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1

Lockhart Power Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lockhart Power Co Lockhart Power Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Lockhart Power Co Place South Carolina Utility Id 11118 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Residential: $0.0976/kWh Commercial: $0.1000/kWh Industrial: $0.0575/kWh The following table contains monthly sales and revenue data for Lockhart Power Co (South Carolina).

2

Lockhart, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lockhart, Florida: Energy Resources Lockhart, Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 28.6194439°, -81.4425708° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":28.6194439,"lon":-81.4425708,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

3

City of Lockhart, Texas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lockhart Lockhart Place Texas Utility Id 11119 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location TRE NERC ERCOT Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Contract Peak Industrial General Service Demand Industrial General Service Non-Demand Commercial Residential service Residential Street Lights & Customer Lighting - 100 watt Lighting Street Lights & Customer Lighting - 200 watt Lighting Average Rates Residential: $0.1080/kWh Commercial: $0.1120/kWh Industrial: $0.0919/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

4

December 4, 2003, Board Public Meeting Speaker Bio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frazer Lockhart Frazer Lockhart Manager Manager Rocky Flats Field Office Rocky Flats Field Office Frazer Lockhart assumed the position of Department of Energy Manager for the Rocky...

5

December 4, 2003, Board Public Meeting Transcript  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MR. LOCKHART: Yes. Thank you. My name is Fraser Lockhart. I ' m the Manager of the Rocky Flats Field Office. I ' v e been Manager now for six weeks, and I met with all of you on...

6

Energy Crossroads: Utility Energy Efficiency Programs North Carolina...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Index Suggest a Listing South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G) Information for Businesses Duke Energy (North Carolina) Information for Businesses Lockhart Power Company Information...

7

CX-006532: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination Evaluating and Commercializing a Solvent-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology CX(s) Applied: B3.7 Date: 08222011 Location(s): Lockhart, Texas...

8

Forced-convection condensation inside tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied analytically. The von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied to the condensate flow, pressure drops were calculated using the Lockhart- Martinelli ...

Traviss, Donald P.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

December 4, 2003, Board Public Meeting Transcript  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

86 86 saying is, you recognize the need to do your job properly, that you need to know what's going on a daily basis at the Site - - MR. LOCKHART: Yes, sir CHAIRMAN CONWAY: - - and that includes - - and it requires then your Facility Reps actually entering the buildings and knowing what's going on. MR. LOCKHART: Absolutely. CHAIRMAN CONWAY: Okay, and as I say, you're not discouraging them, you're encouraging them now. MR. LOCKHART: I will be encouraging them strongly, and I will be leading by example. I ' m going to be there myself CHAIRMAN CONWAY: As I said, our review out there at the Site indicated that DOE representation in the buildings had fallen back dramatically. They were not having a presence. MR. LOCKHART: Yes. CHAIRMAN CONWAY: Mr. Parker?

10

The Committee convened in the Clark Room, Holiday Inn Capitol,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

MEETING MEETING - - - Thursday, April 25, 1996 - - - The Committee convened in the Clark Room, Holiday Inn Capitol, 550 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., Dr. Timothy D. Mount, Chairman, presiding. PRESENT: TIMOTHY D. MOUNT, Chairman SAMPRIT CHATTERJEE BRENDA G. COX JOHN D. GRACE CALVIN KENT GRETA M. LJUNG RICHARD A. LOCKHART DANIEL A. RELLES PRESENT (Continued): BRADLEY O. SKARPNESS G. CAMPBELL WATKINS ALSO PRESENT: RENEE MILLER YVONNE BISHOP MARY HUTZLER JAY HAKES DOUGLAS HALE ART HOLLAND ARTHUR RYPINSKI LOUISE GUEY-LEE JOHN CYMBALSKY ERIN BOEDECKER JERRY COFFEY INDER KUNDRA C O N T E N T S PAGE Presentation by Jay Hakes 6 Presentation by Yvonne Bishop 34 Presentation by Art Rypinski 43 Presentation by Richard A. Lockhart 61 Presentation by Douglas Hale 84

11

La premiere somme philosophique du bouddhisme tibetain. Origines litteraires, philosophiques et mythologiques des Neuf etatpes de la Voie (theg pa rim pa dgu)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/ 'dul ba dgongs pa gsang ba dang/ rang bzhin gsang ba'i donrnams ni/ zhes gsung te/ rtsal 'phang mtho dman gyi khyad par gyis/ so so'i blo'i rtogs tshod kyi don'di rnams kyang phyin ci ma log pa'i don rtogs pa'i man ngag gi gzhi yin pas/ de bas na man... 'en haut (tib. lha) et d'en bas (tib. klu). Cf. Stein, 1996 : 141. Les Neuf Etapes de la Voie 97 dorigine cleste et munis de capacits surhumaines, descendaient etremontaient au ciel par le moyen d'une chelle qui se trouvait sur le sommetd'une montagne...

Mestanza, Ferran

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pressure drop of two-phase plug flow in round mini-channels: Influence of surface wettability  

SciTech Connect

In the present experimental study, the pressure drop of two-phase plug flows in round mini-channels was investigated for three different tube materials, i.e., glass, polyurethane and Teflon, respectively, with their inner diameters ranging from 1.62 to 2.16 mm. Air and water were used as the test fluids. In the wet-plug flow regime (wet wall condition at the gas portions), the pressure drop was reasonably predicted by the homogeneous flow model or by the correlations of Mishima and Hibiki [K. Mishima, T. Hibiki, Some characteristics of air-water two-phase flow in small diameter vertical tubes, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 22 (1996) 703-712] and Chisholm [D. Chisholm, A theoretical basis for the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation for two-phase flow, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 10 (1967) 1767-1778]. On the other hand, in the dry-plug flow regime (dry wall condition at the gas portions), the role of the moving contact lines turned out to be significant. To take into account the effect of the moving contact lines, a modified Lockhart-Martinelli type correlation was proposed, which fitted the measured pressure-drop data within the mean deviation of 6%. (author)

Lee, Chi Young; Lee, Sang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Science Town, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB From: Designated Federal Officer, Sandra L. Waisley (EM-11) To: SSAB Members (G. Stegner, J. Reising, G. Bowman, T. Taylor, C. Gertz, B. Murphie, S. McCracken, M. Marvin, J. Rampe, A. Doswell, C. Anderson, B. Wethington, S. Brennan, K. Kozeliski, D. Dollins, P. Halsey, Y. Sherman, L. Bratcher, R. Warther, K. Klein, R. Schepens, F. Lockhart, J. Allison, R. Erickson, E. Sellers, K. Carlson, G. Boyd, R. Butler) The memorandum informs of Assistant Secrectary Roberson's direction and guidance for implementing a DOE direct relationship and funding approach for EM's Site-Specific Advisory Board (EMSSAB).

14

Berkeley Lab Site Construction Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Construction Projects Construction Projects Old Town Demolition Project Manager: Ted Mankowski, TMankowski@lbl.gov Seismic Upgrades: Phase 2 Project Manager: Jack Heffernan, JSHeffernan@lbl.gov User Test Bed Facility/ FLEXLAB Project Manager: Dan Galvez, DCGalvez@lbl.gov UC Capital Projects Computational Research and Theory Facility Project Manager: Henry Martinez, HMartinez@lbl.gov Solar Energy Research Center (SERC) Project Manager: Jules Feher, JFeher@lbl.gov In Partnership with UC Berkeley Second Campus Sr. Project Manager: Doug Lockhart, DELockhart@lbl.gov What's Happening in the Next Several Weeks: Computational Research & Theory Facility: Currently, the main construction activities are steel and deck placement. The steel placement is due to be complete in December of 2013 and the exterior skin will follow. Project

15

Microsoft Word - TWCB meeting minutes Aug12r1 web  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(TWCB) Meeting Minutes, August 1-2, 2012 (TWCB) Meeting Minutes, August 1-2, 2012 F. Lockhart, TWCB Staff Coordinator, 202-731-5659 Page 1 of 5 The first Tank Waste Corporate Board (TWCB) meeting since the Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganization was held at the Willow Creek Building, Idaho Falls, Idaho on August 1-2, 2012. The meeting agenda (attachment 1) covered a variety of technical and management topics, included tours of specific laboratory and tank waste facilities, and offered optional events for social networking. The TWCB was well attended with forty-one participants including DOE Headquarters, DOE and prime contractor representatives from field sites (Idaho, Office of River Protection, Savannah River, West Valley), national laboratories (Savannah River National Laboratory

16

United States Government  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

uv /uu/u* ±.u.. J.OJ..L rAA , *. . uv /uu/u* ±.u.. J.OJ..L rAA , *. . 'A4 .. ± OO, I U444 flmI I.j102 ' -f- $I)002 EP<.1 (o-.vu) United States Government Department of Energy memorandum DATE: January 30, 2004 REP.YTO: IG-35 (A03DN039) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-04-10 SUBJECT: Audit of the Safeguards and Security Program at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site To: Frazer Lockhart, Manager, Rocky Flats Field Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE Because of the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, the Department of Energy (Department) instituted additional security requirements beyond those already in place for normal security operations. These "Security Conditions" requirements were established by Department Notice 473.8 (Notice). The requirements are based on

17

United States Government  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

/18/04 THU 11:31 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG -- /18/04 THU 11:31 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG -- + HQ 1002 DOE F 1325.8 (08-93) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: March 17, 2004 Audit Report No. OAS-L-04-1 1 REPLY TO IG-36 (A04DN003) ATTN OF: SUBJECT; Audit of "Requests for Equitable Adjustment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site" TO: Frazer R. Lockhart, Manager, Rocky Flats Project Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE Effective February 1, 2000, the Department of Energy's (Department) Rocky Flats Project Office (RFPO) and Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC (Kaiser-Hill), entered into a cost- plus-incentive-fee contract to close the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) by December 15, 2006. Under the contract terms, Kaiser-Hlill's final incentive fee earned will be based on how well it meets established cost targets. For

18

December 4, 2003, Board Public Meeting - Board Opening Remarks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

r r ' PUBLIC MEETING + + + + + THURSDAY DECEMBER 4, 2003 + + + + + The Board met in the DNFSB Hearing Room at 625 Indiana Avenue, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., John T. Conway, Chairman, presiding. PRESENT JOHN T. CONWAY A.J. EGGENBERGER JOHN E. MANSFIELD R. BRUCE MATTHEWS STAFF PRESENT RICHARD A. AZZARO J. KENT FORTENBERRY JAMES J . McCONNELL KENNETH M. PUSATERI ALSO PRESENT JESSIE ROBERSON JEFFERY M. ALLISON KEITH A. KLEIN FRAZER R. LOCKHART Chairman Vice Chairman Board Member Board Member General Counsel Technical Director Deputy Technical Director General Manager Asst. Secretary, Environmental Management, DOE Manager, DOE, Savannah River Operations Office Manager, DOE, Richland Operations Office Manager, DOE, Rocky Flats Field Off ice

19

The Committee convened in the Clark Room of the Holiday Inn  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

- - - - - - - - - - COMMITTEE ON ENERGY STATISTICS - - - - - MEETING - - - - - FRIDAY, APRIL 26, 1996 The Committee convened in the Clark Room of the Holiday Inn Capitol, 550 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., DR. TIMOTHY D. MOUNT, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: TIMOTHY D. MOUNT, Chair SAMPRIT CHATTERJEE BRENDA G. COX JOHN D. GRACE CALVIN KENT GRETA M. LJUNG RICHARD A. LOCKHART DANIEL A. RELLES BRADLEY O. SKARPNESS G. CAMPBELL WATKINS ALSO PRESENT: RENEE MILLER YVONNE M. BISHOP DIANE LIQUE L.A. PETTIS JAY HAKES JOHN WOOD GORDON M. KAUFMAN ROY KASS NANCY LEACH I-N-D-E-X Introductory Remarks: Announcement of Winners of the Contest on Graphs and Visuals Displays 3 Restructuring the Oil and Gas Crude Reserves Program (Agenda Item 5) Presenter: John Wood, Office of Oil and Gas 8

20

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 2011 2, 2011 CX-006532: Categorical Exclusion Determination Evaluating and Commercializing a Solvent-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology CX(s) Applied: B3.7 Date: 08/22/2011 Location(s): Lockhart, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory August 22, 2011 CX-006543: Categorical Exclusion Determination Building 40 New Video Surveillance CX(s) Applied: A11, B1.15, B2.3 Date: 08/22/2011 Location(s): Morgantown, West Virginia Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory August 22, 2011 CX-007076: Categorical Exclusion Determination Install New Power Poles in A & B Areas CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 08/22/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office August 22, 2011

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lockhart cheta phang" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

PACE and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA)  

SciTech Connect

The FHFA regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On June 18, 2009, James B. Lockhart III, then Director of FHFA, released a letter expressing concern about the negative impact of energy loan tax assessment programs (ELTAPs) - also known as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs - on both the housing finance system and homeowner program participants. Subsequently, a number of PACE proponents responded to the concerns laid out in the FHFA letter. In early Fall 2009, word circulated that FHFA was planning to follow its June letter with guidance to other agencies, possibly including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, discouraging them from buying loans on properties subject to PACE-type assessment liens. This triggered a second round of stakeholder letters, several of which were addressed to President Obama. On October 18, 2009, the White House, in what some believe was an attempt to obviate the need for FHFA guidance, released a Policy Framework for PACE Financing Programs that outlined best practices guidance for homeowner and lender protection. As of February 2010, FHFA and the GSEs have agreed to monitor PACE programs and work with stakeholders and the Administration to consider additional guidance beyond the Policy Framework and to collect more information on PACE program efficacy and risks. A summary of the communications timeline and highlights of the communications are provided.

Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

22

Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop Multipliers for SUVA R-134a Flowing in a Rectangular Duct  

SciTech Connect

The adiabatic two-phase frictional multipliers for SUVA, R-134a flowing in a rectangular duct (with D{sub H} = 4.8 mm) have been measured for 3 nominal system pressures (0.9 MPa, 1.38 MPa and 2.41 MPa) and 3 nominal mass fluxes (510, 1020 and 2040 kg/m{sup 2}/s). The data is compared with several classical correlations to assess their predictive capabilities. The Lockhart-Martinelli model gives reasonable results at the lowest pressure and mass flux, near the operating range of most refrigeration systems, but gives increasingly poor comparisons as the pressure and mass flux is increased. The Chisholm B-coefficient model is found to best predict the data over the entire range of test conditions; however, there is significant disagreement at the highest pressure tested (with the model over predicting the data upwards of 100% for some cases). The data shows an increased tendency toward homogeneous flow as the pressure and flow rate are increased, and in fact the homogeneous model best predicts the bulk of the data at the highest pressure tested.

P Vassallo; K Keller

2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

23

Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend  

SciTech Connect

Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E. [School of Aeronautical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub-hundred micron channel  

SciTech Connect

The current work focuses on the pressure drop, heat transfer and stability in two phase flow in microchannels with hydraulic diameter of less than one hundred microns. Experiments were conducted in smooth microchannels of hydraulic diameter of 45, 65 {mu}m, and a rough microchannel of hydraulic diameter of 70 {mu}m, with deionised water as the working fluid. The local saturation pressure and temperature vary substantially over the length of the channel. In order to correctly predict the local saturation temperature and subsequently the heat transfer characteristics, numerical techniques have been used in conjunction with the conventional two phase pressure drop models. The Lockhart-Martinelli (liquid-laminar, vapour-laminar) model is found to predict the two phase pressure drop data within 20%. The instability in two phase flow is quantified; it is found that microchannels of smaller hydraulic diameter have lesser instabilities as compared to their larger counterparts. The experiments also suggest that surface characteristics strongly affect flow stability in the two phase flow regime. The effect of hydraulic diameter and surface characteristics on the flow characteristics and stability in two phase flow is seldom reported, and is of considerable practical relevance. (author)

Bhide, R.R.; Singh, S.G.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Duttagupta, S.P.; Agrawal, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

PACE and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) Title PACE and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) Publication Type Policy Brief Authors Zimring, Mark, and Merrian C. Fuller Tertiary Authors Borgeson, Merrian Secondary Title Clean Energy Financing Policy Brief Publisher LBNL Place Published Berkeley Year of Publication 2010 Pagination 5 Date Published 03/2010 Abstract The FHFA regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On June 18, 2009, James B. Lockhart III, then Director of FHFA, released a letter expressing concern about the negative impact of energy loan tax assessment programs (ELTAPs) - also known as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs - on both the housing finance system and homeowner program participants. Subsequently, a number of PACE proponents responded to the concerns laid out in the FHFA letter. In early Fall 2009, word circulated that FHFA was planning to follow its June letter with guidance to other agencies, possibly including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, discouraging them from buying loans on properties subject to PACE-type assessment liens. This triggered a second round of stakeholder letters, several of which were addressed to President Obama. On October 18, 2009, the White House, in what some believe was an attempt to obviate the need for FHFA guidance, released a Policy Framework for PACE Financing Programs that outlined best practices guidance for homeowner and lender protection. As of February 2010, FHFA and the GSEs have agreed to monitor PACE programs and work with stakeholders and the Administration to consider additional guidance beyond the Policy Framework and to collect more information on PACE program efficacy and risks. A summary of the communications timeline and highlights of the communications are provided below.

26

INTERFACIAL AREA TRANSPORT AND REGIME TRANSITION IN COMBINATORIAL CHANNELS  

SciTech Connect

. This study investigates the geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows and flow configurations in two-phase flow. The study shows that the elbows make a significant effect on the transport characteristics of two-phase flow, which includes the changes in interfacial structures, bubble interaction mechanisms and flow regime transition. The effect of the elbows is characterized for global and local two-phase flow parameters. The global two-phase flow parameters include two-phase pressure, interfacial structures and flow regime transition. In order to characterize the frictional pressure drop and minor loss across the vertical elbows, pressure measurements are obtained across the test section over a wide range of flow conditions in both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. A two-phase pressure drop correlation analogous to Lockhart-Martinelli correlation is proposed to predict the minor loss across the elbows. A high speed camera is employed to perform extensive flow visualization studies across the elbows in vertical upward, horizontal and vertical downward sections and modified flow regime maps are proposed. It is found that modified flow regime maps immediately downstream of the vertical upward elbow deviate significantly from the conventional flow regime map. A qualitative assessment of the counter-current flow limitation characteristics specific to the current experimental facility is performed. A multi-sensor conductivity probe is used to measure local two-phase flow parameters such as: void fraction, bubble velocity, interfacial area concentration and bubble frequency. The local measurements are obtained for six different flow conditions at ten measurement locations along axial direction of the test section. Both the vertical-upward and vertical-downward elbows have a significant impact on bubble distribution, resulting in, a bimodal distribution along the horizontal radius of the tube cross-section and migration of bubbles towards the inside of the elbow curvatures immediately downstream of the vertical-upward and vertical-downward elbows, respectively. The elbow effect decays further downstream of the elbow and bubbles migrate to more conventional distribution patterns. The axial transport of void fraction and interfacial area concentration shows that the elbows promote bubble disintegration. Preliminary comparisons between the interfacial area transport model and the experimental data for verticalupward and vertical downward section are also presented.

Seugjin Kim

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z