneutron Star Winds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutrino-driven winds are thought to accompany the Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling phase of nascent protoneutron stars in the first seconds after a core-collapse supernova. These outflows are a likely candidate as the astrophysical site for rapid neutron-capture nucleosynthesis (the r-process). In this chapter we review the physics of protoneutron star winds and assess their potential as a site for the production of the heavy r-process nuclides. We show that spherical transonic protoneutron star winds do not produce robust $r$-process nucleosynthesis for `canonical' neutron stars with gravitational masses of 1.4 M_sun and coordinate radii of 10 km. We further speculate on and review some aspects of neutrino-driven winds from protoneutron stars with strong magnetic fields.

Todd A. Thompson

2003-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

179

Electrically charged compact stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

180

Spitzer spectroscopy of carbon stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present Spitzer Space telescope spectroscopic observations of 14 carbon-rich AGB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. SiC dust is seen in most of the carbon-rich stars but it is weak compared to LMC stars. The SiC feature is strong only for stars with significant dust excess, opposite to what is observed for Galactic stars. We argue that in the SMC, SiC forms at lower temperature than graphite dust, whereas the reverse situation occurs in the Galaxy where SiC condenses at higher temperatures and forms first. Dust input into the interstellar medium by AGB stars consists mostly of carbonaceous dust, with little SiC or silicate dust. Only the two coolest stars show a 30-micron band due to MgS dust. We suggest that this is due to the fact that, in the SMC, mass-losing AGB stars generally have low circumstellar (dust) optical depth and therefore effective heating of dust by the central star does not allow temperatures below the 650 K necessary for MgS to exist as a solid. Gas phase C$_2$H$_2$ bands are stronger in the SMC than in the LMC or Galaxy. This is attributed to an increasing C/O ratio at low metallicity. We present a colour-colour diagram based on Spitzer IRAC and MIPS colours to discriminate between O- and C-rich stars. We show that AGB stars in the SMC become carbon stars early in the thermal-pulsing AGB evolution, and remain optically visible for $\\sim 6 \\times 10^5$ yr. For the LMC, this lifetime is $\\sim 3 \\times 10^5$ yr. The superwind phase traced with Spitzer lasts for $\\sim 10^4$ yr. Spitzer spectra of a K supergiant and a compact HII region are also given.

Eric Lagadec; Albert A. Zijlstra; G. C. Sloan; Mikako Matsuura; Peter Wood; G. J. Harris; Jacco Th. van Loon; J. A. D. L. Blommaert; S. Hony; M. A. T. Groenewegen; M. W. Feast; P. A. Whitelock; J. W. Menzies; M. -R. Cioni; L. B. F. M. Waters

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Star Formation from Galaxies to Globules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The empirical laws of star formation suggest that galactic-scale gravity is involved, but they do not identify the actual triggering mechanisms for clusters in the final stages. Many other triggering processes satisfy the empirical laws too, including turbulence compression and expanding shell collapse. The self-similar nature of the gas and associated young stars suggests that turbulence is more directly involved, but the small scale morphology of gas around most embedded clusters does not look like a random turbulent flow. Most clusters look triggered by other nearby stars. Such a prominent local influence makes it difficult to understand the universality of the Kennicutt and Schmidt laws on galactic scales. A unified view of multi-scale star formation avoids most of these problems. Ambient self-gravity produces spiral arms and drives much of the turbulence that leads to self-similar structures, while localized energy input from existing clusters and field supernovae triggers new clusters in pre-existing cl...

Elmegreen, B G

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho) Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho) Questar Gas - Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho) < Back Eligibility Construction Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Idaho Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount New Construction Home Options Builder Option Package 1: $50 (single family), $50 (multifamily) Builder Option Package 2: $100 (single family), $100 (multifamily) Energy Star 3.0: $300 (single family), $200 (multifamily) High Performance Home: $500 (single family), $300 (multifamily)

183

Star Formation and Chemical Evolution of Lyman-Break Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The number density and clustering properties of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) observed at redshift $z\\sim 3$ are best explained by assuming that they are associated with the most massive haloes at $z\\sim 3$ predicted in hierarchical models of structure formation. In this paper we study, under the same assumption, how star formation and chemical enrichment may have proceeded in the LBG population. A consistent model, in which the amount of cold gas available for star formation must be regulated, is suggested. It is found that gas cooling in dark haloes provides a natural regulation process. In this model, the star formation rate in an LBG host halo is roughly constant over about 1 Gyr. The predicted star formation rates and effective radii are consistent with observations. The metallicity of the gas associated with an LBG is roughly equal to the chemical yield, or about the order of $1 Z_{\\odot}$ for a Salpeter IMF. The contribution to the total metals of LBGs is roughly consistent with that obtained from the observed cosmic star formation history. The model predicts a marked radial metallicity gradient in a galaxy, with the gas in the outer region having much lower metallicity. As a result, the metallicities for the damped Lyman-alpha absorption systems expected from the LBG population are low. Since LBG halos are filled with hot gas in this model, their contributions to the soft X-ray background and to the UV ionization background are calculated and discussed.

Chenggang Shu

2000-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

184

ENERGY STAR Qualified Room Air Conditioners | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data ENERGY STAR Qualified Room Air Conditioners Dataset Summary Description Room Air Conditioners that have earned the ENERGY STAR are more efficient than standard models. ENERGY STAR is the trusted symbol for energy efficiency helping consumers save money and protect the environment through energy-efficient products and practices. More information on ENERGY STAR is available at www.energystar.gov. Tags {"Room Air Conditioners","Energy Star",products,"energy efficiency",efficient,"greenhouse gas emissions",climate,utility,utilities,household,savings,labels,partners,certification}

185

STAR FORMATION RATES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE NATURE OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC SCALING RELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate scaling relations between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for both local Galactic clouds and a sample of external galaxies. We specifically consider relations between the star formation rates and measurements of dense, as well as total, molecular gas masses. We argue that there is a fundamental empirical scaling relation that directly connects the local star formation process with that operating globally within galaxies. Specifically, the total star formation rate in a molecular cloud or galaxy is linearly proportional to the mass of dense gas within the cloud or galaxy. This simple relation, first documented in previous studies, holds over a span of mass covering nearly nine orders of magnitude and indicates that the rate of star formation is directly controlled by the amount of dense molecular gas that can be assembled within a star formation complex. We further show that the star formation rates and total molecular masses, characterizing both local clouds and galaxies, are correlated over similarly large scales of mass and can be described by a family of linear star formation scaling laws, parameterized by f{sub DG}, the fraction of dense gas contained within the clouds or galaxies. That is, the underlying star formation scaling law is always linear for clouds and galaxies with the same dense gas fraction. These considerations provide a single unified framework for understanding the relation between the standard (nonlinear) extragalactic Schmidt-Kennicutt scaling law, that is typically derived from CO observations of the gas, and the linear star formation scaling law derived from HCN observations of the dense gas.

Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lombardi, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Alves, Joao F., E-mail: clada@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jforbrich@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: marco.lombardi@gmail.com, E-mail: joao.alves@univie.ac.at [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

magnitude larger than in star-forming galaxies. This all suggests a heating source other than stars and the AGN is the obvious  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and will thus be an important tool for unbiased surveys of metal-enriched H 2 gas around objects in the distant; ####### ## ###### NATURE VOL 409 4 JANUARY 2001 www.nature.com ## these observations have yielded gas/dust ratios much less of giant planet formation by rapid gas depletion around young stars. Nature 373, 494±496 (1995). 8. Dent, W

Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan van

187

Analysis of Star Formation in Galaxy-like Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the effects of hierarchical aggregation on the triggering of star formation in galactic-like objects. We include a simple star formation model to transform the cold gas in dense regions into stars. Simulations with different parameters have been performed in order to quantify the dependence of the results on the parameters. We then resort to stellar population synthesis models to trace the color evolution of each object with red-shift and in relation to their merger histories. We find that, in a hierarchical clustering scenario, the process of assembling of the structure is one natural mechanism that may trigger star formation. The resulting star formation rate history for each individual galactic object is composed of a continuous one ($\\leq 3 \\rm{M_{\\odot}/yr}$) and a series of star bursts. We find that even the accretion of a small satellite can be correlated with a stellar burst. Massive mergers are found to be more efficient at transforming gas into stars

Patricia B. Tissera

1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

188

Leading organizations choose ENERGY STAR | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leading organizations choose ENERGY STAR Leading organizations choose ENERGY STAR Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Why design to earn ENERGY STAR Leading organizations choose ENERGY STAR Sell others on the idea of ENERGY STAR An overview of the ENERGY STAR lifecycle Design to earn ENERGY STAR Leading organizations choose ENERGY STAR Facebook's data center achieved Designed to Earn the ENERGY STAR More than

189

An HI Threshold for Star Cluster Formation in Tidal Debris  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Super star clusters are young, compact star clusters found in the central regions of interacting galaxies. Recently, they have also been reported to preferentially form in certain tidal tails, but not in others. In this paper, we have used 21 cm HI maps and the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of eight tidal tail regions of four merging galaxy pairs to compare the kiloparsec scale HI distribution with the location of super star clusters found from the optical images. For most of the tails, we find that there is an increase in super star cluster density with increasing projected HI column density, such that the star cluster density is highest when log N(HI) >= 20.6 cm^{-2}, but equal to the background count rate at lower HI column density. However, for two tails (NGC 4038/39 Pos A and NGC 3921), there is no significant star cluster population despite the presence of gas at high column density. This implies that the N(HI) threshold is a necessary but not sufficient condition for cluster formation. Gas volume density is likely to provide a more direct criterion for cluster formation, and other factors such as gas pressure or strength of encounter may also have an influence. Comparison of HI thresholds needed for formation of different types of stellar structures await higher resolution HI and optical observations of larger numbers of interacting galaxies.

A. Maybhate; J. Masiero; J. E. Hibbard; J. C. Charlton; C. Palma; K. A. Knierman; J. English

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

190

SUSTAINING STAR FORMATION RATES IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: SUPERNOVA-DRIVEN TURBULENT ACCRETION DISK MODELS APPLIED TO THINGS GALAXIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas disks of spiral galaxies can be described as clumpy accretion disks without a coupling of viscosity to the actual thermal state of the gas. The model description of a turbulent disk consisting of emerging and spreading clumps contains free parameters, which can be constrained by observations of molecular gas, atomic gas, and the star formation rate for individual galaxies. Radial profiles of 18 nearby spiral galaxies from THINGS, HERACLES, SINGS, and GALEX data are used to compare the observed star formation efficiency, molecular fraction, and velocity dispersion to the model. The observed radially decreasing velocity dispersion can be reproduced by the model. In the framework of this model, the decrease in the inner disk is due to the stellar mass distribution which dominates the gravitational potential. Introducing a radial break in the star formation efficiency into the model improves the fits significantly. This change in the star formation regime is realized by replacing the free-fall time in the prescription of the star formation rate with the molecule formation timescale. Depending on the star formation prescription, the break radius is located near the transition region between the molecular-gas-dominated and atomic-gas-dominated parts of the galactic disk or closer to the optical radius. It is found that only less massive galaxies (log M(M{sub sun}) {approx}gas loss via star formation by radial gas accretion within the disk. These galaxies can thus access their gas reservoirs with large angular momentum. On the other hand, the star formation of massive galaxies is determined by the external gas mass accretion rate from a putative spherical halo of ionized gas or from satellite accretion. In the absence of this external accretion, star formation slowly exhausts the gas within the optical disk within the star formation timescale.

Vollmer, Bernd [CDS, Observatoire astronomique, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'universite, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Leroy, Adam K., E-mail: bvollmer@astro.u-strasbg.fr [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Primordial Stellar Feedback and the Origin of Hyper Metal-Poor Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The apparent absence of stars in the Milky Way halo with -5 ~gas out of which the halo stars were born experienced a period of low or delayed star formation after the local universe was lit up by the first, metal-free generation of stars (Pop III). Negative feedback owed to the Pop III stars could initially have prevented the pre-Galactic halo from cooling, which thereby delayed the collapse and inhibited further star formation. During this period, however, the nucleosynthesis products of the first supernovae (SNe) had time to mix with the halo gas. As a result, the initially primordial gas was already weakly enriched in heavy elements, in particular iron, at the time of formation of the Galactic halo. The very high, observed C/Fe ratios in the two recently discovered hyper metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]naturally explained by a combination of pre-enrichment by Pop III stars and local enrichment by subsequent generations of massive, rotating stars, for which the most massive ones end their lives as black hole-forming SNe, only ejecting their outer (carbon-rich) layers. The possible existence of populations of mega metal-poor/iron-free stars ([Fe/H]<-6) is also discussed.

Torgny Karlsson

2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

192

Linking the Metallicity Distribution of Galactic Halo Stars to the Enrichment History of the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare the metallicity distribution of Galactic Halo stars with 3D realizations of hierarchical galaxy formation. Outflows from dwarf galaxies enrich the intergalactic medium inhomogeneously, at a rate depending on the local galaxy density. Consequently, the first stars created in small early-forming galaxies are less metal-rich that the first stars formed in more massive galaxies which typically form later. As most halo stars are likely to originate in accreted dwarfs, while disk stars formed out of outflow-enriched gas, this scenario naturally generates a ``metallicity floor'' for old disk stars, which we find to be roughly coincident with the higher end of our predicted metallicity distribution of halo stars, in agreement with observations. The broad and centrally peaked distribution of halo star metallicities is well reproduced in our models, with a natural dispersion depending on the exact accretion history. Our modeling includes the important ``baryonic stripping'' effect of early outflows, which brush away the tenuously held gas in neighboring pre-virialized density perturbations. This stripping process does not significantly modify the predicted shape of the halo star metal distribution but inhibits star-formation and hence the number of accreted stars, helping to reproduce the observed total Galactic halo luminosity and also the lack of low-luminosity local dwarf galaxies relative to N-body predictions.

Evan Scannapieco; Tom Broadhurst

2000-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

193

Hypernuclear Physics for Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of hypernuclear physics for the physics of neutron stars is delineated. Hypernuclear potentials in dense matter control the hyperon composition of dense neutron star matter. The three-body interactions of nucleons and hyperons determine the stiffness of the neutron star equation of state and thereby the maximum neutron star mass. Two-body hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions give rise to hyperon pairing which exponentially suppresses cooling of neutron stars via the direct hyperon URCA processes. Non-mesonic weak reactions with hyperons in dense neutron star matter govern the gravitational wave emissions due to the r-mode instability of rotating neutron stars.

Jurgen Schaffner-Bielich

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

194

Role of isospin physics in supernova matter and neutron stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the liquid-gas phase transition of hot protoneutron stars shortly after their birth following supernova explosion and the composition and structure of hyperon-rich (proto)neutron stars within a relativistic mean-field model where the nuclear symmetry energy has been constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. Light clusters are abundantly formed with increasing temperature well inside the neutrino-sphere for an uniform supernova matter. Liquid-gas phase transition is found to suppress the cluster yield within the coexistence phase as well as decrease considerably the neutron-proton asymmetry over a wide density range. We find symmetry energy has a modest effect on the boundaries and the critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, and the composition depends more sensitively on the number of trapped neutrinos and temperature of the protoneutron star. The influence of hyperons in the dense interior of stars makes the overall equation of state soft. However, neutrino trapping distinctly delays the appearance of hyperons due to abundance of electrons. We also find that a softer symmetry energy further makes the onset of hyperon less favorable. The resulting structures of the (proto)neutron stars with hyperons and with liquid-gas phase transition are discussed.

Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

195

Service providers | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

buildings and industrial plants. Photo of a man with a clipboard. Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Find how-to guides and training for individuals who sign off on...

196

STAR FORMATION IN THE OUTER DISK OF SPIRAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We combine new deep and wide field of view H{alpha} imaging of a sample of eight nearby (d Almost-Equal-To 17 Mpc) spiral galaxies with new and archival H I and CO imaging to study the star formation and the star formation regulation in the outer disk. We find that, in agreement with previous studies, star formation in the outer disk has low covering fractions, and star formation is typically organized into spiral arms. The star formation in the outer disk is at extremely low levels, with typical star formation rate surface densities of {approx}10{sup -5} to 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. We find that the ratio of the radial extent of detected H II regions to the radius of the H I disk is typically {approx}>85%. This implies that in order to further our understanding of the implications of extended star formation, we must further our understanding of the formation of extended H I disks. We measure the gravitational stability of the gas disk, and find that the outer gaseous disk is typically a factor of {approx}2 times more stable than the inner star-forming disk. We measure the surface density of outer disk H I arms, and find that the disk is closer to gravitational instability along these arms. Therefore, it seems that spiral arms are a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for star formation in the outer disk. We use an estimation of the flaring of the outer gas disk to illustrate the effect of flaring on the Schmidt power-law index; we find that including flaring increases the agreement between the power-law indices of the inner and outer disks.

Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Cote, Stephanie [Canadian Gemini Office, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria (Canada); Schade, David, E-mail: barneskl@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: Stephanie.Cote@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: David.Schade@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria (Canada)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

197

Southwest Gas Corporation - Residential and Builder Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heater: 450 Natural Gas Clothes Dryer: 30 Windows: 0.95sq ft Attic Insulation: 0.15sq ft Floor Insulation: 0.30sq ft Builders Energy Star Certified Home: 450...

198

ENERGY STAR industrial partnership | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR industrial partnership ENERGY STAR industrial partnership Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Get started with ENERGY STAR Make the business case Build an energy management program Measure, track, and benchmark Improve energy performance ENERGY STAR industrial partnership New ENERGY STAR industrial partners Energy guides Energy efficiency and air regulation

199

Use ENERGY STAR benchmarking tools | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use ENERGY STAR benchmarking tools Use ENERGY STAR benchmarking tools Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section How can we help you? Build an energy program Improve building and plant performance Earn the ENERGY STAR and other recognition Benchmark energy use Learn about benchmarking Use ENERGY STAR benchmarking tools ENERGY STAR in action Communicate and educate

200

Columbia Gas of Virginia - Home Savings Rebate Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Columbia Gas of Virginia - Home Savings Rebate Program Columbia Gas of Virginia - Home Savings Rebate Program Columbia Gas of Virginia - Home Savings Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Virginia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Star Gas Storage Water Heater: $50 Energy Star Gas Tankless Water Heater: $300 High Efficiency Gas Furnace: $300 High Efficiency Windows (Replacement): $1/sq. ft. Attic and Floor Insulation (Replacement): $0.30/sq. ft. Duct Insulation (Replacement): $200 - $250/site Provider Columbia Gas of Virginia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Monolithic or hierarchical star formation? A new statistical analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider an analytic model of cosmic star formation which incorporates supernova feedback, gas accretion and enriched outflows, reproducing the history of cosmic star formation, metallicity, supernovae type II rates and the fraction of baryons allocated to structures. We present a new statistical treatment of the available observational data on the star formation rate and metallicity that accounts for the presence of possible systematics. We then employ a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to compare the predictions of our model with observations and derive constraints on the 7 free parameters of the model. We find that the dust correction scheme one chooses to adopt for the star formation data is critical in determining which scenario is favoured between a hierarchical star formation model, where star formation is prolonged by accretion, infall and merging, and a monolithic scenario, where star formation is rapid and efficient. We distinguish between these modes by defining a characteristic minimum mass, M > 10^{11} M_solar, in our fiducial model, for early type galaxies where star formation occurs efficiently. Our results indicate that the hierarchical star formation model can achieve better agreement with the data, but that this requires a high efficiency of supernova-driven outflows. In a monolithic model, our analysis points to the need for a mechanism that drives metal-poor winds, perhaps in the form of supermassive black hole-induced outflows. Furthermore, the relative absence of star formation beyond z ~ 5 in the monolithic scenario requires an alternative mechanism to dwarf galaxies for reionizing the universe at z ~ 11, as required by observations of the microwave background. While the monolithic scenario is less favoured in terms of its quality-of-fit, it cannot yet be excluded.

Marios Kampakoglou; Roberto Trotta; Joe Silk

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

ENERGY STAR Focus on Energy Efficiency in Printing | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip to main content ENERGY STAR logo Skip directly to page content Facebook Twitter YouTube Our Blog Search Search Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR...

203

ENERGY STAR certification for your building | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that your building can earn ENERGY STAR certification just like a refrigerator or light bulb? The mark of efficiency No matter where you see it, the ENERGY STAR label means the...

204

ENERGY STAR Small Business Network List | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip to main content ENERGY STAR logo Skip directly to page content Facebook Twitter YouTube Our Blog Search Search Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR...

205

ENERGY STAR Guidelines for Energy Management | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

206

ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year Awards | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

207

Earn the ENERGY STAR and other recognition | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

208

ENERGY STAR portfolio-wide recognition | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

209

ENERGY STAR Commercial Buildings College Course | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program...

210

Making Carbon in Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The triple alpha process plays an important role in the production of 12C in stars. Its rate is known with an accuracy of about 12%. We examine the corresponding uncertainties introduced in the description of pre-supernova stars, of nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse SN explosion, and of the production of 12C during the third dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. For the AGB case we consider also the effects of uncertainties in the 14N(p,gamma)15O rate. We conclude that the present accuracy of the triplr alpha rate is inadequate and describe new experiments that will lead to a more accurate value.

Sam M. Austin

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

Effects of dark matter annihilation on the first stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the evolution of the first stars in the universe (Population III) from the early pre-Main Sequence until the end of helium burning in the presence of WIMP dark matter annihilation inside the stellar structure. The two different mechanisms that can provide this energy source are the contemporary contraction of baryons and dark matter, and the capture of WIMPs by scattering off the gas with subsequent accumulation inside the star. We find that the first mechanism can generate an equilibrium phase, previously known as a "dark star", which is transient and present in the very early stages of pre-MS evolution. The mechanism of scattering and capture acts later, and can support the star virtually forever, depending on environmental characteristic of the dark matter halo and on the specific WIMP model.

F. Iocco; A. Bressan; E. Ripamonti; R. Schneider; A. Ferrara; P. Marigo

2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

ENERGY STAR Score for Hotels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hotels in the United States Page 1 ENERGY STAR Score for Hotels in the United States Technical Reference OVERVIEW The ENERGY STAR Score for Hotels applies to properties renting...

213

STAR FORMATION IN MASSIVE CLUSTERS VIA BONDI ACCRETION  

SciTech Connect

Essentially all stars form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs). However, inside GMCs, most of the gas does not participate in star formation; rather, denser gas accumulates in clumps in the GMC, with the bulk of the stars in a given GMC forming in a few of the most massive clumps. In the Milky Way, these clumps have masses M{sub cl} {approx}< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} of the GMC, radii r{sub cl} {approx} 1 pc, and free-fall times {tau}{sub cl} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} yr. We show that clumps inside GMCs should accrete at a modified Bondi accretion rate, which depends on clump mass as M-dot{sub cl}{approx}M{sub cl}{sup 5/4}. This rate is initially rather slow, usually slower than the initial star formation rate inside the clump (we adopt the common assumption that inside the clump, M-dot{sub *}={epsilon}{sub ff}M{sub cl}/{tau}{sub cl}, with {epsilon}{sub ff} Almost-Equal-To 0.017). However, after {approx}2 GMC free-fall times {tau}{sub GMC}, the clump accretion rate accelerates rapidly; formally, the clump can accrete the entire GMC in {approx}3{tau}{sub GMC}. At the same time, the star formation rate accelerates, tracking the Bondi accretion rate. If the GMC is disrupted by feedback from the largest clump, half the stars in that clump form in the final {tau}{sub GMC} before the GMC is disrupted. The theory predicts that the distribution of effective star formation rates, measured per GMC free-fall time, is broad, ranging from {approx}0.001 up to 0.1 or larger and that the mass spectrum of star clusters is flatter than that of clumps, consistent with observations.

Murray, Norman; Chang, Philip, E-mail: murray@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

214

The Star Formation History in a Hierarchical Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations now probe the star formation history of the Universe back to a redshift of $z\\sim5$. We investigate whether the predictions of semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on hierarchical Cold Dark Matter (CDM) type models are in agreement with these direct observations and also with the ``fossil'' evidence contained in constraints on the ages of present day early-type galaxies. Previous models predicted that the star formation rate density falls off rather steeply at $z\\ga 2$, and correspondingly that the majority of the stars in the Universe formed at relatively low redshift. We investigate the effect of including a bursting mode of star formation, assuming that galaxy-galaxy mergers trigger starbursts and using the merger rate that arises naturally in the CDM merging hierarchy. The resulting starbursts substantially increase the global star formation rate at high redshift, leading to predictions that are in good agreement with the star formation rate density at $z\\sim3$ obtained from sub-millimeter observations (SCUBA) and optical/UV estimates after correction for dust extinction. The mass of stars formed at $z \\ge 3$ is correspondingly in better agreement with the fossil evidence. We also investigate complementary global quantities such as the mass of cold gas and the average metallicity of cold gas as a function of redshift, and the integrated extra-galactic background light. We argue that these observations, taken together, provide strong constraints on the star formation history of the Universe, and that hierarchical models of the CDM type are in reasonable agreement with these observations when starbursts are included.

Rachel S. Somerville; Joel R. Primack

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Barron Electric Cooperative - Energy Star Appliance & Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barron Electric Cooperative - Energy Star Appliance & Energy Efficient Lighting Rebate Program Barron Electric Cooperative - Energy Star Appliance & Energy Efficient Lighting...

216

Learn the benefits | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

217

About the battle | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

218

High-gravity central stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NLTE spectral analyses of high-gravity central stars by means of state-of-the-art model atmosphere techniques provide information about the precursor AGB stars. The hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars allow investigations on the intershell matter which is apparently exhibited at the stellar surface. We summarize recent results from imaging, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry.

Thomas Rauch

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

219

Comet Riders--Nuclear nomads to the stars  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the potential role of an evolutionary family of advanced space nuclear power systems (solid core reactor, gas core reactor, and thermonulcear fusion systems) in the detailed exploration of Solar System comets and in the use of interstellar comes to support migratory journeys to the stars by both human beings and their smart robot systems. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Angelo, J.A. Jr. (Science Applications International Corp., Melbourne, FL (United States)); Buden, D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

ENERGY STAR service and product provider training series | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

service and product provider training series service and product provider training series Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section How can ENERGY STAR help your business? Get started Join ENERGY STAR as a partner ENERGY STAR service & product provider training series Service and product provider's marketing toolkit ENERGY STAR sales tools for service and product providers

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

ENERGY STAR plant certification | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

» ENERGY STAR plant certification » ENERGY STAR plant certification Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Get started with ENERGY STAR Make the business case Build an energy management program Measure, track, and benchmark Improve energy performance Industrial service and product providers Earn recognition ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year Award

222

Campaigns and incentive programs that incorporate ENERGY STAR | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Campaigns and incentive programs that incorporate ENERGY STAR Campaigns and incentive programs that incorporate ENERGY STAR Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Policies that specify the use of ENERGY STAR tools Campaigns and incentive programs that incorporate ENERGY STAR Lead by example Gather support Develop programs and policies Host a competition Use financing vehicles

223

Window To The Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present Window To The Stars, a graphical user interface to the popular TWIN single/binary stellar evolution code, for novices, students and professional astrophysicists. It removes the drudgery associated with the traditional approach to running the code, while maintaining the power, output quality and flexibility a modern stellar evolutionist requires. It is currently being used for cutting edge research and interactive teaching.

Robert G. Izzard; Evert Glebbeek

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

224

Cascade Natural Gas - Conservation Incentives for New Homes | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cascade Natural Gas - Conservation Incentives for New Homes Cascade Natural Gas - Conservation Incentives for New Homes Cascade Natural Gas - Conservation Incentives for New Homes < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heating Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnace: $150 High Efficiency Natural Gas Hearth: $70 Conventional Natural Gas Water Heater: $40 Condensing Tankless Water Heater: $200 Combined Domestic Water/Hydronic Space Heating System (usingTankless Water Heater): $800 Energy Star Certified Home: $350 Energy Star Certified Plus Home: $750

225

About ENERGY STAR for commercial and industrial buildings | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR for commercial and industrial buildings ENERGY STAR for commercial and industrial buildings Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section How can we help you? Find out who's partnered with ENERGY STAR Become an ENERGY STAR partner Find ENERGY STAR certified buildings and plants ENERGY STAR certification Featured research and reports Facts and stats Climate change and buildings

226

Earn ENERGY STAR certification | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earn ENERGY STAR certification Earn ENERGY STAR certification Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section How can we help you? Build an energy program Improve building and plant performance Earn the ENERGY STAR and other recognition Benchmark energy use ENERGY STAR in action Communicate and educate ENERGY STAR communications toolkit Bring Your Green to Work with ENERGY STAR

227

Leading firms choose ENERGY STAR | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leading firms choose ENERGY STAR Leading firms choose ENERGY STAR Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Why you should design to earn the ENERGY STAR Leading firms choose ENERGY STAR Why new doesn't always mean efficient Follow EPA's step-by-step process ENERGY STAR Challenge for Architects Leading firms choose ENERGY STAR Facebook data center Hundreds of leading A/E firms have already partnered

228

Halo Star Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this review, I will discuss a few problems which point to the need for improved stellar evolution models of halo stars. Current stellar evolution models do not match the observed $^7$Li abundance patterns, suggesting that the input physics and/or the assumptions used in constructing the models are in need of revision. It appears that all halo stars have suffered some $^7$Li depletion, implying that the primordial $^7$Li abundance is higher than that presently observed in hot halo stars. Observations of abundances of various elements in globular cluster giant branch stars have suggested for some time now that some form of deep mixing, which is not present in theoretical models, occurs in halo stars. The driving mechanism for this mixing, and its incorporation into stellar models remain one of the key problems in stellar modeling. Current theoretical isochrones are able to provide a good match to observed colour-magnitude diagrams. However, there is some evidence that the theoretical luminosity functions are in disagreement with observations. This is an area which requires further study, as it suggests that the relative main sequence/giant branch lifetimes predicted by the models are incorrect. A discussion of some of the uncertainties involved in determining the ages of globular clusters is presented. The absolute ages of globular clusters provide a lower bound to the age of the universe, and so are of great interest to cosmologists. Unfortunately, present uncertainties in stellar models lead to a rather large range in the inferred ages of globular clusters of 11 -- 18 Gyr.

Brian Chaboyer

1995-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

229

Cerenkov radiation and scalar stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the possibility that a charged particle moving in the gravitational field generated by a scalar star could radiate energy via a recently proposed gravitational \\v{C}erenkov mechanism. We numerically prove that this is not possible for stable boson stars. We also show that soliton stars could have \\v{C}erenkov radiation for particular values of the boson mass, although diluteness of the star grows and actual observational possibility decreases for the more usually discussed boson masses. These conclusions diminish, although do not completely rule out, the observational possibility of actually detecting scalar stars using this mechanism, and lead us to consider other forms, like gravitational lensing.

S. Capozziello; G. Lambiase; Diego F. Torres

2000-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

Holographic cold nuclear matter and neutron star  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have previously found a new phase of cold nuclear matter based on a holographic gauge theory, where baryons are introduced as instanton gas in the probe D8/$\\overline{\\rm D8}$ branes. In our model, we could obtain the equation of state (EOS) of our nuclear matter by introducing fermi momentum. Then, here we apply this model to the neutron star and study its mass and radius by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations in terms of the EOS given here. We give some comments for our holographic model from a viewpoint of the other field theoretical approaches.

Kazuo Ghoroku; Kouki Kubo; Motoi Tachibana; Fumihiko Toyoda

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

231

An HI Threshold for Star Cluster Formation in Tidal Debris  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Super star clusters are young, compact star clusters found in the central regions of interacting galaxies. Recently, they have also been reported to preferentially form in certain tidal tails, but not in others. In this paper, we have used 21 cm HI maps and the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of eight tidal tail regions of four merging galaxy pairs to compare the kiloparsec scale HI distribution with the location of super star clusters found from the optical images. For most of the tails, we find that there is an increase in super star cluster density with increasing projected HI column density, such that the star cluster density is highest when log N(HI) >= 20.6 cm^{-2}, but equal to the background count rate at lower HI column density. However, for two tails (NGC 4038/39 Pos A and NGC 3921), there is no significant star cluster population despite the presence of gas at high column density. This implies that the N(HI) threshold is a necessary but not sufficient condition for clust...

Maybhate, A; Hibbard, J E; Charlton, J C; Palma, C; Knierman, K A; English, J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stars with masses of >~ 20 solar masses have short Kelvin times that enable them to reach the main sequence while still accreting from their natal clouds. The resulting nuclear burning produces a huge luminosity and a correspondingly large radiation pressure force on dust grains in the accreting gas. This effect may limit the upper mass of stars that can form by accretion. Indeed, simulations and analytic calculations to date have been unable to resolve the mystery of how stars of 50 solar masses and up form. We present two new ideas to solve the radiation pressure problem. First, we use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study the collapse of massive cores. We find that in three dimensions a configuration in which radiation holds up an infalling envelope is Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, leading radiation driven bubbles to collapse and accretion to continue. We also present Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations showing that the cavities created by protostellar winds provides a valve that allow radiation to escape the accreting envelope, further reducing the ability of radiation pressure to inhibit accretion.

Mark R. Krumholz; Richard I. Klein; Christopher F. McKee

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

233

Detector limitations, STAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

Underwood, D. G.

1998-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

234

Theory of star formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ApJ, 533, McKee & Ostriker Grenier, I. A. , Casandjian, J. -has been termed dark gas (Grenier, Casandjian, & Terrier,

McKee, Christopher F.; Ostriker, Eve C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Stable dark energy stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gravastar picture is an alternative model to the concept of a black hole, where there is an effective phase transition at or near where the event horizon is expected to form, and the interior is replaced by a de Sitter condensate. In this work, a generalization of the gravastar picture is explored, by considering a matching of an interior solution governed by the dark energy equation of state, $\\omega\\equiv p/ \\rhosolution at a junction interface. The motivation for implementing this generalization arises from the fact that recent observations have confirmed an accelerated cosmic expansion, for which dark energy is a possible candidate. Several relativistic dark energy stellar configurations are analyzed by imposing specific choices for the mass function. The first case considered is that of a constant energy density, and the second choice, that of a monotonic decreasing energy density in the star's interior. The dynamical stability of the transition layer of these dark energy stars to linearized spherically symmetric radial perturbations about static equilibrium solutions is also explored. It is found that large stability regions exist that are sufficiently close to where the event horizon is expected to form, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of the dark energy stars, analyzed in this work, from an astrophysical black hole.

Francisco S. N. Lobo

2005-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

236

Star Formation in Space and Time: Taurus-Auriga  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To understand the formation of stellar groups, one must first document carefully the birth pattern within real clusters and associations. In this study of Taurus-Auriga, we combine pre-main-sequence ages from our own evolutionary tracks with stellar positions from observational surveys. Aided by the extensive, millimeter data on the molecular clouds, we develop a picture of the region's history. Star formation began, at a relatively low level and in a spatially diffuse manner, at least 10 Myr in the past. Within the last few million years, new stars have been produced at an accelerating rate, almost exclusively within a confined group of striated cloud filaments. The gas both inside and around the filaments appears to be in force balance. Thus, the appearance of the filaments is due to global, quasi-static contraction of the parent cloud material. Gravity drives this contraction and shock dissipation mediates it, but the internal motion of the gas does not appear to be turbulent. The accelerating nature of recent star formation means that the condensation of cloud cores is a threshold phenomenon, requiring a minimum background density. Other, nearby cloud regions, including Lupus and Chamaeleon, contain some locales that have attained this density, and others that have not. In the latter, we find extensive and sometimes massive molecular gas that is still devoid of young stars.

Francesco Palla; Steven W. Stahler

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

A CENSUS OF OXYGEN IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: AN EMPIRICAL MODEL LINKING METALLICITIES, STAR FORMATION RATES, AND OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution, we present the first census of oxygen in star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We examine three samples of galaxies with metallicities and star formation rates (SFRs) at z = 0.07, 0.8, and 2.26, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey. We infer the total mass of oxygen produced and mass of oxygen found in the gas-phase from our local SDSS sample. The star formation history is determined by requiring that galaxies evolve along the relation between stellar mass and SFR observed in our three samples. We show that the observed relation between stellar mass and SFR for our three samples is consistent with other samples in the literature. The mass-metallicity relation is well established for our three samples, and from this we empirically determine the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies. Thus, we are able to simultaneously constrain the SFRs and metallicities of galaxies over cosmic time, allowing us to estimate the mass of oxygen locked up in stars. Combining this work with independent measurements reported in the literature, we conclude that the loss of oxygen from the interstellar medium of local star-forming galaxies is likely to be a ubiquitous process with the oxygen mass loss scaling (almost) linearly with stellar mass. We estimate the total baryonic mass loss and argue that only a small fraction of the baryons inferred from cosmological observations accrete onto galaxies.

Zahid, H. J.; Dima, G. I.; Kewley, L. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Erb, D. K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, WI 53211 (United States); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Rm. N204 Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

A UNIVERSAL, LOCAL STAR FORMATION LAW IN GALACTIC CLOUDS, NEARBY GALAXIES, HIGH-REDSHIFT DISKS, AND STARBURSTS  

SciTech Connect

Star formation laws are rules that relate the rate of star formation in a particular region, either an entire galaxy or some portion of it, to the properties of the gas, or other galactic properties, in that region. While observations of Local Group galaxies show a very simple, local star formation law in which the star formation rate per unit area in each patch of a galaxy scales linearly with the molecular gas surface density in that patch, recent observations of both Milky Way molecular clouds and high-redshift galaxies apparently show a more complicated relationship in which regions of equal molecular gas surface density can form stars at quite different rates. These data have been interpreted as implying either that different star formation laws may apply in different circumstances, that the star formation law is sensitive to large-scale galaxy properties rather than local properties, or that there are high-density thresholds for star formation. Here we collate observations of the relationship between gas and star formation rate from resolved observations of Milky Way molecular clouds, from kpc-scale observations of Local Group galaxies, and from unresolved observations of both disk and starburst galaxies in the local universe and at high redshift. We show that all of these data are in fact consistent with a simple, local, volumetric star formation law. The apparent variations stem from the fact that the observed objects have a wide variety of three-dimensional size scales and degrees of internal clumping, so even at fixed gas column density the regions being observed can have wildly varying volume densities. We provide a simple theoretical framework to remove this projection effect, and we use it to show that all the data, from small solar neighborhood clouds with masses {approx}10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} to submillimeter galaxies with masses {approx}10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }, fall on a single star formation law in which the star formation rate is simply {approx}1% of the molecular gas mass per local free-fall time. In contrast, proposed star formation laws in which the star formation timescale is set by the galactic rotation period are inconsistent with the data from the Milky Way and the Local Group, while those in which the star formation rate is linearly proportional to the gas mass above some density threshold fail both in the Local Group and for starburst galaxies.

Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org, E-mail: dekel@phys.huji.ac.il, E-mail: cmckee@astro.berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

239

Find an ENERGY STAR service and product provider | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Find an ENERGY STAR service and product provider Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial...

240

Win ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Win ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

EPA's ENERGY STAR National Building Competition | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR National Building Competition Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new...

242

How can ENERGY STAR help your business? | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR help your business? Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction...

243

Bring Your Green to Work with ENERGY STAR | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bring Your Green to Work with ENERGY STAR Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new...

244

Join the ENERGY STAR Small Business Network | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Join the ENERGY STAR Small Business Network Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new...

245

Celebrating a Decade of ENERGY STAR Buildings | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Celebrating a Decade of ENERGY STAR Buildings Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new...

246

Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial...

247

ENERGY STAR Success Story: HEI Hotels & Resorts | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Story: HEI Hotels & Resorts HEI Hotels & Resorts is a growing hospitality company with 30 hotel properties in 13 states. Since launching its partnership with ENERGY STAR in 2006,...

248

ENERGY STAR Update: Change the World, Start with ENERGY STAR Kicks Off (April 12, 2013)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 2013 2, 2013 Change the World, Start with ENERGY STAR Kicks Off with Announcement of Top Pledge Drivers Earth Day is right around the corner and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is celebrating this important holiday by once again by announcing our top pledge drivers and inviting you to join all of us in changing the world with ENERGY STAR. Congratulations to: Georgia Power Company, Girl Scouts of the USA, Samsung Electronics, Nissan North America, and Ameren Illinois. Saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas pollution are more important than ever. Climate change is a real and urgent challenge affecting people and the environment worldwide. Through our collective energy-saving efforts, representing more than 3 million Americans, we are on track to save nearly $1.2

249

ENERGY STAR SNAPSHOT - Spring 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Snapshot data runs through June 30, 2010. Summary By mid-year 2010, commercial and industrial organizations have almost exceeded activity levels reached throughout all of 2009. From January through June 30, 2010: More than 80,000 buildings have benchmarked their energy usage with ENERGY STAR, of which 63,000 buildings received an ENERGY STAR energy performance score-nearly equivalent to the amount for all of 2009. Close to 3,200 buildings earned the ENERGY STAR label-the highest amount earned through two quarters of any year, and 80% higher than mid-year 2009. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot provides an at-a-glance summary of the latest national ENERGY STAR metrics to help you, our partners, see the impact of your efforts. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot is

250

ENERGY STAR EEPS Partnership Agreement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approval expires 02/29/2016 1 EPA Form No. 5900-33 ENERGY STAR Partnership Agreement Instructions for Partnering with ENERGY STAR ® As an Energy Efficiency Program Sponsor Organizations interested in partnering with ENERGY STAR as an Energy Efficiency Program Sponsor should take the following steps: 1. Review the Energy Efficiency Program Sponsors Program Definitions and Program Requirements documents. 2. Select the area(s) of interest for a new partnership on the Participation Form. Please

251

Snapshot (Spring 2012) | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

resources Small business resources State and local government resources Snapshot (Spring 2012) The ENERGY STAR Snapshot provides an at-a-glance summary of the key performance...

252

Building Technologies Program: ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with ENERGY STAR DOE conducts research, development, and deployment to improve the energy efficiency of existing homes using a whole-building approach, which results in the...

253

A Mosque Among the Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Mosque Among The Stars was the first anthology that dealt with the subject of Muslim characters and/or Islamic themes and Science Fiction.

Ahmad, Muhammad Aurangzeb; Khan, Ahmad

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

254

Snapshot (Fall 2009) | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to help ENERGY STAR partners see the impact of their efforts. It provides a look at: Trends in the energy performance rating of commercial and institutional buildings...

255

Snapshot (Spring 2009) | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to help ENERGY STAR partners see the impact of their efforts. It provides a look at: Trends in the energy performance rating of commercial and institutional buildings...

256

Snapshot (Fall 2008) | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to help ENERGY STAR partners see the impact of their efforts. It provides a look at: Trends in the energy performance rating of commercial and institutional buildings...

257

Snapshot (Spring 2008) | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to help ENERGY STAR partners see the impact of their efforts. It provides a look at: Trends in the energy performance rating of commercial and institutional buildings...

258

Industries in focus | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicators for plants Industries in focus Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers...

259

Plant energy auditing | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

track, and benchmark Improve energy performance ENERGY STAR industrial partnership Energy guides Energy efficiency and air regulation Plant energy auditing Industrial...

260

Improve energy performance | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

track, and benchmark Improve energy performance ENERGY STAR industrial partnership Energy guides Energy efficiency and air regulation Plant energy auditing Industrial...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ENERGY STAR Petroleum Energy Guide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

183 ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities For Petroleum Refineries An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and...

262

Energy Star Building Upgrade Manual  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

program helping businesses and individuals fight global warming through superior energy efficiency. ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual United States Environmental Protection...

263

Portable Data loggers | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

short list of companies that sell the products. Download more information about Portable Data Loggers here. Energy Efficient Products Learn about ENERGY STAR Products Save Energy...

264

Home Performance with Energy Star Financing | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Performance with Energy Star Financing Home Performance with Energy Star Financing Home Performance with Energy Star Financing < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Appliances & Electronics Other Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Bioenergy Solar Program Info Funding Source Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS)/Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) State New York Program Type State Loan Program Rebate Amount Up to 100% of costs; loans from $3,000 - $25,000 (minimum loan of $1,500 for income qualified customers); loan limit is $13,000 for projects with a

265

Star Products for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The star product formalism has proved to be an alternative formulation for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We want introduce here a covariant star product in order to extend the star product formalism to relativistic quantum mechanics in the proper time formulation.

P. Henselder

2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

266

ENERGY STAR Score for Medical Offices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 2013 ENERGY STAR Score for Medical Offices in the United States Page 1 ENERGY STAR Score for Medical Offices in the United States Technical Reference OVERVIEW The ENERGY STAR...

267

The quenching of star formation in accretion-driven clumpy turbulent tori of active galactic nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galactic gas-gas collisions involving a turbulent multiphase ISM share common ISM properties: dense extraplanar gas visible in CO, large linewidths (>= 50 km/s), strong mid-infrared H_2 line emission, low star formation activity, and strong radio continuum emission. Gas-gas collisions can occur in the form of ICM ram pressure stripping, galaxy head-on collisions, compression of the intragroup gas and/or galaxy ISM by an intruder galaxy which flies through the galaxy group at a high velocity, or external gas accretion on an existing gas torus in a galactic center. We suggest that the common theme of all these gas-gas interactions is adiabatic compression of the ISM leading to an increase of the turbulent velocity dispersion of the gas. The turbulent gas clouds are then overpressured and star formation is quenched. Within this scenario we developed a model for turbulent clumpy gas disks where the energy to drive turbulence is supplied by external infall or the gain of potential energy by radial gas accretion wi...

Vollmer, B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE COOL CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and H{alpha} (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to H{alpha} luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and H{alpha} morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given H{alpha} luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/H{alpha} ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) {approx} 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from {approx}0.05 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to {approx}5 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, H{alpha}, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14{sup +18}{sub -8}%. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rupke, David S. N., E-mail: mcdonald@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States)

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

269

The H II Region of a Primordial Star  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concordance model of cosmology and structure formation predicts the formation of isolated very massive stars at high redshifts in dark matter dominated halos of 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} Msun. These stars photo-ionize their host primordial molecular clouds, expelling all the baryons from their halos. When the stars die, a relic H II region is formed within which large amounts of molecular hydrogen form which will allow the gas to cool efficiently when gravity assembles it into larger dark matter halos. The filaments surrounding the first star hosting halo are largely shielded and provide the pathway for gas to stream into the halo when the star has died. We present the first fully three dimensional cosmological radiation hydrodynamical simulations that follow all these effects. A novel adaptive ray casting technique incorporates the time dependent radiative transfer around point sources. This approach is fast enough so that radiation transport, kinetic rate equations, and hydrodynamics are solved self-consistently. It retains the time derivative of the transfer equation and is explicitly photon conserving. This method is integrated with the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code enzo, and runs on distributed and shared memory parallel architectures. Where applicable the three dimensional calculation not only confirm expectations from earlier one dimensional results but also illustrate the multi-fold hydrodynamic complexities of H II regions. In the absence of stellar winds the circumstellar environments of the first supernovae and putative early gamma-ray bursts will be of low density {approx}1 cm{sup -3}. Albeit marginally resolved, ionization front instabilities lead to cometary and elephant trunk like small scale structures reminiscent of nearby star forming regions.

Abel, Tom; Wise, John H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bryan, Greg L.; /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys.

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

Physics of Neutron Star Crusts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

N. Chamel; P. Haensel

2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

271

Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating &...

272

ENERGY STAR Score for Medical Offices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Medical Offices in the United States Page 1 ENERGY STAR Score for Medical Offices in the United States Technical Reference OVERVIEW The ENERGY STAR Score for Medical Offices...

273

FORMING AN O STAR VIA DISK ACCRETION?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a {approx}10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of {approx}80 M{sub Sun} and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 {+-} 50 K and a mass of {approx}13 M{sub Sun }. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical timescale of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH{sub 3}OH and CH{sub 3}CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

Qiu Keping [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra, E-mail: kqiu@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

274

Covered Product Category: Gas Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas Storage Water Heaters Gas Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Gas Storage Water Heaters October 7, 2013 - 10:43am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

275

Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas Furnaces Gas Furnaces Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces October 7, 2013 - 10:39am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

276

ENERGY STAR Snapshot Spring 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spring 2012 Spring 2012 Snapshot data runs through December 31, 2011. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot provides an at-a-glance summary of the latest national ENERGY STAR metrics to help you, our partners, see the impact of your efforts. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot is distributed twice a year and provides: * Trends in energy benchmarking of commercial and industrial buildings. * State-by-state activity along with activity for the top Designated Market Areas. * Industrial sector participation in ENERGY STAR. * Trends in ENERGY STAR certified commercial and industrial facilities. Summary By the end of calendar year 2011, commercial and industrial organizations exceeded figures for benchmarking and certification that were achieved in 2010. Since June, 2011:

277

The Cosmological Context of Extraplanar Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I review evidence that galaxies form from gas that falls into potential wells cold, rather than from virialized gas, and that formation stops once an atmosphere of trapped virialized gas has accumulated. Disk galaxies do not have such atmospheres, so their formation is ongoing. During galaxy formation feedback is an efficient process, and the nuclear regions of disk galaxies blow winds. The cold infalling gas that drives continued star formation has a significant component of angular momentum perpendicular to that of the disk. Extraplanar gas has to be understood in the context set by nuclear outflows and cold skew-rotating cosmic infall.

James Binney

2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

278

Tidal disruptions in circumbinary discs (I): Star formation, dynamics, and binary evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In our current interpretation of the hierarchical structure of the universe it is well established that galaxies collide and merge with each other during their lifetime. If massive black holes (MBHs) reside in galactic centres, we expect them to form binaries in galactic nuclei surrounded by a circumbinary disc. If cooling is efficient enough, the gas in the disc will clump and trigger stellar formation in situ. In this first paper we address the evolution of the binary under the influence of the newly formed stars, which form individually and also clustered. We use SPH techniques to evolve the gas in the circumbinary disc and to study the phase of star formation. When the amount of gas in the disc is negligible, we further evolve the system with a high-accurate direct-summation $N-$body code to follow the evolution of the stars, the innermost binary and tidal disruption events (TDEs). For this, we modify the direct N-body code to (i) include treatment of TDEs and to (ii) include "gas cloud particles" that mimic the gas, so that the stellar clusters do not disolve when we follow their infall on to the MBHs. We find that the amount of stars disrupted by either infalling stellar clusters or individual stars is as large as 10^{-4}/yr per binary, higher than expected for typical galaxies.

Pau Amaro-Seoane; Patrick Brem; Jorge Cuadra

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

279

The Formation of the First Stars in the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this review, I survey our current understanding of how the very first stars in the universe formed, with a focus on three main areas of interest: the formation of the first protogalaxies and the cooling of gas within them, the nature and extent of fragmentation within the cool gas, and the physics -- in particular the interplay between protostellar accretion and protostellar feedback -- that serves to determine the final stellar mass. In each of these areas, I have attempted to show how our thinking has developed over recent years, aided in large part by the increasing ease with which we can now perform detailed numerical simulations of primordial star formation. I have also tried to indicate the areas where our understanding remains incomplete, and to identify some of the most important unsolved problems.

Simon C. O. Glover

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

280

The Formation of the First Stars in the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this review, I survey our current understanding of how the very first stars in the universe formed, with a focus on three main areas of interest: the formation of the first protogalaxies and the cooling of gas within them, the nature and extent of fragmentation within the cool gas, and the physics -- in particular the interplay between protostellar accretion and protostellar feedback -- that serves to determine the final stellar mass. In each of these areas, I have attempted to show how our thinking has developed over recent years, aided in large part by the increasing ease with which we can now perform detailed numerical simulations of primordial star formation. I have also tried to indicate the areas where our understanding remains incomplete, and to identify some of the most important unsolved problems.

Glover, S C O

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Quadrupole moments of rotating neutron stars and strange stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results for models of neutron stars and strange stars constructed using the Hartle-Thorne slow-rotation method with a wide range of equations of state, focusing on the values obtained for the angular momentum $J$ and the quadrupole moment $Q$, when the gravitational mass $M$ and the rotational frequency $\\Omega$ are specified. Building on previous work, which showed surprising uniformity in the behaviour of the moment of inertia for neutron-star models constructed with widely-different equations of state, we find similar uniformity for the quadrupole moment. These two quantities, together with the mass, are fundamental for determining the vacuum space-time outside neutron stars. We study particularly the dimensionless combination of parameters $QM/J^2$ (using units for which $c=G=1$). This quantity goes to 1 in the case of a Kerr-metric black hole and deviations away from 1 then characterize the difference between neutron-star and black-hole space-times. It is found that $QM/J^2$ for both neutron stars and strange stars decreases with increasing mass, for a given equation of state, reaching a value of around 2 (or even less) for maximum-mass models, meaning that their external space-time is then rather well approximated by the Kerr metric. If $QM/J^2$ is plotter against compactness $R/2M$ (where $R$ is the radius), it is found that the relationship is nearly unique for neutron-star models, independent of the equation of state, while it is significantly different for strange stars. This gives a new way of possibly distinguishing between them.

Martin Urbanec; John C. Miller; Zdenek Stuchlik

2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

282

ENERGY STAR certification for your building | ENERGY STAR Buildings &  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

certification for your building certification for your building Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Learn the benefits Get started Use Portfolio Manager Save energy Find financing Earn recognition 20-percent recognition ENERGY STAR certification How to apply for ENERGY STAR certification Tips for low-cost verifications Submit a profile of your building

283

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Learn the benefits Get started Use Portfolio Manager Save energy Stamp out energy waste Find cost-effective investments Engage occupants Purchase energy-saving products Put computers to sleep Get help from an expert Take a comprehensive approach

284

Portfolio Manager Technical Reference: ENERGY STAR Score | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR Score ENERGY STAR Score Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder Technical documentation

285

Sample ENERGY STAR performance documents | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Existing buildings Existing buildings » Use Portfolio Manager » Verify and document your savings » Sample ENERGY STAR performance documents Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Learn the benefits Get started Use Portfolio Manager The new ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager How Portfolio Manager helps you save The benchmarking starter kit

286

ENERGY STAR Focus on Energy Efficiency in Metalcasting | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metalcasting Metalcasting Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Get started with ENERGY STAR Make the business case Build an energy management program Measure, track, and benchmark Tools for benchmarking energy management practices Tools for tracking and benchmarking facility energy performance ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicators for plants

287

Dynamical Expansion of Ionization and Dissociation Front around a Massive Star : A Starburst Mechanism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We quantitatively examine the significance of star formation triggered in the swept-up shell around an expanding HII region. If the swept-up molecular gas is sufficiently massive, new OB stars massive enough to repeat the triggering process will form in the shell. We determine the lower limit (M_thr) for the mass of the star that sweeps up the molecular gas, where at least one new star with mass M_* > M_thr forms after the shell fragmentation. To calculate the threshold stellar mass, M_thr, we examine how massive molecular shells can form around various central stars, by performing detailed numerical radiation hydrodynamics calculations. The mass of the photodissociated gas is generally larger than the mass of the photoionized gas. However, the swept-up molecular mass exceeds the photodissociated mass with a higher-mass star of M_* > 20 Msun. The accumulated molecular mass generally increases with the stellar mass, and amounts to 10^{4-5} Msun for M_* > 20 Msun with an ambient density of n \\sim 100/cc. The threshold stellar mass is M_thr \\sim 18 Msun with the star-formation efficiency of \\epsilon \\sim 0.1 and n \\sim 100/cc. We examine the generality of this mode of run-away triggering for different sets of parameters, and found that M_thr \\sim 15-20 Msun in various situations. If the ambient density is too high or the star-formation efficiency is too low, the triggering is not run-away, but a single event.

Takashi Hosokawa; Shu-ichiro Inutsuka

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

288

A SIMPLE LAW OF STAR FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

We show that supersonic MHD turbulence yields a star formation rate (SFR) as low as observed in molecular clouds, for characteristic values of the free-fall time divided by the dynamical time, t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}, the Alfvenic Mach number, M{sub a}, and the sonic Mach number, M{sub s}. Using a very large set of deep adaptive-mesh-refinement simulations, we quantify the dependence of the SFR per free-fall time, {epsilon}{sub ff}, on the above parameters. Our main results are (1) that {epsilon}{sub ff} decreases exponentially with increasing t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}, but is insensitive to changes in M{sub s}, for constant values of t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn} and M{sub a}. (2) Decreasing values of M{sub a} (stronger magnetic fields) reduce {epsilon}{sub ff}, but only to a point, beyond which {epsilon}{sub ff} increases with a further decrease of M{sub a}. (3) For values of M{sub a} characteristic of star-forming regions, {epsilon}{sub ff} varies with M{sub a} by less than a factor of two. We propose a simple star formation law, based on the empirical fit to the minimum {epsilon}{sub ff}, and depending only on t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}: {epsilon}{sub ff} Almost-Equal-To {epsilon}{sub wind}exp (- 1.6 t{sub ff}/t{sub dyn}). Because it only depends on the mean gas density and rms velocity, this law is straightforward to implement in simulations and analytical models of galaxy formation and evolution.

Padoan, Paolo [ICREA and ICC, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Haugbolle, Troels [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Oestervoldgade 5-7., DK-1350, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordlund, Ake, E-mail: ppadoan@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: haugboel@nbi.dk, E-mail: aake@nbi.dk [Centre for Star and Planet Formation and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

289

Who else is partnered with ENERGY STAR? | ENERGY STAR Buildings...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hospital logo Increased its average ENERGY STAR score by 12 points over 2010 TIAA-CREF logo Achieved its 2012 goal of a 15% portfolio-wide energy reduction Transwestern...

290

The ENERGY STAR Guidelines for Energy Management | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a star. Your guide to building a strategic energy management program So you want to start saving energy, but you don't know where to begin. Or perhaps you've been managing energy...

291

ENERGY STAR Update: ENERGY STAR Low Carbon IT Campaign Kicks...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon IT Campaign Kicks Off 2013 with Organizations Pledging to Power Manage 360,000 Computers The ENERGY STAR Low Carbon IT (LCIT) Campaign, a nationwide effort to assist and...

292

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Plant Industrial Plant Certification Professional Engineers' Guide for Validating Statements of Energy Performance Office of Air and Radiation Climate Protection Partnerships Division June 2013 ii Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR program provides guidance, tools, and recognition to help companies improve the energy performance of their facilities and strengthen the effectiveness of their energy management program. Through ENERGY STAR, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers a number of forms of recognition, including certification for facility energy efficiency. ENERGY STAR certification for industrial plants recognizes individual manufacturing plants whose

293

COSMIC EVOLUTION OF STAR FORMATION ENHANCEMENT IN CLOSE MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS SINCE z = 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The infrared (IR) emission of 'M {sub *} galaxies' (10{sup 10.4} {star} {star formation enhancement induced by galaxy-galaxy interaction. Both the mean IR spectral energy distribution and mean IR luminosity of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in SFG+SFG (S+S) pairs in the redshift bin of 0.6 star formation enhancement. SFGs in S+S pairs in a lower redshift bin of 0.2 star formation enhancement. Together with the significant and strong sSFR enhancement shown by SFGs in a local sample of S+S pairs (obtained using previously published Spitzer observations), our results reveal a trend for the star formation enhancement in S+S pairs to decrease with increasing redshift. Between z = 0 and z = 1, this decline of interaction-induced star formation enhancement occurs in parallel with the dramatic increase (by a factor of {approx}10) of the sSFR of single SFGs, both of which can be explained by the higher gas fraction in higher-z disks. SFGs in mixed pairs (S+E pairs) do not show any significant star formation enhancement at any redshift. The difference between SFGs in S+S pairs and in S+E pairs suggests a modulation of the sSFR by the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the dark matter halos hosting these pairs.

Xu, C. K.; Shupe, D. L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Cooray, A.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bethermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Elbaz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Riguccini, L. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Marsden, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Oliver, S. J. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Pozzi, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); and others

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

Interstellar MHD Turbulence and Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter reviews the nature of turbulence in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) and its connections to the star formation (SF) process. The ISM is turbulent, magnetized, self-gravitating, and is subject to heating and cooling processes that control its thermodynamic behavior. The turbulence in the warm and hot ionized components of the ISM appears to be trans- or subsonic, and thus to behave nearly incompressibly. However, the neutral warm and cold components are highly compressible, as a consequence of both thermal instability in the atomic gas and of moderately-to-strongly supersonic motions in the roughly isothermal cold atomic and molecular components. Within this context, we discuss: i) the production and statistical distribution of turbulent density fluctuations in both isothermal and polytropic media; ii) the nature of the clumps produced by thermal instability, noting that, contrary to classical ideas, they in general accrete mass from their environment; iii) the density-magnetic field correla...

Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Self-Regulated Fueling of Galaxy Centers: Evidence for Star-Formation Feedback in IC342's Nucleus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using new, high-resolution interferometric observations of the CO and HCN molecules, we directly compare the molecular and ionized components of the interstellar medium in the center of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342, on spatial scales of ~ 10pc. The morphology of the tracers suggests that the molecular gas flow caused by a large-scale stellar bar has been strongly affected by the mechanical feedback from recent star formation activity within the central 100pc in the nucleus of the galaxy. Possibly, stellar winds and/or supernova shocks originating in the nuclear star cluster have compressed, and likely pushed outward, the infalling molecular gas, thus significantly reducing the gas supply to the central 10pc. Although our analysis currently lacks kinematic confirmation due to the face-on orientation of IC342, the described scenario is supported by the generally observed repetitive nature of star formation in the nuclear star clusters of late-type spiral galaxies.

Schinnerer, E; Meier, D S; Calzetti, D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Self-Regulated Fueling of Galaxy Centers: Evidence for Star-Formation Feedback in IC342's Nucleus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using new, high-resolution interferometric observations of the CO and HCN molecules, we directly compare the molecular and ionized components of the interstellar medium in the center of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342, on spatial scales of ~ 10pc. The morphology of the tracers suggests that the molecular gas flow caused by a large-scale stellar bar has been strongly affected by the mechanical feedback from recent star formation activity within the central 100pc in the nucleus of the galaxy. Possibly, stellar winds and/or supernova shocks originating in the nuclear star cluster have compressed, and likely pushed outward, the infalling molecular gas, thus significantly reducing the gas supply to the central 10pc. Although our analysis currently lacks kinematic confirmation due to the face-on orientation of IC342, the described scenario is supported by the generally observed repetitive nature of star formation in the nuclear star clusters of late-type spiral galaxies.

E. Schinnerer; T. Boeker; D. S. Meier; D. Calzetti

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

297

ENERGY STAR Newsletter: Fall 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in LOCATION> for a 40-minute brown bag session to find out how we can save energy, save money, and fight climate change when we "bring our green to work." ENERGY STAR, the U.S....

298

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Challenge Challenge for Industry Professional Engineers' Guide for Validating Statements of Energy Improvement Office of Air and Radiation Climate Protection Partnerships Division May 2013 Revised ii Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) ENERGY STAR program provides guidance, tools, and recognition to help companies improve their energy performance. ENERGY STAR is a voluntary partnership program that companies choose to join. Through ENERGY STAR, U.S. EPA offers a number of forms of recognition for achievements in energy efficiency. The ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry recognizes individual industrial sites for achieving a 10 percent reduction in energy intensity within 5 years from the conclusion of an established baseline. To be

299

Appendix 5 - STARS Architectual Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Last saved by Coombs Page 1 7/27/2012 Last saved by Coombs Page 1 7/27/2012 Draft Appendix 5 - STARS Architectural Overview ARC101 - Architectural Overview for Department of Energy iManage Program - STARS Project Deliverable ID: IT0013 Version number: 1.09 Draft/Final as of: 18 Oct 2005 Printed on: 27 Jul 2012 Author: Richard Popovich, STARS System Architect Richard.Popovich@hq.doe.gov (301) 903-2223 Owner: Laura Kramer, STARS Project Manager Status of Document Draft Delivered Accepted Last saved by Coombs Page 2 7/27/2012 Draft Document information Document source This document is maintained as an online document. Contact the author for the latest version. Revision history Version number Date Summary of changes Revised By 1.01 08 Jul 03 Version 1 Richard Popovich,

300

Make a commitment | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

my money go? Set and Save with ENERGY STAR Product Finder Rebate Finder Store Locator Energy Savings At Home Energy Savings At Home Improving your home's energy efficiency with...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Shooting Star | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Shooting Star Shooting Star Jump to: navigation, search Name Shooting Star Facility Shooting Star Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Exelon Wind Developer Infinity Wind Power Energy Purchaser Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Location Greensburg KS Coordinates 37.55019151°, -99.27585125° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.55019151,"lon":-99.27585125,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

302

The First Generation of Stars in Lambda-CDM Cosmology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have performed a large set of high-resolution cosmological simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to study the formation of the first luminous objects in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology. We follow the collapse of primordial gas clouds in eight early structures and document the scatter in the properties of the first star-forming clouds. Our first objects span formation redshifts from z {approx} 10 to z {approx} 50 and cover an order of magnitude in halo mass. We find that the physical properties of the central star-forming clouds are very similar in all of the simulated objects despite significant differences in formation redshift and environment. This suggests that the formation path of the first stars is largely independent of the collapse redshift; the physical properties of the clouds have little correlation with spin, mass, or assembly history of the host halo. The collapse of proto-stellar objects at higher redshifts progresses much more rapidly due to the higher densities, which accelerates the formation of molecular hydrogen, enhances initial cooling and shortens the dynamical timescales. The mass of the star-forming clouds cover a broad range, from a few hundred to a few thousand solar masses, and exhibit various morphologies: some have disk-like structures which are nearly rotational supported; others form flattened spheroids; still others form bars. All of them develop a single protostellar ''seed'' which does not fragment into multiple objects up to the moment that the central gas becomes optically thick to H{sub 2} cooling lines. At this time, the instantaneous mass accretion rate onto the centre varies significantly from object to object, with disk-like structures having the smallest mass accretion rates. The formation epoch and properties of the star-forming clouds are sensitive to the values of cosmological parameters.

Gao, Liang; /Durham U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Abel, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Frenk, C.S.; Jenkins, A.; /Durham U.; Springel, V.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Yoshida,; /Nagoya U.

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

303

Cooling Evolution of Hybrid Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cooling of compact isolated objects for different values of the gravitational mass has been simulated for two alternative assumptions. One is that the interior of the star is purely hadronic and second that the star can have a rather large quark core. It has been shown that within a nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. For a realistic choice of parameters the equation of state (EoS) allows for 2SC quark matter with a large quark gap ~ 100 MeV for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if in the hadronic phase the neutron pairing gap in 3P_2 channel is larger than few keV and the phases with unpaired quarks are allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. Even in the case of the essentially suppressed 3P_2 neutron gap if free quarks occur for M cooling data existing by today. It is suggested to discuss a "2SC+X" phase, as a possibility to have all quarks paired in two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints, where the X-gap is of the order of 10 keV - 1 MeV. Density independent gaps do not allow to fit the cooling data. Only the presence of an X-gap that decreases with increase of the density could allow to appropriately fit the data in a similar compact star mass interval to that following from a purely hadronic model.

H. Grigorian

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

304

Cooling Evolution of Hybrid Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cooling of compact isolated objects for different values of the gravitational mass has been simulated for two alternative assumptions. One is that the interior of the star is purely hadronic and second that the star can have a rather large quark core. It has been shown that within a nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. For a realistic choice of parameters the equation of state (EoS) allows for 2SC quark matter with a large quark gap ~ 100 MeV for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if in the hadronic phase the neutron pairing gap in 3P_2 channel is larger than few keV and the phases with unpaired quarks are allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. Even in the case of the essentially supp...

Grigorian, H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

GRAVITATIONAL SLINGSHOT OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the nearest region of massive star formation and thus a crucial testing ground for theoretical models. Of particular interest among the ONC's {approx}1000 members are: {theta}{sup 1} Ori C, the most massive binary in the cluster with stars of masses 38 and 9 M{sub Sun }; the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object, a 30 km s{sup -1} runaway star of {approx}8 M{sub Sun }; and the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula protostar, a highly obscured, {approx}15 M{sub Sun} object still accreting gas while also driving a powerful, apparently 'explosive' outflow. The unusual behavior of BN and KL is much debated: How did BN acquire its high velocity? How is this related to massive star formation in the KL nebula? Here, we report the results of a systematic survey using {approx}10{sup 7} numerical experiments of gravitational interactions of the {theta}{sup 1}C and BN stars. We show that dynamical ejection of BN from this triple system at its observed velocity leaves behind a binary with total energy and eccentricity matching those observed for {theta}{sup 1}C. Five other observed properties of {theta}{sup 1}C are also consistent with it having ejected BN and altogether we estimate that there is only a {approx}< 10{sup -5} probability that {theta}{sup 1}C has these properties by chance. We conclude that BN was dynamically ejected from the {theta}{sup 1}C system about 4500 years ago. BN then plowed through the KL massive star-forming core within the last 1000 years causing its recently enhanced accretion and outflow activity.

Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: s.chatterjee@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

WEAKLY INTERACTING MASSIVE PARTICLE DARK MATTER AND FIRST STARS: SUPPRESSION OF FRAGMENTATION IN PRIMORDIAL STAR FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

We present the first three-dimensional simulations to include the effects of dark matter annihilation feedback during the collapse of primordial minihalos. We begin our simulations from cosmological initial conditions and account for dark matter annihilation in our treatment of the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas. The dark matter is modeled using an analytical density profile that responds to changes in the peak gas density. We find that the gas can collapse to high densities despite the additional energy input from the dark matter. No objects supported purely by dark matter annihilation heating are formed in our simulations. However, we find that dark matter annihilation heating has a large effect on the evolution of the gas following the formation of the first protostar. Previous simulations without dark matter annihilation found that protostellar disks around Population III stars rapidly fragmented, forming multiple protostars that underwent mergers or ejections. When dark matter annihilation is included, however, these disks become stable to radii of 1000 AU or more. In the cases where fragmentation does occur, it is a wide binary that is formed.

Smith, Rowan J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Iocco, Fabio [Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schleicher, Dominik R. G. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki, E-mail: rowan@uni-heidelberg.de [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

307

TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782  

SciTech Connect

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 East Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Knezek, Patricia M. [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wehner, Elizabeth, E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: rolf.jansen@asu.edu, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu, E-mail: ewehner@haverford.edu [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

308

Ionized gas and stellar kinematics of seventeen nearby spiral galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ionized gas and stellar kinematics have been measured along the major axes of seventeen nearby spiral galaxies of intermediate to late morphological type. We discuss the properties of each sample galaxy distinguishing between those characterized by regular or peculiar kinematics. In most of the observed galaxies ionized gas rotates more rapidly than stars and have a lower velocity dispersion, as is to be expected if the gas is confined in the disc and supported by rotation while the stars are mostly supported by dynamical pressure. In a few objects, gas and stars show almost the same rotational velocity and low velocity dispersion, suggesting that their motion is dominated by rotation. Incorporating the spiral galaxies studied by Bertola et al. (1996), Corsini et al. (1999, 2003) and Vega Beltran et al. (2001) we have compiled a sample of 50 S0/a-Scd galaxies, for which the major-axis kinematics of the ionized gas and stars have been obtained with the same spatial (~1'') and spectral (~50km/s) resolution, and measured with the same analysis techniques. This allowed us to address the frequency of counterrotation in spiral galaxies. It turns out that less than 12% and less than 8% (at the 95% confidence level) of the sample galaxies host a counterrotating gaseous and stellar disc, respectively. The comparison with S0 galaxies suggests that the retrograde acquisition of small amounts of external gas gives rise to counterrotating gaseous discs only in gas-poor S0s, while in gas-rich spirals the newly acquired gas is swept away by the pre-existing gas. Counterrotating gaseous and stellar discs in spirals are formed only from the retrograde acquisition of large amounts of gas exceeding that of pre-existing gas, and subsequent star formation, respectively.

A. Pizzella; E. M. Corsini; J. C. Vega-Beltran; F. Bertola

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

EERE EnergyStar State Allocations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EERE EnergyStar State Allocations EERE EnergyStar State Allocations EEEnergyStarStateAllocations.pdf More Documents & Publications State Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate...

310

How the 1-100 ENERGY STAR score is calculated | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is calculated Using the 1 - 100 ENERGY STAR score, you can understand how your building's energy consumption measures up against similar buildings nationwide. The ENERGY STAR score...

311

Wave Star Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Star Energy Star Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Wave Star Energy Place Denmark Zip DK-2920 Product Denmark-based private wave device developer. References Wave Star Energy[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. This company is involved in the following MHK Projects: Wave Star Energy 1 10 Scale Model Test This company is involved in the following MHK Technologies: C5 WaveStar This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wave Star Energy is a company located in Denmark . References ↑ "Wave Star Energy" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Wave_Star_Energy&oldid=678928" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

312

Molecular hydrogen regulated star formation in cosmological SPH simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been shown observationally that star formation (SF) correlates tightly with the presence of molecular hydrogen (H2). Therefore it would be important to investigate its implication on galaxy formation in a cosmological context. In the present work, we track the H2 mass fraction within our cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3 using an equilibrium analytic model by Krumholz et al. This model allows us to regulate the star formation in our simulation by the local abundance of H2 rather than the total cold gas density, and naturally introduce the dependence of star formation on metallicity. We investigate implications of the equilibrium H2-based SF model on galaxy population properties, such as the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), baryon fraction, cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD), galaxy specific SFR, galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMF), and Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relationship. The advantage of our work over the previous ones is having a large sample of simulated gala...

Thompson, Robert; Jaacks, Jason; Choi, Jun-Hwan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Star Formation and Chemical Evolution of Lyman-Break Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The number density and clustering properties of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs)observed at redshift $z\\sim 3$ are best explained by assuming that they areassociated with the most massive haloes at $z\\sim 3$ predicted in hierarchicalmodels of structure formation. In this paper we study, under the sameassumption, how star formation and chemical enrichment may have proceeded inthe LBG population. A consistent model, in which the amount of cold gasavailable for star formation must be regulated, is suggested. It is found thatgas cooling in dark haloes provides a natural regulation process. In thismodel, the star formation rate in an LBG host halo is roughly constant overabout 1 Gyr. The predicted star formation rates and effective radii areconsistent with observations. The metallicity of the gas associated with an LBGis roughly equal to the chemical yield, or about the order of $1 Z_{\\odot}$ fora Salpeter IMF. The contribution to the total metals of LBGs is roughlyconsistent with that obtained from the observed cosmic...

Shu, C

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

The star formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have performed deep imaging of a diverse sample of 26 low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) in the optical and the near-infrared. Using stellar population synthesis models, we find that it is possible to place constraints on the ratio of young to old stars (which we parameterise in terms of the average age of the galaxy), as well as the metallicity of the galaxy, using optical and near-infrared colours. LSBGs have a wide range of morphologies and stellar populations, ranging from older, high metallicity earlier types to much younger and lower metallicity late type galaxies. Despite this wide range of star formation histories, we find that colour gradients are common in LSBGs. These are most naturally interpreted as gradients in mean stellar age, with the outer regions of LSBGs having younger ages than their inner regions. In an attempt to understand what drives the differences in LSBG stellar populations, we compare LSBG average ages and metallicities with their physical parameters. Strong correlations are seen between a LSBG's star formation history and its K band surface brightness, K band absolute magnitude and gas fraction. These correlations are consistent with a scenario in which the star formation history of a LSBG primarily correlates with its surface density and its metallicity correlates both with its mass and surface density.

Eric F. Bell; David Barnaby; Richard G. Bower; Roelof S. de Jong; Doyal A. Harper; Mark Hereld; Robert F. Loewenstein; Bernard J. Rauscher

1999-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

315

Ruslands Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to (more)

Elkjr, Jonas Bondegaard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.1 ENERGY STAR  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

1 1 Total Heating Equipment Shipments (Thousands) and ENERGY STAR Market Share 1995 2,592 22% 109 N/A 156 N/A 146 1% 1996 2,871 24% 198 4% 161 48% 152 1% 1997 2,779 27% 206 6% 160 55% 124 1% 1998 2,977 29% 185 8% 148 67% 128 1% 1999 3,126 31% 201 10% 149 74% 125 1% 2000 3,104 35% 224 15% 144 85% 121 3% 2001 3,063 39% 221 17% 149 89% 122 4% 2002 3,202 40% 214 21% 148 98% 117 6% 2003 3,266 42% 235 21% 167 54% 127 7% 2004 3,519 47% 237 41% 162 71% 130 7% 2005 3,512 37% 224 25% 146 57% 111 7% 2006 3,197 37% 196 38% 121 90% 100 6% 2007 2,782 37% 201 38% 123 80% 84 13% 2008 2,300 43% 192 57% 122 62% 59 12% 2009 2,190 50% 192 46% 123 62% 54 24% 2010 2,197 61% 192 52% 123 61% 56 36% Note(s): Source(s): Gas Furnaces Gas Boilers Oil Boilers Oil Furnaces N/A = Not Applicable. ENERGY STAR specification did not exist. LBNL, Climate Change Action Plan spreadsheet, 2009; EPA, ENERGY STAR Unit Shipment and Market Penetration Report Calendar Year 2010 Summary;

317

Modeling Molecular Hydrogen and Star Formation in Cosmological Simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We describe a phenomenological model for molecular hydrogen formation suited for applications in galaxy formation simulations, which includes on-equilibrium formation of molecular hydrogen on dust and approximate treatment of both its self-shielding and shielding by dust from the dissociating UV radiation. The model is applicable in simulations in which individual star forming regions--the giant molecular complexes--can be identified (resolution of tens of pc) and their mean internal density estimated reliably, even if internal structure is not resolved. In agreement with previous studies, calculations based on our model show that the transition from atomic to fully molecular phase depends primarily on the metallicity, which we assume is directly related to the dust abundance, and clumpiness of the interstellar medium. The clumpiness simply boosts the formation rate of molecular hydrogen, while dust serves both as a catalyst of molecular hydrogen formation and as an additional shielding from dissociating UV radiation. The upshot is that it is difficult to form fully-shielded giant molecular clouds while gas metallicity is low. However, once the gas is enriched to Z {approx} 0.01-0.1 solar, the subsequent star formation and enrichment can proceed at a much faster rate. This may keep star formation efficiency in the low-mass, low-metallicity progenitors of galaxies very low for a certain period of time with the effect similar to a strong 'feedback' mechanism.

Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Tassis, Konstantinos; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /KICP, Chicago; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Chicago U., EFI

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Old and new neutron stars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

Ruderman, M.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

MOLECULAR GAS IN INFRARED ULTRALUMINOUS QSO HOSTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report CO detections in 17 out of 19 infrared ultraluminous QSO (IR QSO) hosts observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The cold molecular gas reservoir in these objects is in a range of (0.2-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} (adopting a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO} = 0.8 M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}). We find that the molecular gas properties of IR QSOs, such as the molecular gas mass, star formation efficiency (L{sub FIR}/L'{sub CO}), and CO (1-0) line widths, are indistinguishable from those of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). A comparison of low- and high-redshift CO-detected QSOs reveals a tight correlation between L{sub FIR} and L'{sub CO(1-0)} for all QSOs. This suggests that, similar to ULIRGs, the far-infrared emissions of all QSOs are mainly from dust heated by star formation rather than by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), confirming similar findings from mid-infrared spectroscopic observations by Spitzer. A correlation between the AGN-associated bolometric luminosities and the CO line luminosities suggests that star formation and AGNs draw from the same reservoir of gas and there is a link between star formation on {approx}kpc scale and the central black hole accretion process on much smaller scales.

Xia, X. Y.; Hao, C.-N. [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Gao, Y.; Tan, Q. H. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mao, S. [National Astronomical Observatories of China, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Omont, A. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095, UPMC and CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Flaquer, B. O.; Leon, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomia Milimetrica (IRAM), Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, 18012 Granada (Spain); Cox, P., E-mail: xyxia@bao.ac.cn [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM), F-38406 St. Martin d'Heres (France)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

320

New magnetic field measurements of beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of the continuation of our magnetic survey with FORS1 at the VLT of a sample of B-type stars consisting of confirmed or candidate beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B (hereafter SPB) stars, along with a small number of normal B-type stars. A weak mean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss was detected in three beta Cephei stars and two stars suspected to be beta Cephei stars, in five SPB stars and eight stars suspected to be SPB stars. Additionally, a longitudinal magnetic field at a level larger than 3sigma has been diagnosed in two normal B-type stars, the nitrogen-rich early B-type star HD52089 and in the B5 IV star HD153716. Roughly one third of beta Cephei stars have detected magnetic fields: Out of 13 beta Cephei stars studied to date with FORS1, four stars possess weak magnetic fields, and out of the sample of six suspected beta Cephei stars two show a weak magnetic field. The fraction of magnetic SPBs and candidate SPBs is found to be higher: roughl...

Hubrig, S; De Cat, P; Schller, M; Morel, T; Ilyin, I

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ENERGY STAR Score for Warehouses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Warehouses in the United States Page 1 Warehouses in the United States Page 1 ENERGY STAR Score for Warehouses in the United States Technical Reference OVERVIEW The ENERGY STAR Score for warehouses applies to unrefrigerated or refrigerated buildings that are used to store goods, manufactured products, merchandise or raw materials. The objective of the ENERGY STAR score is to provide a fair assessment of the energy performance of a property relative to its peers, taking into account the climate, weather, and business activities at the property. To identify the aspects of building activity that are significant drivers of energy use and then normalize for those factors, a statistical analysis of the peer building population is

322

AEP Ohio (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program AEP Ohio (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Ohio Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount ENERGY STAR New Homes Program: Contact AEP Ohio In-home Energy Audit: $75 Pin Based CFL Indoor Fixture: $20 Pin Based CFL Outdoor Fixture: $35 CFL Torchieres: $20 Wall Insulation: $75 Air Sealing: $50 Window Film: $45 ENERGY STAR Window Replacement: $75 Attic Insulation: $90 Shower Start/Stop: $25

323

The age of the Milky Way halo stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determined the age of the stellar content of the Galactic halo by considering main-sequence turn-off stars. From the large number of halo stars provided by Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we could accurately detect the turn-off as a function of metallicity, which was done by looking at the hottest (bluest) stars of a population. Using isochrones with turn-off temperatures and metallicites of the stars we found that our stellar sample consisted of one dominating stellar population, with no age gradient as a function of metallicity. This would mean that the dominating population of the Galactic halo formed rapidly, probably during the collapse of the proto-Galactic gas. Moreover, we could find a significant number of stars with hotter temperatures than the turn-off, which might be explained as young stars formed in external galaxies and accreted later on to our Milky Way. Motivated by the current debate about the efficiency of gravitational settling (atomic diffusion) in the interior of old solar-type stars, we us...

Jofre, Paula

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.1 ENERGY STAR  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

6 6 Specification Dates for ENERGY STAR-Labeled HVAC and Residential Appliances Heating and Cooling Equipment Dates of updated specification Central AC 1995 2002, 2006, 2009 Air-Source Heat Pumps 1995 2002, 2006, 2009 Oil Furnaces 1995 2006, 2008, 2012, 2013 Gas Furnaces 1995 2006, 2008, 2012, 2013 Programable Thermostats - Gas Boilers 1996 2002 Oil Boilers 1996 2002 Gas-Fired Heat Pumps - Geothermal Heat Pumps 2001 2009, 2011, 2012 Ventilating Fans 2001 2003, 2009, 2012 Ceiling Fans 2001 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012 Light Commercial HVAC 2002 2004, 2010, 2011 Residential Appliances Dishwashers 1996 2001, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014 Room AC 1996 2000, 2003, 2005 Refrigerators 1996 2001, 2003, 2004, 2008 Clothes Washers 1997 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009, 2011 Dehumidifiers 2001 2006, 2008 Freezers 2004 2008 Air Cleaners

325

A CORRELATION BETWEEN SURFACE DENSITIES OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND GAS IN EIGHT NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery and characterization of a power-law correlation between the local surface densities of Spitzer-identified, dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) and the column density of gas (as traced by near-IR extinction) in eight molecular clouds within 1 kpc and with 100 or more known YSOs. This correlation, which appears in data smoothed over size scales of {approx}1 pc, varies in quality from cloud to cloud; those clouds with tight correlations, MonR2 and Ophiuchus, are fit with power laws of slope 2.67 and 1.87, respectively. The spread in the correlation is attributed primarily to local gas disruption by stars that formed there or to the presence of very young subregions at the onset of star formation. We explore the ratio of the number of Class II to Class I sources, a proxy for the star formation age of a region, as a function of gas column density; this analysis reveals a declining Class II to Class I ratio with increasing column density. We show that the observed star-gas correlation is consistent with a star formation law where the star formation rate per area varies with the gas column density squared. We also propose a simple picture of thermal fragmentation of dense gas in an isothermal, self-gravitating layer as an explanation for the power law. Finally, we briefly compare the star-gas correlation and its implied star formation law with other recent proposed of star formation laws at similar and larger size scales from nearby star-forming regions.

Gutermuth, R. A. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

ENERGY STAR Success Story VA Beach Convention Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR Success Story: STAR Success Story: The Virginia Beach Convention Center Located in Virginia's most populous city, the Virginia Beach Convention Center (VBCC) comprises more than 516,000 square feet and typically hosts 400 events a year. Fully opened in 2007, the VBCC has served as the anchor for the successful revitalization of Virginia Beach's old beach district. With historical references and maritime themes integrated into the structure's modern design, the Center features many technological advances that make it a prime location for meetings, conferences, and trade shows. However, even with a newly constructed building, the VBCC has demonstrated an important energy management principle: all buildings, regardless of their age and building systems they employ, can reduce energy consumption, save money, and offset greenhouse gas

327

Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between the pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the special role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the EOS of cold baryonic matter and its impact on the properties of neutron stars.

J. Piekarewicz

2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

Alliance Star Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Star Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Alliance Star Energy LLC Place California Utility Id 56929 References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101...

329

Solar Star NAFB LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Star NAFB LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Solar Star NAFB LLC Place Nevada Utility Id 56203 References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101 LinkedIn...

330

Note on star-autonomous comonads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop an alternative approach to star-autonomous comonads via linearly distributive categories. It is shown that in the autonomous case the notions of star-autonomous comonad and Hopf comonad coincide.

Pastro, Craig

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Photos and graphics | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

guidelines Refer to the ENERGY STAR Identity Guidelines for proper usage of the ENERGY STAR and Portfolio Manager marks. Graphics Click on a graphic to bring up a larger...

332

Industrial energy management information center | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip to main content ENERGY STAR logo Skip directly to page content Facebook Twitter YouTube Our Blog Search Search Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR...

333

ENERGY STAR Score for Data Centers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Centers in the United States Page 1 ENERGY STAR Score for Data Centers in the United States Technical Reference OVERVIEW The ENERGY STAR Score for Data Centers applies to...

334

Advance your energy program | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

corporate energy directors is without parallel. Join ENERGY STAR and get connected to the learning curve. Learn about world-class energy programs. EPA has profiled key ENERGY STAR...

335

Cold quark matter in compact stars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Horvath, J. E. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1226, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

336

Energy strategy for the future | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip to main content ENERGY STAR logo Skip directly to page content Facebook Twitter YouTube Our Blog Search Search Energy Efficient Products Energy Efficient Products ENERGY STAR...

337

Viewing the Evolution of Massive Star Formation through FIR/Sub-mm/mm Eyes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present an overview of our method of constructing a family of models for the far-infrared, sub-millimeter, and millimeter (FIR/sub-mm/mm) line emission of molecular and atomic gas surrounding massive star formation in starburst galaxies. We show the results of a case study, an expanding supershell centered around a massive star cluster with a particular set of input parameters and its application to nearby starburst galaxy M 82. This set of models can be used not only to interpret the observations of FIR/sub-mm/mm line emission from molecular and atomic gas, but also to investigate the physical environment and the initial cloud conditions in massive star forming regions as well as the ages of the starbursts through simulations for a wide range of input parameters. Finally, we discuss limitations of our models, and outline future work.

Lihong Yao; E. R. Seaquist

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

On the Intrinsic Continuum Linear Polarization of Classical Be Stars during Disk Growth and Dissipation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the intrinsic continuum linear polarization from axisymmetric density distributions of gas surrounding classical Be stars during the formation and dissipation of their circumstellar disks. We implement a Monte Carlo calculation of the Stokes parameters with the use of the non-LTE radiative transfer code of Sigut & Jones (2007) to reproduce the continuous polarimetric spectra of classical Be stars. The scattering of light in the nonspherical circumstellar envelopes of classical Be stars produces a distinct polarization signature that can be used to study the physical nature of the scattering environment. In this paper, we highlight the utility of polarimetric measurements as important diagnostics in the modeling of these systems. We illustrate the effects of using self-consistent calculation of the thermal structure of the circumstellar gas on the characteristic wavelength-dependence of the polarization spectrum. In showing that the principal features of the polarization spectrum originate f...

Halonen, Robbie J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

METALLICITY-DEPENDENT QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION AT HIGH REDSHIFT IN SMALL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

The star formation rates (SFRs) of low-metallicity galaxies depend sensitively on the gas metallicity, because metals are crucial to mediating the transition from intermediate-temperature atomic gas to cold molecular gas, a necessary precursor to star formation. We study the impact of this effect on the star formation history of galaxies. We incorporate metallicity-dependent star formation and metal enrichment in a simple model that follows the evolution of a halo main progenitor. Our model shows that including the effect of metallicity leads to suppression of star formation at redshift z > 2 in dark halos with masses {approx}< 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }, with the suppression becoming near total for halos below {approx}10{sup 9.5}-10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. We find that at high redshift, until z {approx} 2, the SFR cannot catch up with the gas inflow rate (IR), because the SFR is limited by the free-fall time, and because it is suppressed further by a lack of metals in small halos. As a result, in each galaxy the SFR is growing in time faster than the IR, and the integrated cosmic SFR density is rising with time. The suppressed in situ SFR at high-z makes the growth of stellar mass dominated by ex situ SFR, meaning stars formed in lower mass progenitor galaxies and then accreted, which implies that the specific SFR (sSFR) remains constant with time. The intensely accreted gas at high-z is accumulating as an atomic gas reservoir. This provides additional fuel for star formation in 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} halos at z {approx} 1-3, which allows the SFR to exceed the instantaneous IR, and may enable an even higher outflow rate. At z < 1, following the natural decline in IR with time due to the universal expansion, the SFR and sSFR are expected to drop. We specify the expected dependence of sSFR and metallicity on stellar mass and redshift. At a given z, and below a critical mass, these relations are predicted to be flat and rising, respectively. Our model predictions qualitatively match some of the puzzling features in the observed star formation history.

Krumholz, Mark R. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Dekel, Avishai, E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.edu, E-mail: dekel@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

ENERGY STAR Industrial Plant Certification: Professional Engineers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

New lambda Bootis stars with a shell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We publish here the second part of our spectroscopic survey at high dispersion of some known and suspected lambda Bootis stars with a view to detecting circumstellar shell features. Eight stars of our sample exhibit such features. These stars are fast rotators, a result which is in line with Holweger and Rentzsch-Holm's study (1995). The analysis of the photometric data has allowed us to confirm the exclusion of a few stars misclassified from the lambda Bootis group.

B. Hauck; D. Ballereau; J. Chauville

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

342

Black Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but are frozen near the Schwarzschild horizon are termed ``black stars''. Collisions of black stars, in contrast to black hole collisions, may be sources of gamma ray bursts, whose basic parameters are estimated quite simply and are found to be consistent with observed gamma ray bursts. Black star gamma ray bursts should be preceded by gravitational wave emission similar to that from the coalescence of black holes.

Tanmay Vachaspati

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

343

Join ENERGY STAR as a partner | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Join ENERGY STAR as a partner Join ENERGY STAR as a partner Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section How can ENERGY STAR help your business? Get started Join ENERGY STAR as a partner Service and Product Provider associations partnering with ENERGY STAR ENERGY STAR service & product provider training series Service and product provider's marketing toolkit

344

Theory of cooling neutron stars versus observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review current state of neutron star cooling theory and discuss the prospects to constrain the equation of state, neutrino emission and superfluid properties of neutron star cores by comparing the cooling theory with observations of thermal radiation from isolated neutron stars.

Yakovlev, D G; Kaminker, A D; Potekhin, A Yu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Diagnosability of star graphs with missing edges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the system diagnosis on an n-dimensional star under the comparison model. Following the concept of local diagnosability [3], the strong local diagnosability property [7] is discussed; this property describes the equivalence of ... Keywords: Comparison diagnosis model, Extended star structure, Local diagnosability, MM* diagnosis model, Star graph, Strong local diagnosability property

Chieh-Feng Chiang; Guo-Huang Hsu; Lun-Min Shih; Jimmy J. M. Tan

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Spitzer Observations of Star Formation in the Extreme Outer Disk of M83 (NGC5236)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spitzer IRAC observations of two fields in the XUV-disk of M83 have been recently obtained,3R_{HII} away from the center of the galaxy (R_{HII)=6.6 kpc).GALEX UV images have shown the two fields to host in-situ recent star formation.The IRAC images are used in conjunction with GALEX data and new HI imaging from THINGS to constrain stellar masses and ages of the UV clumps in the fields,and to relate the local recent star formation to the reservoir of available gas. multi wavelength photometry in the UV and mid-IR bands of 136 UV clumps(spatial resolution >220pc) identified in the two target fields, together with model fitting of the stellar UV-MIR SED,suggest that the clumps cover a range of ages between a few Myr and >1Gyr with a median value around ages,for which only a small fraction of the mass in stars appears to have formed in the past ~10Myr, agrees with the dearth of Ha emission observed in these outer fiel ds. At the location of our IRAC fields, the HI map shows localized enhancement and clumping of atomic gas. A comparison of the observed star formation with the gas reservoir shows that the UV clumps follow the Schmidt--Kennicutt scaling law of star formation,and that star formation is occurring in regions with gas dens ities at approximately (within a factor of a few) the critical density value de -rived according to the Toomre Q gravitational stability criterion. The signifi cant 8 micron excess in several of the clumps (16% of the total by number accou nting for ~67% of the 8 micron flux)) provides evidence for the existence of dust in these remote fields, in agreement with results for other galaxies. Furt hermore, we observe a relatively small excess of emission at 4.5 micron in the clumps...

Hui Dong; Daniela Calzetti; Michael Regan; David Thilker; Luciana Bianchi; Gerhardt R. Meurer; Fabian Walter

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

347

Asteroseismology of chemically peculiar stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pulsational variability is observed in several types of main sequence stars with anomalous chemical abundances. In this contribution I summarize the relationship between pulsations and chemical peculiarities, giving special emphasis to rapid oscillations in magnetic Ap stars. These magneto-acoustic pulsators provide unique opportunities to study the interaction of pulsations, chemical inhomogeneities, and strong magnetic fields. Time-series monitoring of rapidly oscillating Ap stars using high-resolution spectrometers at large telescopes and ultra-precise space photometry has led to a number of important breakthroughs in our understanding of these interesting objects. Interpretation of the roAp frequency spectra has allowed constraining fundamental stellar parameters and probing poorly known properties of the stellar interiors. At the same time, investigation of the pulsational wave propagation in chemically stratified atmospheres of roAp stars has been used as a novel asteroseismic tool to study pulsations as a function of atmospheric height and to map in detail the horizontal structure of the magnetically-distorted p-modes.

O. Kochukhov

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

ENHANCED ACCRETION RATES OF STARS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES BY STAR-DISK INTERACTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a central accretion disk (AD). The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow toward the SMBH and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating AD. The AD is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation time (for kinetic energy of stellar orbits) is constant, which then allows us to extrapolate our results to real parameters of galactic nuclei. Our model is derived from basic physical principles and as such it provides insight into the role of physical processes in galactic nuclei, but it should be regarded as a first step toward more realistic and more comprehensive simulations. Nevertheless, the following conclusions appear to be robust: the star accretion rate onto the AD and subsequently onto the SMBH is enhanced by a significant factor compared to purely stellar dynamical systems neglecting the disk. This process leads to enhanced fueling of central disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and to an enhanced rate of tidal stellar disruptions. Such disruptions may produce electromagnetic counterparts in the form of observable X-ray flares. Our models improve predictions for their rates in quiescent galactic nuclei. We do not yet model direct stellar collisions in the gravitational potential well of the black hole, which could further enhance the growth rate of the black hole. Our models are relevant for quiescent galactic nuclei, because all our mass accretion rates would give rise to luminosities much smaller than the Eddington luminosity. To reach Eddington luminosities, outflows, and feedback as in the most active QSOs, other scenarios are needed, such as gas accretion after galaxy mergers. However, for AGNs close to the Eddington limit, this process may not serve as the dominant accretion process due to the long timescale.

Just, Andreas; Yurin, Denis; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhof-Strasse 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y., E-mail: just@ari.uni-heidelberg.de [Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute, Observatory 23, 050020 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

349

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Star Perfomer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Star Perfomer Star Perfomer Star Perfomer logo. Outlines simple steps to help office building owners, managers and tenants improve their greenhouse and energy efficiency performance, simply by asking some straightforward questions about the size, operating hours, current performance and equipment standards of the building. Star Performer is a diagnostic tool that uses the current operational energy performance of the building measured against a national benchmark, obtained through the Australian Building Greenhouse Rating scheme (see links below), as a basis for making recommendations. The tool covers all areas of the building which affect operational energy performance, including building fabric, equipment and operational practices. Star Perfomer will point you in the right direction and give

350

NLTE wind models of hot subdwarf stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate NLTE models of stellar winds of hot compact stars (central stars of planetary nebulae and subdwarf stars). The studied range of subdwarf parameters is selected to cover a large part of these stars. The models predict the wind hydrodynamical structure and provide mass-loss rates for different abundances. Our models show that CNO elements are important drivers of subdwarf winds, especially for low-luminosity stars. We study the effect of X-rays and instabilities on these winds. Due to the line-driven wind instability, a significant part of the wind could be very hot.

Krticka, Jiri; 10.1007/s10509-010-0385-z

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Manage fuel gas with an expert system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Star Louisiana refinery has fuel gas header systems throughout the plant that are utilized by fuel gas producers and consumers. The refinery simultaneously exports surplus fuel gas from the export gas header, and maintains a minimum natural gas makeup rates from multiple external suppliers for fuel gas header pressure control. Successfully implementing a fuel gas expert system has facilitated communication of accurate, timely information to all unit control board operators in the refinery when any change or sub-optimal situation occurs in either of these systems. Information provided from the expert system rule knowledge base results in: proper unit operating actions taken when a flaring situation approaches, thus minimizing the negative impact of flaring on the environment and minimizing product loses to the flare; minimizing purchase of makeup natural gas used for fuel gas system pressure control; maximizing export gas capacity to prevent surplus fuel gas production from limiting refinery operation; immediately recognizing an upset in any fuel gas header system and advising the best corrective action for all affected refinery units; and minimizing voice communication required between units in an upset, since the expert system provides the communication immediately in expert advice messages.

Giacone, G.; Toben, S.; Bergeron, G. [Star Enterprise, Convent, LA (United States); Ayral, T. [Key Control Inc., Westlake Village, CA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Gas purification  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas having a high carbon dioxide content is contacted with sea water in an absorber at or near the bottom of the ocean to produce a purified natural gas.

Cook, C.F.; Hays, G.E.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

353

Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas. Under the baseline winter weather scenario, EIA expects end-of-October working gas inventories will total 3,830 billion cubic feet (Bcf) and end March ...

354

Energy Star Rebate Finder | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Star Rebate Finder Energy Star Rebate Finder Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Star Rebate Finder Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Phase: Evaluate Options, Prepare a Plan Resource Type: Online calculator User Interface: Mobile Device Website: m.epa.gov/apps/energy.html Web Application Link: m.epa.gov/apps/energy.html Cost: Free Energy Star Rebate Finder Screenshot References: EPA[1] Logo: Energy Star Rebate Finder Find special offers and rebates from Energy Star partners by entering your zip code. Overview To encourage customers to buy energy efficient products, Energy Star partners occasionally sponsor special offers, such as sales tax exemptions or credits, or rebates on qualified products. Partners also occasionally

355

Green Star Alternative Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Green Star Alternative Energy Green Star Alternative Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Green Star Alternative Energy Place San Diego, California Zip 92108 Sector Wind energy Product A US-based wind energy project developer. References Green Star Alternative Energy[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Green Star Alternative Energy is a company located in San Diego, California . References ↑ "Green Star Alternative Energy" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Green_Star_Alternative_Energy&oldid=346056" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

356

Build Your Business with ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Service and Product Providers: Service and Product Providers: Build Your Business with ENERGY STAR ® Let ENERGY STAR Be Your Market Advantage Look to ENERGY STAR to help you bring value to your customers and more sales to your organization. Service and Product Providers (SPPs) are integral in helping existing commercial buildings use energy more efficiently. Partnering with ENERGY STAR provides you with access to free tools and resources to help you devise and implement energy- efficient strategies that are right for your customers: > Use the ENERGY STAR Brand to Enhance Your Credibility: Use the nationally recognized ENERGY STAR partner logo on your promotional materials to symbolize your commitment to delivering energy efficiency and financial savings to customers. Help customers build their reputation as environmental and social leaders through work with an ENERGY STAR SPP partner.

357

ORISE: Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star Status  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star Status Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star Status Within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP), there are three levels of recognition: STAR, MERIT and DEMONSTRATION. Contractors' programs that meet the requirements for outstanding safety and health programs, earn VPP STAR status-the highest achievement level. In December of 2003, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) first earned STAR distinction following a comprehensive evaluation of its application for the VPP program. At that time, ORISE was just the 21st DOE site and the first in Tennessee to earn such exemplary recognition. In 2011 ORISE received its seventh consecutive Star of Excellence award. Today, ORISE is one of more than two dozen DOE sites to achieve VPP STAR

358

Gas Week  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presented by: Guy F. Caruso, EIA AdministratorPresented to: Gas WeekHouston, TexasSeptember 24, 2003

Information Center

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

359

STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

THE SCHMIDT-KENNICUTT LAW OF MATCHED-AGE STAR-FORMING REGIONS; Pa{alpha} OBSERVATIONS OF THE EARLY-PHASE INTERACTING GALAXY TAFFY I  

SciTech Connect

In order to test a recent hypothesis that the dispersion in the Schmidt-Kennicutt law arises from variations in the evolutionary stage of star-forming molecular clouds, we compared molecular gas and recent star formation in an early-phase merger galaxy pair, Taffy I (UGC 12915/UGC 12914, VV 254) which went through a direct collision 20 Myr ago and whose star-forming regions are expected to have similar ages. Narrowband Pa{alpha} image is obtained using the ANIR near-infrared camera on the mini-TAO 1 m telescope. The image enables us to derive accurate star formation rates within the galaxy directly. The total star formation rate, 22.2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, was found to be much higher than previous estimates. Ages of individual star-forming blobs estimated from equivalent widths indicate that most star-forming regions are {approx}7 Myr old, except for a giant H II region at the bridge which is much younger. Comparison between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for the regions with the same age exhibits a surprisingly tight correlation, a slope of unity, and star formation efficiencies comparable to those of starburst galaxies. These results suggest that Taffy I has just evolved into a starburst system after the collision, and the star-forming sites are at a similar stage in their evolution from natal molecular clouds except for the bridge region. The tight Schmidt-Kennicutt law supports the scenario that dispersion in the star formation law is in large part due to differences in evolutionary stage of star-forming regions.

Komugi, S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Tateuchi, K.; Motohara, K.; Kato, N.; Konishi, M.; Koshida, S.; Morokuma, T.; Takahashi, H.; Tanabe, T.; Yoshii, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Takagi, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-31-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Iono, D.; Kaneko, H.; Ueda, J. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Saitoh, T. R., E-mail: skomugi@alma.cl [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro 152-0033 (Japan)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Magnetization of neutron star matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetization of neutron star matter in magnetic fields is studied by employing the FSUGold interaction. It is found that the magnetic susceptibilities of the charged particles (proton, electron and muon) can be larger than that of neutron. The effects of the anomalous magnetic moments (AMM) of each component on the magnetic susceptibility are examined in detail. It is found that the proton and electron AMM affect their respective magnetic susceptibility evidently in strong magnetic fields. In addition, they are the protons instead of the electrons that contribute most significantly to the magnetization of the neutron star matter in a relative weak magnetic field, and the induced magnetic field due to the magnetization can be appear to be very large. Finally, the effect of the density-dependent symmetry energy on the magnetization is discussed.

Dong, Jianmin; Gu, Jianzhong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

363

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

364

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

365

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

366

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

367

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

368

Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

369

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

370

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

371

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

372

Find ENERGY STAR certified buildings and plants | ENERGY STAR Buildings &  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

» Buildings & Plants » Buildings & Plants » About us » Find ENERGY STAR certified buildings and plants Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section How can we help you? Find out who's partnered with ENERGY STAR Become an ENERGY STAR partner Find ENERGY STAR certified buildings and plants Registry of ENERGY STAR certified buildings and plants

373

Home Performance with Energy Star  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- HPwES - HPwES Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Ely Jacobsohn U.S. Department of Energy Ely.jacobsohn@ee.doe.gov, 202-287-1333 April 3, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives: Problem Statement Works to advance the Department's and Administration's energy-related goals in the residential sector Face challenging and often conflicting mandates to save energy, meet environmental goals, and satisfy needs of

374

Energy Star Lighting Verification Program  

SciTech Connect

The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and results of Cycle Seven of PEARL program during the period of April 2006 to September 2006, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. LRC continued receiving the CFL samples purchased by sponsors and finished performing the sphere testing for all CFL models at 100 hours of life. After that LRC aged the CFL samples to 1000 hours of life, and then performed sphere testing for all CFL models at 1000 hours of life. Then the CFLs were placed on the test rack to be aged to 40% of their rated life. Rapid Cycle Stress Test was also performed for all models using different sets of CFL samples.

Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

Energy Star Lighting Verification Program  

SciTech Connect

The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and results of Cycle Seven and Cycle Eight of PEARL program during the period of October 2006 to March 2007, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. LRC finished performing the sphere testing for all CFL models in Cycle Seven at 40% of their rated life. LRC also performed re-test of Rapid Cycle Stress Test, under the request of DOE, for five CFL models that failed the Rapid Cycle Stress Test in Cycle Seven. From January 2007 to March 2007, LRC coordinated the procuring efforts for the CFL models that were selected for Cycle Eight.

Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Properties of Neutron Star Critical Collapses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Critical phenomena in gravitational collapse opened a new mathematical vista into the theory of general relativity and may ultimately entail fundamental physical implication in observations. However, at present, the dynamics of critical phenomena in gravitational collapse scenarios are still largely unknown. My thesis seeks to understand the properties of the threshold in the solution space of the Einstein field equations between the black hole and neutron star phases, understand the properties of the neutron star critical solution and clarify the implication of these results on realistic astrophysical scenarios. We develop a new set of neutron star-like initial data to establish the universality of the neutron star critical solution and analyze the structure of neutron star and neutron star-like critical collapses via the study of the phase spaces. We also study the different time scales involved in the neutron star critical solution and analyze the properties of the critical index via comparisons between neutron star and neutron star-like initial data. Finally, we explore the boundary of the attraction basin of the neutron star critical solution and its transition to a known set of non-critical fixed points.

Mew-Bing Wan

2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

ENERGY STAR Success Story Fleet Science Center Dec 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR Success Story: Reuben H. Fleet Science Center The Reuben H. Fleet Science Center (the Fleet) is one of twenty-four arts, science, and cultural institutions that are part of San Diego's Balboa Park Cultural Partnership. The Partnership launched a sustainability initiative in 2008 along with the City of San Diego and San Diego Gas & Electric ® (SDG&E) with the goal of improving energy efficiency and reducing resource consumption at the Park's cultural institutions. To date, Balboa Park venues have decreased electricity usage by more than 3.5 million kWh and 87,000 therms of natural gas, realizing savings of $530,000. Built in 1973, the Fleet serves as a leader and a model in environmental sustainability to venues of Balboa Park and other entertainment facilities across the country. For over a decade, the Fleet has

378

Winds of M- and S-type AGB stars: an unorthodox suggestion for the driving mechanism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current knowledge suggests that the dust-driven wind scenario provides a realistic framework for understanding mass loss from C-rich AGB stars. For M-type objects, however, recent detailed models demonstrate that radiation pressure on silicate grains is not sufficient to drive the observed winds, contrary to previous expectations. In this paper, we suggest an alternative mechanism for the mass-loss of M-type AGB stars, involving the formation of both carbon and silicate grains due to non-equilibrium effects, and we study the viability of this scenario. We model the dynamical atmospheres and winds of AGB stars by solving the coupled system of frequency-dependent radiation hydrodynamics and time-dependent dust formation, using a parameterized description of non-equilibrium effects in the gas phase. This approach allows us to assess under which circumstances it is possible to drive winds with small amounts of carbon dust and to get silicate grains forming in these outflows at the same time. The properties of the resulting wind models, such as mass loss rates and outflow velocities, are well within the observed limits for M-type AGB stars. Furthermore, according to our results, it is quite unlikely that significant amounts of silicate grains will condense in a wind driven by a force totally unrelated to dust formation, as the conditions in the upper atmosphere and wind acceleration region put strong constraints on grain growth. The proposed scenario provides a natural explanation for the observed similarities in wind properties of M-type and C-type AGB stars and implies a smooth transition for stars with increasing carbon abundance, from solar-composition to C-rich AGB stars, possibly solving the long-standing problem of the driving mechanism for stars with C/O close to one.

S. Hoefner; A. C. Andersen

2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hierarchical Growth and Cosmic Star Formation: Enrichment, Outflows and Supernova Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cosmic star formation histories are evaluated for different minimum masses of the initial halo structures, with allowance for realistic gas outflows. With a minimum halo mass of 10^{7} - 10^{8} M_odot and a moderate outflow efficiency, we reproduce both the current baryon fraction and the early chemical enrichment of the IGM. The intensity of the formation rate of ``normal'' stars is also well constrained by the observations: it has to be dominated by star formation in elliptical galaxies, except perhaps at very low redshift. The fraction of baryons in stars is predicted as are also the type Ia and II supernova event rates. Comparison with SN observations in the redshift range z=0-2 allows us to set strong constraints on the time delay of type Ia supernovae (a total delay of \\sim 4 Gyr is required to fit the data), the lower end of the mass range of the progenitors (2 - 8 M_odot) and the fraction of white dwarfs that reproduce the type Ia supernova (about 1 per cent). The intensity in the initial starburst of zero metallicity stars below 270 M_\\odot must be limited in order to avoid premature overenrichment of the IGM. Only about 10 - 20 % of the metals present in the IGM at z = 0 have been produced by population III stars at very high z. The remaining 80 - 90 % are ejected later by galaxies forming normal stars, with a maximum outflow efficiency occurring at a redshift of about 5. We conclude that 10^{-3} of the mass in baryons must lie in first massive stars in order to produce enough ionizing photons to allow early reionization of the IGM by z \\sim 15.

Frederic Daigne; Keith A. Olive; Joe Silk; Felix Stoehr; Elisabeth Vangioni

2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

380

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION IN SEYFERT GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present estimates of black hole accretion rates (BHARs) and nuclear, extended, and total star formation rates for a complete sample of Seyfert galaxies. Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure the active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity using the [O IV] {lambda}25.89 {mu}m emission line and the star-forming luminosity using the 11.3 {mu}m aromatic feature and extended 24 {mu}m continuum emission. We find that black hole growth is strongly correlated with nuclear (r < 1 kpc) star formation, but only weakly correlated with extended (r > 1 kpc) star formation in the host galaxy. In particular, the nuclear star formation rate (SFR) traced by the 11.3 {mu}m aromatic feature follows a relationship with the BHAR of the form SFR{proportional_to} M-dot{sub BH}{sup 0.8}, with an observed scatter of 0.5 dex. This SFR-BHAR relationship persists when additional star formation in physically matched r = 1 kpc apertures is included, taking the form SFR{proportional_to} M-dot{sub BH}{sup 0.6}. However, the relationship becomes almost indiscernible when total SFRs are considered. This suggests a physical connection between the gas on sub-kiloparsec and sub-parsec scales in local Seyfert galaxies that is not related to external processes in the host galaxy. It also suggests that the observed scaling between star formation and black hole growth for samples of AGNs will depend on whether the star formation is dominated by a nuclear or an extended component. We estimate the integrated black hole and bulge growth that occurs in these galaxies and find that an AGN duty cycle of 5%-10% would maintain the ratio between black hole and bulge masses seen in the local universe.

Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Why you should design to earn EPA's ENERGY STAR | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

bills and help protect our environment. Learn about ENERGY STAR Products Save Energy at Home Take the Pledge Learn about Climate Change ENERGY STAR Products Tax Credits Ask an...

382

ENERGY STAR Guide for Licensed Professionals | ENERGY STAR Buildings &  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guide for Licensed Professionals Guide for Licensed Professionals Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

383

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry: Registration Form | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Registration Form Registration Form Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder Technical documentation

384

ENERGY STAR Success Story: Kohl's Department Stores | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kohl's Department Stores Kohl's Department Stores Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

385

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry: Participant Handbook | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Participant Handbook Participant Handbook Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder Technical documentation

386

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Chapter 6: Lighting | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6: Lighting 6: Lighting Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder Technical documentation

387

ENERGY STAR Success Story: San Diego Convention Center | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

San Diego Convention Center San Diego Convention Center Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

388

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Chapter 2: Benchmarking | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2: Benchmarking 2: Benchmarking Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder Technical documentation

389

ENERGY STAR Success Story: Verizon Wireless | ENERGY STAR Buildings &  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Verizon Wireless Verizon Wireless Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder Technical documentation

390

Gas Feedback on Stellar Bar Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze evolution of live disk-halo systems in the presence of various gas fractions, f_gas less than 8% in the disk. We addressed the issue of angular momentum (J) transfer from the gas to the bar and its effect on the bar evolution. We find that the weakening of the bar, reported in the literature, is not related to the J-exchange with the gas, but is caused by the vertical buckling instability in the gas-poor disks and by a steep heating of a stellar velocity dispersion by the central mass concentration (CMC) in the gas-rich disks. The gas has a profound effect on the onset of the buckling -- larger f_gas brings it forth due to the more massive CMCs. The former process leads to the well-known formation of the peanut-shaped bulges, while the latter results in the formation of progressively more elliptical bulges, for larger f_gas. The subsequent (secular) evolution of the bar differs -- the gas-poor models exhibit a growing bar while gas-rich models show a declining bar whose vertical swelling is driven by a secular resonance heating. The border line between the gas-poor and -rich models lies at f_gas ~ 3% in our models, but is model-dependent and will be affected by additional processes, like star formation and feedback from stellar evolution. The overall effect of the gas on the evolution of the bar is not in a direct J transfer to the stars, but in the loss of J by the gas and its influx to the center that increases the CMC. The more massive CMC damps the vertical buckling instability and depopulates orbits responsible for the appearance of peanut-shaped bulges. The action of resonant and non-resonant processes in gas-poor and gas-rich disks leads to a converging evolution in the vertical extent of the bar and its stellar dispersion velocities, and to a diverging evolution in the bulge properties.

Ingo Berentzen; Isaac Shlosman; Inma Martinez-Valpuesta; Clayton Heller

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

From nuclear matter to Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron stars are the most dense objects in the observable Universe and conventionally one uses nuclear theory to obtain the equation of state (EOS) of dense hadronic matter and the global properties of these stars. In this work, we review various aspects of nuclear matter within an effective Chiral model and interlink fundamental quantities both from nuclear saturation as well as vacuum properties and correlate it with the star properties.

T. K. Jha

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

392

Nuclear Star Clusters - Structure and Stellar Populations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is an overview of nuclear star cluster observations, covering their structure, stellar populations, kinematics and possible connection to black holes at the centers of galaxies.

Neumayer, Nadine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Get started | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

strides toward our energy conservation goals. Nelly Gomez, Vons Credit Union, 1 winner, bankfinancial institution category, 2012 ENERGY STAR National Building Competition...

394

Improve building and plant performance | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

performance Through ENERGY STAR, EPA provides tools and resources to help you save money and reduce your carbon emissions by improving the energy efficiency of building and...

395

Partnership Requirements: ENERGY STAR Partnership for Commercial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Partnership Requirements: ENERGY STAR Partnership for Commercial & Industrial Service and Product Providers (SPP) Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager...

396

ENERGY STAR Qualified Boilers | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Qualified Boilers Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov Communities Consumer Data ENERGY STAR Qualified...

397

Grocery and convenience stores | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

To save energy while using larger equipment, such as HVAC, heat pumps, motors, boilers, furnaces, and turbines, consider buying ENERGY STAR certified products. Whether you...

398

ENERGY STAR Score for Wastewater Treatment Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

!! !! July 2013 ENERGY STAR Score for Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States Page 1 ENERGY STAR Score for Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States Technical Reference OVERVIEW ! The ENERGY STAR Score for Wastewater Treatment Plants applies to primary, secondary, and advanced treatment facilities with or without nutrient removal capacity. The objective of the ENERGY STAR score is to provide a fair assessment of the energy performance of a property relative to its peers, taking into account the climate, weather, and business activities at the property. To identify the aspects of building activity that are significant drivers of energy

399

Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Energy Trust of Oregon offers rebates for Energy Star refrigerators, freezers and clothes washers to Oregon residential electric service customers of Portland General Electric (PGE) and Pacific...

400

EPA's Target Finder calculator | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sample in the nation, plus have it normalized for size, operating characteristics, and weather. Target Finder Access ENERGY STAR Target Finder When to use Portfolio Manager instead...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

StarSolar Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cambridge, Massachusetts Product Developing a nanostructured 'photonic crystal' PV cell with antireflective coating. References StarSolar Corporation1 LinkedIn Connections...

402

Operations and maintenance reports | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from an expert Take a comprehensive approach Operations and maintenance reports ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Install renewable energy systems Save water to save energy...

403

Nine New Variable Stars in Camelopardalis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nine new short period variable stars have been discovered in the direction of the open cluster Cr464 in Camelopardalis. The field was observed using Tzec Maun Observatory's telescope AP180. Two new variable stars were classified as pulsating stars (RRab and RRc types). The other seven stars are binary systems. One of them is of ELL-type, four binaries were recognized as EW-type, and two systems are rather short period EA-type binaries. All new variables were registered in the VSX catalogue.

Virnina, Natalia A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

ENERGY STAR Score for Wastewater Treatment Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 to 100 percentile ranking of performance, relative to the national population. Property Types. The ENERGY STAR score for wastewater treatment plants applies to primary,...

405

ENERGY STAR Score for Retail Stores  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

100 percentile ranking of performance, relative to the national population. Property Types. The ENERGY STAR score for retail stores applies to retail stores and wholesale...

406

Step 5: Implement action plan | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

team to help them get the word out. Find ENERGY STAR communications tools Train staff Through training, access to information, and transfer of successful practices,...

407

ENERGY STAR Performance Contracting Best Practices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contracting Best Practices Prepared for: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ENERGY STAR Buildings Prepared by: ICF International National Association of Energy Services...

408

ENERGY STAR Guidelines for Energy Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guidelines for Energy Management ENERGY STAR is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Program helping organizations and individuals fight climate change through superior energy...

409

ENERGY STAR Resources for Small & Medium Manufactures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small & Medium Manufacturers Guide to Energy Management June 2013 ENERGY STAR is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Program helping organizations and individuals fight climate...

410

How to Apply for Energy Star Certification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Receive notification of the application's status. June 2013 1 Property Types Eligible for ENERGY STAR Certification Bank Branch Courthouse Data Center Distribution Center Financial...

411

Hotel Scoring Model FAQs | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

use per square foot, and service levels based on operating characteristics. Download the ENERGY STAR Hotel Rating Model FAQs here. Energy Efficient Products Learn about ENERGY...

412

ENERGY STAR Industrial Plant Certification: Instructions for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Senior care resources Small business resources State and local government resources ENERGY STAR Industrial Plant Certification: Instructions for applying This document...

413

STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS LEVERAGING ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

across the country are taking bold steps to protect the environment and lower energy costs by adopting policies that leverage EPA's ENERGY STAR tools to reduce energy use...

414

2006 Is the Sun a Random Star  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The properties of our star may be associated with special prerequisites for life. By comparing our Sun to other stars in our galaxy, we may be able to identify such prerequisites. If our star is typical, stellar conditions appropriate for life, and life itself may be common in the Universe. On the other hand, if the Sun is atypical, conditions appropriate for life may be uncommon. Here we describe a method to quantify how typical or atypical the Sun is compared with other stars

Jose A. Robles; Charles H. Lineweaver

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

How to Apply for ENERGY STAR Certification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a site visit, verifying the information in your application. Property Types Eligible for ENERGY STAR Certification Bank Branch Courthouse Data Center Distribution Center Financial...

416

The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A remarkable fact about spherically-symmetric neutron stars in hydrostatic equilibrium - the so-called Schwarzschild stars - is that the only physics that they are sensitive to is the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. As such, neutron stars provide a myriad of observables that may be used to constrain poorly known aspects of the nuclear interaction under extreme conditions of density. After discussing many of the fascinating phases encountered in neutron stars, I will address how powerful theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints may be used to place stringent limits on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter.

J. Piekarewicz

2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located around the known LkHalpha 185-189 group of stars, which includes the recently erupting FUor HBC 722.

Armond, Tina; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Natural Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Department supports research and policy options to ensure environmentally sustainable domestic and global supplies of oil and natural gas.

419

Gas separating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

Gollan, A.

1988-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

420

Making Galaxies: One Star at a Time  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the age of precision cosmology the fundamental parameters of our world model are being measured to unprecedented accuracy. In particular, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation detail the state of the universe only 400,000 years after the big bang. Unfortunately, we have no direct observational evidence about the following few hundred million years, the so called dark ages. However, we do know from the composition of the highest redshift galaxies that it is there where the earliest and first galaxies are being formed. From a physics point of view these earliest times are much easier to understand and model because the chemical composition of the early gas is simpler and the first galaxies are much smaller than the ones found nearby. The absence of strong magnetic fields, cosmic rays, dust grains and UV radiation fields clearly also helps. The first generation of structure formation is as such a problem extremely well suited for direct ab initio calculations using supercomputers. In this colloquium I will discuss the rich physics of the formation of the first objects as computed via ab initio Eulerian cosmological adaptive mesh refinement calculations. We find the first generation of stars to be massive and to form in isolation with mass between 30 and 300 times the mass of the sun. Remarkably the relevant mass scales can all be understood analytically from the microscopic properties of atomic and molecular hydrogen. The UV radiation from these stars photo-evaporates their parent clouds within their lifetimes contributing significantly to cosmological reionization. Their supernovae distribute the first heavy elements over thousands of light years and enrich the intergalactic medium. As we are beginning to illuminate these earliest phases of galaxy formation many new questions arise and become addressable with our novel numerical techniques. How and where are the earliest magnetic fields made? How do the first super-massive black holes form? When and how can the first planets form in the universe? Algorithmic breakthroughs and large supercomputers enable these studies. Hence I will close with discussing how the expanding computing infrastructure at SLAC and scientific visualization at the Schwob Computing and Information Center at the Fred Kavli building allow us to find answers to the fundamental questions about the beginning of structure in the universe.

Abel, Tom

2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6

422

WHICH PHASE OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM CORRELATES WITH THE STAR FORMATION RATE?  

SciTech Connect

Nearby spiral galaxies show an extremely tight correlation between tracers of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the interstellar medium and tracers of recent star formation, but it is unclear whether this correlation is fundamental or accidental. In the galaxies that have been surveyed to date, H{sub 2} resides predominantly in gravitationally bound clouds cooled by carbon monoxide (CO) molecules, but in galaxies of low metal content the correlations between bound clouds, CO, and H{sub 2} break down, and it is unclear if the star formation rate (SFR) will then correlate with H{sub 2} or with some other quantity. Here, we show that star formation will continue to follow H{sub 2} independent of metallicity. This is not because H{sub 2} is directly important for cooling, but instead because the transition from predominantly atomic hydrogen (H I) to H{sub 2} occurs under the same conditions as a dramatic drop in gas temperature and Bonnor-Ebert mass that destabilizes clouds and initiates collapse. We use this model to compute how SFR will correlate with total gas mass, with mass of gas where the hydrogen is H{sub 2}, and with mass of gas where the carbon is CO in galaxies of varying metallicity, and show that preliminary observations match the trend we predict.

Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd., Charlottesvile, VA 22903 (United States); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

423

ENERGY STAR Snapshot: Measuring Progress in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Spring 2008.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Progress in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors Spring 2008 Introduction Through 2007, commercial and industrial (C&I) leaders have made unprecedented progress in their efforts to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions across their buildings and facilities. This includes: y Hundreds of organizations and individuals stepping forward to take the ENERGY STAR Challenge to improve the energy efficiency of America's buildings by 10 percent or more y Measuring the energy performance in tens of thousands of buildings y Achieving energy savings across millions of square feet y Designating more than 4,000 efficient buildings and facilities with the ENERGY STAR label ENERGY STAR partners are building tremendous momentum for energy efficiency and seeing important

424

2013 Licensed Professional's Guide to the ENERGY STAR Label for Commercial Buldings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Licensed Professional's Guide: Understanding the Roles and Requirements for Verifying Commercial Building Applications for ENERGY STAR Certification Contents Introduction 1 Verifying the Data Checklist 6 Verifying the Statement of Energy Performance 21 Verifying the Indoor Environmental Conditions 23 Appendix A: Sample Applications for ENERGY STAR Certification 27 Appendix B: Steps to Correct Information on the Data Checklist and Statement of Energy Performance 33 The Licensed Professional's Guide 1 Introduction Energy use in commercial buildings accounts for nearly 20 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions at a cost of more than $100 billion per year. Through ENERGY STAR, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works with owners and managers of our nation's

425

Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR): Instrument Technology  

SciTech Connect

The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with diffraction spectroscopy, to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution/climate. Direct beam hyper-spectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements will tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/ sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. Technical challenges include compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage. Test results establishing the performance of the instrument against the full range of operational requirements are presented, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and scientific field campaign data and results.

Dunagan, Stephen; Johnson, Roy; Zavaleta, Jhony; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Livingston, J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

426

Help your clients improve energy performance with ENERGY STAR...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR tools and resources in your proposal. Read our introductory and best practices papers to learn why ESCOs use ENERGY STAR tools and how to integrate ENERGY STAR tools...

427

Support for ENERGY STAR Enforcement | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Support for ENERGY STAR Enforcement Support for ENERGY STAR Enforcement By offering a means for consumers to buy products more energy-efficient than required by law, ENERGY STAR...

428

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

,366 ,366 95,493 1.08 0 0.00 1 0.03 29,406 0.56 1,206 0.04 20,328 0.64 146,434 0.73 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: South Carolina South Carolina 88. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ...........................................

429

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0,216 0,216 50,022 0.56 135 0.00 49 1.67 85,533 1.63 8,455 0.31 45,842 1.45 189,901 0.95 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: M a r y l a n d Maryland 68. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Maryland, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 9 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 33 28 26 22 135 From Oil Wells ...........................................

430

THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VII. CHARACTERIZING THE PROPERTIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a Green Bank Telescope survey of NH{sub 3}(1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines toward 631 Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) sources at a range of Galactic longitudes in the inner Galaxy. We have detected the NH{sub 3}(1,1) line toward 72% of our targets (456), demonstrating that the high column density features identified in the BGPS and other continuum surveys accurately predict the presence of dense gas. We have determined kinematic distances and resolved the distance ambiguity for all BGPS sources detected in NH{sub 3}. The BGPS sources trace the locations of the Scutum and Sagittarius spiral arms, with the number of sources. We measure the physical properties of each source and find that depending on the distance, BGPS sources are primarily clumps, with some cores and clouds. We have examined the physical properties as a function of Galactocentric distance, and find a mean gas kinetic temperature of 15.6 K, and that the NH{sub 3} column density and abundance decrease by nearly an order of magnitude. Comparing sources at similar distances demonstrates that the physical properties are indistinguishable, which suggests a similarity in clump structure across the Galactic disk. We have also compared the BGPS sources to criteria for efficient star formation presented independently by Heiderman et al. and Lada et al., and for massive star formation presented by Kauffmann et al. Forty-eight percent of our sample should be forming stars (including massive stars) with high efficiency, and 87% contain subregions that should be efficiently forming stars. Indeed, we find that 67% of the sample exhibit signs of star formation activity based on an association with a mid-infrared source.

Dunham, Miranda K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0259 (United States); Cyganowski, Claudia [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Urquhart, James S., E-mail: miranda.dunham@yale.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

431

Do We Know of Any Maunder Minimum Stars?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most stars previously identified as Maunder minimum stars are old stars evolved off of the main sequence. Analysis of activity measurements from the California and Carnegie Planet Search program stars and Hipparcos parallaxes implies that the canonical age-chromospheric activity relation breaks down for stars older than $\\sim 6$ Gyr when activity is calculated from Mount Wilson S values. Stars only 1 magnitude above the main sequence exhibit significantly suppressed activity levels which have been mistaken for examples of Maunder minimum behavior.

Jason T. Wright

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

SDSS spectroscopic survey of stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. We discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity from SDSS spectra, describe correlations between kinematics and metallicity, and study their variation as a function of the position in the Galaxy. We show that stellar parameter estimates by Beers et al. show a good correlation with the position of a star in the g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram, thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for photometric parameter estimation methods. Using Beers et al. parameters, we find that the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way stars at a few kpc from the galactic plane is bimodal with a local minimum at [Z/Zo]~ -1.3. The median metallicity for the low-metallicity [Z/Zo] -1.3 sample. We also find that the low-metallicity sample has ~2.5 times larger velocity dispersion and that it does not rotate (at ...

Ivezic, Z; Uomoto, A; Bond, N; Beers, T; Allende-Prieto, C; Wilhelm, R; Lee, Y S; Sivarani, T; Juric, M; Lupton, R; Rockosi, C M; Knapp, G; Gunn, J; Yanny, B; Jester, S; Kent, S; Pier, J; Munn, J A; Richards, G; Newberg, H; Blanton, M; Eisenstein, D; Hawley, S; Anderson, S; Harris, H; Kiuchi, F; Chen, A; Bushong, J; Sohi, H; Haggard, D; Kimball, A; Barentine, J; Brewington, H; Harvanek, M; Kleinman, S; Krzesnski, J; Long, D; Nitta, A; Snedden, S A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

SDSS spectroscopic survey of stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. We discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity from SDSS spectra, describe correlations between kinematics and metallicity, and study their variation as a function of the position in the Galaxy. We show that stellar parameter estimates by Beers et al. show a good correlation with the position of a star in the g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram, thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for photometric parameter estimation methods. Using Beers et al. parameters, we find that the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way stars at a few kpc from the galactic plane is bimodal with a local minimum at [Z/Zo]~ -1.3. The median metallicity for the low-metallicity [Z/Zo] -1.3 sample. We also find that the low-metallicity sample has ~2.5 times larger velocity dispersion and that it does not rotate (at the ~10 km/s level), while the rotational velocity of the high-metallicity sample decreases smoothly with the height above the galactic plane.

Z. Ivezic; D. Schlegel; A. Uomoto; N. Bond; T. Beers; C. Allende Prieto; R. Wilhelm; Y. Sun Lee; T. Sivarani; M. Juric; R. Lupton; C. Rockosi; G. Knapp; J. Gunn; B. Yanny; S. Jester; S. Kent; J. Pier; J. Munn; G. Richards; H. Newberg; M. Blanton; D. Eisenstein; S. Hawley; S. Anderson; H. Harris; F. Kiuchi; A. Chen; J. Bushong; H. Sohi; D. Haggard; A. Kimball; J. Barentine; H. Brewington; M. Harvanek; S. Kleinman; J. Krzesinski; D. Long; A. Nitta; S. Snedden; for the SDSS Collaboration

2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

434

The role of low-mass star clusters in massive star formation. The Orion Case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To distinguish between the different theories proposed to explain massive star formation, it is crucial to establish the distribution, the extinction, and the density of low-mass stars in massive star-forming regions. We analyze deep X-ray observations of the Orion massive star-forming region using the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) catalog. We studied the stellar distribution as a function of extinction, with cells of 0.03 pc x 0.03 pc, the typical size of protostellar cores. We derived stellar density maps and calculated cluster stellar densities. We found that low-mass stars cluster toward the three massive star-forming regions: the Trapezium Cluster (TC), the Orion Hot Core (OHC), and OMC1-S. We derived low-mass stellar densities of 10^{5} stars pc^{-3} in the TC and OMC1-S, and of 10^{6} stars pc^{-3} in the OHC. The close association between the low-mass star clusters with massive star cradles supports the role of these clusters in the formation of massive stars. The X-ray observations show for ...

Rivilla, V M; Jimenez-Serra, I; Rodriguez-Franco, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Residential Energy Efficiency Programs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Residential Energy Efficiency Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Residential Energy Efficiency Programs < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Insulation Weatherization: $2,000 Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Insulation Weatherization: 75% of project cost Energy Star homes: $350 - $8,000, varies by number of units and efficiency Warm Air Furnace: $500 - $800 Gas Boiler: $1,000 - $1,500 Integrated Water Heater/Boiler: $1,200

436

Win ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Win ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year Win ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section How can we help you? Build an energy program Improve building and plant performance Earn the ENERGY STAR and other recognition Benchmark energy use ENERGY STAR in action Communicate and educate ENERGY STAR communications toolkit Bring Your Green to Work with ENERGY STAR

437

Why you should design to earn the ENERGY STAR | ENERGY STAR Buildings &  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why you should design to earn the ENERGY STAR Why you should design to earn the ENERGY STAR Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Why you should design to earn the ENERGY STAR Leading firms choose ENERGY STAR Why new doesn't always mean efficient Follow EPA's step-by-step process ENERGY STAR Challenge for Architects Why you should design to earn the ENERGY STAR

438

Step 6: Complete the ENERGY STAR lifecycle | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6: Complete the ENERGY STAR lifecycle 6: Complete the ENERGY STAR lifecycle Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Why design to earn ENERGY STAR Design to earn ENERGY STAR Step 1: Include efficiency in your project specs Step 2: Meet with your team and set a goal Step 3: Apply for Designed to Earn the ENERGY STAR recognition Step 4: Market your project as Designed to Earn the ENERGY STAR

439

Columbia Water & Light - New Home Energy Star Rebate | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Home Energy Star Rebate Columbia Water & Light - New Home Energy Star Rebate Eligibility Construction Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction...

440

Columbia Water & Light - Home Performance with Energy Star Rebates...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Performance with Energy Star Rebates Columbia Water & Light - Home Performance with Energy Star Rebates Eligibility Residential Savings For Home Weatherization Commercial...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Equator Appliance: ENERGY STAR Referral (EZ 3720) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Equator Appliance: ENERGY STAR Referral (EZ 3720) Equator Appliance: ENERGY STAR Referral (EZ 3720) October 5, 2010 DOE referred Equator Appliance clothes washer EZ 3720 to EPA,...

442

DOE Defends Decision to Revoke Energy Star Designation for Certain...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Defends Decision to Revoke Energy Star Designation for Certain LG Refrigerators DOE Defends Decision to Revoke Energy Star Designation for Certain LG Refrigerators December 23,...

443

Equator Appliance: ENERGY STAR Referral (EZ 3720 CEE) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Equator Appliance: ENERGY STAR Referral (EZ 3720 CEE) Equator Appliance: ENERGY STAR Referral (EZ 3720 CEE) October 5, 2010 DOE referred the matter of Equator clothes washer model...

444

Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to limited data regarding energy and usage patterns. The UECconsumption, usage, total energy, and ENERGY STAR marketBAU and ENERGY STAR cases, using power consumption and usage

Homan, Gregory K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Laboratory Equipment - DynaPro NanoStar Dynamic Light ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DynaPro NanoStar Dynamic Light Scattering. Description: Location: E136. The DynaPro NanoStar is a dynamic light scattering ...

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

446

Green Star Products Inc GSPI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

"Green Star Products Inc (GSPI)" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGreenStarProductsIncGSPI&oldid346058" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations...

447

ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry: Poster, "Our Actions Made...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

business resources State and local government resources ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry: Poster, "Our Actions Made a Difference" This co-brandable poster is for ENERGY STAR...

448

Clean Energy Action Star Governor Schwarzenegger to Keynote ARPA...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Action Star Governor Schwarzenegger to Keynote ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Clean Energy Action Star Governor Schwarzenegger to Keynote ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit February...

449

Get buy-in from leadership and staff | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy, from simple steps to the comprehensive five-stage approach outlined in the ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual. Or, consider enlisting the services of an ENERGY STAR...

450

Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant - Residential Energy Star Appliance...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant - Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant - Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program Eligibility...

451

NineStar Connect - Residential Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NineStar Connect - Residential Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate Program NineStar Connect - Residential Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings...

452

Energy Star Guide for Restaurants, Putting Energy into Profit...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR Guide for Restaurants Putting Energy into Profit ENERGY STAR , a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program, helps us all save money and protect our environment through...

453

ENERGY STAR for Congregations: Action Workbook for Energy Stewardship  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

light bulbs with ENERGY STAR qualified compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) or light emitting diode (LED) equipment, wherever appropriate. ENERGY STAR for Congregations: Action...

454

Energy-saving tips for everyone | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Communicate and educate ENERGY STAR communications toolkit Bring Your Green to Work with ENERGY STAR Energy-saving tips for everyone Secondary menu About us Press room...

455

List of most active service and product providers | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

quality, and durability. Find Builders and Incentives Home Features and Benefits Homeowner Testimonials Resources for Partners Find ENERGY STAR Home Builders ENERGY STAR Home...

456

ENERGY STAR SNAPSHOT … Spring 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Snapshot data runs through June 30, 2011. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot provides an at-a-glance summary of the latest national ENERGY STAR metrics to help you, our partners, see the impact of your efforts. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot is distributed twice a year and provides: * Trends in energy benchmarking of commercial and industrial buildings. * State-by-state activity along with activity for the top Designated Market Areas. * Industrial sector participation in ENERGY STAR. * Trends in ENERGY STAR labeled commercial and industrial facilities. Summary By mid-year 2011, commercial and industrial organizations were on track to, or were already exceeding, figures for benchmarking and labeling that were set by end of year 2010. Since December, 2010:

457

ENERGY STAR SNAPSHOT … Spring 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 10 Summary In 2009, commercial and industrial organizations continued their impressive efforts to improve their energy performance and reduce greenhouse emissions. As a result: * More than 65,000 buildings received an ENERGY STAR energy performance score in 2009, a 50 percent increase over 2008 * Nearly 3,900 buildings earned the ENERGY STAR, a 20 percent increase over the record- breaking activity of the previous year * Almost 60 organizations achieved ENERGY STAR Leader recognition providing the greatest single year of savings since the program began in 2004 The ENERGY STAR Snapshot provides an at-a-glance summary of the key performance indicators behind these impressive results. The Snapshot reports the latest national ENERGY STAR metrics to help

458

ENERGY STAR SNAPSHOT … Spring 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Snapshot data runs through December 31, 2010. Snapshot data runs through December 31, 2010. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot provides an at-a-glance summary of the latest national ENERGY STAR metrics to help you, our partners, see the impact of your efforts. The ENERGY STAR Snapshot is distributed twice a year and provides: Trends in energy benchmarking of commercial and industrial buildings. State-by-state activity along with activity for the top Designated Market Areas. Industrial sector participation in ENERGY STAR. Trends in ENERGY STAR certified buildings and plants. Summary By end-of-year 2010, commercial and industrial organizations nearly exceeded activity levels reached throughout all of 2009 for benchmarking and certification. Since June 30, 2010: The number of benchmarked buildings has grown to 185,000 buildings, representing over 21

459

The kinematics of the diffuse ionized gas in NGC 4666  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The global properties of the interstellar medium with processes such as infall and outflow of gas and a large scale circulation of matter and its consequences for star formation and chemical enrichment are important for the understanding of galaxy evolution. In this paper we studied the kinematics and morphology of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the disk and in the halo of the star forming spiral galaxy NGC 4666 to derive information about its kinematical properties. Especially, we searched for infalling and outflowing ionized gas. We determined surface brightness, radial velocity, and velocity dispersion of the warm ionized gas via high spectral resolution (R ~ 9000) Fabry-P\\'erot interferometry. This allows the determination of the global velocity field and the detection of local deviations from this verlocity field. We calculated models of the DIG distribution and its kinematics for comparison with the measured data. In this way we determined fundamental parameters such as the inclination and the scale h...

Voigtlnder, Pierre; Marcelin, Michel; Bomans, Dominik J; Dettmar, Ralf-Jrgen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

ON THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION AND THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION  

SciTech Connect

Density probability distribution functions (PDFs) for turbulent self-gravitating clouds should be convolutions of the local log-normal PDF, which depends on the local average density {rho}{sub ave} and Mach number M, and the PDFs for {rho}{sub ave} and M, which depend on the overall cloud structure. When self-gravity drives a cloud to increased central density, the total PDF develops an extended tail. If there is a critical density or column density for star formation, then the fraction of the local mass exceeding this threshold becomes higher near the cloud center. These elements of cloud structure should be in place before significant star formation begins. Then the efficiency is high so that bound clusters form rapidly, and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) has an imprint in the gas before destructive radiation from young stars can erase it. The IMF could arise from a power-law distribution of mass for cloud structure. These structures should form stars down to the thermal Jeans mass M{sub J} at each density in excess of a threshold. The high-density tail of the PDF, combined with additional fragmentation in each star-forming core, extends the IMF into the brown dwarf regime. The core fragmentation process is distinct from the cloud structuring process and introduces an independent core fragmentation mass function (CFMF). The CFMF would show up primarily below the IMF peak.

Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lone star gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21,547 21,547 4,916 0.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 7,012 0.13 3 0.00 7,099 0.22 19,031 0.10 N e w H a m p s h i r e New Hampshire 77. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New Hampshire, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

462

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

139,881 139,881 26,979 0.30 463 0.00 115 3.92 27,709 0.53 19,248 0.70 28,987 0.92 103,037 0.52 A r i z o n a Arizona 50. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arizona, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 6 6 6 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 721 508 711 470 417 From Oil Wells ........................................... 72 110 48 88 47 Total.............................................................. 794 618 759 558 464 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease

463

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Middle Middle Atlantic Middle Atlantic 37. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Middle Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,857 1,981 2,042 1,679 1,928 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 36,906 36,857 26,180 37,159 38,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 161,372 152,717 140,444 128,677 152,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 162,196 153,327 140,982 129,400 153,134 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed

464

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

386,690 386,690 102,471 1.16 0 0.00 43 1.47 142,319 2.72 5,301 0.19 98,537 3.12 348,671 1.74 M i n n e s o t a Minnesota 71. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Minnesota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

465

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,108,583 1,108,583 322,275 3.63 298 0.00 32 1.09 538,749 10.28 25,863 0.95 218,054 6.90 1,104,972 5.52 I l l i n o i s Illinois 61. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Illinois, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 382 385 390 372 370 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 337 330 323 325 289 From Oil Wells ........................................... 10 10 10 10 9 Total.............................................................. 347 340 333 335 298 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

466

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

286,485 286,485 71,533 0.81 25 0.00 31 1.06 137,225 2.62 5,223 0.19 72,802 2.31 286,814 1.43 M i s s o u r i Missouri 73. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Missouri, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5 8 12 15 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 27 14 8 16 25 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 27 14 8 16 25 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

467

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

411,951 411,951 100,015 1.13 0 0.00 5 0.17 114,365 2.18 45,037 1.65 96,187 3.05 355,609 1.78 Massachusetts Massachusetts 69. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Massachusetts, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

468

Natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.eia.gov Over time the electricity mix gradually shifts to lower-carbon options, led by growth in natural gas and renewable generation U.S. electricity net generation trillion kilowatthours 6

Adam Sieminski Administrator; Adam Sieminski Usnic; Adam Sieminski Usnic

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

68,747 68,747 34,577 0.39 0 0.00 34 1.16 14,941 0.29 0 0.00 11,506 0.36 61,058 0.31 I d a h o Idaho 60. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Idaho, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented

470

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 540 0.01 0 0.00 2,132 0.07 2,672 0.01 H a w a i i Hawaii 59. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Hawaii, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared

471

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

483,052 483,052 136,722 1.54 6,006 0.03 88 3.00 16,293 0.31 283,557 10.38 41,810 1.32 478,471 2.39 F l o r i d a Florida 57. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Florida, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 47 50 98 92 96 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

472

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

291,898 291,898 113,995 1.29 0 0.00 4 0.14 88,078 1.68 3,491 0.13 54,571 1.73 260,140 1.30 I o w a Iowa 63. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Iowa, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0

473

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vehicle Fuel: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: New England New England 36. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New England, 1992-1996 T