Sample records for loads providing ancillary

  1. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  2. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  3. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2006b)... 31 viii Acronyms and Abbreviations AGC Automatic Generator Control APX Automated Power Exchange AS Ancillary Services BETTA British Electricity...

  4. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Jason

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interop 2012. Irving, TX. PJM. 2012. Regulation Self Test~/media/markets-ops/ancillary/regd-test- wave.ashx PJM (PJM Interconnection). 2013a. PJM Manual 12: Balancing

  5. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ancillary Services (Australia) U.K. Power Exchange viiiAustralia’s NEM NEMMCO Statnett Fingrid Nordic Power Marketfor Australia’s NEM, the U.K. ’s BETTA, and the Nordic Power

  6. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for generators. A partial list of load attributes andpartial list includes: • Minimum run times • Minimum off times • Minimum load

  7. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  8. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  9. A Generalized Battery Model of a Collection of Thermostatically Controlled Loads for Providing Ancillary Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    . Residential Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) such as air conditioner, heat pump, water heater, and re

  10. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost of service differentials, maintenance of the extensive and lightly-loaded network, and overloaded substations

  11. Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wholesale Markets Presentation by Jason MacDonald Grid Integration Group, Lawrence Berkeley National;Contents · Introduction ­ Wholesale Markets and AS ­ Why DR for AS? ­ Market Clearing Price · Value/RTOs · ISO/RTOs are balancing authorities that run open wholesale markets for both energy and Ancillary

  12. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Project demonstrates and promotes the use of responsive load to provide ancillary services; helps ISOsand grid operators understand the resource and how best to apply it. Technical...

  13. Demand Response Providing Ancillary A Comparison of Opportunities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5958E Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services A Comparison of Opportunities Government or any agency thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response System Reliability, Demand Response (DR), Electricity Markets, Smart Grid Abstract Interest in using

  14. ancillary load reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: structure, including wholesale energy and ancillary markets;wholesale trading in electricity is conducted via an...

  15. Distributed Smart Grid Asset Control Strategies for Providing Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Moya, Christian; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With large-scale plans to integrate renewable generation driven mainly by state-level renewable portfolio requirements, more resources will be needed to compensate for the uncertainty and variability associated with intermittent generation resources. Distributed assets can be used to mitigate the concerns associated with renewable energy resources and to keep costs down. Under such conditions, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive but also technically difficult. It is therefore important to explore how a sufficient proportion of the loads could assume a routine role in primary frequency control to maintain the stability of the system at an acceptable cost. The main objective of this project is to develop a novel hierarchical distributed framework for frequency based load control. The framework involves two decision layers. The top decision layer determines the optimal gain for aggregated loads for each load bus. The gains are computed using decentralized robust control methods, and will be broadcast to the corresponding participating loads every control period. The second layer consists of a large number of heterogeneous devices, which switch probabilistically during contingencies so that aggregated power change matches the desired amount according to the most recently received gains. The simulation results show great potential to enable systematic design of demand-side primary frequency control with stability guarantees on the overall power system. The proposed design systematically accounts for the interactions between the total load response and bulk power system frequency dynamics. It also guarantees frequency stability under a wide range of time varying operating conditions. The local device-level load response rules fully respect the device constraints (such as temperature setpoint, compressor time delays of HVACs, or arrival and departure of the deferrable loads), which are crucial for implementing real load control programs. The promise of autonomous, Grid Friendly™ response by smart appliances in the form of under-frequency load shedding was demonstrated in the GridWise Olympic Peninsula Demonstration in 2006. Each controller monitored the power grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow under-frequency event, which was an average of one event per day and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Another objective of this project was to perform extensive simulation studies to investigate the impact of a population of Grid Friendly™ Appliances (GFAs) on the bulk power system frequency stability. The GFAs considered in this report are represented as demonstration units with water heaters individually modeled.

  16. Computer-specific metrics for the regulation and load following ancillary services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In competitive electricity markets, the costs for each ancillary service should be charged to those who cause the costs to be incurred with charges based on the factors that contribute to these costs. For example, the amount of generating capacity assigned to the regulation service is a function of the short-term volatility of system load. Therefore, the charges for regulation should be related to the volatility of each load, not to its average demand. This report discusses the economic efficiency and equity benefits of assessing charges on the basis of customer-specific costs (rather than the traditional billing determinants, MWh or MW), focusing on two key real-power ancillary services, regulation and load following. The authors determine the extent to which individual customers and groups of customers contribute to the system's generation requirements for these two services. In particular, they analyze load data to determine whether some customers account for shares of these two services that differ substantially from their shares of total electricity consumption.

  17. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of numerous new wind power plants in Norway will require anwind capacity and nuclear power generation. For example, the addition of a Finnish 1600 MW nuclear plant

  18. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006a). Advanced telemetry or SCADA was required for mostrequirements (e.g. , SCADA or similar arrangement),rather than the stringent SCADA requirement. 24 Table 8:

  19. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equivalent to the droop control of a generator. Likewise,response that approximates the droop control capability ofbe indistinguishable from droop control on a generator (

  20. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reactive power), about two percent of PJM’s total market turnover and costing $1.17 per MWH of electricity

  1. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AD? OpenDocument WECC 2005, Frequency Response Standard,30-minute response. Finally, a WECC proposes a reduction ineach Balancing Area to a single WECC wide spinning reserve

  2. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous Regulation, Energy Imbalance Management,2 - Continuous Regulation, Energy Imbalance Management,Continuous Regulation Energy Imbalance Instantaneous

  3. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operations, Brendan Kirby, ORNL/TM-2006-512, July. PJM 2005.Whitepaper on PJM Forward Energy Reserve: A Centralized CallManager, Retail Markets, PJM Interconnection LLC, January

  4. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Down (DRS) Frequency Controlled Disturbance Reserve (FCDR)its assigned Frequency Controlled Disturbance Reserves and120 MW of frequency-controlled disturbance reserve and 400

  5. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartmentHartman About9 * January

  6. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartmentHartman About9 *

  7. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing | DepartmentComputing CenterLiz

  8. A comparison of two GIV mechanisms for providing ancillary services at the University of Delaware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    , called a "GIV (Grid Integrated Vehicle) mechanism". In literature, many GIV mechanisms are proposed decide autonomously on the amount of power available for ancillary services. In the centralized mechanism. INTRODUCTION Growing concerns about the environment and increasing fuel prices are causing a shift towards EVs

  9. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  10. Abstract: In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support as an unbundled ancillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the provision of reactive power and voltage support was bundled with other services in supplying electricity electricity. Under open access, however, reactive support and voltage control from generation sources becomes1 Abstract: In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support

  11. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    out requirements for telemetry (SCADA), metering (50 msecthan the stringent SCADA requirement. 40 Participating

  12. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs are then passed on to market customers according to their relative energy consumption during business

  13. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    John Wiley and Sons, New York. IEA DSM 2003. DSM Spotlight,2003. Prepared for the IEA Demand-Side Management Executivepresented by Lance Hoch at the IEA Task XIII Demand Response

  14. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    available to reflect trading in the Power Exchanges. C.2.3most power transactions are based on bilateral trading ofPower Exchanges operate over similar timescales, although trading

  15. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vulnerability of the Nordic Power System: Report to thecontrol. The entire Nordic power system comprises a singleinterconnected Nordic power system’s overall reliability. In

  16. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    serving Western Australia, Western Power, faced capacitypower system – more than 4000 km from northern Queensland to South Australia (Australia grid serves one million customers but operates as an independent integrated power

  17. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and restore frequency-controlled operating and disturbancethe frequency responsive operating and disturbance reserves,120 MW of frequency-controlled disturbance reserve and 400

  18. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy, Utilities and Sustainability 2005.Dept. Of Energy, Utilities and Sustainability. NEMMCO 2006a.Dept. of Energy, Utilities and Sustainability 2005]. There

  19. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electric boilers of district heating systems) must shedcapabilities 42 of the district heating systems not allgreater than 5 MW) district heating schemes can quickly

  20. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current Transformer explosion in NSW Ground fault causestransformer) explosion in the Bayswater 330 V switchyard. The subsequent buss fault

  1. Impacts of Providing Inertial Response on Dynamic Loads of Wind Turbine Drivetrains: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girsang, I. P.; Dhupia, J.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Muljadi, E.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been growing demand from the power industry for wind power plants to support power system operations. One such requirement is for wind turbines to provide ancillary services in the form of inertial response. When the grid frequency drops, it is essential for wind turbine generators (WTGs) to inject kinetic energy stored in their inertia into the grid to help arrest the frequency decline. However, the impacts of inertial response on the structural loads of the wind turbine have not been given much attention. To bridge this gap, this paper utilizes a holistic model for both fixed-speed and variable-speed WTGs by integrating the aeroelastic wind turbine model in FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with the electromechanical drivetrain model in SimDriveline and SimPowerSystems.

  2. Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources for Provision of Ancillary Services: Architectures and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    to a battery vehicle aggregator to be used as a controllable load for energy peak shaving during peak hours energy resources (DERs), e.g., photovoltaic (PV) installations, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and thermostatically-controlled loads (TCLs), that can be potentially used to provide ancillary services, e

  3. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  4. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  5. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  6. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  7. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  8. Efficient bidding for hydro power plants in markets for energy and ancillary services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perekhodtsev, Dmitri

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to preserve stability of electricity supply generators must provide ancillary services in addition to energy production. Hydroelectric resources have significant ancillary service capability because of their dynamic ...

  9. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perisic, Milun; Lawrence, Christopher P; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system, for example, includes a first load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the first load. The controller may be further configured to, receive information on a second load electrically connected to the voltage source, determine an amount of reactive current to return to the voltage source such that a current drawn by the electrical system and the second load from the voltage source is substantially real, and provide the determined reactive current to the voltage source.

  10. Session 3: Impact on U.S. Ancillary Services Markets from Variable Renewable Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presentation provides an overview of how increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy on the electricity grid are impacting ancillary services markets in the United States.

  11. Ancillary Services in the United States: Independent System Operator (ISO) Perspective (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presentation provides an overview of how increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy on the electricity grid are impacting ancillary services markets in the United States.

  12. Chapter 5. System security and ancillary Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst, Damien

    in generation. Provided by units that can rapidly increase or decrease their output. Load-following service

  13. A Contract-Based Approach for Ancillary Services in V2G Networks: Optimality and Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    or not. Moreover, with the development of smart grid technologies [5], it is possible for EVs to make of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technologies, it is possible to provide ancillary services to the power grid to participate in ancillary services to power grid, match the aggregated energy rate with the service request

  14. DR Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services in the West (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Kiliccote, S.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility however, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado "test system". We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating reserves: frequency regulation, contingency reserve, and flexibility (or ramping) reserve. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves.

  15. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS AND STATUS ON CLOSURE OF DOE RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK ANCILLARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H; Sharon Marra, S; Christine Langton, C

    2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the current state of art of sampling, characterizing, retrieving, transferring and treating the incidental waste and stabilizing the void space in tank ancillary systems and the needs involved with closure of these systems. The overall effort for closing tank and ancillary systems is very large and is in the initial stages of being addressed in a systematic manner. It was recognized in doing this effort, that gaps in both technology and material application for characterization and removal of residual waste and closure of ancillary systems would be identified. Great efficiencies are to be gained by defining the technology need areas early in the closure process and providing recommendations for technical programs to improve the closure strategies. Therefore, this paper will not only summarize the state of closure of ancillary systems but also provide recommendations to address the technology gaps identified in this assessment.

  16. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services Silain Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services Silasuccessfully in the wholesale non- spinning ancillary

  17. Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 #12;© 2008 EnerNOC, Inc. All Rights Reserved programs The purpose of this presentation is to offer insight into the mechanics of demand response and industrial demand response resources across North America in both regulated and restructured markets As of 6

  18. Design of Ancillary Service Markets1 Shmuel S. Oren,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reforms aimed at repairing the ancillary service markets are under way in California, New England and New

  19. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning process and offers suggestions as to how the technical and institutional issues could have been resolved faster through early adoption of some of the core principles of sound EDSS design.

  20. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  1. Abstract--This paper proposes a two-level framework for the operation of a competitive market for reactive power ancillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    and the selected reactive power service providers. Index Terms- System operation, ancillary services, electricity reactive power provisions in the context of deregulated electricity markets, namely, reactive power for reactive power ancillary services. It is argued that the first-level, i.e. reactive power procurement

  2. ancillary services review: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: structure, including wholesale energy and ancillary markets;wholesale trading in electricity is conducted via an...

  3. ancillary service markets: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: structure, including wholesale energy and ancillary markets;wholesale trading in electricity is conducted via an...

  4. ancillary service rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of 7 Field Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of Renewable Resources in California's Ancillary Services Market for Regulation Products...

  5. ancillary pilin subunit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    email: andrew.kingston@anu.edu.au 2 Computer Vision and Robotics, CECS Trumpf, Jochen 5 Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 Power Transmission, Distribution and...

  6. ancillary equipment unit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    available from the Duke Surplus Property Wolpert, Robert L 2 Field Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of Renewable Resources in California's Ancillary Services...

  7. ancillary services allocation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services September 2008 Power Transmission, Distribution and Plants Websites Summary: Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 12; 2008 EnerNOC, Inc. All...

  8. ancillary personnel faced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services September 2008 Power Transmission, Distribution and Plants Websites Summary: Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 12; 2008 EnerNOC, Inc. All...

  9. ancillary service details: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services September 2008 Power Transmission, Distribution and Plants Websites Summary: Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 12; 2008 EnerNOC, Inc. All...

  10. ancillary network nutrient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct use of radioactive materials andor radiation Rhode Island, University of 4 Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 Power Transmission, Distribution and...

  11. ancillary study gog: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct use of radioactive materials andor radiation Rhode Island, University of 7 Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 Power Transmission, Distribution and...

  12. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  13. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  14. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  15. Transactive Control and Coordination of Distributed Assets for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Somani, Abhishek; Pratt, Robert G.; Widergren, Steven E.; Chassin, David P.

    2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to diversify energy supplies, the need to mitigate energy-related environmental impact, and the entry of electric vehicles in large numbers present challenges and opportunities to power system professionals. Wind and solar power provide many benefits, and to reap the benefits the resulting increased variability—forecasted as well as unforecasted—should be addressed. Demand resources are receiving increasing attention as one means of providing the grid balancing services. Control and coordination of a large number (~millions) of distributed smart grid assets requires innovative approaches. One such is transactive control and coordination (TC2)—a distributed, agent-based incentive and control system. The TC2 paradigm is to create a market system with the following characteristics: • Participation should be entirely voluntary. • The participant decides at what price s/he is willing to participate. • The bids and responses are automated. Such an approach has been developed and demonstrated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for energy markets. It is the purpose of this project to develop a similar approach for ancillary services. In this report, the following ancillary services are considered: • spinning reserve • ramping • regulation. These services are to be provided by the following devices: • refrigerators • water heaters • clothes dryers • variable speed drives. The important results are summarized below: The regulation signal can be divided into an energy-neutral high frequency component and a low frequency component. The high frequency component is particularly well suited for demand resources. The low frequency component, which carries energy non-neutrality, can be handled by a combination of generators and demand resources. An explicit method for such a separation is obtained from an exponentially weighted moving average filter. Causal filters (i.e., filters that process only present and past values of a signal) introduce delays that can be issues in some signal processing applications that treat the high frequency part as a noise to be eliminated. For regulation, the high frequency component is an essential part of the signal. The delay in the low frequency component is not a problem. A stochastic self-dispatch algorithm determines the response of the devices to the regulation signal. • In an ensemble of devices under normal operation, some devices turn on and some turn off in any time interval. Demand response necessitates turning off devices that would normally be on, or turning on devices that would normally be off. Over time, some of these would have turned off on their own. A formalism to determine expectation values under a combination of natural and forced attrition has been developed. This formalism provides a mechanism for accomplishing a desired power profile within a bid period. In particular, a method to minimize regulation requirement can be developed. The formulation provides valuable insights into control. • Some ancillary services—ramping to absorb unforecasted increase in renewable generation, and regulation down—require the demand resources to increase their energy use. Some resources such as HVAC systems can do this readily, whereas some others require enabling technology. Even without such technology, it is possible to arrange refrigerators and water heaters to have an energy debt and be ready to increase their energy use. A transactive bid mechanism of revolving debt can be developed for this purpose. Dramatic changes in control systems, architecture and markets are expected in the electrical grid. The technical capabilities of a large number of devices interacting with the grid are changing. While it is too early to describe complete solutions, TC2 has attractive features suitable for adapting to the changes. The analyses in this report and the activities planned for FY 14 and beyond are designed to facilitate this transition.

  16. Using Dimmable Lighting for Regulation Capacity and Non-Spinning Reserves in the Ancillary Services Market. A Feasibility Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Xiaolei, Li; Watson, David S.

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Feasibility Study was to identify the potential of dimmable lighting for providing regulation capacity and contingency reserves if massively-deployed throughout the State. We found that one half of the total electric lighting load in the California commercial sector is bottled up in larger buildings that are greater an 50,000 square feet. Retrofitting large California buildings with dimmable lighting to enable fast DR lighting would require an investment of about $1.8 billion and a"fleet" of about 56 million dimming ballasts. By upgrading the existing installed base of lighting and controls (primarily in large commercial facilities) a substantial amount of ancillary services could be provided. Though not widely deployed, today's state-of-the art lighting systems, control systems and communication networks could be used for this application. The same lighting control equipment that is appropriate for fast DR is also appropriate for achieving energy efficiency with lighting on a daily basis. Thus fast DR can leverage the capabilities that are provided by a conventional dimming lighting control system. If dimmable lighting were massively deployed throughout large California buildings (because mandated by law, for example) dimmable lighting could realistically supply 380 MW of non-spinning reserve, 47percent of the total non-spinning reserves needed in 2007.

  17. ancillary services hospital: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 Power Transmission, Distribution and...

  18. access ancillary services: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 Power Transmission, Distribution and...

  19. Abstract--Load serving entities (LSE) and holders of default service obligations, in restructured electricity markets, provide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    , in restructured electricity markets, provide electricity service at regulated or contracted fixed prices while standard forward contracts and commodity derivatives. Keywords: Electricity Markets, Risk Management, Volumetric hedging, I. INTRODUCTION The introduction of competitive wholesale markets in the electricity

  20. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  1. Asynchronous Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources for the Provisioning of Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    Asynchronous Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources for the Provisioning of Ancillary the stability of asynchronous coordination protocols and studies their application to energy resource it towards energy resource provisioning of ancillary services in a power grid. I. INTRODUCTION The presence

  2. The Ancillary Harvest of Atlantic Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, Roe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Exocoetidae) in the tropics, cap- Extraction of fish roe for food is a elin (Osmeridae) in more boreal waters yields. Roe is extracted from female the fall and are harvested by the purse- fish at various pointsThe Ancillary Harvest of Atlantic Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, Roe on the North Carolina Coast

  3. 1 Vehicle-to-grid systems: ancillary services and communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    fluctuations in local renewable generation units, such as rooftop solar panels and wind turbines [8, 9, 11, 10 is organized as follows. In Section 1.2, we overview different types of ancillary services that can be offered be used to boost distributed electricity storage. Depending on the type and class, the battery storage

  4. Flexibility of Commercial Building HVAC Fan as Ancillary Service for Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient Building Control Systems, Smart Grid and AircraftCommercial Building HVAC Fan as Ancillary Service for Smart

  5. Competitive Acquisition of Prioritizable Capacity-Based Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    frequency control, load following and the range of reserve services, which may be procured from unloaded

  6. Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services by Simon Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services by Simon Christopher Parkinson B highly-distributed sustainable demand- side infrastructure, in the form of heat pumps, electric vehicles

  7. Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.

  8. ORNL/TM-2005/263 ANCILLARY SERVICES PROVIDED FROM DER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    ............................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 MICROTURBINE

  9. Spinning Reserve from Pump Load: A Technical Findings Report to the California Department of Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, BJ

    2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), at the request of the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating opportunities for electrical load to provide the ancillary service of spinning reserve to the electric grid. The load would provide this service by stopping for a short time when there is a contingency on the grid such as a transmission line or generator outage. There is a possibility that a significant portion of the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO's) spinning reserve requirement could be supplied from the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) pumping load. Spinning reserve has never been supplied from load before, and rule changes would be needed to allow it. In this report, we are presenting technical findings on the possibility of supplying spinning reserve from pumping system load. In parallel, we are pursuing the needed rule changes with the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and the CAISO. NERC and FERC have agreed that they have no prohibition against supplying spinning reserve from load. The WECC Minimum Operability Reliability Criteria working group has agreed that the concept should be considered, and they are presently discussing the needed tariff and rule changes. Presently, spinning reserve is provided by generation that is actually spinning but is operating at low power levels and can be ramped up quickly to provide reserve power. In a sense, this is an inefficient and environmentally unfriendly way of providing reserves because it requires the generator to operate at a low power level that may be inefficient and may discharge more pollutants per kW than operating at rated power. It would be better if this generation capacity were in a position to bid into the energy market. Providing an additional supply of spinning reserve would tend to reduce prices for both reserves and the regular electric energy market. The CAISO is presently in the process of redesigning its market rules for ancillary services. The time is right to pursue this opportunity to supply spinning reserve from load. It is our hope that the CDWR will endorse this recommendation. ORNL will then work with FERC, NERC, WECC, and the CAISO to obtain the needed rule changes. This project would provide the CDWR with another option in the complex process of obtaining its energy at the lowest possible cost, while at the same time providing more flexibility to the ISO and relief to the energy market. After this project is implemented in California, we hope that the practice spreads across the nation, allowing much more flexibility in energy markets and increasing the availability of reserve services.

  10. Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Tuohy, A.; Brooks, D.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. Frequency responsive reserve arrests the frequency decline resulting in the stabilization of system frequency, and avoids the triggering of under-frequency load-shedding or the reaching of unstable frequencies that could ultimately lead to system blackouts. It is a crucial service required to maintain a reliable and secure power system. Regions with restructured electricity markets have historically had a lack of incentives for frequency responsive reserve because generators inherently provided the response and on large interconnected systems, more than sufficient response has been available. This may not be the case in future systems due to new technologies and declining response. This paper discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.

  11. ancillary-service details regulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Field Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of Renewable Resources in California's Ancillary Services...

  12. Please cite this article in press as: White III, R.A., et al., Digital PCR provides absolute quantitation of viral load for an occult RNA virus. J. Virol. Methods (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.09.017

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    without need for a standard curve. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction20 Viral load testing quantitation of viral load for an occult RNA virus. J. Virol. Methods (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.elsevier.com/locate/jviromet Digital PCR provides absolute quantitation of viral load for an occult RNA virus1 Richard Allen White IIIa

  13. Urban damage assessment using multimodal QuickBird images and ancillary data: the Bam and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Urban damage assessment using multimodal QuickBird images and ancillary data: the Bam proved its usefulness for the crisis mitigation through situation report and damage assessment. Visual. We propose a semi-automatic damage assessment method based on a pair of very high spatial resolution

  14. Coordination and Control of Distributed Energy Resources for Provision of Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Coordination and Control of Distributed Energy Resources for Provision of Ancillary Services--This paper discusses the utilization of distributed energy resources on the distribution side of the power side of a power system, it has been ac- knowledged that there exist many distributed energy resources

  15. San Diego Gas & Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Fact Sheet San Diego Gas & Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services Docket No. EL00-95-000 July 6, 2007 The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission today approved an $18 million uncontested settlement that resolves matters and claims related to BP Energy Company (BP) and California

  16. Regulatory issues associated with closure of the Hanford AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.

    1998-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid mixed, high-level radioactive waste has been stored in underground single-shell tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. After retrieval of the waste from the single-shell tanks, the DOE will proceed with closure of the tank farm. The 241-AX Tank Farm includes four one-million gallon single-shell tanks in addition to sluice lines, transfer lines, ventilation headers, risers, pits, cribs, catch tanks, buildings, well and associated buried piping. This equipment is classified as ancillary equipment. This document addresses the requirements for regulatory close of the ancillary equipment in the Hanford Site 241-AX Tank Farm. The options identified for physical closure of the ancillary equipment include disposal in place, disposal in place after treatment, excavation and disposal on site in an empty single-shell tank, and excavation and disposal outside the AX Tank Farm. The document addresses the background of the Hanford Site and ancillary equipment in the AX Tank Farm, regulations for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated equipment, requirements for the cleanup and disposal of radioactive wastes, cleanup and disposal requirements governing hazardous and mixed waste, and regulatory requirements and issues associated with each of the four physical closure options. This investigation was conducted by the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during Fiscal Year 1998 for the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project.

  17. ancillary human health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health and Safety, was established, and is dedicated to providing outstanding clinical care to improve the health and safety of University employees 4 Faculty of Science &...

  18. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  19. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of Westinghouse WE 17×17 pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies with a discharge burnup range of 30-58 GWd/MTU (assembly average), loaded in a representative high-capacity (?32 fuel rod assemblies) transportation package. Evaluations will be performed for representative normal conditions of rail transport involving a rail conveyance capable of meeting the Association of American Railroads (AAR) S-2043 specification. UNF modeling is anticipated to be defined to the pellet-cladding level and take in to account influences associated with spacer grids, intermediate fluid mixers, and control components. The influence of common degradation issues such as ductile-to-brittle-transition will also be accounted for. All model development and analysis will be performed with commercially available software packages exclusively. Inputs and analyses will be completely documented, all supporting information will be traceable, and bases will be defendable so as to be most useful to the U.S. Department of Energy community and mission. The expected completion date is the end of fiscal year (FY) 2013.

  20. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  1. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  2. Field Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of Renewable Resources in California's Ancillary Services Market for Regulation Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Market Report: New York ISO. 2010. PJM, State of theMarket Report for PJM: Ancillary Service Markets. 2010Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Midwest ISO (MISO) all

  3. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter, electric power accounts for 30% to 40% of the factory cost of producing primary aluminum. In the continental United States, Alcoa Inc. currently owns and/or operates ten aluminum smelters and many associated fabricating facilities with a combined average load of over 2,600 MW. This presents Alcoa Inc. with a significant opportunity to respond in areas where economic opportunities exist to help mitigate rising energy costs by supplying demand response services into the energy system. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction and discusses the intention of this report. The second chapter contains the background. In this chapter, topics include: the motivation for Alcoa to provide demand response; ancillary service definitions; the basics behind aluminum smelting; and a discussion of suggested ancillary services that would be particularly useful for Alcoa to supply. Chapter 3 is concerned with the independent system operator, the Midwest ISO. Here the discussion examines the evolving Midwest ISO market structure including specific definitions, requirements, and necessary components to provide ancillary services. This section is followed by information concerning the Midwest ISO's classifications of demand response parties. Chapter 4 investigates the available opportunities at Alcoa's Warrick facility. Chapter 5 involves an in-depth discussion of the regulation service that Alcoa's Warrick facility can provide and the current interactions with Midwest ISO. Chapter 6 reviews future plans and expectations for Alcoa providing ancillary services into the market. Last, chapter 7, details the conclusion and recommendations of this paper.

  4. A quantum algorithm for obtaining the lowest eigenstate of a Hamiltonian assisted with an ancillary qubit system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeongho Bang; Seung-Woo Lee; Chang-Woo Lee; Hyunseok Jeong

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a quantum algorithm to obtain the lowest eigenstate of any Hamiltonian simulated by a quantum computer. The proposed algorithm begins with an arbitrary initial state of the simulated system. A finite series of transforms is iteratively applied to the initial state assisted with an ancillary qubit. The fraction of the lowest eigenstate in the initial state is then amplified up to $\\simeq 1$. We prove that our algorithm can faithfully work for any arbitrary Hamiltonian in the theoretical analysis. Numerical analyses are also carried out. We firstly provide a numerical proof-of-principle demonstration with a simple Hamiltonian in order to compare our scheme with the so-called "Demon-like algorithmic cooling (DLAC)", recently proposed in [Nature Photonics 8, 113 (2014)]. The result shows a good agreement with our theoretical analysis, exhibiting the comparable behavior to the best "cooling" with the DLAC method. We then consider a random Hamiltonian model for further analysis of our algorithm. By numerical simulations, we show that the total number $n_c$ of iterations is proportional to $\\simeq {\\cal O}(D^{-1}\\epsilon^{-0.19})$, where $D$ is the difference between the two lowest eigenvalues, and $\\epsilon$ is an error defined as the probability that the finally obtained system state is in an unexpected (i.e. not the lowest) eigenstate.

  5. Nuclear structure through moment measurements: Exploiting ?-ray detector arrays with ancillary detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuchbery, Andrew E. [Department of Nuclear Physics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental methods to measure the magnetic moments of short-lived excited states in beams of rare isotopes are outlined. The emphasis is on the so-called High-Velocity Transient-Field (HVTF) and the Recoil in Vacuum (RIV) methods, and the role of ?-ray detector arrays with ancillary detectors. Insights into the structure of neutron-rich nuclei through such measurements on radioactive beams are discussed. Opportunities for the future development of these techniques, for applications to both stable and radioactive beams, are explored.

  6. The International Mass Loading Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Leonid

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Mass Loading Service computes four loadings: a) atmospheric pressure loading; b) land water storage loading; c) oceanic tidal loading; and d) non-tidal oceanic loading. The service provides to users the mass loading time series in three forms: 1) pre-computed time series for a list of 849 space geodesy stations; 2) pre-computed time series on the global 1deg x 1deg grid; and 3) on-demand Internet service for a list of stations and a time range specified by the user. The loading displacements are provided for the time period from 1979.01.01 through present, updated on an hourly basis, and have latencies 8-20 hours.

  7. 16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ke

    -to-day operations, system analysis in smart grids, system visualization, system performance reliability, energy..............................................................................................................397 #12;376 Smart Grids The load forecast generally provides annual peak values for the whole system saving, and accuracy in system planning [1­4]. * This work is partly supported by a collaborative

  8. MIDWEST ISO CO-OPTIMIZATION BASED REAL-TIME DISPATCH AND PRICING OF ENERGY AND ANCILLARY SERVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    day-ahead counterpart, real-time locational marginal prices (LMP) are calculated every fiveMIDWEST ISO CO-OPTIMIZATION BASED REAL-TIME DISPATCH AND PRICING OF ENERGY AND ANCILLARY SERVICES-time dispatch and pricing. The RT SCED formulation at the core of the real-time dispatch and pricing market

  9. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  10. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  11. Trace metal and ancillary data in the watersheds and urban embayments of Puget Sound. Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, A.J.; Curl, H.C.; Feely, R.A.; Massoth, G.J.; Krogslund, K.A.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first of three data reports encompassing trace metal and ancillary data obtained by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) of NOAA in Puget Sound, Washington, between 1979 and 1986. The report includes the complete data set from two urban embayments (Elliott and Commencement Bays) and the watersheds discharging into Puget Sound. Building on research then underway at PMEL on estuarine circulation, laboratory scientists began a coordinated study that began with the description of the distribution of properties (salinity, temperature, trace metals and trace organics) in the water column and underlying sediments. The objectives of the Marine Environmental Quality trace metal program were (1) to quantify the sources and sinks of selected trace metals for Puget Sound, (2) to determine geochemical mechanisms that transform trace metals between the dissolved and particulate phases and (3) to determine to what extent these geochemical mechanisms alter the fate of trace metals entering Puget Sound. The text of the data report consists of the sampling and analytical methods with the accompanying quality control/quality assurance data. The text of the data sections are a summary of the data and published literature in which the data are interpreted along with a catalogue of the data available on microfiche located in the back pocket of the data report.

  12. Plug Load

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996)representative of thePlug-Load Sign In

  13. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  14. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  15. Structural, Spectroscopic, And Theoretical Elucidation of a Redox-Active Pincer-Type Ancillary Applied in Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, D.; Mossin, S.; Basuli, F.; Huffman, J.C.; Szilagyi, R.K.; Meyer, K.; Mindiola, D.J.

    2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Pincer-type ligands are believed to be very robust scaffolds that can support multifarious functionalities as well as highly reactive metal motifs applied in organometallic chemistry, especially in the realm of catalysis. In this paper, we describe the redox and, therefore, noninnocent behavior of a PNP (PNP{sup -} = N[2-P(CHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-4-methylphenyl]{sub 2}) pincer ancillary bound to nickel. A combination of structural, spectroscopic, and theoretical techniques suggests that this type of framework can house an electron hole when coordinated to Ni(II).

  16. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  17. Load Management for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    customer management programs exist. EPRI Report (EM-1606) loads to beneficially alter a'utility's load curve. (Page 1-2) list them as: Load management alternatives are covered. 1. Direct or voluntary control of customer Load management methods can... and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report energy management programs. (EM-1606) states that "the objective of load manage ment is to alter the real or apparent pattern of Our load management program was designed electricity use in order to...

  18. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy Solar Decathlon | Department of EnergySHARINGAncillary

  19. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  20. RESEARCH PATIENT CARE COSTS --NIH(RC)-11 (a) Research patient care costs are the costs of routine and ancillary services provided to patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    RESEARCH PATIENT CARE COSTS -- NIH(RC)-11 (a) Research patient care costs are the costs of routine) Patient care costs shall be computed in a manner consistent with the principles and procedures used by the Medicare Program for determining the part of Medicare reimbursement based on reasonable costs

  1. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  2. International Conference on Environmental Health and Technology As we rise to the challenge of making a healthier society, the ancillary impact of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    International Conference on Environmental Health and Technology 15 - 17th As we rise to the challenge of making a healthier society, the ancillary impact of the economic growth in the country as we make economic advancements. Keeping in view the above agenda the Centre for Environmental Science

  3. 2000 IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Seattle, USA Phantom Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Leszek S.

    exhibit a great variety of different features, while loads that generate such currents provide only very specific currents, characteristic for particular loads. Also some loads that gene- rate non on identification of non-periodic currents and their compensation by providing a technical tool for verification

  4. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  5. Buildings Stock Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing...

  6. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  7. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  8. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  9. Evaluation and integration of ancillary datasets for coastal wetland landcover classification using Landsat TM Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinson, James Mithland

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    %, thereby meeting the NOAA C-CAP objective. iv ACKNOWIEDGMENT I would like to thank Warren Pulich and Al Green of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department for providing the resources and oversight for this project. I am especially grateful to Doug Slack... are to be made (Kean et al. , 1988). For this reason, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has launched a cooperative interagency effort to map coastal wetlands and landcover on I-5-year intervals (Thomas and Ferguson, 1990). The Texas...

  10. Lifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haenggi, Martin

    , battery depletion is emulated so that it becomes possible to actually measure the load balancingLifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks Daniele Puccinelli network. The use of load balancing schemes can be expected to provide significant lifetime benefits

  11. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  12. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  13. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  14. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  15. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  16. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  17. Load Response Fundamentally Matches Power System Reliability Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system. Loads are frequently barred from providing the highest value and most critical reliability services; regulation and spinning reserve. Advances in communications and control technology now make it possible for some loads to provide both of these services. The limited storage incorporated in some loads better matches their response capabilities to the fast reliability-service markets than to the hourly energy markets. Responsive loads are frequently significantly faster and more accurate than generators, increasing power system reliability. Incorporating fast load response into microgrids further extends the reliability response capabilities that can be offered to the interconnected power system. The paper discusses the desired reliability responses, why this matches some loads' capabilities, what the advantages are for the power system, implications for communications and monitoring requirements, and how this resource can be exploited.

  18. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  19. Power System load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, Yu.N.; Semenov, V.A.; Sovalov, S.A.; Syutkin, B.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation in demand nonuniformity is analyzed for the Unified Electric Power System of the USSR and certain interconnected power systems; the conditions for handling such nonuniformity with utilization of generating equipment having differing flexibility capabilities are also considered. On this basis approaches and techniques for acting on user loads, load management, in order to assure a balance between generated and consumed power are considered.

  20. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  1. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  2. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  3. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Holland, G.; Hanada, A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  4. 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: electrical demand--firm loads--under the medium 1990 Draft Joint Load Forecast; generating resources; and contracts both inside and outside the region.

  5. Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator ich provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal.

  6. Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsagarakis, G; Kiprakis, A E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.

  7. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  8. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  9. contingency Nominal loading margin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Member Member Fellow Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract: The change in the loading margin to voltage collapse when line outages occur the line outages of the IEEE 118 bus system. The results show the effective ranking of contingencies

  10. Cooling load estimation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

  11. Providence Newberg Medical Center

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Newberg, OR In 2002, Providence Health & Services began planning a new 188,000 square foot medical center in Newberg, Oregon to respond to the growing community's need for accessible health care. Since this was Providence's first new hospital in almost thirty years, its leaders decided to approach the project through innovative planning, design, and construction, including the achievement of lifecycle energy savings and a potential LEED certification. The hospital is comprised of 40 inpatient beds with views out to the surrounding rural landscape or into lushly planted internal courtyards.

  12. Content Provider Speeds Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    protocols like SMPP for SMS and MM7 for MMS are industry standards, carriers typically layer their own APIs.0 standards," says Rose, "and we thought that would help speed development." The AT&T API Platform includesContent Provider Speeds Application Development AT&T API Platform cuts development time and costs

  13. Wind load comparison for the ASCE standard 7 and the Hanford site design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giller, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides calculations and discussions to compare Hanford Site wind load criteria with the current national standard for wind loads (ASCE 7, 1995). Site criteria uses the 1988 edition ASCE 7.

  14. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Ancillary Services in the United

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Services & Alternative Energy Options in the Indian Power Sector Jaquelin Cochran, Ph.D. , NREL (USA) 10 Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) North American Electric in Ancillary Services Markets · Wind and solar · Demand response · Storage · Distributed generation #12;Thank

  15. Estimating market potential for reducing customer peak loads through photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, J. [Citizens Advisory Panel, Central Islip, NY (United States); Perez, R. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past studies have quantified photovoltaics` (PV) peak load matching capability on a utility-wide scale. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the number of utility subloads (e.g., customers, substations) whose peak loads are well matched with solar availability. A simple tool based on the utility scale load-PV match is developed to estimate the market size of customer scale PV applications with high load-PV matches. Illustrative examples of customer owned PV economics are also provided. The authors show that (1) the market size of high load matching PV applications on the subload scale is significant even within utility systems whose load requirements are not particularly well matched with PV output; and (2) the cost of PV as a peak shaving resource for utility customers is approaching competitive levels.

  16. Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brokish, Kevin Martin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy penetration. Frequency-adaptive intelligent appliances are ...

  17. Shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Jack S

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) provides a method of measuring component performance and source power quality through a single point of entry in the power distribution system. A study was performed utilizing the NILM ...

  18. A framework for non-intrusive load monitoring and diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris, James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of electrical and electromechanical systems places increasing demands on monitoring and diagnostic techniques. The non-intrusive load monitor (NILM) provides a low-cost, low-maintenance way to perform ...

  19. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems significantly limit our ability to differentiate between control-related and non-control related differences in substation-level load shape data. The usefulness and accuracy of the results were hampered by operational problems encountered during the measurement period as well as in sufficient number of load research grade interval meters at one cooperative. Given the larger sample size at one electric cooperative and more statistically-robust results, there is some basis to suggest that the Adjusted Diversified Demand Factor (ADDF) values used by the CSP somewhat over-state the actual load reductions. Given the results and limitations of the M&V approach as implemented, we suggest several options for PJM to consider: (1) require load aggregators participating in ISODR programs to utilize formal PURPA-compliant load research samples in their M&V plans, and (2) continue developing lower cost M&V approaches for mass market load control programs that incorporate suggested improvements described in this study.

  20. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  1. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  2. What HERA May Provide?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  3. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that demonstrated the quantitative impact of WL on the number of cells (each Saltstone vault contains two cells) required to disposition all of the {approx}100 million gallons of DSS available in the tanks. This calculation revealed that the number of cells required over the range of 0.48 to 0.62 w/cm ratio (equivalent to a WL range of 591 to 666 mL/L) varies from 65 to 57 cells (33 to 29 vaults). The intent of this oversimplified example was to show the range of variation in vaults expected due to w/cm ratio rather than to estimate the actual number of vaults required. There is a tradeoff between the waste loading and the processing and performance properties of Saltstone. The performance properties improve in general as the w/cm ratio decreases whereas the waste loading is reduced at lower w/cm ratios resulting in a larger number of Saltstone vaults. The final performance and processing requirements of Saltstone will determine the maximum waste loading achievable.

  4. Loading and pre-loading processes generate a distinct siRNA population in Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi, E-mail: kazufumi.mochizuki@imba.oeaw.ac.at; Kurth, Henriette M.

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •The Tetrahymena Argonaute protein Twi1p binds to ?28–30-nt siRNAs called scnRNAs. •The size of scnRNAs is determined during a pre-loading process. •The 5? uracil bias of scnRNAs is attributed to pre-loading and loading processes. •The thermodynamic asymmetry of scnRNA duplex doesnot affect the guide strand decision. •scnRNAs may be produced non-sequentially from dsRNA substrates by Dicer. -- Abstract: The various properties of small RNAs, such as length, terminal nucleotide, thermodynamic asymmetry and duplex mismatches, can impact their sorting into different Argonaute proteins in diverse eukaryotes. The developmentally regulated 26- to 32-nt siRNAs (scnRNAs) are loaded to the Argonaute protein Twi1p and display a strong bias for uracil at the 5? end. In this study, we used deep sequencing to analyze loaded and unloaded populations of scnRNAs. We show that the size of the scnRNA is determined during a pre-loading process, whereas their 5? uracil bias is attributed to both pre-loading and loading processes. We also demonstrate that scnRNAs have a strong bias for adenine at the third base from the 3? terminus, suggesting that most scnRNAs are direct Dicer products. Furthermore, we show that the thermodynamic asymmetry of the scnRNA duplex does not affect the guide and passenger strand decision. Finally, we show that scnRNAs frequently have templated uracil at the last base without a strong bias for adenine at the second base indicating non-sequential production of scnRNAs from substrates. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the varying attributes of scnRNAs, which should help improve our understanding of the production and turnover of scnRNAs in vivo.

  5. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  6. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components such as power sources, loads,  transformers and components such as power sources, loads,  transformers and 

  7. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  8. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  9. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ellefson, Robert E. (Centerville, OH); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  10. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

  11. Probability of Potential Multi-Canister Overpack Loading System Drop of Proof Load in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of a probabilistic analysis of the potential for load drop during the load test of the K West Basin South Loadout Pit Gantry. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject load test of the gantry. The purpose of this calculation note is to document the probabilistic calculation of the per lift potential for drop of a test load by the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Loading System (MLS) during load testing at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The MLS subproject needs to load test the MLS in the K West Basin south loadout pit. To perform this test, a basket mockup weighing approximately 4,500 lb (125% of a fully loaded MCO basket accounting for water displacement) needs to be used for one or more load tests. The test load will comprise a standard basket lifting attachment with several ring-shaped steel segments to provide the required weight. The test load will exceed the K Basin Safety Analysis Report (WHC-SD-WM-SAR-062) (SAR) allowances for load drop in the K West Basin south loadout pit. This probabilistic calculation will be used as part of the basis for seeking U.S. Department of Energy approval to use an MLS test weight that exceeds SAR allowances.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrodynamic loading

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    loading High-Fidelity Hydrostructural Analysis of Ocean Renewable Power Company's (ORPC's) TidGen Turbine On March 19, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News,...

  13. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  15. Hybrid Solar Lighting Provides Energy Savings and Reduces Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Earl, Dennis Duncan [ORNL; Beshears, David L [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Parks, James Edgar [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Artificial lighting is the largest component of electricity use in commercial U.S. buildings. Hybrid solar lighting (HSL) provides an exciting new means of reducing energy consumption while also delivering significant ancillary benefits associated with natural lighting in buildings. As more than half of all federal facilities are in the Sunbelt region (defined as having an average direct solar radiation of greater than 4 kWh/m2/day) and as more than half of all square footage available in federal buildings is also in the Sunbelt, HSL is an excellent technology fit for federal facilities. The HSL technology uses a rooftop, 4-ft-wide dish and secondary mirror that track the sun throughout the day (Fig. 1). The collector system focuses the sunlight onto 127 optical fibers. The fibers serve as flexible light pipes and are connected to hybrid light fixtures that have special diffusion rods that spread out the light in all directions. One collector powers about eight hybrid light fixtures-which can illuminate about 1,000 square feet. The system tracks at 0.1 accuracy, required by the two-mirror geometry to keep the focused beam on the fiber bundle. When sunlight is plentiful, the optical fibers in the luminaires provide all or most of the light needed in an area. During times of little or no sunlight, a sensor controls the intensity of the artificial lamps to maintain a desired illumination level. Unlike conventional electric lamps, the natural light produces little to no waste heat and is cool to the touch. This is because the system's solar collector removes the infrared light-the part of the spectrum that generates a lot of the heat in conventional bulbs-from the sunlight.

  16. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  17. Structural load inventory database for the Kansas City federal complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Johnson, M.W.; Nakaki, D.K. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lynch, D.T.; Drury, M.A. [AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structural load inventory database (LID) has been developed to support configuration management at the DOE Kansas City Plant (KCP). The objective of the LID is to record loads supported by the plant structures and to provide rapid assessments of the impact of future facility modifications on structural adequacy. Development of the LID was initiated for the KCP`s Main Manufacturing Building. Field walkdowns were performed to determine all significant loads supported by the structure, including the weight of piping, service equipment, etc. These loads were compiled in the LID. Structural analyses for natural phenomena hazards were performed in accordance with UCRL-15910. Software to calculate demands on the structural members due to gravity loads, total demands including both gravity and seismic loads, and structural member demand-to-capacity ratios were also developed and integrated into the LID. Operation of the LID is menu-driven. The LID user has options to review and print existing loads and corresponding demand-to-capacity ratios, and to update the supported loads and demand-to-capacity ratios for any future facility modifications.

  18. Effective Load Management for the City of College Station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hecox, O. D.; Bauer, V.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aspects a. Complete energy survey of all faci- lities whose utilities the city pays to Valerie Bauer Chairman College Station Energy Hanagement Committee College Station, TX establish load reduction possibilities. b. Sub-station load surveillance... for tech- nical assistance, resulting in Orlin D. Hecox assist- ing throughout the summer. Several meetings were arranged in June with city department heads to provide them with billing histories and meter sheets on their facilities and to outline...

  19. Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda IBRAHIM MATTA y the load across the set of candidate routes. In this paper, we propose the use of load profiling as an attractive alternative to load balancing for routing guaranteed bandwidth VCs (flows). Load profiling

  20. Nitrogen Loading and Attenuation in the West Falmouth Harbor Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    in nitrogen loading due to the opening of the wastewater treatment plant and increased septic inputs Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and septic tanks arrive in the form of plumes of higher nitrogen. The treatment plant provides secondary treatment to the incoming wastewater but is not designed to provide

  1. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The PNCA defines the planning and operation of seventeen U.S. Pacific Northwest utilities and other parties with generating facilities within the region's hydroelectric (hydro) system. The hydroregulation study used for the 2004 White Book incorporates measures from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) Biological Opinion dated December 2000, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 2000 Biological Opinion (2000 FCRPS BiOps) for the Snake River and Columbia River projects. These measures include: (1) Increased flow augmentation for juvenile fish migrations in the Snake and Columbia rivers in the spring and summer; (2) Mandatory spill requirements at the Lower Snake and Columbia dams to provide for non-turbine passage routes for juvenile fish migrants; and (3) Additional flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon in the spring; The hydroregulation criteria for this analysis includes the following: (1) Detailed Operation Plan operation for Treaty reservoirs for Operating Year (OY) 2004; (2) PNCA planning criteria for OY 2004; and (3) Juvenile fish bypass spill levels for 2000 FCRPS BiOps implementation. The 2004 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2004 White Book analysis updates the 2003 White Book. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2006 through 2015. The study shows the Federal s

  2. Notes2Providers.doc -1-Notes to Retail Providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    providers that purchase electricity from a power pool that submits an Annual Report to the Energy CommissionNotes2Providers.doc -1- Notes to Retail Providers February 2003 Power Source Disclosure an energy mix or fuel mix different than the California Mix, (Net System Power)i . As a retail provider you

  3. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for ...

  4. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  5. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs...

  6. Electrical and Production Load Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  7. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  8. Advanced nonintrusive load monitoring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichakool, Warit, 1977-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need for flexible, inexpensive metering technologies that can be deployed in many different monitoring scenarios. Individual loads may be expected to compute information about their power consumption. Utility ...

  9. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  10. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  11. Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L. M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  12. Recovery Act: Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects. 1) An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing. 2) A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution. 3) Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  13. UNIT TYPE MILITARY PROVIDES IIT PROVIDES (Navy/Marines)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    UNIT TYPE MILITARY PROVIDES IIT PROVIDES Naval (Navy/Marines) 4 year­Type 1 Full tuition and fees. Room and board* for all 4 years. Navy (Must be currently enlisted personnel) STA-21 Seaman to Admiral

  14. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

  15. Sandia Energy - Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Resources Wind Software Downloads Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Sandia Wind...

  16. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  17. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  18. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, J.E.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator which provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal. 8 figs.

  20. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If successful, the technique developed will provide a means of accurately and reproducibly loading a priori specified amounts of metals onto zeolites. In addition, we will try to relate the physico-chemical properties of the catalyst to'its catalytic activity.... The zeolite powder is placed in the round bottomed flask. The solution containing the cat. 'on to be exchanged is poured over zhe zeolite, and the slurry is stirred with a magnetic stirring bar. The temperature between the heating mantle and the flask...

  1. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenssen, P.D. (Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Aas (Norway). Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  3. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

  4. Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes how an electric utility system is modeled by using load flow techniques to establish a validated power flow case suitable for simulating and evaluating alternative system scenarios. Details of the load flow model are supported by additional technical and descriptive information intended to correlate modeled electrical system parameters with the corresponding physical equipment that makes up the system. Pictures and technical specifications of system equipment from the utility, public, or vendor are provided to support this association for many system components. The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load flow parameters and other electrical system information.

  5. New Aerodynamics Simulations Provide Better Understanding of Wind Plant Underperformance and Loading (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) develop a high-fidelity large-eddy simulation model designed to predict the performance of large wind plants with a higher degree of accuracy than current models.

  6. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKelvey, Thomas E. (Solana Beach, CA); Guarnieri, Joseph J. (San Diego, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  7. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKelvey, T.E.; Guarnieri, J.J.

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  8. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  9. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The renewable supply may comprise, for example, a photovoltaic power supply or a wind-based power supply.

  10. Ancillary service details: Voltage control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Voltage control is accomplished by managing reactive power on an alternating-current power system. Reactive power can be produced and absorbed by both generation and transmission equipment. Reactive-power devices differ substantially in the magnitude and speed of response and in their capital costs. System operators, transmission owners, generators, customers, power marketers, and government regulators need to pay close attention to voltage control as they restructure the U.S. electricity industry. Voltage control can affect reliability and commerce in three ways: (1) Voltages must be maintained within an acceptable range for both customer and power-system equipment to function properly. (2) The movement of reactive power consumes transmission resources, which limits the ability to move real power and worsens congestion. (3) The movement of reactive power results in real-power losses. When generators are required to supply excessive amounts of reactive power, their real-power production must be curtailed. These opportunity costs are not currently compensated for in most regions. Current tariffs are based on embedded costs. These embedded-cost tariffs average about $0.51/MWh, equivalent to $1.5 billion annually for the United States as a whole. Although this cost is low when compared with the cost of energy, it still aggregates to a significant amount of money. This report takes a basic look at why the power system requires reactive power (an appendix explains the fundamentals of real and reactive power). The report then examines the various types of generation and transmission resources used to supply reactive power and to control voltage. Finally it discusses how these resources are deployed and paid for in several reliability regions around the country. As the U.S. electricity industry is restructured, the generation, transmission, and system-control equipment and functions that maintain voltages within the appropriate ranges are being deintegrated.

  11. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Ancillary Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-liquid Interface Cell High pressure (200 MPa)high Temperature (300C) neutron reflectivity measurements 09 - SPEAR Jarek Majewski jarek@lanl.gov Electrochemical...

  12. MODELING AND CONTROL OF THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analyt- ical models) is well matched to the role of load following. Re- search into the behavior of TCLs began with the work was then employed in a minimum variance control law to demonstrate the load following capability of a population

  13. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve #12;1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve #12;What are they? How do you make one? #12;Describes

  14. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve 1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve What are they? How do you make one? Describes the percent of time a flow rate

  15. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew (Clifton Park, NY); Steigerwald, Robert Louis (Burnt Hills, NY); Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Burnt Hills, NY)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  16. Thermal loading study for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of sensitivity analyses designed to assist the test planners in focusing their in-situ measurements on parameters that appear to be important to waste isolation. Additionally, the study provides a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of certain thermal management options. A decision on thermal loading is a critical part of the scientific and engineering basis for evaluating regulatory compliance of the potential repository for waste isolation. To show, with reasonable assurance, that the natural and engineered barriers will perform adequately under expected repository conditions (thermally perturbed) will require an integrated approach based on thermal testing (laboratory, and in-situ), natural analog observations, and analytic modeling. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needed input to assist in the planning of the thermal testing program. Additionally, designers required information on the viability of various thermal management concepts. An approximately 18-month Thermal Loading Study was conducted from March, 1994 until September 30, 1995 to address these issues. This report documents the findings of that study. 89 refs., 71 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit; Sun, Yannan

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the behavior of populations of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of these demand response programs. In this paper, an aggregated model is proposed for a class of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs). The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. However, an accurate characterization of the collective dynamics however requires the aggregate model to have a high state space dimension. Most of the existing model reduction techniques require the stability of the underlying system which does not hold for the proposed aggregated model. In this work, a novel model reduction approach is developed for the proposed aggregated model, which can significantly reduce its complexity with small performance loss. The original and the reducedorder aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D, which is a realistic open source distribution simulation software. Index Terms – demand response, aggregated model, ancillary

  18. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  19. Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  20. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  1. Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Southern California Edison is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing...

  2. Smart Domestic Appliances Provide Flexibility for Sustainable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    benefits and difficulties associated with smart grid appliances. The presenter discusses demand response and load management and how users of smart grid can benefit renewable...

  3. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  4. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

  5. Prognostic Control and Load Survivability in Shipboard Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Laurence J.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , 650VDC, and AC loads from 800VDC power converters. The four zones on the IPS are energized from PCM4?s through two DC buses. The two DC buses are labeled as the port and starboard buses. The power flow is radial and it flows from the bus directly.../Starboard Split Bus Mode provides power by opening breakers to split the ring in half. The Port/Starboard Split Bus Mode divides the ship into an upper region and lower region which generators 1MTG and 1ATG work together to energize loads connected to the star...

  6. Influence Of Lateral Load Distributions On Pushover Analysis Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colajanni, P.; Potenzone, B. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Universita di Messina, Contrada Di Dio, S. Agata, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of two simple load distributions for pushover analysis recently proposed by the authors is investigated through a comparative study, involving static and dynamic analyses of seismic response of eccentrically braced frames. It is shown that in the upper floors only multimodal pushover procedures provide results close to the dynamic profile, while the proposed load patterns are always conservative in the lower floors. They over-estimate the seismic response less than the uniform distribution, representing a reliable alternative to the uniform or more sophisticated adaptive procedures proposed by seismic codes.

  7. The Effect of Cognitive Load on Human Mate Choice in Online Dating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Martin

    2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    time spent viewing a profile, the number of times a certain area is fixated upon and the sections of a profile that catch the eye first. 61 participants between the ages of 18 and 29 provided data and the results of three 2 (Condition: Load vs. No Load...

  8. Experimental frequency-dependent rotordynamic coefficients for a load-on-pad, high-speed, flexible-pivot tilting-pad bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez Colmenares, Luis Emigdio

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis provides experimental frequency dependent stiffness and damping coefficient results for a high-speed, lightly loaded, flexible-pivot tilting-pad bearing, with a load-on-pad configuration. Test conditions include four shaft speeds (6000...

  9. Methods and apparatus for reduction of asymmetric rotor loads in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing load and providing yaw alignment in a wind turbine includes measuring displacements or moments resulting from asymmetric loads on the wind turbine. These measured displacements or moments are used to determine a pitch for each rotor blade to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading and a favorable yaw orientation to reduce pitch activity. Yaw alignment of the wind turbine is adjusted in accordance with the favorable yaw orientation and the pitch of each rotor blade is adjusted in accordance with the determined pitch to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading.

  10. An all-optical ion-loading technique for scalable microtrap architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Hendricks; D. M. Grant; P. F. Herskind; A. Dantan; M. Drewsen

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental demonstration of a novel all-optical technique for loading ion traps, that has particular application to microtrap architectures, is presented. The technique is based on photo-ionisation of an atomic beam created by pulsed laser ablation of a calcium target, and provides improved temporal control compared to traditional trap loading methods. Ion loading rates as high as 125 ions per second have so far been observed. Also described are observations of trap loading where Rydberg state atoms are photo-ionised by the ion Doppler cooling laser.

  11. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  12. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

    2009-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

  13. FY 93 Thermal Loading Systems Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.F. Saterlie

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Thermal Loading Systems Study being conducted by the is to identify a thermal strategy that will meet the performance requirements for waste isolation and will be safe and licensable. Specifically, both postclosure and preclosure performance standards must be met by the thermal loading strategy ultimately selected. In addition cost and schedule constraints must be considered. The Systems Engineering approach requires structured, detailed analyses that will ultimately provide the technical basis for the development, integration, and evaluation of the overall system, not just a subelement of that system. It is also necessary that the systems study construct options from within the range that are allowed within the current legislative and programmatic framework. For example the total amount of fuel that can legally be emplaced is no more than 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) which is composed of 63,000 MTU spent fuel and 7,000 MTU of defense high level waste. It is the intent of this study to begin the structured development of the basis for a thermal loading decision. However, it is recognized that to be able to make a final decision on thermal loading will require underground data on the effects of heating as well as a suite of ''validated'' models. It will be some time before these data and models are available to the program. Developing a final, thermal loading decision will, therefore, be an iterative process. In the interim, the objective of the thermal loading systems study has been to utilize the information available to assess the impact of thermal loading. Where technical justification exists, recommendations to narrow the range of thermal loading options can be made. Additionally, recommendations as to the type of testing and accuracy of the testing needed to establish the requisite information will be made. A constraint on the ability of the study to select an option stems from the lack of primary hard data, uncertainties in derived data, unsubstantiated models, and the inability to fully consider simultaneously coupled processes. As such, the study must rely on idealized models and available data to compare the thermal loading options. This report presents the findings of the FY 1993 MGDS Thermal Loading Systems Study. The objectives of the study were to: (1) if justified, place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading that is ''too hot''; (2) ''grade'' or evaluate the performance as a function of thermal loading of the potential repository to contain high level spent nuclear fuel against performance criteria; (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability; and (4) recommend the additional types of tests and/or analyses to be conducted to provide the necessary information for a thermal loading selection.

  14. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauser, Aaron D. (Washington, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB); Coldren, Dana R. (Fairbury, IL)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  16. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  17. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  18. A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.

    A NOVEL APPROACH TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs... minimized. Because of the difficully in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly...

  19. Communication Load Reduction for Neural Network Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    the total amount of communication load, followed by a placement of partitions onto proces- sors 3]. We

  20. Load Management DSM: Past, Present & Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, E.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Several current load control programs have discovered that the best FIGURE 6 I marketing method is a "direct mailing" that gets across the message "Load Management will help keep everyone's electrical rates ~ low." The offer of the rebate may catch... thermostat was satisfied or whether the LCR prevented the electrical demand. At the 1993 DA/DSM conference, Scientific-Atlanta introduced the industry's first Load Management Interface &MI) circuit board which fits in a standard load control receiver...

  1. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  2. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    become apparent that dynamic, or sud- denly applied loads, present a different type of problem to the engineer. Wind loads on tall structures, pile driving, nuclear blasts, and many other familiar loading conditions cannot be de- scribed or handled... an earthquake or nuclear blast. Also under this category of loading is the pulse which would be purposely induced to fail the soil structure for the purpose of excavation or pile driving. As part of a broader research project concerned with pile dri- ving...

  3. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  4. Detecting Load Imbalance on the Cray XT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @cray.com) © Cray Inc. Slide 10 Profile with Load Distribution by Groups Table 1: Profile by Function GroupDetecting Load Imbalance on the Cray XT Luiz DeRose Programming Environment Director Cray Inc. ldr@cray.com #12;Slide 2 Motivation for Load Imbalance Analysis Increasing system software and architecture

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  6. Beam heat load in superconducting wigglers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casalbuoni, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The beam heat load is a fundamental input parameter for the design of superconducting wigglers since it is needed to specify the cooling power. In this presentation I will review the possible beam heat load sources and the measurements of beam heat load performed and planned onto the cold vacuum chambers installed at different synchrotron light sources.

  7. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  8. AGN Jet Mass Loading and Truncation by Stellar Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Hubbard; Eric G. Blackman

    2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Active Galactic Nuclei can produce extremely powerful jets. While tightly collimated, the scale of these jets and the stellar density at galactic centers implies that there will be many jet/star interactions, which can mass-load the jet through stellar winds. Previous work employed modest wind mass outflow rates, but this does not apply when mass loading is provided by a small number of high mass-loss stars. We construct a framework for jet mass-loading by stellar winds for a broader spectrum of wind mass-loss rates than has been previously considered. Given the observed stellar mass distributions in galactic centers, we find that even highly efficient (0.1 Eddington luminosity) jets from supermassive black holes of masses $M_{BH} \\la 10^4M_{\\odot}$ are rapidly mass loaded and quenched by stellar winds. For $10^4 M_{\\odot}jets is independent of the jet's mechanical luminosity. Stellar wind mass-loading is unable to quench efficient jets from more massive engines, but can account for the observed truncation of the inefficient M87 jet, and implies a baryon dominated composition on scales $\\ga 2$ kpc therein even if the jet is initially pair plasma dominated.

  9. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the potential for water heaters to provide incremental and decremental reserves for load and wind balancing The Power Committee first discussed the potential for some loads to provide ancillary services nearly two this potential, and the Council has contributed to one of several pilot programs in the region that are beginning

  10. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  11. Diagnostic indicators for shipboard systems using non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeNucci, Thomas W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field studies have demonstrated that the Non-Intrusive Load monitor (NILM) can provide real-time indication of the condition of electro-mechanical systems on board naval vessels. Results from data collected from engineering ...

  12. Benefits of Industrial Boiler Control and Economic Load Allocation at AMOCO Chemicals, Decatur, Alabama 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the economic benefits realized by Amoco's Decatur plant from the utilization of Honeywell's Industrial Boiler Control solution and Turbo Economic Load Allocation packages on an integrated four...

  13. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  14. AdaptLoad: e ective balancing in clustered web servers under transient load conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riska, Alma

    manner [4, 17]. In this paper we concentrate on e#11;ective load sharing for a clustered web server makes e#11;ective request scheduling a diÆcult task that traditional load balancing methods failAdaptLoad: e#11;ective balancing in clustered web servers under transient load conditions #3; Alma

  15. Balancing load under large and fast load changes in distributed computing systems A case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthomieu, Bernard

    have been written about load sharing or load balancing (see e.g. [2] for references), but our sharing'' [7] technique. Load transfer can be implemented by moving processes at the time they are created (placement), but this method would not handle load implosions. Instead, we will use preemptive migrations

  16. Dynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemper, Alfons

    server during runtime. Figure 1 shows the load curve of a typical interactive service. In the morningDynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load Forecasting Daniel-organizing infrastructures to react proactively. For this pur- pose we present two techniques: Short-term load forecasting

  17. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  18. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARD ACCOUNTING SYSTEMMeso-ScalePPO Preferred Provider

  19. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  20. Fire loading calculations for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myott, C.F.

    1994-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Fire loading analyses were provided for the N Reactor Fuel Supply Buildings 3712, 3716, 303A, 303B, 303E, 303G, and 303K. Fire loading calculations, maximum temperatures, and fire durations were provided to support the safety analyses documentation. The ``combustibles`` for this document include: wood, cardboard, cloth, and plastic, and does not include the uranium and fuel assembly loading. The information in this document will also be used to support the fire hazard analysis for the same buildings, therefore, it is assumed that sprinkler systems do not work, or the maximum possible fire loss is assumed.

  1. Providing caching abstractions for web applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Priya, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Web-based applications are used by millions of users daily, and as a result a key challenge facing web application designers is scaling their applications to handle this load. A crucial component of this challenge is scaling ...

  2. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  3. Core/corona modeling of diode-imploded annular loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, R.E.; Guillory, J.U.

    1980-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of a tenuous exterior plasma corona with anomalous resistivity on the compression and heating of a hollow, collisional aluminum z-pinch plasma are predicted by a one-dimensional code. As the interior ('core') plasma is imploded by its axial current, the energy exchange between core and corona determines the current partition. Under the conditions of rapid core heating and compression, the increase in coronal current provides a trade-off between radial acceleration and compression, which reduces the implosion forces and softens the pitch. Combined with a heuristic account of energy and momentum transport in the strongly coupled core plasma and an approximate radiative loss calculation including Al line, recombination and Bremsstrahlung emission, the current model can provide a reasonably accurate description of imploding annular plasma loads that remain azimuthally symmetric. The implications for optimization of generator load coupling are examined.

  4. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  5. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

  7. Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, J. D.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RESIDENTIAL AIR CONDITIONER DIRECT LOAD CONTROL "ENERGY PARTNERS PROGRAMn John D. Cook Supervisor Houston ABSTRACT Demand side management programs like Energy Partners can provide an effective peak reducing capability which within a.... In this partnership the customer allows HLfP to install a I switch on his/her air conditioner or heat pump and i periodically cycle the unit off during the hottest summer 1 days. In return the customer benefits by receiving an incentive payment, as well...

  8. An alternative to the determination of the effective zero point in instrumented indentation: use of the slope of the indentation curve at indentation load values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the slope of the indentation curve at indentation load values P. Brammer1,2,* , O. Bartier1 , X. Hernot1 , G on instrumented indentation rely on the knowledge of the indentation load-penetration depth curve corresponding which is based on the slope of the indentation curve at indentation load values and provides accurate

  9. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  10. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  11. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

  12. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  13. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  14. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  15. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioner Testing in WECC,” IEEE Power  Engineering Air Conditioner Modeling, WECC Load Modeling Task  Force in power system studies: WECC progress update,? Power and 

  16. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lights HVAC Figure 15 Demand Response and Market AnalysisHVAC Load % of Total Hour of Day Figure 16 Demand Response and Market

  17. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  18. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  19. Analysis and Synthesis of Load Forecasting Data for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steckler, N.; Florita, A.; Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As renewable energy constitutes greater portions of the generation fleet, the importance of modeling uncertainty as part of integration studies also increases. In pursuit of optimal system operations, it is important to capture not only the definitive behavior of power plants, but also the risks associated with systemwide interactions. This research examines the dependence of load forecast errors on external predictor variables such as temperature, day type, and time of day. The analysis was utilized to create statistically relevant instances of sequential load forecasts with only a time series of historic, measured load available. The creation of such load forecasts relies on Bayesian techniques for informing and updating the model, thus providing a basis for networked and adaptive load forecast models in future operational applications.

  20. A more efficient formulation for computation of the maximum loading points in electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, H.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Electrical Engineering; Jean-Jumeau, R. [Electricite d`Haita, Port-au-Prince (Haiti)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a more efficient formulation for computation of the maximum loading points. A distinguishing feature of the new formulation is that it is of dimension (n + 1), instead of the existing formulation of dimension (2n + 1), for n-dimensional load flow equations. This feature makes computation of the maximum loading points very inexpensive in comparison with those required in the existing formulation. A theoretical basis for the new formulation is provided. The new problem formulation is derived by using a simple reparameterization scheme and exploiting the special properties of the power flow model. Moreover, the proposed test function is shown to be monotonic in the vicinity of a maximum loading point. Therefore, it allows one to monitor the approach to maximum loading points during the solution search process. Simulation results on a 234-bus system are presented.

  1. Effects of dynamic conditions and sheave efficiency on hook load, derrick load, and line tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Gregory Robert

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Approved as to style and content by: Hans...

  2. FY 93 thermal loading systems study final report: Volume 2. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to meet the overall performance requirements for the proposed Mined Geology Disposal System at Yucca Mountain, Nevada requires the two major subsystem (natural barriers and engineered barriers) to positively contribute to containment and radionuclide isolation. In addition to the postclosure performance the proposed repository must meet preclosure requirements of safety, retrievability, and operability. Cost and schedule were also considered. The thermal loading strategy chosen may significantly affect both the postclosure and preclosure performance of the proposed repository. Although the current Site Characterization Plan reference case is 57 kilowatts (kW)/acre, other thermal loading strategies (different areal mass loadings) have been proposed which possess both advantages and disadvantages. The objectives of the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study were to (1) place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading regime that is ``too hot`` and the loading regime that is ``too cold``, to (2) ``grade`` or evaluate the performance, as a function of thermal loading, of the repository to contain high level wastes against performance criteria and to (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability. Additionally, the effort was to (4) identify important uncertainties that need to be resolved by tests and/or analyses in order to complete a performance assessment on the effects of thermal loading. The FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study was conducted from December 1, 1992 to December 30, 1993 and this final report provides the findings of the study. Volume 2 consists of 10 appendices which contain the following: Waste Stream Analysis; Waste Package Design Inputs; Subsurface Design Inputs; Thermal-Hydrologic Model Inputs; Near-Field Calculations; Far-Field; Reliability of Electronics as a Function of Temperature; Cost Analysis Details; Geochemistry; and Areas of Uncertainty in Thermal Loading.

  3. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  4. Thermionic converter in load-switching mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel'baum, M.A.; Es'kov, V.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical equivalent circuit is proposed for a thermionic electrogenerating element. It is suitable for calculation of transients in load-switching mode. Formulas are given for estimating circuit parameters. A sample numerical calculation is given for the transient between no-load and short-circuit regimes. The results may be employed to identify experimental data in the frequency domain.

  5. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  6. REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS EttoreBompard, Enrico of the nodal prices in competitive electricity markets based on the Pool paradigm. Such prices focus of the paper is on the explicit evaluation of the impactsof the reactive load onthenodal real

  7. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Wind induced torsional loads on structures A. Kareem Department of Civil Engineering, University degrees of freedom. If the resultant wind forces do not coincide with the centre of mass at each floor is also sensitive to the ratio of torsional to translational frequencies. There is no existing wind load

  8. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  9. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  10. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  11. Plug-Load Control and Behavioral Change Research in GSA Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Sheppy, M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) owns and leases over 354 million square feet (ft2) of space in over 9,600 buildings [1]. GSA is a leader among federal agencies in aggressively pursuing energy efficiency (EE) opportunities for its facilities and installing renewable energy (RE) systems to provide heating, cooling, and power to these facilities. According to several energy assessments of GSA's buildings conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), plug-loads account for approximately 21% of the total electricity consumed within a standard GSA Region 3 office building. This study aims to provide insight on how to effectively manage plug-load energy consumption and attain higher energy and cost savings for plug-loads. As GSA improves the efficiency of its building stock, plug-loads will become an even greater portion of its energy footprint.

  12. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  13. Wind loading on tracking and field-mounted solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L.M.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all of the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three, or possibly more, seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  14. A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

    , according to the surveys in Hong Kong and elsewhere, the direct measurement of building cooling load cannot always provide reliable measurements of building cooling load in practice due to the noises, outliers and systematic errors in measuring the water... ? is the water density (kg/L). In practice, w M is usually measured by water flow meters and and are measured by temperature sensors. It is known that these measurements are easily corrupted by measurement noises, outliers or systematic errors...

  15. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant.

  16. Microturbines - an economic and reliability evaluation for commercial, residential, and remote load applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.W.; Gifford, A.H.; Krupa, T.J.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most distributed self-generation operates base loaded and in parallel with the electric utility system (1) to minimize peak loads, (2) to improve reliability, (3) to eliminate the need for reserve margin (standby) and (4) may or may not sell back excess generation. This paper examines the economics of distributed microturbine generation operating isolated from the electric utility system and having enough reserve margin to either match or improve the existing reliability of service provided by central station generation and the T and D system. This analysis shows the isolated operation of microturbines with a reserve margin can provide the same or a higher level of reliability as the electric utility, yet the costs can be lower. Sensitivity analysis for different investment costs, O and M costs, fuel costs, reliability, load shapes (load factors), and alternative fuels were performed and the economic comparisons are made in terms of {cents}/kWh. This analysis shows a strong economic preference in applying microturbines to high load factor commercial loads. The cost of standby (from the utility) was found to be from .52 to 2.09{cents}/kWh greater than if the microturbine generation provided its own standby through a built in reserve margin.

  17. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Load Resource Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Load Resource Study (Study) represents the compilation of the load and contract obligations, contact purchases, and resource data necessary for developing BPA's wholesale power rates. The results of this Study are used to: (1) provide data to determine resource costs for the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-02; (2) provide data to derive billing determinants for the revenue forecast in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS), WP-07-FS-BPA-05; (3) provide load and resource data for use in the Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-04; and (4) provide regional hydro data for use in the secondary revenue forecast for the Market Price Forecast Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-03. This Study provides a synopsis of BPA's load resource analyses. This Study illustrates how each component is completed, how components relate to each other, and how each component fits into the rate development process. Details and results supporting this Study are contained in the Load Resource Study Documentation, WP-07-FS-BPA-01A.

  18. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Load Resource Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Load Resource Study (Study) represents the compilation of the loads, sales, contracts, and resource data necessary for developing BPA wholesale power rates. The results of this Study are used to: (1) provide base data to determine resource costs for the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02; (2) provide regional hydro data for use in the secondary revenue forecast for the Market Power Study, WP-07-E-BPA-03; (3) provide base data to derive billing determinants for the revenue forecast in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS), WP-07-E-BPA-05; and (4) provide load and resource data for use in calculating risk in the Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04. This Study provides a synopsis of BPA's load resource analyses. This Study illustrates how each component is completed, how components relate to each other, and how each component fits into the rate development process. Details and results supporting this Study are contained in the Load Resource Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A.

  19. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  20. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Howell, John [University of Glasgow

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated load cell data; (8) hardware and software implementation for process load cell data collection; (9) costs associated with unattended monitoring of load cells (for both operator and inspector) weighed against the potential benefits of having access to such data; (10) results from field tests of load cell data collection systems in operating facilities; and (11) use of unattended load cell data to increase efficiency of on-site inspection schedules and activities.

  1. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  2. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  3. General solutions for thermopiezoelectrics with various holes under thermal loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    induced by thermal loads. The loads may be uniform remote heat ¯ow, point heat source and temperature elastic plate with an hole of various shapes subjected to remote uniform mechanical loading. For plane

  4. Psychosocial mediators of ethnic disparities in Allostatic Load /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomfohr, Lianne Marie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Allostatic Load A dissertation submitted in partialPartial Associations between Posited Mediators with Ethnicity and Allostatic Load……………………………………………………………………………………Partial Associations between Posited Mediators with Ethnicity and Allostatic Load

  5. axial compressive load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  6. axial loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  7. axial loaded mri: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  8. axial compressive loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  9. Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

  10. Load-follow control simulation with optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Man-Sung; Christenson, J.M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the simulation of load-follow control operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the system model needs to describe both primary and secondary system behaviors, because the load-change signal in the secondary system delivers a change in the primary system through the thermal-hydraulic interactions in the steam generator. In this study, the characteristics of load-follow control for a PWR were investigated using a one-dimensional core model combined with a simplified nuclear steam supply system model using optimization. The overall system model includes one-dimensional core neutronics with all the space-dependent feedback effects, Xe-I dynamics, core thermal balances, primary loop thermal balances, and steam generator dynamic responses to turbine load changes. The final system equations were manipulated for the lumped parameter representations by using the model expansion technique for the core model.

  11. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  12. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  13. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  14. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much disturbances is that modeling the voltage sensitivity of the load is far more important than the  frequency 

  15. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Team

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures.

  16. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description.

  17. 24th Annual BIA Tribal Providers Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The BIA Tribal Providers Conference is the second largest conference in Alaska, providing opportunities for tribal leaders, native corporations and rural representatives to connect with federal...

  18. Community Renewable Energy Deployment Provides Replicable Examples...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Renewable Energy Deployment Provides Replicable Examples of Clean Energy Projects Community Renewable Energy Deployment Provides Replicable Examples of Clean Energy...

  19. FUPWG Spring 2010 Providence: Washington Update | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Spring 2010 Providence: Washington Update FUPWG Spring 2010 Providence: Washington Update Presentation covers an update on Washington and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal...

  20. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9,...

  1. Microstructure evolution during tensile loading histories of a polyurea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinaldi, R.G.; Boyce, M.C.; Weigand, S.J.; Londono, D.J.; Guise, M.W. (MIT); (NWU); (Dupont)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution in the hard/soft domain microstructure of an elastomeric-like polyurea during different tensile loading histories was studied using in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The nonlinear stress-strain behavior is initially stiff with a rollover yield to a more compliant response; unloading is highly nonlinear showing substantial hysteresis while also exhibiting significant recovery. Reloading reveals a substantially more compliant 'softened' behavior and dramatically reduced hysteresis. WAXS peaks monitor characteristic dimensions of regular features within the hard domains; the peak location remains unchanged with tensile deformation indicating no separation of the internal structure within a domain, but the peak intensity becomes anisotropic with deformation evolving in a reversible manner consistent with orientation due to stretch. The SAXS profiles provide information between major hard domains. SAXS peaks are found to shift with tensile loading in a relatively affine manner up to a tensile true strain of {approx}0.4, which, using a Bragg reduction to aid interpretation, reveals an axial increase and a transverse decrease in interdomain spacings; this evolution is reversible for strains less than {approx}0.4. Increasing axial strain beyond a true strain of {approx}0.4 is accompanied by a dramatic, progressive, and irreversible reduction in axial Bragg spacing, indicating a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure. A four-point pattern is seen to develop during stretching. The breakdown in networked structure during a first load cycle gives a new structure for subsequent load cycles, which is seen to evolve in a reversible manner for strains less than or equal to the prior maximum strain. However, for strains exceeding the prior maximum strain excursion, additional breakdown is found. These SAXS results show that a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure is a governing mechanism for the large dissipation (hysteresis) loops of the first load cycle and are also responsible for the softened reloading response. The absence of structure breakdown during subsequent load cycles corresponds to the substantially reduced hysteresis loops as well as the stable softened behavior. DMA data on pristine and previously deformed samples show a more compliant storage modulus in the predeformed sample, supporting the softened cyclic stress-strain data and the structural breakdown observed in the SAXS; the loss modulus was unchanged with deformation, which correlates with the lossy features measured in DMA with time-dependent viscosity rather than losses due to structural breakdown.

  2. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  3. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Discussion Series on PURPA Related Topics is composed of five volumes: Metering, Billing, Information to Customers, Load Management Techniques and Master Metering. These reports are based on twenty-five Demonstration and Implementation projects sponsored and directed during the past five years by the US Department of Energy, Office of Utility Systems. Each of the topics bears directly on one or more of the federal standards contained in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This volume, Load Management Techniques, relates primarily to the Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3. The experiences related in this report deal, in part, with the procedures and equipment which are affected when time-of-day rates are implemented. One goal of this report is to describe how people in a variety of settings have dealt with the many practical issues in load management. Another is to highlight the lessons and summarize the experiences of the Project participants. This report does not stand as a manual nor provide prescriptive guidelines on how to deal with the topic. Rather it offers an account for those charged with the responsibility of implementing PURPA requirements to learn from the insights and problems which occurred during the Rate Demonstration projects.

  4. 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study emulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement as completed by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years 1991--92 through 2010--11. The study shows the federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electrical demand and monthly maximum generating capability -- capacity -- for OY 1991--92, 1996--97, 2001--02 and 2010--11. The federal system and regional monthly capacity surpluses/deficits are summarized for 20 operating years. 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Novel Electrolyzer Applications: Providing More Than Just Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichman, J.; Harrison, K.; Peters, M.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be used for many different applications and can be integrated into many different system architectures. One of the methods for producing the hydrogen is to use an electrolyzer. This work explores the flexibility of electrolyzers to behave as responsive loads. Experimental tests were performed for a proton exchange membrane (PEM) and an alkaline electrolyzer to assess the operational flexibility of electrolyzers to behave as responsive loads. The results are compared to the operational requirements to participate in end-user facility energy management, transmission and distribution system support, and wholesale electricity market services. Electrolyzers begin changing their electricity demand within milliseconds of a set-point change. The settling time after a set-point change is on the order of seconds. It took 6.5 minutes for the PEM unit to execute a cold start and 1 minute to turn off. In addition, a frequency disturbance correction test was performed and electrolyzers were able to accelerate the speed that the grid frequency can be restored. Electrolyzers acting as demand response devices can respond sufficiently fast and for a long enough duration to participate in all of the applications explored. Furthermore, electrolyzers can be operated to support a variety of applications while also providing hydrogen for industrial processes, transportation fuel, or heating fuel. Additionally, favorable operating properties and a variety of potential system architectures showcase the flexibility of electrolyzer systems.

  6. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  7. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  8. amplitude dynamic loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University February 6, 2001 Abstract We present the load-calculus, used to model dynamic loading, and prove it sound. The calculus extends the polymorphic -calculus with a...

  9. Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading...

  10. acute acid loading an: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 queries Meagher, Mary 29 An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid Engineering Websites Summary: An Automatic Load Sharing Approach...

  11. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  12. Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar Cells Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar...

  13. Activity Stream - NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data 22 days ago harvest created the dataset NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data 1 month ago harvest created...

  14. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA's Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem. The 1999 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix (available electronically only) detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 2000-01 through 2009-10. The study shows the Federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electricity demand, monthly energy demand, monthly energy generation, and monthly maximum generating capability--capacity--for OY 2000-01, 2004-05, and 2009-10. The Federal system and regional monthly capacity surplus/deficit projections are summarized for 10 operating years. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for wh

  15. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1993-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.

  16. 2012 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The White Book is a planning analysis produced by BPA that informs BPA of its load and resource conditions for sales and purchases. The White Book provides a 10-year look at the expected obligations and resources in the Federal system and PNW region. The White Book is used as a planning tool for the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) studies, as an information tool for customers and regional interests, and as a publication of information utilized by other planning entities for their analyses. The White Book is not used to guide day-to-day operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) or determine BPA revenues or rates.

  17. Neutrino-Driven Mass Loading of GRMHD Outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Levinson

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A GRMHD model of disk outflows with neutrino-driven mass ejection is presented. The model is used to calculate the structure of the outflow in the sub-slow magnetosonic region and the mass loading of the outflow, under conditions anticipated in the central engines of gamma-ray bursts. It is concluded that magnetic launching of ultra-relativistic polar outflows is in principle possible along low inclination field lines (with respect to the symmetry axis), provided the neutrino luminosity is sufficiently low, $L_\

  18. Increasing High-Level Waste Loading In Glass Without Changing The Baseline Melter Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Klouzek, Jaroslav; Matyas, Josef; Mika, Martin; Schill, Petr; Trochta, Miroslav; Nemec, Lubomir

    2001-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The main factors that determine the cost of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification are the waste loading (which determines the volume of glass) and the melting rate. Product quality should be the only factor determining the waste loading while melter design should provide a rapid melting technology. In reality, the current HLW melters are slow in glass-production rate and are subjected to operational risks that require waste loading to be kept far below its intrinsic level. One of the constraints that decrease waste loading is the liquidus-temperature limit. close inspection reveals that this constraint is probably too severe, even for the current technology. The purpose of the liquidus-temperature constraint is to prevent solids from settling on the melter bottom. It appears that some limited settling would niether interfere with melter operation nor shorten its lifetime and that the rate of settling can be greatly reduced if only small crystals are allowed to form.

  19. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  20. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  1. Improved Load Distribution for Load Rating of Low-Fill Box Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acharya, Raju

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The distribution of live loads on the top slab of a box culvert plays a major role in determining the rating factor of the culvert. The current AASHTO guidelines do not consider the effects of pavements present above the fill while determining the load distribution...

  2. Modality Effects on Cognitive Load and Performance in High-Load Information Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    INTRODUCTION Intelligent human-computer interfaces are often multimodal, i.e. the human-computer communications into the modality planning procedure for systems that support high-load human-computer interaction. Author Keywords-load information presenta- tion scenario. Mainly based on modality-related psychology theories, we selected five

  3. Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruani, Fernando

    Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero strength is highly desirable, and in the past years composite materials such as resin matrix filled- tors, and composites containing carbon black and titanium dioxide have recently been tested

  4. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  5. Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet Abstract The load curve, which gives of electricity customer uses. This load curve is only available for customers with automated meter reading. For the others, EDF must estimate this curve. Usually a clustering of the load curves is performed, followed

  6. Discharge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    : effective discharge, transport, sediment, constituents, rating curve, half-load Citation: Vogel, R. M., J. RDischarge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel Department of Civil and Environmental load is ultimately the quantity of interest, we define a new index, the half-load discharge, which

  7. ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION IN COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michal Duška; Martin Barták; František Drkal; Jan Hensen

    equation in cooling load calculations. The performance of nine different procedures (the four methods and

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Engineering and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and its ancillary equipment. The ancillary equipment includes the waste feed system, the air pollution control system, and the ash removal system. The following provides a brief...

  9. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  10. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  11. Residence Coordinator Agreement Concerning University Provided Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howitt, Ivan

    Residence Coordinator Agreement Concerning University Provided Housing I understand-campus apartments and provides such housing. My acceptance of employment also constitutes my agreement to the following terms related to housing provided to me by the University: 1. I agree to make no substantial

  12. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  13. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF SP&NDS SUBJECTED TO DTNAMIC LOADING A Tucsis By Gary N. Reeves Submitted to the Grad ate Coll Ee of the T xas AGM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deEree of MASTER OF SCIPNCE AuBust 19G7 Major... Subject: Civil EnEineering LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SANDS SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING A Thesis by Gary N. Reeves Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department Membe Me er August 1967 ACIINOWLEDGR&J. 'NTS I...

  14. Telemetering system supports load curtailment and billing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabry, R. (Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC (United States)); Biagini, D. (Landis and Gyr Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the greatest challenges facing electric utilities today is satisfying increasing peak demand without adding new generating capacity. Supporting utilities in this quest are state-of-the-art computer systems designed to accommodate complex load management as well as billing and load survey programs. The Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) is utilizing such computer technology along with an innovative organizational approach to implement a comprehensive energy plan for its customers. The plan is enabling the utility to meet the growing demand placed on its power system by intensive expansion in the greater Washington DC area.

  15. Neurocontrol of Pressurized Water Reactors in Load-Follow Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Chaung; Shen Chihming

    2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The neurocontrol technique was applied to control a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in load-follow operations. Generalized learning or direct inverse control architecture was adopted in which the neural network was trained off-line to learn the inverse model of the PWR. Two neural network controllers were designed: One provided control rod position, which controlled the axial power distribution, and the other provided the change in boron concentration, which adjusted core total power. An additional feedback controller was designed so that power tracking capability was improved. The time duration between control actions was 15 min; thus, the xenon effect is limited and can be neglected. Therefore, the xenon concentration was not considered as a controller input variable, which simplified controller design. Center target strategy and minimum boron strategy were used to operate the reactor, and the simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller.

  16. Parameter sensitivity analysis of tailored-pulse loading stimulation of Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, T.G.; Mihalik, G.R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of three tailored-pulse loading parameters has been undertaken to access their importance in gas well stimulation technology. This numerical evaluation was performed using STEALTH finite-difference codes and was intended to provide a measure of the effects of various tailored-pulse load configurations on fracture development in Devonian gas shale. The three parameters considered in the sensitivity analysis were: loading rate; decay rate; and sustained peak pressures. By varying these parameters in six computations and comparing the relative differences in fracture initiation and propagation the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Fracture initiation is directly related to the loading rate aplied to the wellbore wall. Loading rates of 10, 100 and 1000 GPa/sec were modeled. (2) If yielding of the rock can be prevented or minimized, by maintaining low peak pressures in the wellbore, increasing the pulse loading rate, to say 10,000 GPa/sec or more, should initiate additional multiple fractures. (3) Fracture initiation does not appear to be related to the tailored-pulse decay rate. Fracture extension may be influenced by the rate of decay. The slower the decay rate, the longer the crack extension. (4) Fracture initiation does not appear to be improved by a high pressure plateau in the tailored-pulse. Fracture propagation may be enhanced if the maintained wellbore pressure plateau is of sufficient magnitude to extent the range of the tangential tensile stresses to greater radial distances. 26 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

  18. Modularization and simulation techniques for heat balance-based energy and load calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard K. Strand

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Loads Toolkit research project is to obtain a heat balance based load calculation procedure that

  19. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  20. Development and application of the spatially explicit load enrichment calculation tool (select) to determine potential E. coli loads in watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riebschleager, Kendra Jean

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to contamination is the Load Duration Curve (LDC) method (USEPA, 2006a). The LDC approach was developed for assessing nutrient loading in streams (Cleland, 2002). This graphical approach combines daily 9 stream flow with water quality data for the pollutant... on the field data available, thus the LDC determines load reductions for the flow conditions at which measurements were taken (Li and Guo, 2003). Load reduction is based on the percent exceedance above the maximum allowable load line. In Texas, the water...

  1. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  2. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  3. load balancing tool for OASIS coupled systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LUCIA, load balancing tool for OASIS coupled systems Eric Maisonnave, Arnaud Caubel TR-CMGC-14-63 #12;Table of contents 1. Description of an OASIS3-MCT-based coupled system..............................................................................................14 #12;This document focuses on how to optimize performances of an OASIS3-MCT-based coupled system

  4. Analysis of the Load Impacts and Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Time of Use (TOU) rate plan, called "Analysis of the Load Impacts and Economic Benefits model. The TOU data was rerun through the new spreadsheet model and the results are reported here. · Participation in the TOU rate option also resulted in an average net reduction of 292 kWh/year in annual

  5. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  6. LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PhD Thesis LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION Serge Caparos Goldsmiths). This thesis examined (1) the shape of the profile of perceptual resources in space and (2) the effect of several factors on the focus of this profile. The spatial profile of perceptual resources was indexed

  7. A LOADING-DEPENDENT MODEL OF PROBABILISTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    of the salient features of large blackouts of electric power trans- mission systems+ This leads to a new loadings+ 1. INTRODUCTION Cascading failure is the usual mechanism for large blackouts of electric power and containing 50 million people @33#+ The vital importance of the electrical infrastructure to society motivates

  8. Fig. 1. Example System phase loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power system (SPS) consists of various components such as generators, cables, switchboards, load centers Transformer 9 25 12 Alternate path Generator switchboard Bus-tie breaker Generator 1 Generator 3 Generator 2 4 26 G 29 7 8 ABT 3 single phase cables Visualization for Shipboard Power Systems Karen L. Butler

  9. CALIFORNIA'S NEXT GENERATION OF LOAD MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy the need for new peaking generation capacity and associated transmission and distribution capacity's "load management" authority as a way to achieve higher levels of costeffective demand response

  10. Variability of Behaviour in Electricity Load Profile Clustering; Who Does Things at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Variability of Behaviour in Electricity Load Profile Clustering; Who Does Things at the Same Time://ima.ac.uk/dent 2 The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, UK Abstract. UK electricity market changes provide opportunities to alter households' electricity usage patterns for the benefit of the overall elec- tricity

  11. A Historical Perspective and Business Model for Load Response Aggregation Based on Priority Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    A Historical Perspective and Business Model for Load Response Aggregation Based on Priority Service technologies and experiments in the 1980's for implementing demand response. We argue that while new smart grid technologies are cheaper and provide more functionality the barrier to demand response implementation

  12. Optimal Power Allocation and Load Distribution for Multiple Heterogeneous Multicore Server

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stojmenovic, Ivan

    clouds and data centers, the aggregated performance of the cloud of clouds can be optimized by load processor, power allocation, queuing model, response time Ç 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Motivation CLOUD computing, software, databases, information, and all re- sources are provided to users on-demand. In a data center

  13. Condensation Risk in a Room with High Latent Load and Chilled Ceiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    proposed a new ventilation system with radiant cooling panel and air supplied from a liquid desiccant dehumidification system, which provided very dry supply air and chilled water for radiant cooling. This study usedCondensation Risk in a Room with High Latent Load and Chilled Ceiling Panel and with Air Supplied

  14. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

  15. UNLV HUMAN RESOURCES Benefit Provider Listing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Program (PEBP) www.pebp.state.nv.us (800) 326-5496 PPO Plan Claims administrator (HealthScope) www.healthscopebenefits.com (888) 763-8232 In state Provider Network www.pebpstatewideppo.com (800) 336-0123 Out-of-State Provider Network (First Health Network) firsthealth.coventryhealthcare.com (800) 226-5116 Pre-certifications (APS

  16. February 10, 2003 Dear Retail Provider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that purchase electricity from a power pool that submits an Annual Report to the Energy Commission may provideFebruary 10, 2003 Dear Retail Provider: Subject: Power Source Disclosure and Customer Credit on the mailing lists for the Power Source Disclosure Program and the Customer Credit Program. As someone involved

  17. August 13, 2001 To Retail Providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://www.energy.ca.gov/regulations/retail_disclosure.html#retaildisclosure>. Sample power content labels for the "no specific purchase case" (default) and the "50% specific purchase Disclosure Regulations (SB 1305, Power Source Disclosure Program) In March of this year, the Energy Providers for providing customers with a quarterly power content label and additionally, in some cases

  18. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  19. Mentoring Ini+a+ve Provides Collegial Support The ADVANCE Faculty Mentoring Program provides professional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie,Jiang (Linda)

    Mentoring Ini+a+ve Provides Collegial Support The ADVANCE Faculty Mentoring-career faculty with one-to-one mentors and provides a career development plan template not replace, the mentoring and coaching provided within faculty members' home colleges

  20. Low profile, high load vertical rolling positioning stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Barraza, Juan (Aurora, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stage or support platform assembly for use in a synchrotron accurately positions equipment to be used in the beam line of the synchrotron. The support platform assembly includes an outer housing in which is disposed a lifting mechanism having a lifting platform or stage at its upper extremity on which the equipment is mounted. A worm gear assembly is located in the housing and is adapted to raise and lower a lifting shaft that is fixed to the lifting platform by an anti-binding connection. The lifting platform is moved vertically as the lifting shaft is moved vertically. The anti-binding connection prevents the shaft from rotating with respect to the platform, but does permit slight canting of the shaft with respect to the lifting platform so as to eliminate binding and wear due to possible tolerance mismatches. In order to ensure that the lifting mechanism does not move in a horizontal direction as it is moved vertically, at least three linear roller bearing assemblies are arranged around the outer-periphery of the lifting mechanism. One of the linear roller bearing assemblies can be adjusted so that the roller bearings apply a loading force against the lifting mechanism. Alternatively, a cam mechanism can be used to provide such a loading force.

  1. Method And Apparatus For Imparting Strength To Materials Using Sliding Loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Darcy Anne (Fremont, CA); Dawson, Daniel B. (Pleasanton, CA); Korellis, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: 1) asperity interactions and 2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example.

  2. Method and apparatus for imparting strength to a material using sliding loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, D.A.; Dawson, D.B.; Korellis, J.S.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads is disclosed. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: (1) asperity interactions and (2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example. 11 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for transferring and injecting rf energy from a generator to a resonant load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffert, William J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved apparatus and method are provided for the coherent amplification and injection of radio-frequency (rf) energy into a load cavity using a plurality of amplifier tubes. A plurality of strip line cavities (30, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 44) are laterally joined to define a continuous closed cavity (48), with an amplifier tube (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64) mounted within each resonant strip cavity. Rf energy is injected into the continuous cavity (48) from a single input (70) for coherent coupling to all of the amplifier tubes for amplification and injection into the load cavity (76).

  4. Method and apparatus for imparting strength to a material using sliding loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Darcy Anne (Fremont, CA); Dawson, Daniel B. (Pleasanton, CA); Korellis, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: 1) asperity interactions and 2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example.

  5. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  6. Office Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  7. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  8. Suspended sediment load studies of the Brazos River between Waco and Richmond, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadhwa, Nand P

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the Brazos River at. Waco, Hearne, Bryan, Hempstead and Richmond. 2. To determine the size distribution of bank samples obtained at each locality. 3. To determine the mineralogy of the bank and suspended-load samples. 4. To provide basic information... study to be given individual mention. 13 There has been very little work done, however, on the mineralogic nature of the suspended sediment load. Millot (1953) working on some of the rivers in Germany reported that clay transported by them was a...

  9. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  10. Providing Minute-to-Minute Regulation from Wind Plants: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we extend the previous analysis using time series data from existing wind plants, system loads, and regulation and energy markets.

  11. Deterministic Josephson Vortex Ratchet with a load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Knufinke; K. Ilin; M. Siegel; D. Koelle; R. Kleiner; E. Goldobin

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate experimentally a deterministic underdamped Josephson vortex ratchet -- a fluxon-particle moving along a Josephson junction in an asymmetric periodic potential. By applying a sinusoidal driving current one can compel the vortex to move in a certain direction, producing average dc voltage across the junction. Being in such a rectification regime we also load the ratchet, i.e., apply an additional dc bias current I_dc (counterforce) which tilts the potential so that the fluxon climbs uphill due to the ratchet effect. The value of the bias current at which the fluxon stops climbing up defines the strength of the ratchet effect and is determined experimentally. This allows us to estimate the loading capability of the ratchet, the output power and efficiency. For the quasi-static regime we present a simple model which delivers simple analytic expressions for the above mentioned figures of merit.

  12. US ITER Project Providing a Facility for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US ITER Project Providing a Facility for Burning Plasma Research Ned Sauthoff Project Manager, US to position the US for Burning Plasma Research #12;U.S. ITER / Sauthoff Slide 2 Structure of the Talk... ITER

  13. A Survey on Cloud Provider Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Survey on Cloud Provider Security Measures Alex Pucher, Stratos Dimopoulos Abstract Cloud take advantage of this model already, but security and privacy concerns limit the further adoption agencies and start offering security certifications and separate tightly controlled "government" cloud

  14. ACTUARIAL VALUATION OF BENEFITS PROVIDED UNDER THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotze, Heike K.

    .........................................................................................................................................6 Section 5. ACTUARIAL VALUATION METHODS AND ASSUMPTIONS - PENSION PLAN LIABILITIES.......................................................................................9 Table 6 ­ ACTUARIAL ASSUMPTIONS AND COST METHOD ADOPTED IN CONDUCTING THE VALUATION OF THE DALHOUSIEACTUARIAL VALUATION OF BENEFITS PROVIDED UNDER THE DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY STAFF PENSION PLAN

  15. Preparer's Name: _____________________________________ INDIVIDUAL SERVICE PROVIDER DOCUMENTATION FORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    the qualifications of an independent contractor. 4. Service has been completed and provider is entitled to payment. 5, or resulting from any acts or omissions of contractor or any agent, employee, subcontractor, or supplier

  16. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  17. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic... production than the conventional process used in most studies to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate a batch load digestion process for methane production from dairy manure to determine the optimum influent total solids concentration...

  18. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  19. Load Management and Houston Lighting and Power Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drawe, R. G.; Ramsay, I. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Defining Load Management as influencing of customer loads in order to shift the time use of electric power and energy, encompasses a broad spectrum of activities at Houston Lighting & Power Company. This paper describes those activities by directing...

  20. Structural loading of cross deck connections for trimaran vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, Jason L

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates the fundamental relationships of wave loading on cross deck structures for trimaran vessels. In contrast with a monohull ship, trimaran vessels experience several possible structural loading cases ...

  1. Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

  2. acute cholesterol loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  3. acute sodium loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  4. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heat transfer for cooling load calculation.heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationload calculation approach for radiant systems, Corgnati [17] also tackled the direct radiant heat

  5. assessing critical loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  6. aerodynamic loads estimated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  7. 2004 Notes2Providers.doc -1-Notes to Retail Providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the meter data reported to the system operator (Retail providers that purchase electricity from a power pool2004 Notes2Providers.doc -1- Notes to Retail Providers February 2005 Power Source Disclosure than the California Mix, (Net System Power)i . As a retail provider you are probably aware that all

  8. IGFC response to initial fuel cell load for various syngas compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, David [U.S DOE; Hughes, Dimitri O. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Haynes, Comas L. [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The system response to an initial electric load of the fuel cell during the startup of a direct-fired fuel cell turbine power system was studied using the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project hardware-based simulation facility at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory for a range of input fuel compositions. The facility was brought to a steady condition at a temperature deemed adequate to minimize stress on the fuel cell during the initial load transient. A 1D distributed fuel cell model operating in real-time was used to produce individual cell transient temperature profiles during the course of the load change. The process was conducted with humidified hydrogen, and then repeated with various syngas compositions representative of different gasifier technologies. The results provide insight into control strategy requirements for mitigation of expected fuel cell failure modes relevant to available gasifier technology.

  9. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and outages ­ Hydro and wind limited by "fuel" conditions · Flexibility: Providing within-hour balance in wind output #12;3 5 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Northwest Power and Conservation Council Power System Operations · Balancing authorities: ­ continuously balance loads and resources · Ancillary

  10. Streamlining and Refining FEDS Loads Models - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dirks, James A.

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) software is a powerful buildings energy analysis tool developed by Battelle at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory with support from numerous organizations including several within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). FEDS is used extensively throughout the federal sector to examine building energy efficiency potential and recommend energy saving retrofit projects. The focus of this CRADA was to update the foundation of the FEDS loads models, to improve the core functionality and calculation methods and position the building efficiency analysis software for continued growth. The broader intent was to increase FEDS utility and user satisfaction via improving modeling accuracy, facilitating development and making possible a wide range of new and desired capability enhancements. This report provides an summary of the various tasks performed under the CRADA.

  11. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  12. Improved Load Plan Design Through Integer Programming Based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The load plan determines which shipments are packed together into the ...... More importantly, however, from an implementation perspective, this “profile”.

  13. Industrial Load Shaping: A Utility Strategy to Deal with Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D.

    manufacturing facilities. Both the customer and the utility should realize benefits from these changes. There are five generic load shaping categories: rescheduling operations, capacity additions, product storage, automation and flexible manufacturing... Implementation * Program Monitoring LOAD SHAPE ALTERNATIVES General categories of load shape alternatives include process rescheduling, capacity additions, product storage, automation and flexible manufacturing and electrotechnologies. Process rescheduling...

  14. Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time-Series Application of the Super Electric Energy System #12;Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time-Series Application of the SuperOPF." (PSERC

  15. AIAA980057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    AIAA­98­0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH MULTIPLE that is most useful in estimating fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. The histograms of rainflow counted turbulence measures---can be used to estimate fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. We first de­ scribe

  16. Load Alleviation on Wind Turbine Blades using Variable Airfoil Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Load Alleviation on Wind Turbine Blades using Variable Airfoil Geometry Peter Bjørn Andersen, Mac Loads, Trailing Edge Flaps, PID control, Signal Noise. 1 Introduction Wind turbine blades are subject to 40% when signal noise is added to the control. Keywords: Wind Turbine, Load Alleviation, Fatigue

  17. Guide to Dowel LoadTransfer Systems for Jointed Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide to Dowel LoadTransfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements TECH BRIEF SEPTEMBER 2011 #12;#12;GUIDE TO DOWEL LOAD TRANSFER SYSTEMS FOR JOINTED CONCRETE ROADWAY PAVEMENTS i Technical and Subtitle Guide to Dowel Load Transfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements 5. Report Date

  18. Simultaneous confidence bands in curve prediction applied to load curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Simultaneous confidence bands in curve prediction applied to load curves J.M. Aza¨is1, S. Bercu2, J, load curve. 1 Introduction In curve prediction, one is generally interested in deriving simultaneous this technique in the numerical context of load curve pre- diction: power producers like EDF, the electrical

  19. Checkpointed Early Load Retirement Nevin Kirman Meyrem Kirman Mainak Chaudhuri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirer, Emin Gun

    Checkpointed Early Load Retirement Nevin Kirman Meyrem Kirman Mainak Chaudhuri£ Jos´e F. Mart propose checkpointed early load retirement, a mechanism that combines register check- pointing and back-value prediction to consumers, and (3) EARly-retiring the long-latency load. This unclogs the ROB, thereby

  20. Exploratory Divertor Heat Load Studies for Compact Stellarator Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    of the divertor system is described in Sec. III, together with the plate heat load profile, and the conditions is power reaching the plate, AD is the total plate area, Wpk is the design peak heat load limitExploratory Divertor Heat Load Studies for Compact Stellarator Reactors T.K. Maua , H. Mc

  1. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes CALIFORNIA ENERGY #12;LBNL-49095 Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes Prepared of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators During Load Changes ii Abstract This report describes test

  2. THERMAL LOADING OF A DIRECT DRIVE TARGET IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    optics. A background gas, such as Xe, could reduce the damage on the wall from ion and heat loading fusion micro explosion (~ 10 Hz), ions and heat loads threaten to damage the reactor wall and driver. · The thermal loading of a target (radiation from the chamber wall and convection from the protective gas) may

  3. Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data,itiscommontoeithercarry out extensive simulation studies or undertake a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind here is to estimate extreme loads for an offshore wind turbine for which the environmental and load

  4. Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method Korn Saranyasoontorn, TX 78712 When interest is in establishing ultimate design loads for wind turbines such that a service). The parametric conditional load distri- butions require extensive turbine response simulations over the entire

  5. April 21, 2006 To all retail providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & waste 0.0% -Geothermal 4.0% -Small hydroelectric 0.7% -Solar 0.0% -Wind 0.0% Coal 38.5% Large calculates Net System Power by taking all of the generation consumed by customers in California, which we have termed "Gross System Power," and then subtracting self-generation and retail providers' specific

  6. April 16, 2007 To all retail providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & waste 0.3% -Geothermal 4.2% -Small hydroelectric 0.3% -Solar 0.0% -Wind 0.3% Coal 28.6% Large System Power by taking all of the generation consumed by customers in California, which we have termed "Gross System Power," and then subtracting self-generation and retail providers' specific claims

  7. April 15, 2005 To all retail providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    hydroelectric 1.1% -Solar 0.0% -Wind 0.2% Coal 28.9% Large hydroelectric 20.1% Natural gas 45.0% Nuclear 1 Net System Power by taking all of the generation consumed by customers in California, which we have termed "Gross System Power," and then subtracting self-generation and retail providers' specific claims

  8. IBM Healthcare Industry Framework Provider Version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    also called an internist to admit John overnight for observation. A Nuclear stress test was performed they care for patients and manage their performance. First, MRTAS helps providers automate the collection and analysis of structured and unstructured data, a manual process typically performed by a team of nurses

  9. Optimizing Provider Recruitment for Influenza Surveillance Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lauren Ancel

    Optimizing Provider Recruitment for Influenza Surveillance Networks Samuel V. Scarpino1 *, Nedialko Department, Monterey, California, United States of America, 3 The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America Abstract The increasingly complex and rapid transmission dynamics of many

  10. Dedicated to providing of health professional faculty,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Dedicated to providing training of health professional faculty, students and practitioners in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease, disability and other health problems related to our elderly;STATUTORY PURPOSES Improve the training of health professionals in geriatrics; Develop and disseminate

  11. February 8, 2002 Dear: Retail Provider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dates: Report/Filing Due Date 2001 Annual Retail Providers Report (to Energy Commission) March 1, 2002 2001 Annual Power Content Label (to Customers)i April 15, 2002 Independent Audit/Verification of 2001 Annual Power Content Label and Annual Report (to Energy Commission) June 1, 2002 As someone involved

  12. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  13. PROFILING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROVIDER TRENDS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    PROFILING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROVIDER TRENDS IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEMS || James F. Burgess, Jr using several covariates. This is illustrated here in the context of sub- stance abuse care. One common process monitor for systems delivering substance abuse care is follow-up outpatient care within a certain

  14. Abstract--This paper addresses the impact of load dynamics, and in particular induction motor loads, on voltage recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    load flow techniques or with full scale dynamic simulations. Studies are performed usually off-scale dynamic simulations. The approach uses load flow techniques with advanced modeling capabilities that allow from several classes of electric loads, such as induction motors. It is well known that the voltage

  15. Rotordynamic coefficients for a load-between-pad, flexible-pivot tilting pad bearing at high loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensley, John Eric

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic and static performance of a flexure-pivot tilting pad bearing is presented at a load between pad configuration for various load and speed combinations. A similar work performed on the same bearing at lower loads ranging from 0-1 MPa (0...

  16. Performance of Geogrid Reinforced Ballast under Dynamic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jowkar, Milad

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    string pot versus dynamic loading at 1100 psi (9 psi tie bearing pressure) 37 4.1.3 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 2500 psi (21 psi tie bearing pressure) 38 4.1.4 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 3500 psi (31 psi tie bearing pressure...) 39 4.1.5 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 4500 psi (38 psi tie bearing pressure) 41 4.1.6 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 4500 psi (soaked) (40 psi tie bearing pressure) 43 4.2 Unreinforced test 45 4.2.1 West string pot 45 4...

  17. Taking a Bite out of Lighting Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = 100w PAR38 • No maintenance for years ? 50,000 LED vs.10,000 CFL • Improved light quality ? 80 CRI LED vs. 25 CRI HPS • Reduce HVAC cooling load • Advanced control options ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San... Fragile Durable Optical Efficiency 50 50 70-80 Indoor LED Advantages ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Expected ROI 1.17 Years Case Study: LUGGAGE & LEATHER Sugar Land, Texas ESL-KT-13...

  18. Taking a Bite out of Lighting Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Take a Bite Out of Lighting Loads With LEDs Stephen Williams Toshiba Sales Support Manager ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Some LED Advantages • Less electricity ? 18w LED... Fragile Durable Optical Efficiency 50 50 70-80 Indoor LED Advantages ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Expected ROI 1.17 Years Case Study: LUGGAGE & LEATHER Sugar Land, Texas ESL-KT-13...

  19. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  20. Indoor design condition and the cooling load calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, T.Y. [Sun (Tseng-Yao), Rancho Palos Verde, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling load calculation involves two steps. The first is to determine the basic building load. This consists of external loads through the building envelope and internal loads from people, lights, appliances, and other heat sources. The required supply air quantity for each conditioned space generally is determined in the first step. This is because each relates only to the coil leaving and required room dry bulb temperatures (unless reheat is required to control the humidity level in the conditioned space). The second step, after completing the above, is to calculate the system cooling load. This step adapts the selected air distribution system to the building load and involves the introduction of the required outdoor air volume into the air conditioning system for ventilation. Proper psychrometric analysis is required to calculate the entering and leaving wet bulb conditions of the air passing through the cooling coil. These, together with the corresponding dry bulb temperatures, will determine the system cooling load.

  1. Modeling of highly loaded fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lister, G.G.; Lawler, J.E.; Curry, J.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical modeling of the positive column of fluorescent lamps under conditions of high current density are of current interest, particularly in view of recent developments in electrodeless lamps. Current models tend to overestimate radiation output, and consequently the maintenance electric field in these discharges. Under highly loaded conditions, mercury-rare gas fluorescent lamps exhibit strong mercury depletion on axis (cataphoresis), and an understanding of resonance radiation transport under these conditions is therefore vital to the development of models with a predictive capability. The authors have explored the effect of radial cataphoresis on resonance radiation trapping for situations in which the radiation transport is dominated by foreign gas broadening, Doppler broadening, or resonance collisional broadening of the spectral line. Several different production rates per unit volume of resonance (excited) atoms have also been studied. It is advantageous in many cases to parameterize the trapped decay rate in terms of the total number of ground state atoms in the positive column independent of their radial distribution. The results of this work have been included in a numerical model of the positive column and the predicted influence on discharge parameters will be presented for cases of interest to highly loaded lamps.

  2. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  3. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  4. Providing Rewards and Recognition | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ ReportEnergyProviding Grid Flexibility in Wyoming and

  5. 514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handbook--Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1997) and the Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual (Mc514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are Load Calculation Methods (942-RP)" are also given. INTRODUCTION Design cooling load calculation

  6. NREL's Building-Integrated Supercomputer Provides Heating and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    allowing it to help meet building heating loads. At least 90 percent of the computer's waste heat is captured and reused as the primary heat source for the ESIF offices and...

  7. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Profiles Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Central Research Institute of Electric PowerElectric Power Industry. A Meanwhile, load profiles of each

  8. Solar resource-utility load matching assessment: NREL photovoltaic project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many utility planners may be unfamiliar with the potential for the development of photovoltaics (PV) in their service areas. The goal of the research summarized in this document is to provide information on the match existing between the output of PV powder plants and the load requirements of US utilities. This material indicates whether or not the effective capacity (hence the value) of this renewable resource should be higher than that traditionally assigned to an intermittent resource.

  9. Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, J.J.; Rambo, G.E.

    1982-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor in response to a variable average reactor coolant temperature set point is disclosed. The set point is dependent upon percent of full power load demand. A manually-actuated ''droop mode'' of control is provided whereby the reactor coolant temperature is allowed to drop below the set point temperature a predetermined amount wherein the control is switched from reactor control rods exclusively to feedwater flow.

  10. Demand Side Dispatching, Part 1: A Novel Approach for Industrial Load Shaping Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumana, J. D.; Nath, R.

    ) systems fo commercial HVAC applications. Load co trol generally involves scheduling the use of electrotechnologies (e.g. air compression, pumping) during off-peak periods only, an shutting them off during on-peak periods. In order to provide... incentives to the custom r to modulate his demand, most DSM progranis combine the foregoing technologies with l1ime of-Use rate structures, capital cost subsidies (rebates), and technical support services. 317 ESL-IE-93-03-45 Proceedings from...

  11. Protecting Consumer Privacy from Electric Load Stephen McLaughlin Patrick McDaniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Patrick Drew

    energy use. These profiles can be mined by Non Intrusive Load Monitors (NILMs) to expose much sensors to collect and report load profiles. Load profiles are histories of energy usage collected as Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM): Load monitoring Load profile Lighting Oven Heater ... Appliance

  12. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, John R. (Overland Park, KS)

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector.

  13. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  14. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are doweled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  15. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  16. Becoming a cloud service provider: The evolution of communications service providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telecommunications Industry White Paper Cloud Computing #12;2 Cloud computing for retail #12;3 If they takeBecoming a cloud service provider: The evolution of communications service providers IBM demand. This paper examines ways that CSPs can take advantage of cloud computing--both internally

  17. Lateral load test of a drilled shaft in clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasch, Vernon R

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will be used to develop rational criteria for the design of drilled shafts that support precast panel retaining walls. The procedure used in conducting the study was: 1. Design and construct a reaction and loading system capable of applying large magnitude... lateral loads to large diameter drilled shafts. 2. Construct a large diameter instrumented drilled shaft. 3. Test the shaft by applying lateral loads. 4. Obtain undisturbed soil samples from the drilled shaft con- struction site and perform laboratory...

  18. A development of MOS linear active load schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallett, Robert Alan

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistor. A solution to this problem is to use a single or multiply interconnected MOS transistors to simulate resistors. These simulated resistors are termed "active loads". The advantages of using MOSFETs over passive monolithic resistors are the high...'s inverted parallel load . General description of the fully linear active block Fully linear active block Three transistor fully linear block Cktl Ckt2 Ckt3 Ckt4 Complex single transistor loads IPL DEPR FLAB I ? V measuring system THD measuring...

  19. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  20. UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    output data. 1 E.g., if the installed PV capacity is 10MW, the objective is for PV + SLC to meet 100% of the loads above a threshold equal to the utility peak minus 10 MW. 2 #12;UPEX-02 PV output data: PV output the report is PTC (AC output at 25 degrees ambient). Load data: Hourly SMUD system load data from 1996

  1. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the set temperature ? Power loss and initial electronicsprotection even at total power loss Table 5 provides thenot activate with total power loss or electronics shutdown ?

  2. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle. The latter reduces the effective compression ratio, and therefore the compressive temperatures, allowing the high load limit of the operating range to be expanded. The SA-HCCI operating strategy exhibits improved thermal efficiency at most operating conditions, with fuel consumption improvements up to 9% realized at light engine loads. The SA-HCCI operating strategy presented here does not provide an efficiency advantage at all operating points compared to SI combustion; a decrease was observed at the highest speed and at loads above 500 kPa net IMEP. At light engine loads the majority of the heat release takes place during the HCCI phase of the heat release, and as such the NOx emissions are very low and are similar to levels observed in pure HCCI. At higher loads, a larger portion of the heat release takes place during the spark ignited phase of combustion, which produces NOx emissions that are much higher than is typically associated with HCCI, but still represent a decrease from conventional SI combustion. By limiting the fuel/air mixture to stoichiometric conditions, the higher NOx emissions do not represent an implementation barrier to this strategy because compatibility is maintained with very effective conventional 3-way catalysts.

  3. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  4. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  5. advanced load alleviation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    paradox of the pulsar wind nebula. Maxim Lyutikov 2002-02-19 89 A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution...

  6. Retrofitting unreinforced concrete masonry to resist tornado loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorshorst, Evan G. (Evan Gregory)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in structural design and building materials have significantly increased the performance of many structures under the extreme loading conditions associated with natural disasters such as earthquakes. However, ...

  7. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Customer Load Reductions during...

  8. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofInc, Altanta,GA, 2009. Cooling load differences betweensurface level 24-hour total cooling energy between radiant

  9. HVAC Loads in High-Performance Homes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Winkler, J.

    2010-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation was delivered at the ASHRAE 2010 Annual Summer Conference on June 27, 2010, and addresses humidity and AC loads in energy efficient houses.

  10. axle loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  11. alkohilimgi load lhiajalisemaks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  12. alkoholimgi load lhiajalisemaks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  13. adenosine triphosphate loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  14. autologous plasma loaded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  15. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dandan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Judkoff, R. ,room and calculation of air conditioning load. ASHRAE Trans,Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.

  16. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'

  17. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  18. activated carbon load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube composites to shock wave loading Materials Science Websites Summary: Dynamic response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube...

  19. activated carbon loaded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube composites to shock wave loading Materials Science Websites Summary: Dynamic response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube...

  20. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Presentation given at...

  1. A mixed integer programming approach to reduce fuel load ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramya Rachmawati

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 12, 2015 ... A mixed integer programming approach to reduce fuel load accumulation for prescribed burn planning. Ramya Rachmawati(ramya.rachmawati ...

  2. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used...

  3. Efficient approaches for the robust network loading problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The next section presents the formulations of the robust network load-. 3 ...... Figure 1: Performance profile comparing Compact-2, Benders-3, and Benders-4 for ...

  4. Newbie question: How to view commercial/residential load profile...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newbie question: How to view commercialresidential load profile datasets? Home > Groups > Buildings I have downloaded SAM (20112414) and cannot access open the .tar files. Help...

  5. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been a number of investigations into the effects of PV variability on distribution circuit voltage 1. Due to load data resolution limitations and the difficulty in estimating...

  6. air conditioning load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.; Deying, L. 2006-01-01 2 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: 1...

  7. active load management: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint...

  8. air conditioning loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an...

  9. Model Development and Loads Analysis of a Wind Turbine on a Floating Offshore Tension Leg Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matha, D.; Fischer, T.; Kuhn, M.; Jonkman, J.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. Models in this code are of greater fidelity than most of the models that have been used to analyze floating turbines in the past--which have neglected important hydrodynamic and mooring system effects. The report provides a description of the development process of a TLP model, which is a modified version of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology design derived from a parametric linear frequency-domain optimization process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the International Electrotechnical Commission offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. Response statistics, extreme event tables, fatigue lifetimes, and selected time histories of design-driving extreme events are analyzed and presented. Loads for the wind turbine on the TLP are compared to those of an equivalent land-based turbine in terms of load ratios. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.

  10. 2001Notes2Providers.doc -1-Notes to Retail Providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Administration (EIA) or if in the case that an identification number does not exist, an identification number that this information be provided electronically in a tabular spreadsheet or database format that allows separate fields

  11. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  12. In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

  13. e-Analysis of High-Rise Buildings Subjected to Wind Loads Dae-Kun Kwon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    and archiving of large quantities of information. This is no exception in the field of structural engineering on wind tunnel-derived data, which may be couched in analysis portals to provide desired load ef- fects data for the determination of alongwind, acrosswind, and torsional response Zhou et al. 2003

  14. Real-Time Forcast Model Analysis of Daily Average Building Load for a Thermal Storage System Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Joo, I. S.; Guwana, S.

    of a building and three real-time building load forecasting models were developed. They are first-order autogressive model, random walk model and linear regression model. Finally, the comparison of results show the random walk model provides the best...

  15. Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K.; Fox, K.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Aloy, A.; Trofimenko, A.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gerdes, K.D. [EM-21, Office of Waste Processing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent tank retrieval, blending, and treatment strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled-melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and Savannah River Site. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and glass durability. This paper summarizes the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in glass. In summary: Glasses with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading ranging from 25 to 27 wt% were formulated and tested at a crucible scale. Successful glass formulations with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that do not precipitate nepheline during CCC treatment and had spinel crystals 1 vol% or less after 24 hr heat treatment at 950 deg. C were obtained. The selected glass, HAL-17 with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, had viscosity and electrical conductivity within the boundaries for adequate processing in the Joule heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. This HAL-17 glass was successfully processed using small-scale (SMK) and larger scale (EP-5) melters. There was no indication of spinel settling during processing. The product glass samples from these melter tests contained 1 to 4 vol% spinel crystals that are likely formed during cooling. The PCT tests on the product glasses are underway. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to formulate the glasses with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that satisfy the property requirements and is processable with Joule-heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. The 'nepheline discriminator' for HAL-17 glass is 0.45, which supports that claim that the current rule ('nepheline discriminator' < 0.62) is too restrictive. Considering that the cost of HLW treatment is highly dependent on loading of waste in glass, this result provides a potential for significant cost saving for Hanford. The maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading that can be achieved will also depend on concentrations of other components in wastes. For example, the loading of waste used in this study was also limited by the spinel crystallization after 950 deg. C 24 hr heat treatment, which suggests that the concentrations of spinel-forming components such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, and MnO would be critical in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading achievable. The observed glass production rate per unit melter surface area of 0.75 MT/(d.m{sup 2}) for SMK test is comparable to the design capacity of WTP HLW melters at 0.8 MT/(d.m{sup 2}). However, the test with EP-5 melter achieved 0.38 MT/(d.m{sup 2}), which is roughly a half of the WTP design capacity. This result may imply that the glass with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may not achieve the WTP design production rate. However, this hypothesis is not conclusive because of unknown effects of melter size and operation

  16. Infrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin, Yoed

    , not the instantaneous effect of heating within a single loading cycle. KEY WORDS--Infrared, temperature measurement, meInfrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis by Y. Rabin and D. Rittel ABSTRACT--Infrared temperature-sensing techniques have the major advantages of virtually

  17. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6034E Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Dandan Zhu1 , Tianzhen Energy, the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, of the U;Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads A joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley

  18. Load Alleviation through Adaptive Trailing Edge Control Surfaces: ADAPWING Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to investigate the potential of using adaptive trailing edge geometry on wind turbine blades as load alleviation field experienced by wind turbine blades is turbulent which causes fluctuating loads during nor- mal for the wind turbine industry if the alleviation systems do not add considerable extra cost. Recent work has

  19. Numerical Simulation of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures ­ p. #12;VOF Free Surface Flow Model Modelling of Free Surface-cell resolution of prescribed wave forms in relaxation zones · Support for dynamic mesh with 6-DOF solver meshNumerical Simulation of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures Hrvoje Jasak, Inno Gatin, Vuko

  20. Load as a Controllable Resource for Dynamic Security Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    to steer the system through events. Model predictive control is proposed for the higher-level control. Index Terms-- Load control, voltage collapse, model predictive control. I. INTRODUCTION DYNAMIC security1 Load as a Controllable Resource for Dynamic Security Enhancement Ian A. Hiskens, Fellow, IEEE