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Sample records for logging residues rough

  1. Mud Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Well Log Techniques Acoustic Logs Cement Bond Log Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log Caliper Log Chemical Logging Density Log Gamma Log Image Logs Mud Logging Neutron Log Pressure...

  2. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC-8 Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09032013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page ... results spreadsheet (linked on SSP web page); clarification to benchmark run rules ...

  3. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Log Change Log Crossroads/NERSC-9 Benchmarks Change Log 03/04/2016 Updated PENNANT benchmark. Updated SSI spreadsheet to reflect new PENNANT reference timing. 02/29/2016 Updated MPI Benchmarks section. Added link for SMB multi-threaded MPI benchmarks, which are to be used for message rate and latency measurements called out in the Application Performance section of the RFP. 02/26/2016 New miniPIC distribution: 1) Updated source and README.APEX, 2) FOM is now updates/second, 3) Edison

  4. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Log Change Log NERSC-8 / Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09/03/2013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page (to remove inconsistency with MiniDFT README). Capability Improvement measurements do not require 10,000 MPI ranks per k-point. 08/06/2013 Various pages have changed to remove "draft" status 08/02/2013 Correction added to FLOP Counts for "Small" Single-Node Miniapplication Tests page 07/12/2013 README files updated for IOR benchmark to correct an error in wording

  5. Spontaneous Potential Well Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Log Chemical Logging Density Log Gamma Log Image Logs Mud Logging Neutron Log Pressure Temperature Log Single-Well and Cross-Well Resistivity Spontaneous Potential Well Log...

  6. Well Log ETL tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  7. Caliper Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by...

  8. Log-Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the logmore »file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.« less

  9. Logging in to Franklin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Logging in Logging in to Franklin Interactive Access You can log in to Franklin using SSH (Secure Shell) with the following command from any UNIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc. command shell or terminal: % ssh -l username franklin.nersc.gov There are a number of SSH-capable clients available for Windows, Mac, and UNIX/Linux machines. NERSC does not support or recommend any particular client. Franklin has 10 login nodes; you will be randomly connected to one of those 10 when you ssh to franklin.nersc.gov.

  10. Acoustic Logs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    different types of acoustic logs are used, based on the frequencies used, the way the signal is recorded, and the purpose of the log. All these logs require fluid in the well to...

  11. Density Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Density Log Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration...

  12. NMR logging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  13. Logs Perl Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  14. Log in | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Error message Access denied. You must log in to view this page.

  15. Neutron Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dictionary.png Neutron Log: The neutron log responds primarily to the amount of hydrogen in the formation which is contained in oil, natural gas, and water. The amount of...

  16. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  17. Geotech Logging Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logging Services Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Geotech Logging Services Author Geotech Logging Servces LLC Published Publisher...

  18. Category:Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical Logging Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Chemical Logging page? For detailed information on Chemical Logging, click here. Category:Chemical...

  19. Coiled-tubing logging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, E.P.; Smith, L.J.; Blount, C.G.

    1988-03-01

    Techniques have been developed to use coiled tubing containing a seven-conductor wireline to facilitate logging operations. Equipment has been designed to permit the connection of conventional logging tools to the tubing and the recording of logs. Operating techniques have been developed and applied under various wellbore conditions. The system allows traditional log measurements in a well while wellbore conditions are controlled. Advantages of the system include reduced wellbore pressure during peroration to maximize perforation performance; lubrication during pulling or pushing a logging tool through a borehole so that a more uniform velocity can be maintained with a logging sonde; continued circulation and thus borehole stability during logging; temperature reduction for improved reliability of logging sonde electronics in hot holes; and more stable positioning of perforation equipment. The ability of coiled tubing to push tools down highly deviated or horizontal wellbores makes logging or perforating feasible in these wells. Expenses can often be reduced with coiled-tubing logging because a rig is unnecessary during many operations.

  20. Coiled-tubing logging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, E.P.; Smith, L.J.; Blount, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques have been developed which use coiled tubing containing a seven-conductor wireline to facilitate logging operations. Equipment has been designed which permits the connection of conventional logging tools to the tubing and the recording of logs. Also, operating techniques have been developed and applied under various wellbore conditions. The system allows traditional log measurements in a well while controlling wellbore conditions. Advantages of the system include: reduced wellbore pressure during perforation to minimize formation damage: lubrication while pulling or pushing a logging tool through a borehole so that a more uniform velocity can be maintained with a logging sonde; continued circulation and thus borehole stability while logging; temperature reduction for improved reliability of logging sonde electronics in hot holes; and more stable positioning of perforation equipment. The ability of coiled tubing to push tools down highly deviated, or even horizontal wellbores, makes logging or perforating feasible in these wells. Expenses can often be reduced with coiled-tubing logging, since a rig is unnecessary during many operations.

  1. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  2. Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    concentrations.1 Use in Geothermal Exploration During a chemical logging study at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site, returned drilling fluid samples were collected every...

  3. Category:Neutron Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Looking for the Neutron Log page? For detailed information on Neutron Log, click here. Category:Neutron Log Add.png Add a new Neutron Log Technique Pages in category...

  4. A new approach for deriving pseudovelocity logs from resistivity logs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dos Santos, W.L.B.; Ulrych, T.J.; De Lima, O.A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a method of generating pseudovelocity logs using measurements of electrical resistivity. A theoretical relation between electrical resistivity and transit time, which is applicable to a wide range of lithologies, has been developed. The application of this relation using a method which defines lithoresistivity zones as lithological intervals related to the same formation and showing small resistivity variations, has been tested in the Reconcavo sedimentary basin in Bahia, Brazil. A comparison of derived pseudovelocity logs with actual sonic logs for five wells shows the validity of the present approach.

  5. Category:Well Log Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 pages C Caliper Log 1 pages Chemical Logging 1 pages D Density Log 1 pages G Gamma Log 1 pages I Image Logs 1 pages M Mud...

  6. Vertical Flowmeter Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logging Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Vertical Flowmeter Logging Author U.S. Geological Survey Published USGS Groundwater...

  7. Well Log Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    formation properties versus depth in a borehole. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Well logging, also known as wireline logging, is a method of data collection in the...

  8. Well Log Techniques At Raft River Geothermal Area (1977) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the rock using well log data. Notes Information is given on the following logs: dual-induction focused log, including resistivity, sp, and conductivity; acoustic log; compensated...

  9. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  10. Borehole Geophysical Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logging Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Borehole Geophysical Logging Authors Hager-Richter Geoscience and Inc. Published Publisher Not...

  11. Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Alerts Log On

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Log On You must Log On to use the ECD Alerts. Alerts provide users with e-mail notification of updates to the ECD in specific areas of interest. If you wish to receive an Alert and...

  12. Leak checker data logging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  13. Leak checker data logging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gannon, Jeffrey C. (Arlington, TX); Payne, John J. (Waterman, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  14. Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

  15. Logging in to Cori P1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Logging in Logging in to Cori P1 Interactive Access You can log in to Cori using SSH (Secure Shell) with the following command from any UNIX, Mac OS X, Linux, FreeBSD, etc. command shell or terminal: ssh -l username cori.nersc.gov There are several SSH-capable clients available for Windows, Mac, and UNIX/Linux machines. NERSC does not support or recommend any particular client. More information on connecting to NERSC with SSH, including how to generate SSH keys for passworless logins, can be

  16. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  17. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our...

  18. Formation mechanical properties and the sonic log

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elphick, R.Y.

    1988-11-01

    A program is presented that calculates the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks from sonic logs. The program was written in Microsoft BASIC and the source code for MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh, and Amiga personal computers is given.

  19. Sisyphus - An Event Log Analysis Toolset

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    Event logs are a ubiquitous source of system feedback from computer systems, but have widely ranging format and can be extremely numerous, particularly from systems with many logging components. Inspection of these logs is fundamental to system debugging; increased capability to quickly extract meaningful information will impact MTTR (mean time to repair) and may impact MTBF (mean time between failure). Sisyphus is a machine-leanring analysis system whose goal is to enable content-novice analysts to efficieniiymore » understand evolving trends, identify anomalies, and investigate cause-effect hypotheses in large multiple-souce log sets. The toolkit is comprised a framework for utilizing third-party frequentitemset data mining tools Teiresias and SLCT. and software to cluster messages according to time statistics, and an interactive results viewer.« less

  20. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-12-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

  1. Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Alerts Log On

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ECD Alerts Log On Alerts provide users with e-mail notification of updates to the ECD in specific areas of interest. If you wish to receive an Alert and are not registered, please...

  2. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, David S. (New York, NY); Myers, Gregory J. (Cornwall, NY)

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  3. Cement Bond Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    casing and cement and between cement and borehole wall. Most cement-bond logs are a measurement only of the amplitude of the early arriving casing signal. Although a small...

  4. Category:Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log page? For detailed information on Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log,...

  5. Property:FirstWellLog | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FirstWellLog Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FirstWellLog Property Type Page Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:FirstWellLog&oldid598766...

  6. Category:Pressure Temperature Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Pressure Temperature Log page? For detailed information on Pressure Temperature Log, click here. Category:Pressure Temperature Log Add.png Add a...

  7. Gamma-Ray Logging Workshop (February 1981) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gamma-Ray Logging Workshop (February 1981) Gamma-Ray Logging Workshop (February 1981) Gamma-Ray Logging Workshop (February 1981) PDF icon Gamma-Ray Logging Workshop (February 1981) More Documents & Publications Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium Deposits (1967) Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) Parameter Assignments for Spectral Gamma-Ray Borehole Calibration Models (April 1984)

  8. Green Energy Resources Inc formerly New York International Log...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc formerly New York International Log Lumber Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Energy Resources Inc (formerly New York International Log & Lumber Company) Place:...

  9. Chemical Logging At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Department...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical logs were made from well fluids for analysis when designing the first experimental power plant Notes Detailed logs of well fluids were recorded. Non-condensable gases...

  10. Energy Efficiency in Log Homes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy efficiency when designing or purchasing a log home. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.comtinabelle Consider energy efficiency when designing or purchasing a log home. |...

  11. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for determining formation quality factor from well log ...

  12. COMPARISON OF ACOUSTIC AND ELECTRICAL IMAGE LOGS FROM THE COSO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    image log, but locally approach 100%. This fabric is unlikely to contribute to permeability in the reservoir. Acoustic image logs reveal a similar natural fracture population,...

  13. Pressure Temperature Log At Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Notes Numerous temperature logs were taken with Sandia's platinum-resistance-thermometer (PRT) tool which along with a Sandia logging truck remained on-site for...

  14. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. Formore » computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.« less

  15. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  16. Logging of subterranean wells using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilla, J.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes an apparatus for production logging of a well utilizing artificial lift in a wellbore. It comprises: coiled tubing extending into the wellbore having wireline electrical cable passing through a central bore thereof and having a remote end within the wellbore which end is connected to gas injector means. The wireline cable passing through the gas injector means to a flexible electrically conductive support spacer having an end portion remote from the gas injector means and logging means connected to the end portion of the support spacer.

  17. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  18. Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium Deposits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (1967) | Department of Energy Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium Deposits (1967) Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium Deposits (1967) Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium Deposits (1967) PDF icon Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium Deposits (1967) More Documents & Publications Gamma-Ray Logging Workshop (February 1981) Grade Assignments for Models Used for

  19. Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) PDF icon Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) More Documents & Publications A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of

  20. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  1. Energy Efficiency in Log Homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design » Types of Homes » Energy Efficiency in Log Homes Energy Efficiency in Log Homes Consider energy efficiency when designing or purchasing a log home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/tinabelle Consider energy efficiency when designing or purchasing a log home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/tinabelle Log homes may be site-built or pre-cut in a factory for delivery to the site. Some log home manufacturers can also customize their designs. Before designing or purchasing a

  2. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  3. Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logs (FMI) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) Author Shakeel Ahmed Published Publisher Not...

  4. Geophysical logging case history of the Raft River geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    logging case history of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geophysical logging case history of the...

  5. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  6. Microsoft Word - FOIA Log FY 2001.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 FOIA - Request Log 1 Closed/ Date No. Dated Date Rec'd HQ or Dir. Subject Yes/ 3/29/01 001 02/01/01 02/01/01 01-0021C Transfer AL Copies of all documents including studies and memoranda, which may identify or consider WIPP site in Carlsbad, NM as a potential site for storage or disposal of spent reactor fuel or high-level radioactive wastes 2. All documents including studies, memoranda, hypothesizing, considering, recommending, or suggesting the WIPP site in NM as an alternative site to the

  7. Microsoft Word - FOIA Log FY 2002.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 FOIA - Request Log 1 Closed/ Date No. Dated Date Rec'd HQ or Dir. Subject Yes/ 1/30/02 001 12/3/02 12/21/02 Richland Transfer Richland Operation Office search for records they located documents originated by the DOE Carlsbad Field Office that may be responsive to Mr. Hongs request. By transfer of this letter they forwarded Mr. Hong request, along with the documents located at Richland to the Carlsbad FOIA Office. CBFO will respond directly to Mr. Hong with a release determination Yes/ 2/13/02

  8. Microsoft Word - FOIA Log FY 2004.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 FOIA - Request Log 1 Closed/ Date No. Dated Date Rec'd HQ or Dir. Subject Yes 02/20/04 001 02/02/04 02/02/04 Direct Copies of my personnel records that are maintained at 401 N. Canal Street in Carlsbad, New Mexico Yes 03/29/04 002 03/24/04 03/29/04 Direct Transferred to HQ Asking for information regarding Gary K. King during DOE Secretary Bill Richardson's administration from 08//18/1998 through 02/20/2001, including: 1. Travel vouchers and official expenditures made by the United States

  9. Microsoft Word - FOIA Log FY 2007.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 FOIA - Request Log 1 Closed/ Date No. Dated Date Rec'd HQ or Dir. Subject Finalized 02/08/07 001 10/05/06 01/08/07 Transfer from DOE- EM-CBC Copies of contract modifications, performance evaluations, task orders and task order proposals related to contract AT30-05EW03000 with Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. Finalized 01/31/07 002 01/11/07 01/11/07 Direct For a copy of contract DE-AC04-95AL89446 for the period of September 1995 through the end of the contract. Also, if not included in

  10. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  11. Manager's Signature Log Privacy Impact Assessment, Office of Science

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chicago Office | Department of Energy Manager's Signature Log Privacy Impact Assessment, Office of Science Chicago Office Manager's Signature Log Privacy Impact Assessment, Office of Science Chicago Office Manager's Signature Log Privacy Impact Assessment, Office of Science Chicago Office PDF icon Manager's Signature Log Privacy Impact Assessment, Office of Science Chicago Office More Documents & Publications Integrated Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National

  12. Well Logging Security Initiatives | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well Logging Security ... Well Logging Security Initiatives The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Watch as GTRI demonstrates the threat to the security of (oil) well logging systems and outlines the initiatives that are enhancing the security of these sources worldwide

  13. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  14. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  15. Microsoft Word - FOIA Log FY 2005.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 FOIA - Request Log 1 Closed/ Date No. Dated Date Rec'd HQ or Dir. Subject Yes 02/23/05 001 02/16/05 02/16/05 Direct Copies of the 2004 Modifications to the Westinghouse TRU Solutions contract (No. DE-AC- 04-01AL66444) for the management and operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Yes 04/12/05 002 04/11/05 04/11/05 Direct Copies of the scope of work statement for the EE&G Oversight contract for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, dated 1999 or 2000 Yes 04/29/05 003 04/20/05 04/20/05

  16. Evaluation of Emerging Technology for Geothermal Drilling and Logging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Evaluation of Emerging Technology for Geothermal Drilling and Logging Applications Evaluation of Emerging Technology for Geothermal Drilling and Logging Applications Evaluation of Emerging Technology for Geothermal Drilling and Logging Applications presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon sandia_evaluation_drilling_tech_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Evaluation of Emerging Technology for

  17. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  18. Drag reduction in coal log pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.

    1996-12-31

    It is well-known that solutions of dissolved long-chain macromolecules produce lower friction or drag losses than with the solvent alone. In coal log pipeline (CLP), water is the conveying medium. Synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) have been dissolved in water and tested for their extent of drag reduction as a function of concentration and other variables. Lab-scale experimental results for CLP indicate substantial drag reduction at low concentration levels of polymer. But, the macromolecules exhibit degradation under mechanical shear stresses. The large molecules break into smaller units. This degradation effect causes a loss of drag reduction. However, high levels of drag reduction can be maintained as follows: (1) by injecting polymer into the CLP at several locations along the pipeline, (2) by injecting polymer of different particle sizes, (3) by using more robust types of polymers, or (4) by using polymer-fiber mixtures. This report presents the value of drag-reducing agents in terms of pumping power net cost savings. In addition, this report outlines the environmental impact of drag reduction polymers, and end-of-pipeline water treatment processes. For an operating CLP, hundreds of miles in length, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) as a drag reducing agent provides significant pumping power cost savings at a minimal materials cost.

  19. Chemical Logging At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Los Alamos...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Chemical Logging At Dixie...

  20. Energy Efficiency in Log Homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    or purchasing a manufactured log home, you should consider several factors related to energy efficiency. The R-Value of Wood A material's thermal resistance or resistance to...

  1. Acoustic Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Acoustic Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso...

  2. Image Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date 2011 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine crustul stress heterogeneity Notes Borehole induced structures in image logs of wells from the Coso...

  3. Pressure Temperature Log At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP)...

  4. Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Rowley...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Rowley, Et Al., 1987) Exploration...

  5. Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Wilt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Wilt & Haar, 1986) Exploration...

  6. Gamma Log At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gamma Log At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Acoustic Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1977) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Acoustic Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso...

  8. Neutron Log At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Neutron Log At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity...

  9. Selecting The Optimal Logging Suite For Geothermal Reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and tensile wall fractures, and were adequate to detect stratigraphic features. Density, photo-electric factor (PEF), neutron, and gamma ray (GR) logs provided sufficient...

  10. Well Log Techniques At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Techniques At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Newberry...

  11. Well Log Techniques At Coso Geothermal Area (1985) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Techniques At Coso Geothermal Area (1985) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal...

  12. Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Fort Bliss...

  13. Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  14. Pressure Temperature Log At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Flint...

  15. Pressure Temperature Log At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Glass...

  16. Well Log Data At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick & Jayne...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Data At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick & Jayne, 2008) Exploration Activity Details...

  17. Well Log Data At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Edmunds & W....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Data At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Edmunds & W., 1977) Exploration Activity Details...

  18. Well Log Data At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Niggemann...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Data At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Niggemann, 2004) Exploration Activity...

  19. Pressure Temperature Log At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  20. Pressure Temperature Log At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  1. FMI Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: FMI Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Maui...

  2. Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP)...

  3. FMI Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: FMI Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  4. Pressure Temperature Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  5. Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  6. Acoustic Logs At Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tensile wall fractures, and were adequate to detect stratigraphic features. References Daniel Moos, Joel Ronne (2010) Selecting The Optimal Logging Suite For Geothermal Reservoir...

  7. Chemical logging- a geothermal technique | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technique Abstract Chemical logging studies conducted at the Department of Energy's Raft River Geothermal Test Site in south central Idaho resulted in the development of a...

  8. Chemical Logging At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Chemical Logging At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979)...

  9. Acoustic Logs At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Acoustic Logs At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Exploration...

  10. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  11. Proceedings of the second PFN uranium logging seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) uranium logging system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy is described in some detail in papers by the staff that was involved in the final phase of the development project, and by others associated with the project as users of the logging probe or builders of some of the probe hardware. Descriptions are provided of the probe's electronic circuits, the uphole instrumentation, the log interpretation technique, field experience, neutron detection hardware, neutron generator design, life-test results, and observations by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation personnel regarding the use of the probe and its results.

  12. Image Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (2004) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coso Geothermal Region Notes During the second year of this project, wellbore logs and stress data were acquired in a new production well drilled in the Coso Geothermal Field,...

  13. Long Valley Caldera Field Trip Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Conference Paper: Long Valley Caldera Field Trip Log Abstract NA Authors Gene A. Suemnicht and Bastien Poux Conference NGA Long Valley Field Trip, July 5-7, 2012;...

  14. NMOCD - Form G-105 - Geothermal Resources Well Log | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: NMOCD - Form G-105 - Geothermal Resources Well Log Author State of New Mexico Energy and Minerals...

  15. Efficiently log and perforate 60 + wells with coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fertl, W.H.; Hotz, R.F.

    1987-07-01

    In today's petroleum industry, more and more emphasis is being placed on logging and completion techniques for highly deviated (extended-reach) and horizontal boreholes. This is the result of cost-effective development of oil and gas via: a minimum number of production platforms on large structures, incremental but marginal reserves in outlying and/or small fault blocks, shallow reservoirs in deep offshore waters, and significant hydrocarbon accumulations in environmentally sensitive and/or restrictive areas, e.g., perma-frost, urban areas, etc. The major challenge in logging such high-angle, extended-reach, and also horizontal boreholes is guiding the logging tool string to the bottom of the wellbore. In the horizontal portion of a borehole, the use of coiled tubing has proven successful in ''pushing'' the logging instrumentation toward the bottom (end) of the borehole.

  16. JOBAID-LOGGING IN TO THE OLC LEARNING SYSTEM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this job aid you will Log In to the system, Retrieve Forgotten Password and/or User ID, and Use the LMS Help System built into the application.

  17. Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-12

    We have reported on our recent MCNPX simulation results of energy deposition for a group of 8 scintillation detectors, coupled with various rough surface patterns. The MCNPX results generally favored the detectors with various rough surface patterns. The observed MCNPX results are not fully explained by this work.

  18. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  19. Hanford Tank Waste Residuals

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - 27 million ...

  20. Gamma Log At Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Gamma Log Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Density, photo-electric factor (PEF), neutron, and gamma ray (GR) logs provided sufficient...

  1. Neutron Log At Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Neutron Log Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Density, photo-electric factor (PEF), neutron, and gamma ray (GR) logs provided sufficient...

  2. Technical evaluation of software for gamma-ray logging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report contains results of a technical review of software, identified as LGCALC, that processes data collected by a high-resolution gamma-ray borehole logging system. The software presently operates within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Department of Geosciences, to process data collected by the Radionuclide Logging System. The software has been reviewed for its suitability for processing data to be collected by new high-resolution gamma-ray logging trucks scheduled to begin operational tests within Westinghouse Tank Waste Remediation Systems during 1994. Examination of the program code and hands-on operational tests have shown that this software is suitable for its intended use of processing high-resolution gamma-ray data obtained from borehole logging. Most of the code requires no changes, but in a few limited cases, suggestions have been made to correct errors or improve operation. Section 4 describes these changes. The technical review has confirmed the appropriateness, correctness, completeness, and coding accuracy of algorithms used to process spectral gamma-ray data, leading to a calculation of subsurface radionuclide contaminants. Running the program with test data from calibration models has confirmed that the program operates correctly. Comparisons with hand calculations have shown the correctness of the output from the program, based on known input data. Section 3 describes these tests. The recommended action is to make the near term programming changes suggested in Section 4.1 and then use the LGCALC analysis program with the new high-resolution logging systems once they have been properly calibrated.

  3. Logging with coiled tubing less effective than with drill pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Den Bosch, R. )

    1994-01-31

    Coiled tubing offered neither economic nor operational advantages over drill pipe for conveying logging tools in open hole shallow horizontal wells in Germany. In the past 2 years, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GMbH (MEEG) participated in completing eight shallow horizontal wells. These were medium-to-short radius wells at measured depths of between 850 and 2,000 m. The average horizontal section was 350 m. The logging tools were conveyed by coiled tubing or drill pipe. MEEG attempted to log five wells with coiled tubing-conveyed tools, four with 1 1/2-in. tubing. Total depth was reached reliably in only one well, the shallowest and with the shortest horizontal section. Simulation programs were unreliable for calculating the downhole forces of the coil/tool combination or predicting possible helical lockups. In wells with drill pipe-conveyed logs, the tool combination could always be pushed to total depth, and the operations were generally faster and cost less than logging with coiled tubing. Also, drill pipe allowed longer and heavier tool strings. For reliable operations, coiled tubing needs to be more rigid, rig-up/rig-down times need to be improved, and the simulation programs must be more reliable for predicting downhole lock-up.

  4. Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased Porosity and Surface Roughness of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Based Biomaterials (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased Porosity and Surface Roughness of Carbon Based Biomaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased Porosity and Surface Roughness of Carbon Based Biomaterials Authors: Zimmerman, R. L. [1] ; Ila, Dr. Daryush [1] ; Muntele, C. I. [1] ; Rodrigues, M. G. [2] ; Poker, David B [3] ; Hensley, Dale K [3] + Show Author Affiliations Alabama

  5. Appendix A Lithologic and Monitor Well Completion Logs

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    A Lithologic and Monitor Well Completion Logs This page intentionally left blank WELL INSTALLATION BLANK CASING: 1.25 in. Stainless Steel 0.0 to 0.35 METHOD WELL SCREEN: 1.25 in. Stainless Steel 0.35 to 3.27 DATE DEVELOPED SUMPIEND CAP: 1.25 in. Stainless Steel 3.27 to 3.58 WATER LEVEL (FT BGS) SURFACE SEAL: LOGGED BY P. McKenzie REMARKS Drillers hit water at 5 fl: well point removed. LITHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION LOCATION SHIPROCK, NM SURFACE ELEV. ( FT NGVD) 4890.00 SITE SHIPROCK TOP OF CASING (FT)

  6. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  7. Dual-cone double-helical downhole logging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Jiunn S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A broadband downhole logging device includes a double-helix coil wrapped over a dielectric support and surrounded by a dielectric shield. The device may also include a second coil longitudinally aligned with a first coil and enclosed within the same shield for measuring magnetic permeability of downhole formations and six additional coils for accurately determining downhole parameters.

  8. ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Xu, Chen

    2012-09-01

    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  9. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  10. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  11. NREL: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database - Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Change Log History Here you can view a list of changes to the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database. Version Date Description v3.0.0 3/21/13 Public Release v2.0.0 11/1/10 Public Release v1.0.0 2/26/10 Public Release v1.0.0Beta 2/18/10 DOE Lab Review

  12. ETA-HITP05 - HICE Vehicle Rough Road Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HITP05 Revision 0 Effective November 1, 2004 "HICE Vehicle Rough Road Course Test" Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date _________ Garrett Beauregard Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald Karner Procedure ETA-HITP05 Revision 0 2004 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Objectives 1 2. Purpose 1 3. Documentation 1 4. Initial

  13. High voltage supply for neutron tubes in well logging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D. Russell

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The "biased pulse" supply of the invention combines DC and "full pulse" techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  14. A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (May 1983) | Department of Energy A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) PDF icon A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) More Documents & Publications Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and

  15. Abbreviated Total-Count Logging Procedures for Use in Remedial Action

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (December 1982) | Department of Energy Abbreviated Total-Count Logging Procedures for Use in Remedial Action (December 1982) Abbreviated Total-Count Logging Procedures for Use in Remedial Action (December 1982) Abbreviated Total-Count Logging Procedures for Use in Remedial Action (December 1982) PDF icon Abbreviated Total-Count Logging Procedures for Use in Remedial Action (December 1982) More Documents & Publications Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium,

  16. Logging into Deltek Time & Expense (T&E) | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Logging into Deltek Time & Expense (T&E) Document Number: NA Effective Date: 07/2014

  17. Data Compendium for the Logging Test Pits at the ERDA Grand Junction

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Compound (December 1975) | Department of Energy Data Compendium for the Logging Test Pits at the ERDA Grand Junction Compound (December 1975) Data Compendium for the Logging Test Pits at the ERDA Grand Junction Compound (December 1975) Data Compendium for the Logging Test Pits at the ERDA Grand Junction Compound (December 1975) PDF icon Data Compendium for the Logging Test Pits at the ERDA Grand Junction Compound (December 1975) More Documents & Publications Field Calibration Facilities

  18. ETA-NTP005 Electric Vehicle Rough Ride Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NTP005 Revision 2 Effective December 1, 2004 Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date:__________ Ryan Harkins Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald B. Karner ©2004 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved Procedure ETA-NTP005 Revision 2 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 3 2.0 Purpose 3 3.0 Documentation 3 4.0 Initial Conditions

  19. Roughness Optimization at High Modes for GDP CHx Microshells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, M.; Dumay, B.; Chicanne, C.; Barnouin, J.; Legaie, O.; Baclet, P.

    2004-03-15

    For the ''Megajoule'' Laser (LMJ) facility of the CEA, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) is the nominal ablator to be used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. These capsules contain the fusible deuterium-tritium mixture to achieve ignition. Coatings are prepared by glow discharge polymerization (GDP) with trans-2-butene and hydrogen. The films properties have been investigated. Laser fusion targets must have optimized characteristics: a diameter of about 2.4 mm for LMJ targets, a thickness up to 175 {mu}m, a sphericity and a thickness concentricity better than 99% and an outer and an inner roughness lower than 20 nm at high modes. The surface finish of these laser fusion targets must be extremely smooth to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities.Movchan and Demchishin, and later Thornton introduced a structure zone model (SZM) based on both evaporated and sputtered metals. They investigated the influence of base temperature and the sputtering gas pressure on structure and properties of thick polycrystalline coatings of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide. An original cross-sectional analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows amorphous materials characterization and permits to make an analogy between the amorphous GDP material and the existing model (SZM). The purpose of this work is to understand the relationship between the deposition parameters, the growing structures and the surface roughness.The coating structure as a function of deposition parameters was first studied on plane silicon substrates and then optimized on PAMS shells. By adjusting the coating parameters, the structures are modified, and in some case, the high modes roughness decreases dramatically.

  20. Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties P. Minnis 1 , P. W. Heck 2 , R. F. Arduini 3 , R. Palikonda 3 , J. K. Ayers 3 , M. M. Khaiyer 3 , P. Yang 4 , Y. Xie 4 3 Science Systems & Applications, Inc. Hampton, VA 1 NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Current Cirrus Models Inadequate Cirrus cloud optical depths τ (heights z e ) are often over (under) estimated when derived from solar reflectances. In situ data suggest smaller asymmetry factors, g, than used in most

  1. A model for residual stress evolution in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, B. G.; Singh, J. P.; Grimsditch, M.

    2000-02-28

    Ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that residual stress in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings is a function of the local interface geometry. The stress profile of a simulated rough interface characterized by ``peaks'' and ``valleys'' was modeled with a finite-element approach that accounted for thermal mismatch, oxide scale growth, and top coat sintering. Dependence of the stress profile on interface geometry and microstructure was investigated, and the results were compared with measured stresses.

  2. Nonprofit Organizations: Have Your Los Alamos Employees/Retirees Log Hours

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in VolunteerMatch Nonprofit Organizations: Have Your Los Alamos Employees/Retirees Log Hours in VolunteerMatch Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Nonprofit Organizations: Have Your Los Alamos Employees/Retirees Log Hours in VolunteerMatch Lab employees and retirees should log their VolunteerMatch hours to benefit local nonprofits. March 1, 2013 Volunteers help fill sandbags

  3. Calibration models for density borehole logging - construction report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Two machined blocks of magnesium and aluminum alloys form the basis for Hanford`s density models. The blocks provide known densities of 1.780 {plus_minus} 0.002 g/cm{sup 3} and 2.804 {plus_minus} 0.002 g/cm{sup 3} for calibrating borehole logging tools that measure density based on gamma-ray scattering from a source in the tool. Each block is approximately 33 x 58 x 91 cm (13 x 23 x 36 in.) with cylindrical grooves cut into the sides of the blocks to hold steel casings of inner diameter 15 cm (6 in.) and 20 cm (8 in.). Spacers that can be inserted between the blocks and casings can create air gaps of thickness 0.64, 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 cm (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 in.), simulating air gaps that can occur in actual wells from hole enlargements behind the casing.

  4. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.

    2001-07-13

    The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.

  5. Resistivity Log At Fort Bliss Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    well. A suite of geophysical logs (gamma ray, neutron, sonic, and resistivity) was also run after completion of drilling. References Jim Combs, John T. Finger, Colin Goranson,...

  6. Gamma Log At Fort Bliss Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    well. A suite of geophysical logs (gamma ray, neutron, sonic, and resistivity) was also run after completion of drilling. References Jim Combs, John T. Finger, Colin Goranson,...

  7. Neutron Log At Fort Bliss Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    well. A suite of geophysical logs (gamma ray, neutron, sonic, and resistivity) was also run after completion of drilling. References Jim Combs, John T. Finger, Colin Goranson,...

  8. Density Log at Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  9. Resistivity Log At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Resistivity Log At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  10. FMI Log At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: FMI Log At New River Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location New River Area...

  11. Density Log at Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Gabbs Valley...

  12. Density Log at Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Fort Bliss...

  13. Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  14. Density Log at Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Alum...

  15. Well Log Techniques At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Techniques At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Snake...

  16. Pressure Temperature Log At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Soda Lake...

  17. FMI Log At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: FMI Log At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  18. Gamma Log At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gamma Log At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  19. Gamma Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gamma Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  20. Resistivity Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Resistivity Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Fort...

  1. Neutron Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Neutron Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  2. Acoustic Logs At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Acoustic Logs At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  3. Resistivity Log At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Resistivity Log At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  4. Well Log Data At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Mallan, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    conducted to help characterize the geothermal reservoir by employing electromagnetic induction logging. The goal was to discern subsurface features that are useful in geothermal...

  5. Well Log Data At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Barton, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Basis Well log data was used to investigate the relationship between permeability and the contemporary in situ stress field in the Dixie Valley Geothermal Reservoir....

  6. Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log At Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    oriented in the strike direction of the fault and of the dipping sediments. References Daniel Moos, Joel Ronne (2010) Selecting The Optimal Logging Suite For Geothermal Reservoir...

  7. Solidification process for sludge residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-09-10

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria.

  8. TMACS test procedure TP005: Sensor configuration, logging, and data conversion. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washburn, S.J.

    1994-08-25

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure addresses the sensor configuration, conversion and logging requirements of the TMACS. The features to be tested are as follows: sensor configuration data; conversion of continuous sensor data to engineering units; conversion of digital data to discrete states; discrete sensor data logging; and continuous sensor data logging.

  9. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-21

    Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore » the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  10. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrLogs | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingSPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrLogs Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  11. Temperatures and Natural Gamma-Ray Logs Obtained in 1986 from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the formation to absorb injected fluid after the well was completed. Changes in temperature logs run in July and September appear to result from fluid loss to the...

  12. Lithology and well log study of Campbell E-2 geothermal test...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    well log study of Campbell E-2 geothermal test well, Humboldt House geothermal prospect, Pershing County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  13. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    application to seismic reservoir characterization (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization A method for seismic characterization of subsurface Earth formations includes determining at least one of

  14. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    application to seismic reservoir characterization (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's

  15. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  16. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1,200 C to 1,400 C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  17. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  18. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  19. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangler, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  1. Evaluation of Simple Causal Message Logging for Large-Scale Fault Tolerant HPC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronevetsky, G; Meneses, E; Kale, L V

    2011-02-25

    The era of petascale computing brought machines with hundreds of thousands of processors. The next generation of exascale supercomputers will make available clusters with millions of processors. In those machines, mean time between failures will range from a few minutes to few tens of minutes, making the crash of a processor the common case, instead of a rarity. Parallel applications running on those large machines will need to simultaneously survive crashes and maintain high productivity. To achieve that, fault tolerance techniques will have to go beyond checkpoint/restart, which requires all processors to roll back in case of a failure. Incorporating some form of message logging will provide a framework where only a subset of processors are rolled back after a crash. In this paper, we discuss why a simple causal message logging protocol seems a promising alternative to provide fault tolerance in large supercomputers. As opposed to pessimistic message logging, it has low latency overhead, especially in collective communication operations. Besides, it saves messages when more than one thread is running per processor. Finally, we demonstrate that a simple causal message logging protocol has a faster recovery and a low performance penalty when compared to checkpoint/restart. Running NAS Parallel Benchmarks (CG, MG and BT) on 1024 processors, simple causal message logging has a latency overhead below 5%.

  2. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernitsas, Michael M.; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  3. Solid Deuterium-Tritium Surface Roughness In A Beryllium Inertial Confinement Fusion Shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Moody, J D; Montgomery, D S; Gautier, C

    2006-04-19

    Solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layers for inertial confinement fusion experiments were formed inside of a 2 mm diameter beryllium shell and were characterized using phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging. The solid D-T surface roughness is found to be 0.4 {micro}m for modes 7-128 at 1.5 K below the melting temperature. The layer roughness is found to increase with decreasing temperature, in agreement with previous visible light characterization studies. However, phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging provides a more robust surface roughness measurement than visible light methods. The new x-ray imaging results demonstrate clearly that the surface roughness decreases with time for solid D-T layers held at 1.5 K below the melting temperature.

  4. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  5. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-11-10

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  6. Atomic-Level Measurements of Rough Surfaces | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Atomic-Level Measurements of Rough Surfaces Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 12.14.15 Atomic-Level Measurements of Rough

  7. Calibration models for measuring moisture in unsaturated formations by neutron logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelman, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Calibration models containing known amounts of hydrogen have been constructed to simulate unsaturated earth formations for calibrating neutron well logging tools. The models are made of dry mixtures of hydrated alumina (Al(OH){sub 3}) with either silica sand (SiO{sub 2}) or aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Hydrogen in the hydrated alumina replaces the hydrogen in water for neutron scattering, making it possible to simulate partially saturated formations. The equivalent water contents for the models are 5%, 12%, 20%, and 40% by volume in seven tanks that have a diameter of 1.5 m and a height of 1.8 m. Steel casings of inside diameter 15.4 cm (for three models) and diameter 20.3 cm (for four models) allow logging tool access to simulate logging through cased boreholes.

  8. E-print Network Web Log News: Research Communications for Scientists and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineers Website Policies and Important Links E-print Web Log E-print Network News E-print Network About Search Browse by Discipline Find Scientific Societies Receive E-print Alerts Contact Us Help Home OSTI DOE Science.gov Description This Web Log provides the latest information about changes to E-print Network - its content, features, and functionality - as well as news or information of interest regarding e-print information in general. Please provide your comments, questions, concerns

  9. Moab Project Safely Logs 2 Million Work Hours | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safely Logs 2 Million Work Hours Moab Project Safely Logs 2 Million Work Hours March 12, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Empty containers on haul trucks are being loaded with mill tailings. Empty containers on haul trucks are being loaded with mill tailings. Media Contacts Donald Metzler, Moab Federal Project Director, (970) 257-2115 Wendee Ryan, S&K Aerospace Public Affairs Manager, (970) 257-2145 (Grand Junction, CO) - The number 1,584 may not mean much to most people, but for the workers on the

  10. Borehole induction logging for the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project LLNL gasoline spill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, S.; Newmark, R.; Wilt, M.

    1994-01-21

    Borehole induction logs were acquired for the purpose of characterizing subsurface physical properties and monitoring steam clean up activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This work was part of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project`s demonstrated clean up of a gasoline spin. The site is composed of unconsolidated days, sands and gravels which contain gasoline both above and below the water table. Induction logs were used to characterize lithology, to provide ``ground truth`` resistivity values for electrical resistance tomography (ERT), and to monitor the movement of an underground steam plume used to heat the soil and drive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the extraction wells.

  11. Resource recovery from coal residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. Jr.; Canon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Several processes are being developed to recover metals from coal combustion and conversion residues. Methods to obtain substantial amounts of aluminum, iron, and titanium from these wastes are presented. The primary purpose of our investigation is to find a process that is economically sound or one that at least will partially defray the costs of waste processing. A cursory look at the content of fly ash enables one to see the merits of recovery of these huge quantities of valuable resources. The major constituents of fly ash of most interest are aluminum (14.8%), iron (7.5%), and titanium (1.0%). If these major elements could be recovered from the fly ash produced in the United States (60 million tons/year), bauxite would not have to be imported, iron ore production could be increased, and titanium production could be doubled.

  12. The effect of residuals on the presence of intergranular surface cracks on continuously cast billets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wijngaarden, M.J.U.T. van; Visagie, G.P.

    1996-12-31

    During 1991, Iscor Vereeniging experienced a dramatic increase in the rejection rate of specialty steel bars rolled from continuously cast billets due to the presence of seams on the bars. The seams originated from tearing of the billets during the first 2 passes in the roughing mill during hot rolling. The defective billets were found to contain fine intergranular cracks on the surface. Such cracks have been described in the literature and have been attributed to the presence of high levels of residuals resulting in the well-known phenomenon of surface hot shortness which results from the enrichment of residuals at the grain boundaries after preferential oxidation of iron during scaling of the steel. The present investigation revealed that the effect of residuals on intergranular surface cracking is a complex interaction between steel composition and casting conditions such as casting speed, intensity of secondary cooling, section size, and mold type. This paper quantifies the effect of residuals on the intergranular surface cracking of continuously cast billets and quantitatively relates the incidence of these cracks to parameters which can be controlled during steelmaking and continuous casting.

  13. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  14. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  15. Outage Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10:00 - 16:50. No user impact was expected. These switches provide connectivity for the meta-data servers for homes, common, project, syscomm, dna and projectb. 111115 9:00...

  16. Log Summarization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... analysis 22, financial time series prediction 23, and biological data sampling 24. ... Kelly 34 proposes how to use queuing theory observations to distinguish performance ...

  17. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, Deborah L.

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  18. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2015-04-30

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at the site from meteorological observations. We found that the classical representation of constant roughness parameters (in space and time) as a fraction of canopy height performed relatively well. Nonetheless, of the approaches we tested, most of the empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and interannual variation of roughness length and displacement height as a function of the dynamics of canopy structure produced more precise and less biased estimates for friction velocity than models with temporally invariable parameters.« less

  19. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

  20. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-02-10

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

  1. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  2. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.; Shine, E. P.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  3. Effect of surface roughness and polymeric additive on nucleate pool boiling at subatmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Mahajan, S.P.

    1986-09-01

    This investigation pertains to boiling heat transfer from a submerged flat surface at subatmospheric and atmospheric pressures in the presence of hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) as a polymeric additive in small doses. Boiling was carried out in presence of the additive on smooth and rough aluminium surfaces having effective cavity size within the range as predicted by Hsu model and the pressure was kept in the range of 8 - 100 KN/sq.m (abs). Effects of surface roughness, saturation pressure and polymer concentration on boiling heat transfer were studied and the results were compared with Rohsenow's correlation.

  4. Correction of steel casing effect for density log using numerical and experimental methods in the slim borehole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Kim, Jongman; Won, Byeongho

    2015-03-10

    Density log is widely applied for a variety of fields such as the petroleum exploration, mineral exploration, and geotechnical survey. The logging condition of density log is normally open holes but there are frequently cased boreholes. The primary calibration curve by slim hole logging manufacturer is normally the calibration curves for the variation of borehole diameter. In this study, we have performed the correction of steel casing effects using numerical and experimental methods. We have performed numerical modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code based on Monte Carlo method, and field experimental method from open and cased hole log. In this study, we used the FDGS (Formation Density Gamma Sonde) for slim borehole with a 100 mCi 137Cs source, three inch borehole and steel casing. The casing effect between numerical and experimental method is well matched.

  5. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  6. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  7. Quantification of Wellbore Leakage Risk Using Non-destructive Borehole Logging Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duguid, Andrew; Butsch, Robert; Cary, J.; Celia, Michael; Chugunov, Nikita; Gasda, Sarah; Hovorka, Susan; Ramakrishnan, T. S.; Stamp, Vicki; Thingelstad, Rebecca; Wang, James

    2014-08-29

    Well integrity is important at all potential CCS locations and may play a crucial role establishing leakage risk in areas where there is a high density of existing wells that could be impacted by the storage operations including depleted petroleum fields where EOR or CCS will occur. To address a need for risk quantification methods that can be directly applied to individual wells using borehole logging tools a study was conducted using data from five wells in Wyoming. The objectives of the study were: Objective 1: Develop methods to establish the baseline flow parameters (porosity and permeability or mobility) from individual measurements of the material properties and defects in a well. Objective 2: Develop a correlation between field flow-property data and cement logs that can be used to establish the flow-properties of well materials and well features using cement mapping tools. Objective 3: Establish a method that uses the flow-property model (Objective 2) to analyze the statistical uncertainties associated with individual well leakage that can provide basis for uncertainty in risk calculations. The project objectives were met through the logging of five wells in Carbon and Natrona County Wyoming to collect data that was used to estimate individual and average well flow properties and model the results using ultrasonic data collected during the logging. Three of the five wells provided data on point and average flow properties for well annuli. Data from the other two wells were used to create models of cement permeability and test whether information collected in one well could be used to characterize another well. The results of the in-situ point measurements were confirmed by the lab measurements sidewall cores collected near the same depths Objective 1 was met using the data collected through logging, testing, and sampling. The methods were developed that can establish baseline flow parameters of wells by both point and average test methods. The methods to estimate the flow properties modeling of point pressure tests, modeling of vertical interference tests, and laboratory measurement of cased-hole sidewall cores The wells were in sufficiently good shape to allow the development of the characterization methods while still having enough defects to study differences in results as they relate to well integrity. Samples and tests analyzed from three of five wells studied in showed the cements were largely intact and had not degraded from exposure native brines. Log results taken in conjunction with the core measurements indicate that interfaces and/or problems with cement placement due to eccentering provide preferential flow paths for fluids, which can increase the effective permeability of the barrier several orders of magnitude above the permeability of intact cement. The results of the maps created using logging tools indicating that the cement condition and bond are generally good identify a need for more research to understand how logs can be used to predicteffective well permeabilities such as those measured by the VITs in this study.

  8. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Harris, R. V.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Moran, Traci L.

    2011-08-01

    The focus of this study is the understanding of the technical obstacles that hinder the replacement of and the disadvantages from the loss of extensive interpretation experience based on data accumulated with AmBe. Enhanced acoustic and electromagnetic sensing methods in combination with non-isotope-based well logging techniques have the potential to complement and/or replace existing isotope-based techniques, providing the opportunity to reduce oil industry dependence on isotopic sources such as AmBe.

  9. A Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ____________________________________ 2013-01-2400 Published 09/24/2013 doi:10.4271/2013-01-2400 saecomveh.saejournals.org A Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems Adam Duran and Kevin Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating

  10. U-039: ISC Update: BIND 9 Resolver crashes after logging an error in query.c

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote server can cause the target connected client to crash. Organizations across the Internet are reporting crashes interrupting service on BIND 9 nameservers performing recursive queries. Affected servers crash after logging an error in query.c with the following message: "INSIST(! dns_rdataset_isassociated(sigrdataset))" Multiple versions are reported as being affected, including all currently supported release versions of ISC BIND 9. ISC is actively investigating the root cause and working to produce patches which avoid the crash.

  11. U-038: BIND 9 Resolver crashes after logging an error in query.c

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote server can cause the target connected client to crash. Organizations across the Internet are reporting crashes interrupting service on BIND 9 nameservers performing recursive queries. Affected servers crash after logging an error in query.c with the following message: "INSIST(! dns_rdataset_isassociated(sigrdataset))" Multiple versions are reported as being affected, including all currently supported release versions of ISC BIND 9. ISC is actively investigating the root cause and working to produce patches which avoid the crash.

  12. ETA-HTP05 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HTP05 Revision 0 Effective November 1, 2004 "Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test" Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date _________ Roberta Brayer Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald Karner Procedure ETA-HTP05 Revision 0 2004 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Objectives 1 2. Purpose 1 3. Documentation 1 4. Initial

  13. Large eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-11-27

    Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than models with temporally fixed parameters.« less

  14. U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes ...

  15. Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Period-Unit: Monthly - Thousand Gallons per Day Annual - Thousand Gallons per Day ...

  16. Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co., Ltd. Place: Nanping City, Fujian Province, China Zip: 365001 Sector:...

  17. Immobilization of Rocky Flats graphite fines residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.; Marra, J.C.; Peeler, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt% graphite, 15 wt% calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and 12 wt% plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Approximately 950 kg of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO{sub 2} concentration in the residue averages 12 wt%, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF{sub 2} dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2} and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF{sub 2} and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.

  18. A preliminary assessment of the state of harvest and collection technology for forest residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Erin; Perlack, Robert D; Blackwelder, D. Brad; Muth, David J.; Hess, J. Richard

    2008-08-01

    To meet the 'Twenty in Ten Initiative' goals set in the 2007 State of the Union address, forest resources will be needed as feedstocks for lignocellulosic ethanol production. It has been estimated that 368 million dry tons can be produced annually in the U.S. from logging residues and fuel treatment thinnings. Currently, very little of this woody biomass is used for energy production due to the costs and difficulty in collecting and transporting this material. However, minimizing biomass costs (including harvest, handling, transport, storage, and processing costs) delivered to the refinery is necessary to develop a sustainable cellulosic ethanol industry. Achieving this goal requires a fresh look at conventional timber harvesting operations to identify ways of efficiently integrating energy wood collection and developing cost-effective technologies to harvest small-diameter trees. In conventional whole-tree logging operations, entire trees are felled and skidded from the stump to the landing. The residues (also called slash), consisting of tops and limbs, accumulate at the landing when trees are delimbed. This slash can be ground at the landing with a mobile grinder or transported to another central location with a stationary grinder. The ground material is transported via chip vans, or possibly large roll on/off containers, to the user facility. Cut-to-length harvesting systems are gaining popularity in some locations. In these operations, specialized harvesters that can fall, delimb, and cut logs to length are used. The small diameter tops and limbs accumulate along the machine's track. It can be left in the forest to dry or removed soon after harvest while logs are extracted. Removing slash during the same operation as the wood has been shown to be more efficient. However, leaving residue in the forest to dry reduces moisture content, which improves grinder performance, reduces dry matter loss during storage, and inhibits colonization of fungi that produce harmful spores. In recent years, new machines that are specially designed for collection of small diameter wood have been developed in the U.S. and Europe. Residue bundlers and balers improve transportation and handling efficiency by densifying the material and packaging it so that it can be handled with conventional equipment. An experimental integrated harvester/grinder can fall small diameter trees and feed them into a grinder. The ground material is collected in a bin that can be dumped into a chip van. The harvester head is also capable of delimbing and bucking (cut into sections) small timber to be used for pulp and posts. Limitations of these new technologies are their large capital costs and complexity, leading to high maintenance costs and the need for highly trained operators. To ensure that quality feedstock materials consistently enter the mouth of the refinery, the uniform format supply system concept proposes that feedstock diversity be managed at harvest, much like the current grain supply system. This allows for standardization of key infrastructure components and facilitation of a biomass commodity system. Challenges in achieving a uniform woody biomass supply include, but are not limited to, developing machines for efficient harvest of small-diameter trees in a range of topographies and conditions, developing machines and operating plans for grinding biomass as near to the stump as possible, developing cost-effective drying strategies to reduce losses and mold growth during wood chip storage, and quantifying environmental impacts of slash removal and fuel thinnings to aid landowner decisions and policy development.

  19. Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY); Wang, Hsin-Pang (Rexford, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

  20. Surface roughness and interface width scaling of magnetron sputter deposited Ni/Ti multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maidul Haque, S.; Biswas, A.; Tokas, R. B.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2013-09-14

    Using an indigenously built r.f. magnetron sputtering system, several single layer Ti and Ni films have been deposited at varying deposition conditions. All the samples have been characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Reflectivity (GIXR) and Atomic Force Microscopy to estimate their thickness, density, and roughness and a power law dependence of the surface roughness on the film thickness has been established. Subsequently, at optimized deposition condition of Ti and Ni, four Ni/Ti multilayers of 11-layer, 21-layer, 31-layer, and 51-layer having different bilayer thickness have been deposited. The multilayer samples have been characterized by GIXR and neutron reflectivity measurements and the experimental data have been fitted assuming an appropriate sample structure. A power law correlation between the interface width and bilayer thickness has been observed for the multilayer samples, which was explained in the light of alternate roughening/smoothening of multilayers and assuming that at the interface the growth restarts every time.

  1. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets

  2. Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work, we exploited mechanical separation and pyrolysis to recycle ASR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of the floating organic fraction is promising in reaching ELV Directive targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite catalyst improve pyrolysis oil and gas yield. - Abstract: sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a 'waste-to-chemicals' perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

  3. High-voltage supply for neutron tubes in well-logging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D.R.

    1982-09-15

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The biased pulse supply of the invention combines DC and full pulse techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  4. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics. [Patient application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1980-11-05

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or epithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  5. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnard, Ralston W. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Dal H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or eqithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  6. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  7. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  8. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. . Rocky Flats Plant); Rivera, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  9. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.; Rivera, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  10. System and method for measuring residual stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prime, Michael B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method and system for determining the residual stress within an elastic object. In the method, an elastic object is cut along a path having a known configuration. The cut creates a portion of the object having a new free surface. The free surface then deforms to a contour which is different from the path. Next, the contour is measured to determine how much deformation has occurred across the new free surface. Points defining the contour are collected in an empirical data set. The portion of the object is then modeled in a computer simulator. The points in the empirical data set are entered into the computer simulator. The computer simulator then calculates the residual stress along the path which caused the points within the object to move to the positions measured in the empirical data set. The calculated residual stress is then presented in a useful format to an analyst.

  11. Calibration of NMR well logs from carbonate reservoirs with laboratory NMR measurements and μXRCT

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mason, Harris E.; Smith, Megan M.; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-12-31

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well log data has the potential to provide in-situ porosity, pore size distributions, and permeability of target carbonate CO₂ storage reservoirs. However, these methods which have been successfully applied to sandstones have yet to be completely validated for carbonate reservoirs. Here, we have taken an approach to validate NMR measurements of carbonate rock cores with independent measurements of permeability and pore surface area to volume (S/V) distributions using differential pressure measurements and micro X-ray computed tomography (μXRCT) imaging methods, respectively. We observe that using standard methods for determining permeability from NMR data incorrectlymore » predicts these values by orders of magnitude. However, we do observe promise that NMR measurements provide reasonable estimates of pore S/V distributions, and with further independent measurements of the carbonate rock properties that universally applicable relationships between NMR measured properties may be developed for in-situ well logging applications of carbonate reservoirs.« less

  12. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

  13. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, N.; Kato, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  14. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T. S.

    1998-11-06

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the recovery of cerium from the full-scale waste forms was higher than for smaller scale experiments. The presence of CaF2 also caused a dramatic increase in cerium recovery not seen in the small-scale experiments. However, the results from experiments with actual graphite fines were encouraging. A 4:1 frit to residue ratio, a temperature of 700 degrees C, and a 2 hr heating time produced waste forms with plutonium recoveries of 4 plus/minus 1 g/kg. With an increase in the frit to residue ratio, waste forms fabricated at this scale should meet the Rocky Flats product specification. The scale-up of the waste form fabrication process to nominally 3 kg is expected to require a 5:1 to 6:1 frit to residue ratio and maintaining the waste form centerline temperature at 700 degrees C for 2 hr.

  15. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

  16. EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

    2011-07-01

    Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that increasing surface roughness increases the maximum fuel and helium temperatures as do increases in gap width. However, maximum coolant temperature variation due to increased gap width is not changed by surface roughness.

  17. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} roughness and sliding friction quenching by interaction with atomically flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quereda, J.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Agrat, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.

    2014-08-04

    We experimentally study the surface roughness and the lateral friction force in single-layer MoS{sub 2} crystals deposited on different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, mica, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Roughness and sliding friction measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy. We find a strong dependence of the MoS{sub 2} roughness on the underlying substrate material, being h-BN the substrate which better preserves the flatness of the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The lateral friction also lowers as the roughness decreases, and attains its lowest value for MoS{sub 2} flakes on h-BN substrates. However, it is still higher than for the surface of a bulk MoS{sub 2} crystal, which we attribute to the deformation of the flake due to competing tip-to-flake and flake-to-substrate interactions.

  18. Testing in support of on-site storage of residues in the Pipe Overpack Container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-02-01

    The disposition of the large back-log of plutonium residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) will require interim storage and subsequent shipment to a waste repository. Current plans call for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the transportation to WIPP in the TRUPACT-II. The transportation phase will require the residues to be packaged in a container that is more robust than a standard 55-gallon waste drum. Rocky Flats has designed the Pipe Overpack Container to meet this need. It is desirable to use this same waste packaging for interim on-site storage in non-hardened buildings. To meet the safety concerns for this storage the Pipe Overpack Container has been subjected to a series of tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In addition to the tests required to qualify the Pipe Overpack Container as a waste container for shipment in the TRUPACT-II several tests were performed solely for the purpose of qualifying the container for interim storage. This report will describe these tests and the packages response to the tests. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Testing in support of transportation of residues in the pipe overpack container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The disposition of the large back-log of plutonium residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) will require interim storage and subsequent shipment to a waste repository. Current plants call for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the transportation to WIPP in the TRUPACT-II. The transportation phase will require the residues to be packaged in a container that is more robust than a standard 55-gallon waste drum. Rocky Flats has designed the Pipe Overpack Container to meet this need. The tests described here were performed to qualify the Pipe Overpack Container as a waste container for shipment in the TRUPACT-II. Using a more robust container will assure the fissile materials in each container can not be mixed with the fissile material from the other containers and will provide criticality control. This will allow an increase in the payload of the TRUPACT-II from 325 fissile gram equivalents to 2,800 fissile gram equivalents.

  20. SU-C-BRD-03: Analysis of Accelerator Generated Text Logs for Preemptive Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Able, CM; Baydush, AH; Nguyen, C; Munley, MT; Gersh, J; Ndlovu, A; Rebo, I; Booth, J; Perez, M; Sintay, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a model to analyze medical accelerator generated parameter and performance data that will provide an early warning of performance degradation and impending component failure. Methods: A robust 6 MV VMAT quality assurance treatment delivery was used to test the constancy of accelerator performance. The generated text log files were decoded and analyzed using statistical process control (SPC) methodology. The text file data is a single snapshot of energy specific and overall systems parameters. A total of 36 system parameters were monitored which include RF generation, electron gun control, energy control, beam uniformity control, DC voltage generation, and cooling systems. The parameters were analyzed using Individual and Moving Range (I/MR) charts. The chart limits were calculated using a hybrid technique that included the use of the standard 3? limits and the parameter/system specification. Synthetic errors/changes were introduced to determine the initial effectiveness of I/MR charts in detecting relevant changes in operating parameters. The magnitude of the synthetic errors/changes was based on: the value of 1 standard deviation from the mean operating parameter of 483 TB systems, a small fraction (? 5%) of the operating range, or a fraction of the minor fault deviation. Results: There were 34 parameters in which synthetic errors were introduced. There were 2 parameters (radial position steering coil, and positive 24V DC) in which the errors did not exceed the limit of the I/MR chart. The I chart limit was exceeded for all of the remaining parameters (94.2%). The MR chart limit was exceeded in 29 of the 32 parameters (85.3%) in which the I chart limit was exceeded. Conclusion: Statistical process control I/MR evaluation of text log file parameters may be effective in providing an early warning of performance degradation or component failure for digital medical accelerator systems. Research is Supported by Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

  1. Log analysis of six boreholes in conjunction with geologic characterization above and on top of the Weeks Island salt dome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, A.R.

    1996-04-01

    Six boreholes were drilled during the geologic characterization and diagnostics of the Weeks Island sinkhole that is over the two-tiered salt mine which was converted for oil storage by the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. These holes were drilled to provide for geologic characterization of the Weeks Island Salt Dome and its overburden in the immediate vicinity of the sinkhole (mainly through logs and core); to establish a crosswell configuration for seismic tomography; to establish locations for hydrocarbon detection and tracer injection; and to Provide direct observations of sinkhole geometry and material properties. Specific objectives of the logging program were to: (1) identify the top of and the physical state of the salt dome; (2) identify the water table; (3) obtain a relative salinity profile in the aquifer within the alluvium, which ranges from the water table directly to the top of the Weeks Island salt dome; and (4) identify a reflecting horizon seen on seismic profiles over this salt dome. Natural gamma, neutron, density, sonic, resistivity and caliper logs were run. Neutron and density logs were run from inside the well casing because of the extremely unstable condition of the deltaic alluvium overburden above the salt dome. The logging program provided important information about the salt dome and the overburden in that (1) the top of the salt dome was identified at {approximately}189 ft bgl (103 ft msl), and the top of the dome contains relatively few fractures; (2) the water table is approximately 1 ft msl, (3) this aquifer appears to become steadily more saline with depth; and (4) the water saturation of much of the alluvium over the salt dome is shown to be influenced by the prevalent heavy rainfall. This logging program, a part of the sinkhole diagnostics, provides unique information about this salt dome and the overburden.

  2. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore »activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  3. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore » activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  4. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Kelly, Fredrick R. (Modesto, CA); Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-07-24

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  5. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  6. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  7. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  8. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2011-06-07

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  9. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  10. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  11. A study of pitch oscillation and roughness on airfoils used for horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregorek, G.M.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Ramsay, R.R.; Janiszewska, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under subcontract XF-1-11009-3 the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an extensive database of empirical aerodynamic data. These data will assist in the development of analytical models and in the design of new airfoils for wind turbines. To accomplish the main objective, airfoil models were designed, built and wind tunnel tested with and without model leading edge grit roughness (LEGR). LEGR simulates surface irregularities due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. This report is a summary of project project activity for Phase III, which encompasses the time period from September 17, 1 993 to September 6, 1 994.

  12. Shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Neutron logging data 1984--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.

    1995-12-31

    To determine site suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, a study was devised to characterize net infiltration. This study involves a detailed data set produced from 99 neutron boreholes that consisted of volumetric water-content readings with depth from 1984 through 1993 at Yucca Mountain. Boreholes were drilled with minimal disturbance to the surrounding soil or rock in order to best represent field conditions. Boreholes were located in topographic positions representing infiltration zones identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels. Through careful field calibration, neutron moisture logs, collected on a monthly basis and representing most of the areal locations at Yucca Mountain, illustrated that the depth of penetration of seasonal moisture, important for escaping loss to evapotranspiration, was influenced by several factors. It was increased (1) by thin soil cover, especially in locations where thin soil is underlain by fractured bedrock; (2) on ridgetops; and (3) during the winter when evapotranspiration is low and runoff is less frequent. This data set helps to provide a seasonal and areal distribution of changes in volumetric water content with which to assess hydrologic processes contributing to net infiltration.

  13. Shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada - neutron logging data 1984-93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.

    1995-11-01

    To determine site suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, a study was devised to characterize net infiltration. This study involves a detailed data set produced from 99 neutron boreholes that consisted of volumetric water-content readings with depth from 1984 through 1993 at Yucca Mountain. Boreholes were drilled with minimal disturbance to the surrounding soil or rock in order to best represent field conditions. Boreholes were located in topographic positions representing infiltration zones identified as ridge-tops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels. Through careful field calibration, neutron moisture logs, collected on a monthly basis and representing most of the areal locations at Yucca Mountain, illustrated that the depth of penetration of seasonal moisture, important for escaping loss to evapotranspiration, was influenced by several factors. It was increased (1) by thin soil cover, especially in locations where thin soil is underlain by fractured bedrock; (2) on ridgetops; and (3) during the winter when evapotranspiration is low and runoff is less frequent. This data set helps to provide a seasonal and areal distribution of changes in volumetric water content with which to assess hydrologic processes contributing to net infiltration.

  14. Parameter estimation from flowing fluid temperature logging data in unsaturated fractured rock using multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.

    2009-01-15

    A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.

  15. Posterior propriety for hierarchical models with log-likelihoods that have norm bounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michalak, Sarah E.; Morris, Carl N.

    2015-07-17

    Statisticians often use improper priors to express ignorance or to provide good frequency properties, requiring that posterior propriety be verified. Our paper addresses generalized linear mixed models, GLMMs, when Level I parameters have Normal distributions, with many commonly-used hyperpriors. It provides easy-to-verify sufficient posterior propriety conditions based on dimensions, matrix ranks, and exponentiated norm bounds, ENBs, for the Level I likelihood. Since many familiar likelihoods have ENBs, which is often verifiable via log-concavity and MLE finiteness, our novel use of ENBs permits unification of posterior propriety results and posterior MGF/moment results for many useful Level I distributions, including those commonlymore » used with multilevel generalized linear models, e.g., GLMMs and hierarchical generalized linear models, HGLMs. Furthermore, those who need to verify existence of posterior distributions or of posterior MGFs/moments for a multilevel generalized linear model given a proper or improper multivariate F prior as in Section 1 should find the required results in Sections 1 and 2 and Theorem 3 (GLMMs), Theorem 4 (HGLMs), or Theorem 5 (posterior MGFs/moments).« less

  16. A Brief Review of the Basis for, and the Procedures Currently Utilized in, Gross Gamma-Ray Log Calibration (October 1976)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Brief Review of the Basis for, and the Procedures Currently Utilized in, Gross Gamma-Ray Log Calibration (October 1976)

  17. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  18. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  19. Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.

  20. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  1. Method For Characterizing Residual Stress In Metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Loren A. (Santa Fe, NM); Michel, David J. (Alexandria, VA); Wyatt, Jeffrey R. (Burke, VA)

    2002-12-03

    A method is provided for measuring the residual stress in metals. The method includes the steps of drilling one or more holes in a metal workpiece to a preselected depth and mounting one or more acoustic sensors on the metal workpiece and connecting the sensors to an electronic detecting and recording device. A liquid metal capable of penetrating into the metal workpiece placed at the bottom of the hole or holes. A recording is made over a period of time (typically within about two hours) of the magnitude and number of noise events which occur as the liquid metal penetrates into the metal workpiece. The magnitude and number of noise events are then correlated to the internal stress in the region of the workpiece at the bottom of the hole.

  2. Interpretation of recent seismic data from a frontier hydrocarbon province: western Rough Creek graben, southern Illinois and western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertagne, A.J.; Pisasale, E.T.; Leising, T.C.

    1986-05-01

    The northern basement fault of the Rough Creek graben is seismically discernible and has surface expression in the Rough Creek fault zone. The southern basement fault is not clearly defined seismically, but can be inferred from shallow faulting and gravity data. This fault is roughly coincident with the Pennyrile fault zone. Extensional faults that formed the rift boundaries were the sites of late-stage compressional and extensional tectonics. Flower structures observed along the graben boundaries probably indicate post-Pennsylvanian wrench faulting. The basement within the graben plunges north-northwest, with the lowest point occurring south of the Rough Creek fault zone. Pre-Knox sediments thicken to approximately 12,000 in this area. The Knox Megagroup thickens toward the Mississippi Embayment, ranging from 4800 ft (southeastern graben area) to more than 7000 ft (west end of graben). Upper Ordovician to Devonian units also display westward thickening. The top of the Meramecian, New Albany, Maquoketa, and the base of the Knox generate continuous, high-amplitude seismic reflections due to large impedance contrasts between clastic and carbonate units. Shallow oil and gas production (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian) is present in this area. However, deep horizons (Knox, Lower Cambrian) remain relatively untested. Potential hydrocarbon traps in the pre-Knox sequence observed on seismic include fault blocks and updip pinch-outs.

  3. Log analysis of six boreholes in conjunction with geologic characterization above and on top of the Weeks Island Salt Dome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, A.R.

    1996-06-01

    Six boreholes were drilled during the geologic characterization and diagnostics of the Weeks Island sinkhole that is over the two-tiered salt mine which was converted for oil storage by the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. These holes were drilled to provide for geologic characterization of the Weeks Island Salt Dome and its overburden in the immediate vicinity of the sinkhole (mainly through logs and core); to establish a crosswell configuration for seismic tomography; to establish locations for hydrocarbon detection and tracer injection; and to provide direct observations of sinkhole geometry and material properties. Specific objectives of the logging program were to: (1) identify the top of and the physical state of the salt dome; (2) identify the water table; (3) obtain a relative salinity profile in the aquifer within the alluvium, which ranges from the water table directly to the top of the Weeks Island salt dome; and (4) identify a reflecting horizon seen on seismic profiles over this salt dome. Natural gamma, neutron, density, sonic, resistivity and caliper logs were run.

  4. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Logos Technologies and EERE partnered with EdeniQ of Visalia, California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-sourced indigenous, nonfood feedstock sources (wood chips and switchgrass). The project has completed 1,500 hours of

  5. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel | Department of Energy Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Logos Technologies and EERE partnered with EdeniQ of Visalia, California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-sourced indigenous, nonfood feedstock sources (wood chips and switchgrass). The

  6. SF 6110-AC Residual Inventory of Material or Equipment Furnished...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specification No. and whether item is Classified, Furnished, Acquired, Esplosive, Toxic, Raw Mat'l, Good Part, or Scrap. The above listing is a COMPLETE inventory of residual...

  7. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  8. Potential solubility controls for Iodine-129 in residual tank waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denham, M. E.

    2015-08-03

    This report documents a scoping analysis of possible controls on the release of 129I from tank 12H residual waste.

  9. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the project objectives for the integration of advanced logistical systems and focused bioenergy harvesting technologies that supply crop residues and energy crops in a large bale...

  10. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Meng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Huaiqiu, E-mail: hqzhu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yao, Xin-Qiu [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biophysics, Kyoto University, Sakyo Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); She, Zhen-Su, E-mail: she@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-01-29

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  11. Residual orientation in micro-injection molded parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, John; Edward, Graham H.; Knott, Robert B. (Monash); (ANSTO)

    2008-06-30

    The residual orientation following micro-injection molding of small rectangular plates with linear polyethylene has been examined using small-angle neutron scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The effect of changing the molding conditions has been examined, and the residual chain orientation has been compared to the residual orientation of the crystallites as a function of position in the sample. This study has found that, for micromoldings, the orientation of the crystallites decreases with increasing injection speed and increasing mold thickness. The combined data suggest that the majority of the orientation present comes from oriented crystal growth rather than residual chain orientation.

  12. Residual Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction in Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Residual ...

  13. Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SC USDOE - Office of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Inconel 718; residual stess; electron beam melting; direct laser metal ...

  14. Stranski-Krastanow islanding initiated on the stochastic rough surfaces of the epitaxially strained thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarik Ogurtani, Omer; Celik, Aytac; Emre Oren, Ersin

    2014-06-14

    Quantum dots (QD) have discrete energy spectrum, which can be adjusted over a wide range by tuning composition, density, size, lattice strain, and morphology. These features make quantum dots attractive for the design and fabrication of novel electronic, magnetic and photonic devices and other functional materials used in cutting-edge applications. The formation of QD on epitaxially strained thin film surfaces, known as Stranski-Krastanow (SK) islands, has attracted great attention due to their unique electronic properties. Here, we present a systematic dynamical simulation study for the spontaneous evolution of the SK islands on the stochastically rough surfaces (nucleationless growth). During the development of SK islands through the mass accumulation at randomly selected regions of the film via surface drift-diffusion (induced by the capillary and mismatch stresses) with and/or without growth, one also observes the formation of an extremely thin wetting layer having a thickness of a few Angstroms. Above a certain threshold level of the mismatch strain and/or the size of the patch, the formation of multiple islands separated by shallow wetting layers is also observed as metastable states such as doublets even multiplets. These islands are converted into a distinct SK islands after long annealing times by coalescence through the long range surface diffusion. Extensive computer simulation studies demonstrated that after an initial transient regime, there is a strong quadratic relationship between the height of the SK singlet and the intensity of the lattice mismatch strain (in a wide range of stresses up to 8.5?GPa for germanium thin crystalline films), with the exception at those critical points where the morphological (shape change with necking) transition takes place.

  15. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S809 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsay, R.F.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An S809 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20, to +40 {degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord. In general, the unsteady maximum lift coefficient was from 4% to 86% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient, and variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient magnitude was from {minus}83% to 195% relative to steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation to obtain accurate load estimates.

  16. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyle, David R.; Brissey, Courtney L.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K.

    2015-01-02

    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  17. Thermoacoustic method for relaxation of residual stresses in welded joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshovyi, V.V.; Pakhn`o, M.I.; Tsykhan, O.I.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a thermoacoustic method for the relaxation of residual stresses in welded joints, present a block diagram of a generator of local thermoacoustic pulses designed for implementation of this method, and describe our experiment aimed at relaxation of residual tensile stresses.

  18. Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

  19. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel [Dept. of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nm. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zln, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovc (Czech Republic); Paravanova, Gordana [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcrnou 3685, 760 01 Zln (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  20. Is the assumption of normality or log-normality for continuous response data critical for benchmark dose estimation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Kan; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Setzer, R. Woodrow

    2013-11-01

    Continuous responses (e.g. body weight) are widely used in risk assessment for determining the benchmark dose (BMD) which is used to derive a U.S. EPA reference dose. One critical question that is not often addressed in doseresponse assessments is whether to model the continuous data as normally or log-normally distributed. Additionally, if lognormality is assumed, and only summarized response data (i.e., mean standard deviation) are available as is usual in the peer-reviewed literature, the BMD can only be approximated. In this study, using the hybrid method and relative deviation approach, we first evaluate six representative continuous doseresponse datasets reporting individual animal responses to investigate the impact on BMD/BMDL estimates of (1) the distribution assumption and (2) the use of summarized versus individual animal data when a log-normal distribution is assumed. We also conduct simulation studies evaluating model fits to various known distributions to investigate whether the distribution assumption has influence on BMD/BMDL estimates. Our results indicate that BMDs estimated using the hybrid method are more sensitive to the distribution assumption than counterpart BMDs estimated using the relative deviation approach. The choice of distribution assumption has limited impact on the BMD/BMDL estimates when the within dose-group variance is small, while the lognormality assumption is a better choice for relative deviation method when data are more skewed because of its appropriateness in describing the relationship between mean and standard deviation. Additionally, the results suggest that the use of summarized data versus individual response data to characterize log-normal distributions has minimal impact on BMD estimates. - Highlights: We investigate to what extent the distribution assumption can affect BMD estimates. Both real data analysis and simulation study are conducted. BMDs estimated using hybrid method are more sensitive to distribution assumption. Summarized continuous data are adequate for BMD estimation.

  1. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Prothro, Sigmund Drellack, Margaret Townsend

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  3. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, R.; Buysse, J.; Gellynck, X.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  4. Consortium for coal log pipeline research and development. Final technical progress report, August 10, 1993--August 9, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-10-01

    The main objective of this project was to conduct intensive research and development of the Coal Log Pipeline (CLP). Specifically, the R & D was to concentrate on previously neglected and insufficiently studied aspects of CLP which were deemed significant. With improvements in these areas, CLP could be implemented for commercial use within five years. CLP technology is capable of transporting coal logs for long distances. The many potential advantages of CLP over truck and railroad transportation include: lower freight costs, less energy consumption, less air pollution, decreased environmental problems, increased safety, and improved reliability. Previous studies have shown that CLP is advantageous over slurry pipeline technology. First, CLP uses one-third the water required by a coal slurry pipeline. Second, CLP provides easier coal dewatering. Third, the CLP conveying capacity of coal is twice as much as a slurry transport line of equal diameter. In many situations, the cost for transporting each ton of coal is expected to be less expensive by CLP as compared to other competing modes of transportation such as: truck, unit train and slurry pipeline.

  5. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  6. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  7. Improvement of coke quality by utilization of hydrogenation residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meckel, J.F. ); Wairegi, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogenation residue is the product left over when petroleum residue feedstocks (or coal) are treated by, e.g. the Veba Combi Cracking (VCC) process. Many tests in semitechnical and full-sized coke ovens were carried out with hydrogenation residue (HR) as an additive in coking coal blends for the production of blast furnace coke or foundry coke. The results of the investigations reported in this paper demonstrate that HR is a very promising alternative for enlarging the coking coal basis compared to other processes or the use of other additives. The application of HR on an industrial scale did not indicate any negative impact on the handling of the hydrogenation residue or on the operation of the coke oven battery.

  8. Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aluminum alloy satellite boxes. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information

  9. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED INCONEL 718 ENGINE MOUNT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED INCONEL 718 ENGINE MOUNT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED INCONEL 718 ENGINE MOUNT Authors: Watkins, Thomas R [1] ; Cornwell, Paris A [1] ; Dehoff, Ryan R [1] ; Nangia, Vinod [2] ; Godfrey, Donald G. [2] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Honeywell Aerospace Services Publication Date: 2015-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1224750 DOE Contract Number:

  10. Method for residual stress relief and retained austenite destabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2004-08-10

    A method using of a magnetic field to affect residual stress relief or phase transformations in a metallic material is disclosed. In a first aspect of the method, residual stress relief of a material is achieved at ambient temperatures by placing the material in a magnetic field. In a second aspect of the method, retained austenite stabilization is reversed in a ferrous alloy by applying a magnetic field to the alloy at ambient temperatures.

  11. GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

    2010-03-09

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  12. Hanford tank residual waste contaminant source terms and release models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2011-08-23

    Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the U.S. Department of Energys Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). In the long term, the residual wastes represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2 to 29.1 wt%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (<1.5 wt%) in other tanks (C-202 and C-203). Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations, while non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-PH phases are common in the U-rich residual wastes from tanks C-202 and C-203. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples studied to date. Contaminant release from the residual wastes was studied by conducting batch leach tests using distilled deionized water, a Ca(OH)2-saturated solution, or a CaCO3-saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO3-saturated solution than with the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less leachable (<10 wt% of the available mass in the waste) than previously predicted. This may be due to the coprecipitation of trace concentrations of Tc in relatively insoluble phases such as Fe oxide/hydroxide solids.

  13. Methods and apparatus to produce stick-slip motion of logging tool attached to a wireline drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

    1998-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are described to produce stick-slip motion of a logging tool within a cased well attached to a wireline that is drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum. The stick-slip motion results in the periodic upward movement of the tool in the cased well described in terms of a dwell time during which time the tool is stationary, the move time during which time the tool moves, and the stroke that is upward distance that the tool translates during the "slip" portion of the stick-slip motion. This method of measurement is used to log the well at different vertical positions of the tool. Therefore, any typical "station-to-station logging tool" may be modified to be a "continuous logging tool", where "continuous" means that the wireline drum continually rotates while the tool undergoes stick-slip motion downhole and measurements are performed during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary. The stick-slip methods of operation and the related apparatus are particularly described in terms of making measurements of formation resistivity from within a cased well during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary during the periodic stick-slip motion of the logging tool.

  14. Methods and apparatus to produce stick-slip motion of logging tool attached to a wireline drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III; Momii, S.T.

    1998-02-10

    Methods and apparatus are described to produce stick-slip motion of a logging tool within a cased well attached to a wireline that is drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum. The stick-slip motion results in the periodic upward movement of the tool in the cased well described in terms of a dwell time during which time the tool is stationary, the move time during which time the tool moves, and the stroke that is upward distance that the tool translates during the ``slip`` portion of the stick-slip motion. This method of measurement is used to log the well at different vertical positions of the tool. Therefore, any typical ``station-to-station logging tool`` may be modified to be a ``continuous logging tool,`` where ``continuous`` means that the wireline drum continually rotates while the tool undergoes stick-slip motion downhole and measurements are performed during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary. The stick-slip methods of operation and the related apparatus are particularly described in terms of making measurements of formation resistivity from within a cased well during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary during the periodic stick-slip motion of the logging tool. 12 figs.

  15. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  16. Residual strain mapping of Roman styli from Iulia Concordia, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvemini, Filomena; Grazzi, Francesco; Angelini, Ivana; Davydov, Vadim; Vontobel, Peter; Vigoni, Alberto; Artioli, Gilberto; Zoppi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Iulia Concordia is an important Roman settlement known for the production of iron objects and weapons during the Roman Empire. A huge number of well-preserved styli were found in the past century in the bed of an old channel. In order to shed light about the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing, a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis was performed on the POLDI materials science diffractometer at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Here, we present results from our investigation conducted on 11 samples, allowing to define, in a non-invasive way, the residual strain map related to the ancient Roman working techniques. - Highlights: • We examined 11 Roman styli from the settlement of Iulia Concordia, Italy. • We performed a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis on POLDI at PSI (CH). • We identified the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing. • We clarified the way and direction of working applied for different classes of styli.

  17. Residual stresses and plastic deformation in GTA-welded steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, P.C. ); Keijser, T.H. de; Ouden, G. den )

    1993-03-01

    Residual stresses and plastic deformation in single pass GTA welded low-carbon steel were studied by means of x-ray diffraction in combination with optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The residual stresses and the amount of plastic deformation (microstrain) were obtained from x-ray diffraction line positions and line broading. Since the plates were polished before welding, it was possible to observe in the optical microscope two types of Lueders bands. During heating curved Lueders bands and during cooling straight Lueders bands perpendicular to the weld are formed. The curved Lueders bands extend over a larger distance from the weld than the straight Lueders bands. The amount of plastic deformation as obtained from the x-ray diffraction analysis is in agreement with these observations. An explanation is offered for the stresses measured in combination with plastic deformations observed. It is concluded that in the present experiments plastic deformation is the main cause of the residual stresses.

  18. Study on rheological characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu

    1997-07-01

    We have embarked on a program to develop petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) as an alternative fuel for existing oil-fired boilers. The industrial application of petroleum coke residual oil slurry requires full knowledge of its flow behavior. This paper will present the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to study the Theological properties using a rotating viscometer at shear rate up to 996 s{sup -1}. The effects of temperature, concentration, particle size distribution and additives are also investigated. The experiments show that petroleum coke residual oil slurry exhibits pseudoplastic behavior, which has favorable viscosity property under a certain condition and has broad prospect to be applied on oil-fired boilers.

  19. Characterization of Residual Medium Peptides from Yersinia pestis Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clowers, Brian H.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-04-03

    Using a range of common microbial medium formulations (TSB, BHI, LB, and G-media), two attenuated strains of Y. pestis (KIM D27 (pgm-) and KIMD1 lcr-) were cultivated in triplicate. These cellular suspensions were used to develop a method of extracting residual medium peptides from the final microbial preparation to assess their relative abundance and identity. Across the conditions examined, which included additional cellular washing and different forms of microbial inactivation, residual medium peptides were detected. Despite the range of growth medium sources used and the associated manufacturing processes used in their production, a high degree of peptide similarity was observed for a given medium recipe. These results demonstrate that residual medium peptides are retained using traditional microbial cultivation techniques and may be used to inform forensic investigations with respect to production deduction.

  20. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing {approx} 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li{sub 2}O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O residual salt. (authors)

  1. Modeling of residual stresses by HY-100 weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharia, T.; Taljat, B.; Radhakrishnan, B.

    1997-02-01

    Residual stress distribution in a HY-100 steel disk, induced by GTA spot welding, was analyzed by finite element (FE) formulations and measured by neutron diffraction (ND). Computations used temperature- dependent thermophysical and mechanical properties. FE model predictions are in good agreement with ND data in far heat affected zone (HAZ) and in base metal. Predicted residual stresses in fusion zone and near HAZ were higher than those measured by ND. This discrepancy was attributed to microstructural changes and associated material properties in the HAZ and fusion zone due to phase transformations during the weld thermal cycle.

  2. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  3. Logging in to Franklin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Freedom is suitable for running memory-intensive utilities and serial programs like IDL, DDT, parallel make, hsi, and htar. The command to access Freedom is: % ssh -l username...

  4. FOIA Log 2014.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closed Corespond ance No. FOIA No. Dated Date Rec'd Requestor HQ, EMCBC or Direct Subject 1/21/14 14-0103 14-001 1/21/2013 12/20/2013 Kelly Vaselli/Fadduol, Cluff & Hardy, P.C. Direct WIPP Fire/Medic Personnel Responding to an Oilfield Fire at XTO Well "Nash49H" on November 8, 2012 4/2/14 14-0126 14-002 2/17/2014 2/17/2014 Zack Ponce, Reporter @ Carlsbad Curren Direct Records Relating to the Inspection Reports for Fire Suppression Systems and CAMs Used in the U/G from 01/01/2010

  5. FOIA Log 2013.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    121013 13-0168 13-005 11182013 11262013 Jeanne Haffner, Dept. of the History of Science, Harvard University Direct Request for All Records Related to PICs, or Marker for...

  6. FOIA Log 2012.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rec'd Requestor HQ, EMCBC or Direct Subject 11012 12-0004 12-001 12272011 192012 Alison D. MetzlerSullivan Papain Block McGrath & Cannovo P.C. DirectTransferred to Chicago...

  7. Job Logs & Statistics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group User Announcements Help Staff Blogs Request Repository Mailing List Operations for: Passwords & Off-Hours Status...

  8. Logging in to Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it so that the applications run on the Hopper compute nodes. Accelerated X11 Performance NX is a freely available software package that greatly improves X11 performance over the...

  9. Logging in to Edison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    so that the applications run on the Edison compute nodes. Accelerated X11 Performance NX is a freely available software package that greatly improves X11 performance over the...

  10. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energys Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activitys Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicles home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in significant reductions in emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The Vancouver, Washington area and neighboring Portland, Oregon are leaders in adoption of PEVs in the United States1. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the FVNHS facility would be a benefit for both FVNHS fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned plug-in electric vehicles benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the FVNHS site to identify the optimal station placement for electric vehicle supply equipment. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and FVNHS for participation in this study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and FVNHS personnel

  13. Determination of Transport Properties From Flowing Fluid Temperature LoggingIn Unsaturated Fractured Rocks: Theory And Semi-Analytical Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.

    2008-08-01

    Flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) has been recently proposed as a method to locate flowing fractures. We argue that FFTL, backed up by data from high-precision distributed temperature sensors, can be a useful tool in locating flowing fractures and in estimating the transport properties of unsaturated fractured rocks. We have developed the theoretical background needed to analyze data from FFTL. In this paper, we present a simplified conceptualization of FFTL in unsaturated fractured rock, and develop a semianalytical solution for spatial and temporal variations of pressure and temperature inside a borehole in response to an applied perturbation (pumping of air from the borehole). We compare the semi-analytical solution with predictions from the TOUGH2 numerical simulator. Based on the semi-analytical solution, we propose a method to estimate the permeability of the fracture continuum surrounding the borehole. Using this proposed method, we estimated the effective fracture continuum permeability of the unsaturated rock hosting the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Our estimate compares well with previous independent estimates for fracture permeability of the DST host rock. The conceptual model of FFTL presented in this paper is based on the assumptions of single-phase flow, convection-only heat transfer, and negligible change in system state of the rock formation. In a sequel paper [Mukhopadhyay et al., 2008], we extend the conceptual model to evaluate some of these assumptions. We also perform inverse modeling of FFTL data to estimate, in addition to permeability, other transport parameters (such as porosity and thermal conductivity) of unsaturated fractured rocks.

  14. Residual Stresses in 21-6-9 Stainless Steel Warm Forgings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everhart, Wesley A.; Lee, Jordan D.; Broecker, Daniel J.; Bartow, John P.; McQueen, Jamie M.; Switzner, Nathan T.; Neidt, Tod M.; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Brown, Donald W.

    2012-11-14

    Forging residual stresses are detrimental to the production and performance of derived machined parts due to machining distortions, corrosion drivers and fatigue crack drivers. Residual strains in a 21-6-9 stainless steel warm High Energy Rate Forging (HERF) were measured via neutron diffraction. The finite element analysis (FEA) method was used to predict the residual stresses that occur during forging and water quenching. The experimentally measured residual strains were used to calibrate simulations of the three-dimensional residual stress state of the forging. ABAQUS simulation tools predicted residual strains that tend to match with experimental results when varying yield strength is considered.

  15. Viscosity stabilization of SRC residual oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-05-01

    The use of SRC residual oils for No. 6 Fuel Oil substitutes has been proposed. The oils exhibit viscosity characteristics at elevated temperatures that allow this substitution with only minor modifications to the existing fuel oil infrastructure. However, loss of low-boiling materials causes an increase in the viscosity of the residual oils that is greater than expected from concentration changes. A process has been developed that minimizes the loss of volatiles and thus maintains the viscosity of these materials. The use of an additive (water, phenol, or an SRC light oil cut rich in low-boiling phenols in amounts up to 2.0 wt %) accomplishes this and hence stabilizes the pumping and atomizing characteristics for an extended period. During the course of the work, the components of the volatiles lost were identified and the viscosity change due to this loss was quantified. 3 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  16. Residual Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program | Department of Energy Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction in Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Residual Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction in Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program

  17. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  18. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djurabekova, Flyura Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan; Holmstrm, Eero; Hakala, Mikko

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from ?1?V/nm up to ?2?V/nm (?1 to ?2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  20. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  1. Washing of Rocky Flats Combustible Residues (Conducted March - May 1995)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary E. Barr; Ann R. Schake; David A. Romero; Gordon D. Jarvinen

    1999-03-01

    The scope of this project is to determine the feasibility of washing plutonium-containing combustible residues using ultrasonic disruption as a method for dislodging particulate. Removal of plutonium particulate and, to a lesser extent, solubilized plutonium from the organic substrate should substantially reduce potential fire, explosion or radioactive release hazards due to radiolytic hydrogen generation or high flammability. Tests were conducted on polypropylene filters which were used as pre-filters in the rich-residue ion-exchange process at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. These filters are similar to the Ful-Flo{reg_sign} cartridges used at Rocky Flats that make up a substantial fraction of the combustible residues with the highest hazard rating. Batch experiments were run on crushed filter material in order to determine the amount of Pu removed by stirring, stirring and sonication, and stirring and sonication with the introduction of Pu-chelating water-soluble polymers or surfactants. Significantly more Pu is removed using sonication and sonication with chelators than is removed with mechanical stirring alone.

  2. ,"U.S. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Oil Company Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Electric Utility Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to...

  3. Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says July 20, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Billions of ...

  4. Residuals in steel products -- Impacts on properties and measures to minimize them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emi, Toshihiko; Wijk, O.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of major residual elements on the properties of steel products is summarized. Measures to minimize these elements are discussed including the pretreatment of raw materials, innovative refining processes and environmental issues. This paper addresses (1) scrap situation, (2) upper limit of residual concentrations acceptable for processing and product quality, (3) possible means to reduce the residuals, and (4) consideration on the practicable measures to solve the residuals problem in a systematic way. 52 refs.

  5. Definite Integrals, Some Involving Residue Theory Evaluated by Maple Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Kimiko o [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The calculus of residue is applied to evaluate certain integrals in the range (-{infinity} to {infinity}) using the Maple symbolic code. These integrals are of the form {integral}{sub -{infinity}}{sup {infinity}} cos(x)/[(x{sup 2} + a{sup 2})(x{sup 2} + b{sup 2}) (x{sup 2} + c{sup 2})]dx and similar extensions. The Maple code is also applied to expressions in maximum likelihood estimator moments when sampling from the negative binomial distribution. In general the Maple code approach to the integrals gives correct answers to specified decimal places, but the symbolic result may be extremely long and complex.

  6. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle home base, high-use work areas, or intermediately along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in significant reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The San Francisco Bay Area is a leader in the adoption of PEVs in the United States. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the GGNRA facility would be a benefit for both GGNRA fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned PEVs benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the GGNRA site to identify the optimal placement of the electric vehicle supply equipment station. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and GGNRA for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and GGNRA personnel.

  7. Estimation of uncertainty for contour method residual stress measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Mitchell D.; DeWald, Adrian T.; Prime, Michael B.; Hill, Michael R.

    2014-12-03

    This paper describes a methodology for the estimation of measurement uncertainty for the contour method, where the contour method is an experimental technique for measuring a two-dimensional map of residual stress over a plane. Random error sources including the error arising from noise in displacement measurements and the smoothing of the displacement surfaces are accounted for in the uncertainty analysis. The output is a two-dimensional, spatially varying uncertainty estimate such that every point on the cross-section where residual stress is determined has a corresponding uncertainty value. Both numerical and physical experiments are reported, which are used to support the usefulness of the proposed uncertainty estimator. The uncertainty estimator shows the contour method to have larger uncertainty near the perimeter of the measurement plane. For the experiments, which were performed on a quenched aluminum bar with a cross section of 51 76 mm, the estimated uncertainty was approximately 5 MPa (?/E = 7 10??) over the majority of the cross-section, with localized areas of higher uncertainty, up to 10 MPa (?/E = 14 10??).

  8. Alternative cooling resource for removing the residual heat of reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, D. S.; Jung, C. Y.; Choi, K. Y. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 260 Naa-ri Yangnam-myeon Gyeongju-si, Gyeonasangbuk-do, 780-815 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) system of a Candu reactor is a closed cooling system which delivers demineralized water to coolers and components in the Service Building, the Reactor Building, and the Turbine Building and the recirculated cooling water is designed to be cooled by the Raw Service Water (RSW). During the period of scheduled outage, the RCW system provides cooling water to the heat exchangers of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS) in order to remove the residual heat of the reactor, so the RCW heat exchangers have to operate at all times. This makes it very hard to replace the inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers because the replacement work requires the isolation of the RCW. A task force was formed to prepare a plan to substitute the recirculated water with the chilled water system in order to cool the SDCS heat exchangers. A verification test conducted in 2007 proved that alternative cooling was possible for the removal of the residual heat of the reactor and in 2008 the replacement of inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers for both Wolsong unit 3 and 4 were successfully completed. (authors)

  9. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-03-03

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date.

  10. Estimation of uncertainty for contour method residual stress measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olson, Mitchell D.; DeWald, Adrian T.; Prime, Michael B.; Hill, Michael R.

    2014-12-03

    This paper describes a methodology for the estimation of measurement uncertainty for the contour method, where the contour method is an experimental technique for measuring a two-dimensional map of residual stress over a plane. Random error sources including the error arising from noise in displacement measurements and the smoothing of the displacement surfaces are accounted for in the uncertainty analysis. The output is a two-dimensional, spatially varying uncertainty estimate such that every point on the cross-section where residual stress is determined has a corresponding uncertainty value. Both numerical and physical experiments are reported, which are used to support the usefulnessmore » of the proposed uncertainty estimator. The uncertainty estimator shows the contour method to have larger uncertainty near the perimeter of the measurement plane. For the experiments, which were performed on a quenched aluminum bar with a cross section of 51 × 76 mm, the estimated uncertainty was approximately 5 MPa (σ/E = 7 · 10⁻⁵) over the majority of the cross-section, with localized areas of higher uncertainty, up to 10 MPa (σ/E = 14 · 10⁻⁵).« less

  11. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to accurately determine a volume is a function of the quantity and quality of the waste tank images. Currently, mapping is performed remotely with closed circuit video cameras and still photograph cameras due to the hazardous environment. There are two methods that can be used to create a solids volume map. These methods are: liquid transfer mapping / post transfer mapping and final residual solids mapping. The task is performed during a transfer because the liquid level (which is a known value determined by a level measurement device) is used as a landmark to indicate solids accumulation heights. The post transfer method is primarily utilized after the majority of waste has been removed. This method relies on video and still digital images of the waste tank after the liquid transfer is complete to obtain the relative height of solids across a waste tank in relation to known and usable landmarks within the waste tank (cooling coils, column base plates, etc.). In order to accurately monitor solids over time across various cleaning campaigns, and provide a technical basis to support final waste tank closure, a consistent methodology for volume determination has been developed and implemented at SRS.

  12. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  13. Description of the prototype diagnostic residual gas analyzer for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younkin, T. R.; Biewer, T. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Marcus, C.

    2014-11-15

    The diagnostic residual gas analyzer (DRGA) system to be used during ITER tokamak operation is being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure fuel ratios (deuterium and tritium), fusion ash (helium), and impurities in the plasma. The eventual purpose of this instrument is for machine protection, basic control, and physics on ITER. Prototyping is ongoing to optimize the hardware setup and measurement capabilities. The DRGA prototype is comprised of a vacuum system and measurement technologies that will overlap to meet ITER measurement requirements. Three technologies included in this diagnostic are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, an ion trap mass spectrometer, and an optical penning gauge that are designed to document relative and absolute gas concentrations.

  14. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  15. IMPROVED V I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu E-mail: tfeigenson@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ?(V) = 3.956 0.004 (? = 0.037) based on 93V I lines and log ?(V) = 1.89 0.03 (? = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Mller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  16. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae

    2014-10-06

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  17. Program for Numerical Simulation of Beam Losses due to Interaction with Residual Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamysheva, G.; Skripka, G.

    2010-01-05

    Program for estimation of the beam losses of light ions due to interaction with the residual gas has been written. The loss of beam intensity is determined by the cross sections for loss processes respecting different ion energies and depends on the pressure of the residual gas. The beam losses due to interaction with the residual gas by the example of C400 cyclotron (IBA, Belgium) were done.

  18. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized

  19. Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made by electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made by electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering Residual stress profiles were mapped using neutron diffraction in two simple prism builds of

  20. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized

  1. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","102015","1151983" ,"Release Date:","142016" ,"Next Release Date:","212016" ,"Excel File...

  2. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 245 Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  3. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 203 Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  4. Gas Generation Test Support for Transportation and Storage of Plutonium Residue Materials - Part 1: Rocky Flats Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.R.

    1999-08-24

    The purpose of this report is to present experimental results that can be used to establish one segment of the safety basis for transportation and storage of plutonium residue materials.

  5. POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

    2011-03-08

    At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a layer of NaHCO{sub 3}. From a safety standpoint, the inventory of residual sodium in these systems was greatly reduced by using the carbonation process. From a regulatory standpoint, the process was not able to achieve deactivation of all residual sodium, and other more aggressive measures will be needed if the remaining residual sodium must also be deactivated to meet the requirements of the existing environmental permit. This chapter provides a project history and technical summary of the carbonation of EBR-II residual sodium. Options for future treatment are also discussed.

  6. The influence of quench sensitivity on residual stresses in the aluminium alloys 7010 and 7075

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, J.S.; Tanner, D.A.; Truman, C.E.; Paradowska, A.M.; Wimpory, R.C.

    2012-03-15

    The most critical stage in the heat treatment of high strength aluminium alloys is the rapid cooling necessary to form a supersaturated solid solution. A disadvantage of quenching is that the thermal gradients can be sufficient to cause inhomogeneous plastic deformation which in turn leads to the development of large residual stresses. Two 215 mm thick rectilinear forgings have been made from 7000 series alloys with widely different quench sensitivity to determine if solute loss in the form of precipitation during quenching can significantly affect residual stress magnitudes. The forgings were heat treated and immersion quenched using cold water to produce large magnitude residual stresses. The through thickness residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction and incremental deep hole drilling. The distribution of residual stresses was found to be similar for both alloys varying from highly triaxial and tensile in the interior, to a state of biaxial compression in the surface. The 7010 forging exhibited larger tensile stresses in the interior. The microstructural variation from surface to centre for both forgings was determined using optical and transmission electron microscopy. These observations were used to confirm the origin of the hardness variation measured through the forging thickness. When the microstructural changes were accounted for in the through thickness lattice parameter, the residual stresses in the two forgings were found to be very similar. Solute loss in the 7075 forging appeared to have no significant effect on the residual stress magnitudes when compared to 7010. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Through thickness residual stress measurements made on large Al alloy forgings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residual stress characterised using neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biaxial compressive surface and triaxial subsurface residual stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quench sensitivity of 7075 promotes significant microstructural differences to 7010. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When precipitation is accounted for, residual stress in both forgings are similar.

  7. METALLICITIES, DUST, AND MOLECULAR CONTENT OF A QSO-DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM REACHING log N(H I) = 22: AN ANALOG TO GRB-DLAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimaraes, R.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C.; Srianand, R.; Rahmani, H.; Lopez, S.

    2012-06-15

    We present the elemental abundance and H{sub 2} content measurements of a damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) system with an extremely large H I column density, log N(H I) (cm{sup -2}) = 22.0 {+-} 0.10, at z{sub abs} = 3.287 toward the QSO SDSS J081634+144612. We measure column densities of H{sub 2}, C I, C I*, Zn II, Fe II, Cr II, Ni II, and Si II from a high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution VLT-UVES spectrum. The overall metallicity of the system is [Zn/H] = -1.10 {+-} 0.10 relative to solar. Two molecular hydrogen absorption components are seen at z = 3.28667 and 3.28742 (a velocity separation of Almost-Equal-To 52 km s{sup -1}) in rotational levels up to J = 3. We derive a total H{sub 2} column density of log N(H{sub 2}) (cm{sup -2}) = 18.66 and a mean molecular fraction of f = 2N(H{sub 2})/[2N(H{sub 2}) + N(H I)] = 10{sup -3.04{+-}0.37}, typical of known H{sub 2}-bearing DLA systems. From the observed abundance ratios we conclude that dust is present in the interstellar medium of this galaxy, with an enhanced abundance in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds. However, the total amount of dust along the line of sight is not large and does not produce any significant reddening of the background QSO. The physical conditions in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds are constrained directly from the column densities of H{sub 2} in different rotational levels, C I and C I*. The kinetic temperature is found to be T Almost-Equal-To 75 K and the particle density lies in the range n{sub H} = 50-80 cm{sup -3}. The neutral hydrogen column density of this DLA is similar to the mean H I column density of DLAs observed at the redshift of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs). We explore the relationship between GRB-DLAs and the high column density end of QSO-DLAs finding that the properties (metallicity and depletion) of DLAs with log N(H I) > 21.5 in the two populations do not appear to be significantly different.

  8. Residual Gas Analysis for Long-Pulse, Advanced Tokamak Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klepper, C Christopher; Hillis, Donald Lee; Bucalossi, J.; Douai, D.; OddonCEA, IRFM, P.; VartanianCEA-Cadarach, S.; Colas, L.; Manenc, L.; Pegourie, B.

    2010-01-01

    A shielded residual gas analyzer RGA system on Tore Supra can function during plasma operation and is set up to monitor the composition of the neutral gas in one of the pumping ducts of the toroidal pumped limited. This diagnostic RGA has been used in long-pulse up to 6 min discharges for continuous monitoring of up to 15 masses simultaneously. Comparison of the RGA-measured evolution of the H2 /D2 isotopic ratio in the exhaust gas to that measured by an energetic neutral particle analyzer in the plasma core provides a way to monitor the evolution of particle balance. RGA monitoring of corrective H2 injection to maintain proper minority heating is providing a database for improved ion cyclotron resonance heating, potentially with RGA-base feedback control. In very long pulses 4 min absence of significant changes in the RGA-monitored, hydrocarbon particle pressures is an indication of proper operation of the actively cooled, carbon-based plasma facing components. Also H2 could increase due to thermodesorption of overheated plasma facing components. 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  10. Rare earth patterns in shergottite phosphates and residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.

    1987-03-30

    Leaching experiments with 1M HCl on ALHA 77005 power show that rare earth elements (REE) are concentrated in accessory phosphate phases (whitlockite, apatite) that govern the REE patterns of bulk shergottites. The REE patterns of whitlockite are typically light REE depleted with a negative Eu anomaly and show a hump at the heavy REE side, while the REE pattern of apatite (in Shergotty) is light REE enriched. Parent magmas are calculated from the model compositions of residues of ALHA 77005, Shergotty, and EETA 79001. The parent magmas lack a Eu anomaly, indicating that plagioclase was a late-stage crystallizing phase and it probably crystallized before the phosphates. The parent magmas of ALHA 77005 and Shergotty have similar REE patterns with a subchondritic Nd/Sm ratio. However, the Sm/Nd isotopics require a light REE depleted source for ALHA 77005 (if the crystallization age is <600 m.y.) and a light REE enriched source for Shergotty. Distinct Nd and Sr isotopic signatures may suggest different source regions for shergottites. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  11. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  12. Validation Specimen for Contour Method Extension to Multiple Residual Stress Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagliaro, Pierluigi; Prime, Michael B; Zuccarello, B; Clausen, Bjorn; Watkins, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    A new theoretical development of the contour method, that allow the user to measure the three normal residual stress components on cross sections of a generic mechanical part, is presented. To validate such a theoretical development, a residual stress test specimen was properly designed, fabricated and then tested with different experimental techniques.

  13. Management of high sulfur coal combustion residues, issues and practices: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Beasley, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: (1) overview topic; (2) characterization of coal combustion residues; (3) environmental impacts of residues management; (4) materials handling and utilization, Part I; and (5) materials handling and utilization, Part II. Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welding: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; David, Stan A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Significant amounts of residual stresses are often generated during welding and result in critical degradation of the structural integrity and performance of components. Neutron diffraction has become a well established technique for the determination of residual stresses in welds because of the unique deep penetration, three-dimensional mapping capability, and volume averaged bulk measurements characteristic of the scattering neutron beam. Friction stir welding has gained prominence in recent years. The authors reviewed a number of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welds and highlighted examples addressing how the microstructures and residual stresses are correlated with each other. An example of in situ neutron diffraction measurement result shows the evolution of the residual stresses during welding.

  15. Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Smith, Steven J.

    2010-02-11

    As co-products, agricultural and forestry residues represent a potential low cost, low carbon, source for bioenergy. A method is developed method for estimating the maximum sustainable amount of energy potentially available from agricultural and forestry residues by converting crop production statistics into associated residue, while allocating some of this resource to remain on the field to mitigate erosion and maintain soil nutrients. Currently, we estimate that the world produces residue biomass that could be sustainably harvested and converted into over 50 EJ yr-1 of energy. The top three countries where this resource is estimated to be most abundant are currently net energy importers: China, the United States (US), and India. The global potential from residue biomass is estimated to increase to approximately 80-95 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century, depending on physical assumptions such as of future crop yields and the amount of residue sustainably harvestable. The future market for biomass residues was simulated using the Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems Mini Climate Assessment Model (ObjECTS MiniCAM). Utilization of residue biomass as an energy source is projected for the next century under different climate policy scenarios. Total global use of residue biomass is estimated to increase to 70-100 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century in a central case, depending on the presence of a climate policy and the economics of harvesting, aggregating, and transporting residue. Much of this potential is in developing regions of the world, including China, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India.

  16. Tidal Residual Eddies and their Effect on Water Exchange in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2013-08-30

    Tidal residual eddies are one of the important hydrodynamic features in tidally dominant estuaries and coastal bays, and they could have significant effects on water exchange in a tidal system. This paper presents a modeling study of tides and tidal residual eddies in Puget Sound, a tidally dominant fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast, using a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model. Mechanisms of vorticity generation and asymmetric distribution patterns around an island/headland were analyzed using the dynamic vorticity transfer approach and numerical experiments. Model results of Puget Sound show that a number of large twin tidal residual eddies exist in the Admiralty Inlet because of the presence of major headlands in the inlet. Simulated residual vorticities near the major headlands indicate that the clockwise tidal residual eddy (negative vorticity) is generally stronger than the anticlockwise eddy (positive vorticity) because of the effect of Coriolis force. The effect of tidal residual eddies on water exchange in Puget Sound and its sub-basins were evaluated by simulations of dye transport. It was found that the strong transverse variability of residual currents in the Admiralty Inlet results in a dominant seaward transport along the eastern shore and a dominant landward transport along the western shore of the Inlet. A similar transport pattern in Hood Canal is caused by the presence of tidal residual eddies near the entrance of the canal. Model results show that tidal residual currents in Whidbey Basin are small in comparison to other sub-basins. A large clockwise residual circulation is formed around Vashon Island near entrance of South Sound, which can potentially constrain the water exchange between the Central Basin and South Sound.

  17. Proposed plant will turn wood residues into synfuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A group of entrepreneurs plan to have a plant operating in Burney, CA. The projected facility will produce an estimated 21,000 gallons of oil per day, converting about 300 tons of raw material. Converting cellulose into synthetic fuel is superior to alcohol production. The process yields approximately 84 gallons of synthetic fuel per ton of raw material. The entire LHG (liquid hydrogen gas) patented facility is self-sufficient and releases only carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Synfuel production is a three-phase process. First, butyl alcohol (butanol) and acetone are produced from a portion of the raw material. This is facilitated by adding to the raw material a bacteria culture. The planned facility in Burney will have thirty-five 2100 gallon fermentation tanks and will produce 1.25 million gallons of butanol. Next, organic material is blended with water and is pumped into patented LHG catalytic converters, charged with carbon monoxide gas as a catalyst and then heated to 350 degrees C at 2000 to 5000 psi. Here, the organic material is converted to No. 4 oil with bituminous tar as a residue. A patented gasifier system produces the carbon monoxide catalyst plus COH (carbon hydroxide) gas. The COH is used to power a gas turbine driving a 100 kW generator and a central hydraulic pump. The facility, which will be energy self-sufficient, will have approximately 50 kW of excess power to sell to the local utility power grid. Finally, the No. 4 oil, butanol and liquified COH gas are blended to produce any grade fuel oil or a gasoline substitute of very high octane.

  18. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 C and 400 C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects of both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.

  19. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects ofmore » both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.« less

  20. Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal for Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive National Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden; R. G. Nelson

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainably removable agricultural residues across the conterminous United States. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10 100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time.

  1. Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, David J.; Bryden, Kenneth Mark; Nelson, R. G.

    2012-10-06

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

  2. Residual stress and plastic anisotropy in indented 2024-T351 aluminum disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, Bjorn; Prime, Michael B; Saurabh, Kabra; Brown, Donald W; Pagliaro, Pierluigi; Backlund, Peter; Shaw, Sanjiv; Criss, Everett

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have proven that generating a well defined residual stress state using the indented disk approach is an excellent way to validate experimental and modeling techniques for measuring and predicting residual stresses. The previous studies dealt with indented stainless steel disks, and included experimental determination of residual stresses using the Contour Method and neutron diffraction measurements. The measured residual stress states showed good agreement between the techniques, and a Finite Element Model predicted residual stress state based upon material properties determined form standard tension and compression/tension tests was also in good agreement with the measurements. In the present work, disks of 2024-T351 Aluminum were investigated. As before, the residual stress profile was measured using neutron diffraction and the Contour Method and Finite Element Modeling was employed to predict the residual stress profile. Analysis and comparison of the three techniques were complicated by the fact that the experimental data shows evidence of plastic anisotropy and strong Bauschinger effect within the indented disks.

  3. Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J.; Burress, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

  4. Geothermal Well Logging: Geological Wireline Logs and Fracture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Course on Geothermal Drilling, Resource Development and Power Plants; Santa Tecla, El Salvador; 20110116 Published Iceland GeoSurvey, 2011 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  5. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-02-12

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative to volcanic-rock units is exemplified by the large difference in their estimated maximum hydraulic conductivity; 4,000 and 400 feet per day, respectively. Simulated minimum estimates of hydraulic conductivity are inexact and represent the lower detection limit of the method. Minimum thicknesses of lithologic intervals also were defined for comparing AnalyzeHOLE results to hydraulic properties in regional ground-water flow models.

  6. a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films with subnanometer surface roughness for biological applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrera-Celis, Jos Reyes-Betanzo, Claudia Itzmoyotl-Toxqui, Adrin; Ordua-Daz, Abdu Prez-Coyotl, Ana

    2015-09-15

    The characterization of a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with high hydrogen dilution for biological applications is addressed. A root mean square roughness less than 1?nm was measured via atomic force microscopy for an area of 25??m{sup 2}. Structural analysis was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the middle infrared region. It was found that under the deposition conditions, the formation of SiC bonds is promoted. Electrical dark conductivity measurements were performed to evaluate the effect of high hydrogen dilution and to find the relation between carrier transport properties and the structural arrangement. Conductivities of the order of 10{sup ?7} to 10{sup ?9} S/cm at room temperature for methanesilane gas flow ratio from 0.35 to 0.85 were achieved, respectively. UV-visible spectra were used to obtain the optical band gap and the Tauc parameter. Optical band gap as wide as 3.55?eV was achieved in the regime of high carbon incorporation. Accordingly, deposition under low power density and high hydrogen dilution reduces the roughness, improves the structure of the network, and stabilizes the film properties as a greater percentage of carbon is incorporated. The biofunctionalization of a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H surfaces with NH{sub 2}-terminated self-assembled monolayers was obtained through silanization with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. This knowledge opens a window for the inclusion of these a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films in devices such as biosensors.

  7. Identification of the nucleophile catalytic residue of GH51 α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Pleurotus ostreatus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amore, Antonella; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Vincent, Florence; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-12-21

    In this paper, the recombinant α-l-arabinofuranosidase from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (rPoAbf) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis in order to identify the catalytic nucleophile residue. Based on bioinformatics and homology modelling analyses, E449 was revealed to be the potential nucleophilic residue. Thus, the mutant E449G of PoAbf was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris and its recombinant expression level and reactivity were investigated in comparison to the wild-type. The design of a suitable set of hydrolysis experiments in the presence or absence of alcoholic arabinosyl acceptors and/or formate salts allowed to unambiguously identify the residue E449 as the nucleophile residue involvedmore » in the retaining mechanism of this GH51 arabinofuranosidase. 1H NMR analysis was applied for the identification of the products and the assignement of their anomeric configuration.« less

  8. Disposal of tritium residues at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Audit repost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this audit was to determine whether Los Alamos disposed of wastewater containing tritium residues in a safe and cost-effective manner subsequent to an October 1991 report reviewing tritium facility management practices.

  9. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    55.1 47.1 W W 55.1 46.2 See footnotes at end of table. 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  10. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    45.5 49.2 W W 44.5 45.4 See footnotes at end of table. 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Residual Stress of Bimetallic Joints and Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about residual stress...

  12. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  13. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented. The analysis has shown that the feedstock production systems are capable of simultaneously increasing productivity and soil sustainability.

  14. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroud, Mary Ann; Prime, Michael Bruce; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Berg, John M.; Clausen, Bjorn; Worl, Laura Ann; DeWald, Adrian T.

    2015-12-08

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  15. Determination of nonuniform residual stress using the ring-core method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajovalasit, A.; Petrucci, G.; Zuccarello, B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper considers residual stress analysis using the ring-core method. In particular, the so-called integral equation method is applied to evaluate nonuniform residual stress fields. The proposed method overcomes typical drawbacks of the incremental strain method which lead to incorrect results for strongly varying stress fields. The experimental results obtained with a specimen subjected to a bending load confirm the theoretical predictions.

  16. Table 10.25 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable ResiduaCapable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmental Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites | Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department

  18. Field kit and method for testing for the presence of gunshot residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodacy, Philip J.; Walker, Pamela K.

    2003-09-02

    A field test kit for gunshot residue comprises a container having at least compartments separated by a barrier. A surface is tested by wiping it with a swab and placing the swab in a first compartment. The barrier is then breached, permitting reagent in the second compartment to flow onto the swab. The first compartment is transparent, and a color change will be observed if the reagent reacts with gunshot residue.

  19. Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slanina, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

  20. Image Logs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    StratigraphicStructural: -Fault and fracture identification -Rock texture, porosity, and stress analysis -determine dip, thickness, and geometry of rock strata in vicinity of...

  1. Gamma Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in mining, mineral exploration, water-well drilling, for formation evaluation in oil and gas well drilling and for other related purposes. Different types of rock emit different...

  2. FOIA_Log_2011.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  3. Log in | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Primary

  4. Request Log Closedl Date Yes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    documents related to a survey, conducted by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education in 1997. or certain building areas at the Engelhard1D.E. Uakepeace facility in...

  5. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-06-23

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  6. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energys Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activitys Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  7. IMPROVED V II log(gf) VALUES, HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS, AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ?(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = 2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  8. Contaminant Leach Testing of Hanford Tank 241-C-104 Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Wang, Guohui; Buck, Edgar C.

    2015-10-01

    Leach testing of Tank C-104 residual waste was completed using batch and column experiments. Tank C-104 residual waste contains exceptionally high concentrations of uranium (i.e., as high as 115 mg/g or 11.5 wt.%). This study was conducted to provide data to develop contaminant release models for Tank C-104 residual waste and Tank C-104 residual waste that has been treated with lime to transform uranium in the waste to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO4) or similar phase. Three column leaching cases were investigated. In the first case, C-104 residual waste was leached with deionized water. In the second case, crushed grout was added to the column so that deionized water contacted the grout prior to contacting the waste. In the third case, lime was mixed in with the grout. Results of the column experiments demonstrate that addition of lime dramatically reduces the leachability of uranium from Tank C-104 residual waste. Initial indications suggest that CaUO4 or a similar highly insoluble calcium rich uranium phase forms as a result of the lime addition. Additional work is needed to definitively identify the uranium phases that occur in the as received waste and the waste after the lime treatment.

  9. Comparing residue clusters from thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes reveals adaptive mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sammond, Deanne W.; Kastelowitz, Noah; Himmel, Michael E.; Yin, Hang; Crowley, Michael F.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2016-01-07

    Understanding how proteins adapt to function at high temperatures is important for deciphering the energetics that dictate protein stability and folding. While multiple principles important for thermostability have been identified, we lack a unified understanding of how internal protein structural and chemical environment determine qualitative or quantitative impact of evolutionary mutations. In this work we compare equivalent clusters of spatially neighboring residues between paired thermophilic and mesophilic homologues to evaluate adaptations under the selective pressure of high temperature. We find the residue clusters in thermophilic enzymes generally display improved atomic packing compared to mesophilic enzymes, in agreement with previous research.more » Unlike residue clusters from mesophilic enzymes, however, thermophilic residue clusters do not have significant cavities. In addition, anchor residues found in many clusters are highly conserved with respect to atomic packing between both thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes. As a result, the improvements in atomic packing observed in thermophilic homologues are not derived from these anchor residues but from neighboring positions, which may serve to expand optimized protein core regions.« less

  10. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Lu, Peng; Allen, D.E.; Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.; Fu, J.K.; Dobbs, C.L.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20 C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  11. All auto shredding: evaluation of automotive shredder residue generated by shredding only vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duranceau, C. M.; Spangenberger, J. S.

    2011-09-26

    A well developed infrastructure exists for the reuse and recycling of automotive parts and materials. At the end of a vehicle's useful life many parts are removed and sold for reuse and fluids are recovered for recycling or proper disposal. What remains is shredded, along with other metal bearing scrap such as home appliances, demolition debris and process equipment, and the metals are separated out and recycled. The remainder of the vehicle materials is call shredder residue which ends up in the landfill. As energy and natural resources becomes more treasured, increased effort has been afforded to find ways to reduce energy consumption and minimize the use of our limited resources. Many of the materials found in shredder residue could be recovered and help offset the use of energy and material consumption. For example, the energy content of the plastics and rubbers currently landfilled with the shredder residue is equivalent to 16 million barrels of oil per year. However, in the United States, the recovered materials, primarily polymers, cannot be recycled due to current regulatory barriers which preclude the re-introduction into commerce of certain materials because of residual contamination with substances of concern (SOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The source of the PCBs is not well understood. Old transformers, capacitors, white goods and ballasts from lighting fixtures are likely contributing factors. The project was designed to evaluate whether vehicles of varying age and manufacturing origin contribute to the PCB content in shredder residue. Additionally, the project was designed to determine if there are any trends in material composition of the shredder residue from varied age and manufacturing groups. This information would aid in future material recovery facility strategy and design. The test utilized a newly installed shredder plant to shred four categories of automobiles. The categories were defined by vehicle age and the manufacturing company and location. Each category of vehicles was processed individually through the shredder plant and the resulting shredder residue was analyzed for its materials composition and presence of PCBs and leachable metals. The results show that shredder residue from all vehicle categories tested are not significant contributors of PCBs and leachable metals. It was evident that leachable cadmium levels have decreased in newer vehicles. The composition of the shredder residue from each of the four categories is similar to the others. In addition, these compositions are approximately equal to the composition of typical shredder residues, not limited to automotive materials.

  12. Gyrokinetic simulation of momentum transport with residual stress from diamagnetic level velocity shears

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-04-15

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium ExB velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or ''profile shear'' in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) ExB and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a ''null'' toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the ExB shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger ''diffusive'' parallel velocity shear driven component and the much smaller profile shear residual stress component.

  13. Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.

    1998-09-30

    This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl{sub 4}. Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet.

  14. Method for using global optimization to the estimation of surface-consistent residual statics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reister, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Barhen, Jacob (Oak Ridge, TN); Oblow, Edward M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An efficient method for generating residual statics corrections to compensate for surface-consistent static time shifts in stacked seismic traces. The method includes a step of framing the residual static corrections as a global optimization problem in a parameter space. The method also includes decoupling the global optimization problem involving all seismic traces into several one-dimensional problems. The method further utilizes a Stochastic Pijavskij Tunneling search to eliminate regions in the parameter space where a global minimum is unlikely to exist so that the global minimum may be quickly discovered. The method finds the residual statics corrections by maximizing the total stack power. The stack power is a measure of seismic energy transferred from energy sources to receivers.

  15. Recovery of Plutonium from Refractory Residues Using a Sodium Peroxide Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2003-10-23

    The recycle of plutonium from refractory residues is a necessary activity for the nuclear weapon production complex. Traditionally, high-fired plutonium oxide (PuO2) was leached from the residue matrix using a nitric acid/fluoride dissolving flowsheet. The recovery operations were time consuming and often required multiple contacts with fresh dissolving solution to reduce the plutonium concentration to levels where residual solids could be discarded. Due to these drawbacks, the development of an efficient process for the recovery of plutonium from refractory materials is desirable. To address this need, a pretreatment process was developed. The development program utilized a series of small-scale experiments to optimize processing conditions for the fusion process and demonstrate the plutonium recovery efficiency using ceramic materials developed as potential long-term storage forms for PuO2 and an incinerator ash from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) as te st materials.

  16. The National Nuclear Laboratory's Approach to Processing Mixed Wastes and Residues - 13080

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, Howard; Docrat, Tahera; Allinson, Sarah J.; Coppersthwaite, Duncan P.; Sultan, Ruqayyah; May, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    The National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) treats a wide variety of materials produced as by-products of the nuclear fuel cycle, mostly from uranium purification and fuel manufacture but also including materials from uranium enrichment and from the decommissioning of obsolete plants. In the context of this paper, treatment is defined as recovery of uranium or other activity from residues, the recycle of uranium to the fuel cycle or preparation for long term storage and the final disposal or discharge to the environment of the remainder of the material. NNL's systematic but flexible approach to residue assessment and treatment is described in this paper. The approach typically comprises up to five main phases. The benefits of a systematic approach to waste and residue assessments and processing are described in this paper with examples used to illustrate each phase of work. Benefits include early identification of processing routes or processing issues and the avoidance of investment in inappropriate and costly plant or processes. (authors)

  17. INTERFACE RESIDUAL STRESSES IN DENTAL ZIRCONIA USING LAUE MICRO-DIFFRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bale, H. A.; Tamura, N.; Coelho, P.G.; Hanan, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Due to their aesthetic value and high compressive strength, dentists have recently employed ceramics for restoration materials. Among the ceramic materials, zirconia provides high toughness and crack resistant characteristics. Residual stresses develop in processing due to factors including grain anisotropy and thermal coefficient mismatch. In the present study, polychromatic X-ray (Laue) micro-diffraction provided grain orientation and residual stresses on a clinically relevant zirconia model ceramic disk. A 0.5 mm x 0.024 mm region on zirconia was examined on a 500 nm scale for residual stresses using a focused poly-chromatic synchrotron X-ray beam. Large stresses ranging from - to + 1GPa were observed at some grains. On average, the method suggests a relatively small compressive stress at the surface between 47 and 75 MPa depending on direction.

  18. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, Robert; Lu, Peng; Allen, Douglas; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila; Fu, Jaw K.; Dobbs, Charles L.; Degalbo, Angelo; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20 C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  19. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1999-06-15

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

  20. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  1. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the optical emission produced thereby is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  2. HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE CORRELATED WITH HOST

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GALAXY MASSES (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE CORRELATED WITH HOST GALAXY MASSES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE CORRELATED WITH HOST GALAXY MASSES From Sloan Digital Sky Survey u'g'r'i'z' imaging, we estimate the stellar masses of the host galaxies of 70 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia, 0.015 <z< 0.08) from the hosts' absolute luminosities and mass-to-light

  3. Hubble Residuals of Nearby SN Ia Are Correlated with Host Galaxy Masses

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hubble Residuals of Nearby SN Ia Are Correlated with Host Galaxy Masses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hubble Residuals of Nearby SN Ia Are Correlated with Host Galaxy Masses From Sloan Digital Sky Survey u{prime} g{prime} r{prime} i{prime} z{prime} imaging, we estimate the stellar masses of the host galaxies of 70 low redshift SN Ia (0.015 < z < 0.08) from the hosts absolute luminosities and mass-to-light ratios. These nearby SN were

  4. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use",8,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","12/22/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of November 2016" ,"Excel File

  5. Statistical techniques for characterizing residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    A primary objective of the Hanford Tank Initiative (HTI) project is to develop methods to estimate the inventory of residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks. A second objective is to develop methods to determine the boundaries of waste that may be in the waste plume in the vadose zone. This document presents statistical sampling plans that can be used to estimate the inventory of analytes within the residual waste within a tank. Sampling plans for estimating the inventory of analytes within the waste plume in the vadose zone are also presented. Inventory estimates can be used to classify the residual waste with respect to chemical and radiological hazards. Based on these estimates, it will be possible to make decisions regarding the final disposition of the residual waste. Four sampling plans for the residual waste in a tank are presented. The first plan is based on the assumption that, based on some physical characteristic, the residual waste can be divided into disjoint strata, and waste samples obtained from randomly selected locations within each stratum. The second plan is that waste samples are obtained from randomly selected locations within the waste. The third and fourth plans are similar to the first two, except that composite samples are formed from multiple samples. Common to the four plans is that, in the laboratory, replicate analytical measurements are obtained from homogenized waste samples. The statistical sampling plans for the residual waste are similar to the statistical sampling plans developed for the tank waste characterization program. In that program, the statistical sampling plans required multiple core samples of waste, and replicate analytical measurements from homogenized core segments. A statistical analysis of the analytical data, obtained from use of the statistical sampling plans developed for the characterization program or from the HTI project, provide estimates of mean analyte concentrations and confidence intervals on the mean. In addition, the statistical analysis provides estimates of spatial and measurement variabilities. The magnitude of these sources of variability are used to determine how well the inventory of the analytes in the waste have been estimated. This document provides statistical sampling plans that can be used to estimate the inventory of the analytes in the residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks and in the waste plume in the vadose zone.

  6. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

    2003-09-18

    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  7. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF FIRE DEBRIS RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; Keisha Martin, K; S Crump, S

    2007-03-23

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating highly radioactive fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of FD residue from radionuclide metals involves using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to remove the residues of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most (radioactive) metals. The focus of this research was to develop an examination protocol that was applicable to safe work in facilities where high radiation doses are shielded from the workers (as in radioactive shielded cells or ''hot cells''). We also examined the affinity of stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr and Nd) for sorption by the SPME fibers. This was done under exposure conditions that favor the uptake of FD residues under conditions that will provide little contact between the SPME and the FD material (such as charred carpet or wood that contains commonly-used accelerants). Our results from mass spectrometric analyses indicate that SPME fibers show promise for use in the room temperature head space uptake of organic FD residue (namely, diesel fuel oil, kerosene, gasoline and paint thinner) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. No inorganic forms of ignitable fluids were included in this study.

  8. Use of selective oxidation of petroleum residue for production of low-sulfur coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairudinov, I.R.; Kul`chitskaya, O.V.; Imashev, U.B.

    1995-12-10

    The chemical nature of liquid-phase oxidation of sulfurous petroleum residues by cumene hydroperoxide was studied by a tracer technique. Sulfur compounds are selectively oxidized in the presence of catalytic additives of molybdenum salts. Desulfurization of distillate products and coke during coking of preoxidized raw materials was revealed.

  9. Determination of residual monomers resulting from the chemical polymerization process of dental materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boboia, S.; Moldovan, M.; Ardelean, I.

    2013-11-13

    The residual monomer present in post-polymerized dental materials encourages premature degradation of the reconstructed tooth. That is why the residual monomer should be quantified in a simple, fast, accurate and reproducible manner. In our work we propose such an approach for accurate determination of the residual monomer in dental materials which is based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The results of the NMR approach are compared with those of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The samples under study contain the main monomers (2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) constituting the liquid phase of most dental materials and an initiator. Two samples were analyzed with different ratios of chemical initiation systems: N,N-dimethyl-p-toluide: benzoyl peroxide (1:2 and 0.7:1.2). The results obtained by both techniques highlight that by reducing the initiator the polymerization process slows down and the amount of residual monomer reduces. This prevents the premature degradation of the dental fillings and consequently the reduction of the biomaterial resistance.

  10. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  11. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, Michael M.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  12. Incineration of residue from paint stripping operations using plastic media blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helt, J.E.; Mallya, N.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary investigation has been performed on the environmental consequences of incinerating plastic-media-blasting (PMB) wastes from plant removal operations. PMB is similar to sandblasting although blasting taken place at a much lower pressure. The blasted media can be recovered and recycled several times, but ultimately a residue of paint dust/chips and attrited media dust are left for disposal. This residue is a dry solid that may potentially be classified as a hazardous waste. One possible alternative to depositing the waste residue directly into a hazardous waste landfill is incineration. Incineration would provide desirable volume reduction. However, the fate of heavy metals from the entrained paint waste is not known. Samples of PMB residue were combusted at temperatures between 690/degree/C and 815/degree/C with approximately 125% of the stoichiometric air. The ash remaining after combustion was then analyzed for heavy metal content and tested for leachability using the EPA toxicity characteristics leaching procedures (TCLP). 6 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-21

    Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation with the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC), is working to develop technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation may face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap and be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This document presents a review of the state of the art in shredder residue recycling. Available technologies and emerging technologies for the recycling of materials from shredder residue are discussed.

  14. The Effect of Weld Residual Stress on Life of Used Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald G. Ballinger; Sara E. Ferry; Bradley P. Black; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    With the elimination of Yucca Mountain as the long-term storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in the United States, a number of other storage options are being explored. Currently, used fuel is stored in dry-storage cask systems constructed of steel and concrete. It is likely that used fuel will continue to be stored at existing open-air storage sites for up to 100 years. This raises the possibility that the storage casks will be exposed to a salt-containing environment for the duration of their time in interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels, which are used to construct the canisters, are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-containing environments if a continuous aqueous film can be maintained on the surface and the material is under stress. Because steel sensitization in the canister welds is typically avoided by avoiding post-weld heat treatments, high residual stresses are present in the welds. While the environment history will play a key role in establishing the chemical conditions for cracking, weld residual stresses will have a strong influence on both crack initiation and propagation. It is often assumed for modeling purposes that weld residual stresses are tensile, high and constant through the weld. However, due to the strong dependence of crack growth rate on stress, this assumption may be overly conservative. In particular, the residual stresses become negative (compressive) at certain points in the weld. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a probabilistic model with quantified uncertainties for SCC failure in the dry storage casks. In this paper, the results of a study of the residual stresses, and their postulated effects on SCC behavior, in actual canister welds are presented. Progress on the development of the model is reported.

  15. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  16. Method for improve x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Robert M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cohen, Isadore (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys which comprises covering part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy with a dispersion, exposing the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample.

  17. Method for improving x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, R.M.; Cohen, I.

    1988-04-26

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys is discussed. Part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy is covered with a dispersion. This exposes the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose, since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample. 2 figs.

  18. Long-term risk stabilization of the Rocky Flats Plant residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melberg, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    The liquid and solid residues continue to be a concern at Rocky Flats, primarily due to safety aspects of long-term storage and of the need for processing them into a form for ultimate disposal. Currently, Rocky Flats is processing the low-level solutions from bottles and tanks by direct cementation for storage and disposal. Plans for actinide precipitation of the high-level solutions are being finalized with an anticipated completion date of 2 to 3 yr. The solid residues present a more difficult challenge because of the numerous forms that these exist. Rocky Flats is developing several strategies to handle these materials for safe long-term storage and eventual disposal.

  19. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} to (25)??10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ?5??10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3} versus 2.9??10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  20. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S.

    2011-02-22

    Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. Many of these materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals that are recovered. In addition, the number of hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles on the road is rapidly increasing. This trend will also introduce new materials for disposal at the end of their useful lives, including batteries. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), the Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC. (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research, LLC. (USCAR), and the American Chemistry Council-Plastics Division (ACC-PD) are working to develop technology for recovering materials from end-of-life vehicles, including separating and recovering polymers and residual metals from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation and the world will most likely face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap, and thereby be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This will result in increased energy consumption and increased damage to the environment, including increased greenhouse gas emissions. The recycling of polymers, other organics, and residual metals in shredder residue saves the equivalent of over 23 million barrels of oil annually. This results in a 12-million-ton reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This document presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the recycling of automotive materials.

  1. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  2. Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1998-07-30

    The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order.

  3. Analysis in support of storage of residues in the pipe overpack container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Ammerman, D.J.; Radloff, H.D.

    1998-04-01

    The disposition of the large backlog of plutonium residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) will require interim storage and subsequent shipment to a waste repository. Current plans call for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the transportation to WIPP in the TRUPACT-II. The transportation phase will require the residues to be packaged in a container that is more robust than a standard 55 gallon waste drum. Rocky Flats has designed the Pipe Overpack Container to meet this need. The potential for damage to this container during onsite storage in unhardened structures for several hypothetical accident scenarios has been addressed using finite element calculations. This report will describe the initial conditions and assumptions for these analyses and the predicted response of the container.

  4. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  5. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion with the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  6. Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young,, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. 0.

    1983-03-01

    This report recornmenrls instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two rnonth measurement rnethodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

  7. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  8. Residual foreground contamination in the WMAP data and bias in non-Gaussianity estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chingangbam, Pravabati; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2013-02-01

    We analyze whether there is any residual foreground contamination in the cleaned WMAP 7 years data for the differential assemblies, Q, V and W. We calculate the correlation between the foreground map, from which long wavelength correlations have been subtracted, and the foreground reduced map for each differential assembly after applying the Galaxy and point sources masks. We find positive correlations for all the differential assemblies, with high statistical significance. For Q and V, we find that a large fraction of the contamination comes from pixels where the foreground maps have positive values larger than three times the rms values. These findings imply the presence of residual contamination from Galactic emissions and unresolved point sources. We redo the analysis after masking the extended point sources cataloque of Scodeller et al. [7] and find a drop in the correlation and corresponding significance values. To quantify the effect of the residual contamination on the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in the CMB we add estimated contaminant fraction to simulated Gaussian CMB maps and calculate the characteristic non-Gaussian deviation shapes of Minkowski Functionals that arise due to the contamination. We find remarkable agreement of these deviation shapes with those measured from WMAP data, which imply that a major fraction of the observed non-Gaussian deviation comes from residual foreground contamination. We also compute non-Gaussian deviations of Minkowski Functionals after applying the point sources mask of Scodeller et al. and find a decrease in the overall amplitudes of the deviations which is consistent with a decrease in the level of contamination.

  9. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a Densified Large Square Bale Format

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of Advanced Logistical Systems and Focused Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues and Energy Crops in a Densified Large Square Bale Format OBP WBS: 1.2.1.4 Principal Investigator: Maynard Herron Co-Principal Investigator: Bob Matousek Performing Organization: AGCO Sub-Recipients: INL, Stinger Inc., OSU, ISU, TAMU, Noble Foundation Project objectives support the adoption and production goals of the Office of Biomass Programs for feedstock adoption and cost

  10. Effect of residual catalyst on the vibrational modes of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, L.E.; Park, H.; Lu, J.P.; Peters, M.J.

    2004-11-01

    Raman scattering measurements of single-walled carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation with Ni/Co catalyst show that samples that have not been purified have a graphitic mode frequency that is 8 cm{sup -1} lower than that of samples from which most of the catalyst has been removed. The shift is attributed to charge transfer from the catalyst particles to the nanotubes. The charge transfer from the residual catalyst also affects the temperature dependence of the radial breathing mode.

  11. Engineering evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of Niagara Falls Storage Site, its residues and wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The final disposition scenarios selected by DOE for assessment in this document are consistent with those stated in the Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) (DOE, 1983d) and the modifications to the alternatives resulting from the public scoping process. The scenarios are: take no action beyond interim remedial measures other than maintenance and surveillance of the NFSS; retain and manage the NFSS as a long-term waste management facility for the wastes and residues on the site; decontaminate, certify, and release the NFSS for other use, with long-term management of the wastes and residues at other DOE sites; and partially decontaminate the NFSS by removal and transport off site of only the more radioactive residues, and upgrade containment of the remaining wastes and residues on site. The objective of this document is to present to DOE the conceptual engineering, occupational radiation exposure, construction schedule, maintenance and surveillance requirements, and cost information relevant to design and implementation of each of the four scenarios. The specific alternatives within each scenario used as the basis for discussion in this document were evaluated on the bases of engineering considerations, technical feasibility, and regulatory requirements. Selected alternatives determined to be acceptable for each of the four final disposition scenarios for the NFSS were approved by DOE to be assessed and costed in this document. These alternatives are also the subject of the EIS for the NFSS currently being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 40 figures, 38 tables.

  12. ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.5;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  13. The effects of machine parameters on residual stress determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of machine parameters on residual stresses in single point diamond turned silicon and germanium have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Residual stresses were sampled across ductile feed cuts in < 100 > silicon and germanium which were single point diamond turned using a variety of feed rates, rake angles and clearance angles. High spatial resolution micro-Raman spectra (1{mu}m spot) were obtained in regions of ductile cutting where no visible surface damage was present. The use of both 514-5nm and 488.0nm excitation wavelengths, by virtue of their differing characteristic penetration depths in the materials, allowed determinations of stress profiles as a function of depth into the sample. Previous discussions have demonstrated that such Raman spectra will exhibit asymmetrically broadened peaks which are characteristic of the superposition of a continuum of Raman scatterers from the various depths probed. Depth profiles of residual stress were obtained using computer deconvolution of the resulting asymmetrically broadened raman spectra.

  14. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  15. A C. elegans-based foam for rapid on-site detection of residual live virus.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negrete, Oscar A.; Branda, Catherine; Hardesty, Jasper O. E.; Tucker, Mark David; Kaiser, Julia N.; Kozina, Carol L.; Chirica, Gabriela S.

    2012-02-01

    In the response to and recovery from a critical homeland security event involving deliberate or accidental release of biological agents, initial decontamination efforts are necessarily followed by tests for the presence of residual live virus or bacteria. Such 'clearance sampling' should be rapid and accurate, to inform decision makers as they take appropriate action to ensure the safety of the public and of operational personnel. However, the current protocol for clearance sampling is extremely time-intensive and costly, and requires significant amounts of laboratory space and capacity. Detection of residual live virus is particularly problematic and time-consuming, as it requires evaluation of replication potential within a eukaryotic host such as chicken embryos. The intention of this project was to develop a new method for clearance sampling, by leveraging Sandia's expertise in the biological and material sciences in order to create a C. elegans-based foam that could be applied directly to the entire contaminated area for quick and accurate detection of any and all residual live virus by means of a fluorescent signal. Such a novel technology for rapid, on-site detection of live virus would greatly interest the DHS, DoD, and EPA, and hold broad commercial potential, especially with regard to the transportation industry.

  16. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

  17. Residual Stress In Sheet Metal Parts Made By Incremental Forming Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Hideo; Motomura, Kazuo

    2007-05-17

    Incremental sheet metal forming, which uses a CNC forming stylus, is new flexible forming process not requiring the use of any expensive dies. We have applied the incremental forming process to dental prosthesis. This new process, however, posed difficult problems. After removing the outer portion of the incremental formed sheet metal part, the inner part is distorted. In this paper, the residual stress in the sheet metal part obtained by incremental forward stretch forming operations has been examined. Numerical simulations were conducted for solid elements. When small rigid ball slides on the metal sheet with a certain vertical feed, tension residual stress is produced in the upper layer of the sheet and compression stress in the lower. Then, the resultant moments throughout the sheet cause negative spring-back when the outer portion is removed. A systematic study of the behavior was conducted in this paper. Parameters considered included the tool radius and the vertical tool feed rate. The tip radius of forming stylus has a significant influence on the residual stress. The smaller radius of forming stylus, the larger bending force becomes. And new process with double forming styluses is examined to reduce the bending force.

  18. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  19. Application of TDR technology to water content monitoring of capillary barriers made of pulp and paper residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, A.R.; Burnotte, F.; Lefebvre, G.

    1999-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) can be curbed by covering tailings with capillary barriers. The purposes of these barriers is to prevent O{sub 2} from interacting with mine residues. This control can be made by keeping a high degree of moisture inside the cover material. Saturation is thus a key parameter to be monitored. The purpose of this paper is to present how the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique can be used in order to monitor the volumetric water content for pulp and paper residues that have been used as capillary barriers. Calibration curves for deinking residues are presented and compared to literature data relating to mineral and organic soils.

  20. EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy Stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential alternatives and impacts associated with a proposal to process certain plutonium residues and all of the scrub alloy currently stored at Rocky Flats. While ongoing...

  1. EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to stabilize, if necessary, and/or repackage the residues for safe interim storage at the Site while awaiting the completion and opening...

  2. Characterization of Residual Stress as a Function of Friction Stir Welding Parameters in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steel MA956

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, Luke N.; Bennett, Martin S.; Baker, B. W.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kolbus, Lindsay M.

    2015-09-08

    This article characterizes the residual stresses generated by friction stir welding of oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA956 over a series of welding conditions. A plate of MA956 steel was friction stir welded at three conditions: 500 rpm/25 millimeters per minute (mmpm), 400 rpm/50 mmpm and 400 rpm/100 mmpm. The residual stresses across these welds were measured using both x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Longitudinal residual stresses up to eighty percent of the yield strength were observed for the 400 rpm/100 mmpm condition. Increasing the traverse rate while holding the rotational speed fixed increased the residual stress levels in the stir zone and at the stir zone-thermomechanically affected zone interface. The stress profiles displayed the characteristic M shape, and the asymmetry between advancing and retreating stress peaks was limited, occurring mainly on the root side of the weld. The large magnitude of the stresses was maintained throughout the thickness of the plates.

  3. Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, M; Stolken, J; Vignes, R; Norton, M

    2009-11-02

    Localized damage repair and polishing of silica-based optics using mid- and far-IR CO{sub 2} lasers has been shown to be an effective method for increasing optical damage threshold in the UV. However, it is known that CO{sub 2} laser heating of silicate surfaces can lead to a level of residual stress capable of causing critical fracture either during or after laser treatment. Sufficient control of the surface temperature as a function of time and position is therefore required to limit this residual stress to an acceptable level to avoid critical fracture. In this work they present the results of 351 nm, 3 ns Gaussian damage growth experiments within regions of varying residual stress caused by prior CO{sub 2} laser exposures. Thermally stressed regions were non-destructively characterized using polarimetry and confocal Raman microscopy to measure the stress induced birefringence and fictive temperature respectively. For 1 {approx} 40s square pulse CO{sub 2} laser exposures created over 0.5-1.25 kW/cm{sup 2} with a 1-3 mm 1/e{sup 2} diameter beam (T{sub max} {approx} 1500-3000 K), the critical damage site size leading to fracture increases weakly with peak temperature, but shows a stronger dependence on cooling rate, as predicted by finite element hydrodynamics simulations. Confocal micro-Raman was used to probe structural changes to the glass over different thermal histories and indicated a maximum fictive temperature of 1900K for T{sub max} {ge} 2000 K. The effect of cooling rate on fictive temperature caused by CO{sub 2} laser heating are consistent with finite element calculations based on a Tool-Narayanaswamy relaxation model.

  4. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Structural transformations in Mn{sub 2}NiGa due to residual stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Sanjay; Maniraj, M.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R.; Ranjan, R.

    2010-02-22

    Powder x-ray diffraction study of Mn{sub 2}NiGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy shows the existence of a 7M monoclinic modulated structure at room temperature (RT). The structure of Mn{sub 2}NiGa is found to be highly dependent on residual stress. For higher stress, the structure is tetragonal at RT, and for intermediate stress it is 7M monoclinic. However, only when the stress is considerably relaxed, the structure is cubic, as is expected at RT since the martensitic transition temperature is 230 K.

  6. Determining the release of radionuclides from tank waste residual solids. FY2015 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, William D.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-09-11

    Methodology development for pore water leaching studies has been continued to support Savannah River Site High Level Waste tank closure efforts. For FY2015, the primary goal of this testing was the achievement of target pH and Eh values for pore water solutions representative of local groundwater in the presence of grout or grout-representative (CaCO3 or FeS) solids as well as waste surrogate solids representative of residual solids expected to be present in a closed tank. For oxidizing conditions representative of a closed tank after aging, a focus was placed on using solid phases believed to be controlling pH and Eh at equilibrium conditions. For three pore water conditions (shown below), the target pH values were achieved to within 0.5 pH units. Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies were conducted over an Eh range of approximately 630 mV. Significantly higher Eh values were achieved for the oxidizing conditions (ORII and ORIII) than were previously observed. For the ORII condition, the target Eh value was nearly achieved (within 50 mV). However, Eh values observed for the ORIII condition were approximately 160 mV less positive than the target. Eh values observed for the RRII condition were approximately 370 mV less negative than the target. Achievement of more positive and more negative Eh values is believed to require the addition of non-representative oxidants and reductants, respectively. Plutonium and uranium concentrations measured during Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies under these conditions (shown below) followed the general trends predicted for plutonium and uranium oxide phases, assuming equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. The highest plutonium and uranium concentrations were observed for the ORIII condition and the lowest concentrations were observed for the RRII condition. Based on these results, it is recommended that these test methodologies be used to conduct leaching studies with actual Tank 18 residual solids material. Actual waste testing will include leaching evaluations of technetium and neptunium, as well as plutonium and uranium.

  7. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-07-06

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material is disclosed comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress. 3 figs.

  8. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  9. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  10. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  11. Method for measuring residual stresses in materials by plastically deforming the material and interference pattern comparison

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J. (241 Chardonnat La., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1995-01-01

    A method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of establishing a speckle pattern on the surface with a first laser then heating a portion of that pattern with an infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress dung heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  12. Damage evolution and residual stresses in plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J. P.

    1999-02-03

    Air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings were subjected to thermal cycling and residual stress evolution in thermally grown oxide scale was studied by micro- and macro-ruby fluorescence spectroscopy. The macro approach reveals that compressive stress in the oxide scale increases with increasing number of thermal cycles (and thus increasing scale thickness), reaching a value of 1.8 GPa at a scale thickness of 3-4 {micro}m (80 cycles). Micro-ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that protrusions of the zirconia top coat into the bond coat act as localized areas of high stress concentration, leading to damage initiation during thermal cycling.

  13. In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-14

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation is described herein. The methods may include providing heat to a first section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the first section of the formation. Heat is transferred from the heaters so that at least a first section of the formation reaches a selected temperature. At least a portion of residual heat from the first section transfers from the first section to a second section of the formation. At least a portion of hydrocarbons in the second section are mobilized by providing a solvation fluid and/or a pressurizing fluid to the second section of the formation.

  14. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO₂ emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis ofmore » amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 1,200 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO₂ emission constituted 2,000 µm C g⁻¹ soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO₂ emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C decomposition processes.« less

  15. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; Romao, Celia V.; Pinto, Liliana C.; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Todorovic, Smilja

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the EKHVP motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue is substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (?E??T??HVP?), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.

  16. Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

    2007-04-01

    For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ags ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

  17. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; Romao, Celia V.; Pinto, Liliana C.; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Todorovic, Smilja

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the –EKHVP– motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue ismore » substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (₋E₂₃T₂₄HVP₋), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.« less

  19. Strengthening, Crack Arrest And Multiple Cracking In Brittle Materials Using Residual Stresses.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, David J. (State College, PA); Sglavo, Vincenzo M. (Roncegno, IT); Tandon, Rajan (Fremont, CA)

    2003-02-11

    Embodiments include a method for forming a glass which displays visible cracking prior to failure when subjected to predetermined stress level that is greater than a predetermined minimum stress level and less than a failure stress level. The method includes determining a critical flaw size in the glass and introducing a residual stress profile to the glass so that a plurality of visible cracks are formed prior to failure when the glass is subjected to a stress that is greater than the minimum stress level and lower than the critical stress. One method for forming the residual stress profile includes performing a first ion exchange so that a first plurality of ions of a first element in the glass are exchanged with a second plurality of ions of a second element that have a larger volume than the first ions. A second ion exchange is also performed so that a plurality of the second ions in the glass are exchanged back to ions of the first element.

  20. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  1. Inspecting the minefield and residual explosives by fast neutron activation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudac, D.; Majetic, S.; Kollar, R.; Nad, K.; Obhodas, J.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-07-01

    As an upgrade of a robotic mobile system for antipersonnel land-mine clearance, a fast neutron probe has been considered for the detection of mines and explosive residues. Laboratory tests were made by using the 14 MeV 6 x 10{sup 7} neutrons/sec beam with the associated alpha particle detection and with a LaBr{sub 3} gamma ray detector. Simulant of the anti-personal mine was used as a target. Several measurements were made with the target buried into the soil at different depths. For each depth minimal time measurement was estimated for false negative 0.4 % and false positive equal to 10 %. Tests showed that is possible to detect buried land-mine as well as residual explosives; however, in order to reach the optimal speed of 10 cm/s for de-mining vehicle it is necessarily to use several sealed tube neutron generators and few tens of LaBr{sub 3} gamma ray detectors. (authors)

  2. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christoph Beckermann; Kent Carlson

    2011-07-22

    Heat treatment and associated processing, such as quenching, are critical during high strength steel casting production. These processes must be managed closely to prevent thermal and residual stresses that may result in distortion, cracking (particularly after machining), re-work, and weld repair. The risk of casting distortion limits aggressive quenching that can be beneficial to the process and yield an improved outcome. As a result of these distortions, adjustments must be made to the casting or pattern design, or tie bars must be added. Straightening castings after heat treatments can be both time-consuming and expensive. Residual stresses may reduce a casting???¢????????s overall service performance, possibly resulting in catastrophic failure. Stress relieving may help, but expends additional energy in the process. Casting software is very limited in predicting distortions during heat treatment, so corrective measures most often involve a tedious trial-and-error procedure. An extensive review of existing heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling revealed that it is vital to predict the phase transformations and microstructure of the steel along with the thermal stress development during heat treatment. After reviewing the state-of-the-art in heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling, an existing commercial code was selected because of its advanced capabilities in predicting phase transformations, the evolving microstructure and related properties along with thermal stress development during heat treatment. However, this software was developed for small parts created from forgings or machined stock, and not for steel castings. Therefore, its predictive capabilities for heat treatment of steel castings were investigated. Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of insufficient detail and breadth, and so new heat treatment experiments were designed and performed, casting and heat treating modified versions of the Navy-C ring (a classical test shape for heat treatment experiments) for several carbon and low alloy steels in order to generate data necessary to validate the code. The predicted distortions were in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured values. However, the final distortions in the castings were small, making it difficult to determine how accurate the predictions truly are. It is recommended that further validation of the software be performed with the aid of additional experiments with large production steel castings that experience significant heat treatment distortions. It is apparent from this research that the mechanical properties of the bonded sand used for cores and sand molds are key in producing accurate stress simulation results. Because of this, experiments were performed to determine the temperature-dependent elastic modulus of a resin-bonded sand commonly utilized in the steel casting industry. The elastic modulus was seen to vary significantly with heating and cooling rates. Also, the retained room temperature elastic modulus after heating was seen to degrade significantly when the sand was heated above 125???????°C. The elastic modulus curves developed in this work can readily be utilized in casting simulation software. Additional experiments with higher heating rates are recommended to determine the behavior of the elastic modulus in the sand close to the mold-metal interface. The commercial heat treatment residual stress and distortion code, once fully validated, is expected to result in an estimated energy savings of 2.15 trillion BTU???¢????????s/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology.

  3. Single-well experimental design for studying residual trapping of superciritcal carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Freifeld, B.; Finsterle, S.; Leahy, M.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.; Dance, T.

    2010-06-15

    The objective of our research is to design a single-well injection-withdrawal test to evaluate residual phase trapping at potential CO{sub 2} geological storage sites. Given the significant depths targeted for CO{sub 2} storage and the resulting high costs associated with drilling to those depths, it is attractive to develop a single-well test that can provide data to assess reservoir properties and reduce uncertainties in the appraisal phase of site investigation. The main challenges in a single-well test design include (1) difficulty in quantifying the amount of CO{sub 2} that has dissolved into brine or migrated away from the borehole; (2) non-uniqueness and uncertainty in the estimate of the residual gas saturation (S{sub gr}) due to correlations among various parameters; and (3) the potential biased S{sub gr} estimate due to unaccounted heterogeneity of the geological medium. To address each of these challenges, we propose (1) to use a physical-based model to simulation test sequence and inverse modeling to analyze data information content and to quantify uncertainty; (2) to jointly use multiple data types generated from different kinds of tests to constrain the Sgr estimate; and (3) to reduce the sensitivity of the designed tests to geological heterogeneity by conducting the same test sequence in both a water-saturated system and a system with residual gas saturation. To perform the design calculation, we build a synthetic model and conduct a formal analysis for sensitivity and uncertain quantification. Both parametric uncertainty and geological uncertainty are considered in the analysis. Results show (1) uncertainty in the estimation of Sgr can be reduced by jointly using multiple data types and repeated tests; and (2) geological uncertainty is essential and needs to be accounted for in the estimation of S{sub gr} and its uncertainty. The proposed methodology is applied to the design of a CO{sub 2} injection test at CO2CRC's Otway Project Site, Victoria, Australia.

  4. Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

  5. Microstructure and residual stress of magnetron sputtered nanocrystalline palladium and palladium gold films on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrup, Anna; Kuebel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Hahn, Horst [KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (TUD), Petersenstr. 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany) and Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (TUD), Petersenstr. 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany) and Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The authors report the structural properties and residual stresses of 500-nm-thick nanocrystalline Pd and PdAu films on compliant substrates prepared by magnetron sputtering as a function of the pressure of the Ar-sputtering gas. Films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At low pressures the metal films exhibit strong compressive stresses, which rapidly change to highly tensile with increasing pressure, and then gradually decrease. Along with this effect a change in microstructure is observed from a dense equiaxed structure at low pressures to distinctive columns with reduced atomic density at the column walls at higher pressures. The preparation of nearly stress-free dense nanocrystalline films is demonstrated.

  6. Ruthenium ion-catalyzed oxidation of Shenfu coal and its residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao-Guo Huang; Zhi-Min Zong; Zi-Shuo Yao; Yu-Xuan Zheng; Jie Mou; Guang-Feng Liu; Jin-Pei Cao; Ming-Jie Ding; Ke-Ying Cai; Feng Wang; Wei Zhao; Zhi-Lin Xia; Lin Wu; Xian-Yong Wei

    2008-05-15

    Shenfu coal (SFC), its liquefaction residue (RL), and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})/tetrahydrofuran (THF)-inextractable matter (RE) were subject to ruthenium ion-catalyzed oxidation to understand the differences in structural features among the above three samples. The results suggest that SFC is rich in long-chain arylalkanes and {alpha}. {omega}-diarylalkanes (DAAs) with carbon number of methylene linkage from 2 to 4 and that long-chain arylalkanes and DAAs are reactive toward hydroliquefaction and soluble in a CS{sub 2}/THF mixed solvent, whereas highly condensed aromatic species in SFC show poor solubility in the CS{sub 2}/THF mixed solvent. 29 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Volumes Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Residual Fuel Oil 8,310.7 9,142.9 8,143.0 8,165.8 8,005.5 8,734.3 1983-2015 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% 1,211.0 721.8 899.6 1,177.6 1,165.0 557.6 1983-2015 Sulfur Greater Than 1% 7,099.7 8,421.2 7,243.4 6,988.2 6,840.5 8,176.7 1983-2015 No. 4 Fuel Oil 163.2 141.9 141.3 W W 128.8 1983-2015

  8. Method to control residual stress in a film structure and a system thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parthum, Sr., Michael J. (Rochester, NY)

    2008-12-30

    A method for controlling residual stress in a structure in a MEMS device and a structure thereof includes selecting a total thickness and an overall equivalent stress for the structure. A thickness for each of at least one set of alternating first and second layers is determined to control an internal stress with respect to a neutral axis for each of the at least alternating first and second layers and to form the structure based on the selected total thickness and the selected overall equivalent stress. Each of the at least alternating first and second layers is deposited to the determined thickness for each of the at least alternating first and second layers to form the structure.

  9. U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Volumes Sales Type: Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Sales Type Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Residual Fuel Oil 3,594.0 4,309.7 4,546.1 3,741.4 4,403.1 3,994.1 1983-2015 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% W W W NA W W 1983-2015 Sulfur Greater Than 1% W W W 2,878.7 W W 1983-2015 No. 4 Fuel Oil W W W - - -

  10. Development of Laser Ultrasonic Device for Residual Stress Measurement in Welded Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subudhi, Manomohan

    2009-03-31

    A CRADA project was performed between BNL and SpectraQuest, Inc. of Richmond, Virginia under the auspices of IPP with the DOE support. The purpose was to jointly support Prokhorov General Physics Institute (GPI), Russian Academy of Sciences of Russia to develop a prototype Laser Ultrasonic Impact Testing (LUIT) device which could be commercialized and marketed. The device is based on laser-generated ultrasonic waves and can be used for measuring residual stresses in welded structures using a nondestructive technique. The work was performed from October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2009. The project resulted in development and validation of a prototype LUIT device. GPI - BNL SpectraQuest partnership developed the LUIT device to the point where it could be commercialized and marketed for the special applications in the manufacturing field.

  11. Local residual stress monitoring of aluminum nitride MEMS using UV micro-Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Sukwon; Griffin, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-06

    Localized stress variation in aluminum nitride (AlN) sputtered on patterned metallization has been monitored through the use of UV micro-Raman spectroscopy. This technique utilizing 325 nm laser excitation allows detection of the AlN E2(high) phonon mode in the presence of metal electrodes beneath the AlN layer with a high spatial resolution of less than 400 nm. The AlN film stress shifted 400 MPa from regions where AlN was deposited over a bottom metal electrode versus silicon dioxide. Thus, across wafer stress variations were also investigated showing that wafer level stress metrology, for example using wafer curvature measurements, introduces large uncertaintiesmore » for predicting the impact of AlN residual stress on the device performance.« less

  12. A magnetically shielded room with ultra low residual field and gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altarev, I.; Chesnevskaya, S.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Kuchler, F.; Lins, T.; Marino, M.; McAndrew, J.; Niessen, B.; Paul, S.; Petzoldt, G.; Singh, J.; Stoepler, R.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taubenheim, B. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universitt Mnchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Babcock, E. [Jlich Center for Neutron Science, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Beck, D.; Sharma, S. [Physics Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burghoff, M.; Fan, I. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Berlin, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-07-15

    A versatile and portable magnetically shielded room with a field of (700200) pT within a central volume of 1 m 1 m 1 m and a field gradient less than 300 pT/m, achieved without any external field stabilization or compensation, is described. This performance represents more than a hundredfold improvement of the state of the art for a two-layer magnetic shield and provides an environment suitable for a next generation of precision experiments in fundamental physics at low energies; in particular, searches for electric dipole moments of fundamental systems and tests of Lorentz-invariance based on spin-precession experiments. Studies of the residual fields and their sources enable improved design of future ultra-low gradient environments and experimental apparatus. This has implications for developments of magnetometry beyond the femto-Tesla scale in, for example, biomagnetism, geosciences, and security applications and in general low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements.

  13. COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF GEOTHERMAL RESIDUES: PROGRESS REPORT FY 97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. The findings are also relevant to other moderate temperature brine environments where corrosion is a problem. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobadus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Long-term tests on the durability of ceramic-epoxy coatings in brine and bacteria are ongoing. Initial indications are that this coating has suitable characteristics. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  14. Coatings for protection of equipment for biochemical processing of geothermal residues: Progress report FY`97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  15. Radiological Modeling for Determination of Derived Concentration Levels of an Area with Uranium Residual Material - 13533

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040, Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    As a result of a pilot project developed at the old Spanish 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' to extract uranium from ores, tailings materials were generated. Most of these residual materials were sent back to different uranium mines, but a small amount of it was mixed with conventional building materials and deposited near the old plant until the surrounding ground was flattened. The affected land is included in an area under institutional control and used as recreational area. At the time of processing, uranium isotopes were separated but other radionuclides of the uranium decay series as Th-230, Ra-226 and daughters remain in the residue. Recently, the analyses of samples taken at different ground's depths confirmed their presence. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate the derived concentration level to ensure that the reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 used as radiological criteria. In this study, a radiological impact assessment was performed modeling the area as recreational scenario. The modelization study was carried out with the code RESRAD considering as exposure pathways, external irradiation, inadvertent ingestion of soil, inhalation of resuspended particles, and inhalation of radon (Rn-222). As result was concluded that, if the concentration of Ra-226 in the first 15 cm of soil is lower than, 0.34 Bq g{sup -1}, the dose would not exceed the reference dose. Applying this value as a derived concentration level and comparing with the results of measurements on the ground, some areas with a concentration of activity slightly higher than latter were found. In these zones the remediation proposal has been to cover with a layer of 15 cm of clean material. This action represents a reduction of 85% of the dose and ensures compliance with the reference dose. (authors)

  16. Effects of polymethylmethacrylate-transfer residues on the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratzer, Markus Teichert, Christian; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Matkovi?, Aleksandar; Gaji?, Rado; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-03-09

    Scalably grown and transferred graphene is a highly promising material for organic electronic applications, but controlled interfacing of graphene thereby remains a key challenge. Here, we study the growth characteristics of the important organic semiconductor molecule para-hexaphenyl (6P) on chemical vapor deposited graphene that has been transferred with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) onto oxidized Si wafer supports. A particular focus is on the influence of PMMA residual contamination, which we systematically reduce by H{sub 2} annealing prior to 6P deposition. We find that 6P grows in a flat-lying needle-type morphology, surprisingly independent of the level of PMMA residue and of graphene defects. Wrinkles in the graphene typically act as preferential nucleation centers. Residual PMMA does however limit the length of the resulting 6P needles by restricting molecular diffusion/attachment. We discuss the implications for organic device fabrication, with particular regard to contamination and defect tolerance.

  17. A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, T.L. ); Jordan, H. . Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. ); Mings, W.J. ); Reardon, P.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  19. Status report. Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on a Full-Diameter SNF Interim Storage Canister Mockup.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-08-01

    This report documents the mockup specifications and manufacturing processes; the initial cutting of the mockup into three cylindrical pieces for testing and the measured strain changes that occurred during the cutting process; and the planned weld residual stress characterization activities and the status of those activities.

  20. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  1. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Donna Beals, D

    2007-04-13

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  2. Characterization of contaminants in oil shale residuals and the potential for their management to meet environmental quality standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt-Collerus, J.J.

    1984-02-01

    Some general aspects of various oil shale processes developed for scale-up to commercial size modular units are described. The overall magnitude of an envisioned commercial shale oil operation and the magnitude of resulting potentially polluting residues in particular solid residues from retorting oil shale and associated operations and wastewater from retort streams and other sources are considered. The potential problems ensuing from self-oxidation of stockpiles of oil shale and from residual carbonaceous retorted oil shale disposed above ground and/or from in situ retorting operations are examined. Some methods for managing self-heating processes are suggested. The most plausible method of avoiding potential self-heating for retorted oil shale is to oxidize as much as possible of the organic carbon present by utilizing a process that will produce low carbon or carbon-free retorted oil shale residues. In the case of unretorted oil shale, the dimensions and shapes of the stockpiles should be designed such that heat build-up is eliminated or kept to a minimum.

  3. Characterization of Residual Stress as a Function of Friction Stir Welding Parameters in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steel MA956

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brewer, Luke N.; Bennett, Martin S.; Baker, B. W.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kolbus, Lindsay M.

    2015-09-08

    This article characterizes the residual stresses generated by friction stir welding of oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA956 over a series of welding conditions. A plate of MA956 steel was friction stir welded at three conditions: 500 rpm/25 millimeters per minute (mmpm), 400 rpm/50 mmpm and 400 rpm/100 mmpm. The residual stresses across these welds were measured using both x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Longitudinal residual stresses up to eighty percent of the yield strength were observed for the 400 rpm/100 mmpm condition. Increasing the traverse rate while holding the rotational speed fixed increased the residual stress levels in the stirmore » zone and at the stir zone-thermomechanically affected zone interface. The stress profiles displayed the characteristic M shape, and the asymmetry between advancing and retreating stress peaks was limited, occurring mainly on the root side of the weld. The large magnitude of the stresses was maintained throughout the thickness of the plates.« less

  4. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  5. EIS-0109: Long-Term Management of the Existing Radioactive Wastes and Residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of several alternatives for management and control of the radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site, including a no action alternative, an alternative to manage wastes on site, and two off-site management alternatives.

  6. Pressure Temperature Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to reach equilibrium with the surrounding formation is going to provide the most accurate reservoir temperature (Blackwell, et al., 2010). Potential Pitfalls Fluids are being...

  7. Connect & Log In | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unauthorized or improper use of this system may result in administrative disciplinary action and civil and criminal penalties. By continuing to use this system you indicate...

  8. Microsoft Word - FOIA Log FY 2003.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to scope of work, and the like Yes 12403 003 11503 12203 Direct Requested that you forward to this office your latest organizational chart, andor staff directory at your...

  9. Thermal Screening Of Residues From Acidification And Copper-Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation Of Tank 48H Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Newell, J. D.; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-10-04

    This study evaluated the residues generated from copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) of Tank 48H simulant. The first step of the CCPO calls for pH adjustment of the simulant, and early testing used either 15 wt% or 50 wt % nitric acid to reach a slurry pH of between 12 and 5. Residues obtained by ambient temperature pH adjustment with 50 wt % nitric acid followed by oxidation with 50 wt % hydrogen peroxide at 35, 50, and 65 ?C (from a recently conducted Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation or CCPO) were also analyzed. Slurry samples at pH 7 or lower especially made from adding nitric acid at the process equivalent of one gallon per minute had the largest enthalpy of decomposition. The thermogravimetric characteristics of some samples from the CCPO test generated at pH 9 or lower exhibited rapid weight loss. Taken together, residues generated at pH 9 or lower may be classified as energetic upon decomposition in confined spaces or under adiabatic conditions. Therefore, additional testing is recommended with larger (up to 50 mL) samples in an adiabatic calorimeter. To minimize risk of formation of energetic byproducts, an intermediate slurry pH of 9 or greater is recommended following the acidification step in the CCPO and prior to start of peroxide addition. In practice, process temperature needs to reach 150 ?C or greater to decompose residues obtained a pH 9 or lower which is unlikely. Oxidation temperature had no significant effect on the thermal characteristics of the final residues generated.

  10. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earths radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  11. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R. Shyr, L.J.

    1998-10-05

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits.

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

    1983-10-01

    A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  13. Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Uranium and Plutonium Residues Wastes - 13164

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Martin W.A.; Moricca, Sam A.; Zhang, Yingjie; Day, R. Arthur; Begg, Bruce D.; Scales, Charlie R.; Maddrell, Ewan R.; Hobbs, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    A program of work has been undertaken to treat plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield. These have arisen from past fuel development work and are highly variable in both physical and chemical composition. The principal radiological elements present are U and Pu, with small amounts of Th. The waste packages contain Pu in amounts that are too low to be economically recycled as fuel and too high to be disposed of as lower level Pu contaminated material. NNL and ANSTO have developed full-ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms in which hot-isostatic pressing is used as the consolidation step to safely immobilize the waste into a form suitable for long-term disposition. We discuss development work on the glass-ceramic developed for impure waste streams, in particular the effect of variations in the waste feed chemistry glass-ceramic. The waste chemistry was categorized into actinides, impurity cations, glass formers and anions. Variations of the relative amounts of these on the properties and chemistry of the waste form were investigated and the waste form was found to be largely unaffected by these changes. This work mainly discusses the initial trials with Th and U. Later trials with larger variations and work with Pu-doped samples further confirmed the flexibility of the glass-ceramic. (authors)

  14. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ideker, V.L.; Doyle, G.M.

    1994-02-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP`s waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP`s RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators` understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations.

  15. Risk management considerations for seismic upgrading of an older facility for short-term residue stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Additon, S.L.; Peregoy, W.L.; Foppe, T.L.

    1999-06-01

    Building 707 and its addition, Building 707A, were selected, after the production mission of Rocky Flats was terminated a few years ago, to stabilize many of the plutonium residues remaining at the site by 2002. The facility had undergone substantial safety improvements to its safety systems and conduct of operations for resumption of plutonium operations in the early 1990s and appeared ideally suited for this new mission to support accelerated Site closure. During development of a new authorization basis, a seismic evaluation was performed. This evaluation addressed an unanalyzed expansion joint and suspect connection details for the precast concrete tilt-up construction and concluded that the seismic capacity of the facility is less than half of that determined by previous analysis. Further, potential seismic interaction was identified between a collapsing Building 707 and the seismically upgraded Building 707A, possibly causing the partial collapse of the latter. Both the operating contractor and the Department of Energy sought a sound technical basis for deciding how to proceed. This paper addresses the risks of the as-is facility and possible benefits of upgrades to support a decision on whether to upgrade the seismic capacity of Building 707, accept the risk of the as-is facility for its short remaining mission, or relocate critical stabilization missions. The paper also addresses the Department of Energy`s policy on natural phenomena.

  16. The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

    1997-03-01

    For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors` offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ``performance evaluations`` for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE`s MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues.

  17. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

    2008-11-10

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

  18. Redox-active tyrosine residue in the microcin J25 molecule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalon, Miriam C.; Wilke, Natalia; Pedersen, Jens; Rufini, Stefano; Morero, Roberto D.; Cortez, Leonardo; Chehin, Rosana N.; Farias, Ricardo N.; Vincent, Paula A.

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed irreversible oxidation of MccJ25 and MccJ25 (Y9F). {yields} Infrared spectroscopy studies showed that only Tyr9 could be deprotonated upon chemical oxidation. {yields} Formation of a long-lived tyrosyl radical in the native MccJ25 oxidized by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was demonstrated. {yields} Tyr9 but not Tyr20 can be easily oxidized and form a tyrosyl radical. -- Abstract: Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is a 21 amino acid lasso-peptide antibiotic produced by Escherichia coli and composed of an 8-residues ring and a terminal 'tail' passing through the ring. We have previously reported two cellular targets for this antibiotic, bacterial RNA polymerase and the membrane respiratory chain, and shown that Tyr9 is essential for the effect on the membrane respiratory chain which leads to superoxide overproduction. In the present paper we investigated the redox behavior of MccJ25 and the mutant MccJ25 (Y9F). Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed irreversible oxidation of both Tyr9 and Tyr20 in MccJ25, but infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that only Tyr9 could be deprotonated upon chemical oxidation in solution. Formation of a long-lived tyrosyl radical in the native MccJ25 oxidized by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was demonstrated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; this radical was not detected when the reaction was carried out with the MccJ25 (Y9F) mutant. These results show that the essential Tyr9, but not Tyr20, can be easily oxidized and form a tyrosyl radical.

  19. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  20. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.