Sample records for load three-junction concentrator

  1. Three-junction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludowise, Michael J. (Cupertino, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell is formed in a monolithic semiconductor. The cell contains three junctions. In sequence from the light-entering face, the junctions have a high, a medium, and a low energy gap. The lower junctions are connected in series by one or more metallic members connecting the top of the lower junction through apertures to the bottom of the middle junction. The upper junction is connected in voltage opposition to the lower and middle junctions by second metallic electrodes deposited in holes 60 through the upper junction. The second electrodes are connected to an external terminal.

  2. Tension of Conductor Under Concentrated Loads WongS.P.Yu*,P.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Pei

    Tension of Conductor Under Concentrated Loads WongS.P.Yu*,P. P.W. International Inc. 5H4V5RCanada be found. This paper presents methodologies to compute conductor tension and static con-underproceduressolutionexactandapproximatebothusingspacedimensionalthreeinprofile centrated loads with different boundary conditions. Practical engineering examples from galloping demon

  3. A photoelastic stress analysis of a flat circular plate simply supported and subjected to a concentrated load at the center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulbright, Joseph Lloyd

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARy 4 4 III coI I BGv IIf Tf4 A PHOTOELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS OF A FLAT CIRCULAR PLATE SIWPLY SUPPORTED AND SUBJECTED TO A CONCENTRATED LOAD AT THE CENTERS A Thesis By Joseph Lloyd Fulbright Submitted to the Graduate School... AND SUBJECTED TO A CONCENTRATED LOAD AT THE CENTER, A Thesis By Joseph Lloyd Fulbright Approved as to Style and Content by& Chairman of Committee Head of Department May 1/58 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The technical assistance and advice of Professor B. E...

  4. The design, fabrication and maintenance of semi-trailers employed in the highway transport of weight-concentrated radioactive loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, D.S. [Allied-Signal Inc., Metropolis, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads by truck is an essential part of a safe and economical nuclear industry. This proposed standard presents guidance and performance criteria for the safe transport of these weight-concentrated radioactive loads. ANSI N14.30 will detail specific requirements for the design, fabrication, testing, in-service inspections, maintenance and certification of the semi-trailers to be employed in said service. Furthermore, guidelines for a quality assurance program are also enumerated. This standard would apply to any semi-trailer that may or may not be specifically designed to carry weight-concentrated loads. Equipment not suitable per the criteria established in the standard would be removed from service. The nature of the nuclear industry and the need for a positive public perception of the various processes and players, mandates that the highway transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads be standardized and made inherently safe. This proposed standard takes a giant step in that direction.

  5. Doxorubicin-Loaded QuadraSphere Microspheres: Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Intratumoral Drug Concentration in an Animal Model of Liver Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology (United States); Cornell, Curt [BioSphere Medical (United States); Reb, Philippe [Biosphere Medical, Research and Development Department (France); Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A.; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H., E-mail: jfg@jhmi.ed [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  6. Evaluation Of Glass Density To Support The Estimation Of Fissile Mass Loadings From Iron Concentrations In SB8 Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy – Savannah River (DOE-SR) has provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of that guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) glass based on the iron (Fe) concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that the necessary density information be provided to allow SRR to update the Excel® spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes an upper bound for the density of SB8-based glasses. Thus, these bounding density values are to be used to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel-based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB8. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB8 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample.

  7. A photoelastic investigation of the bending moment on a gear tooth due to a concentrated load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Pu-Ning

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parallel to the X-Y plane was proportional to the stress CI on the X surface, or that ness, Mx, times the thickness of a slice, b, so that 12 Then M = M ~ b, or M M x ' x b 13 xmax 6M x h But since h = 1 in, for all models used in this research... AND LOADING . Material Mold . Casting Loading IV. ANALYSIS OF DATA r2 Orientation of Coordinate System. . . . . . . Determination of the Bending Moment, Mx, along the Fixed Edge Normal Stresses-Shear Difference Method . 12 12 l8 V. DISCUSSION...

  8. INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

  9. Modified vector control algorithm for increasing partial-load efficiency of fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface PM machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Refaie, Ayman M [ORNL; Jahns, Thomas M [ORNL; Reddy, Patel [University of Wisconsin; McKeever, John W [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. By increasing the amplitude of the negative d-axis current, the resulting increase in the stator copper losses can be more than offset by the reduction in the iron core losses achieved by lowering the stator d-axis flux amplitude. The effectiveness of this technique has been demonstrated using both analytical models and finite element analysis for a 55-kW (peak) SPM machine design developed for a demanding set of traction drive performance requirements. For this example, the modified control strategy increases the partial-load efficiency at 20% of rated torque by > 6% at 2000 r/min compared to the maximum torque/ampere algorithm, making the machine much more attractive for its intended application.

  10. A photoelastic study of simply supported rectangular beams with holes on the vertical center lines and subjected to concentrated loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ping Hua

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 1 Stress Concentration Factors for Various Points for the Beams of this Study . 33 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Dimensions of the Models Model in the Loading Frame Fringe Pattern of Beam 1. Isoclinics for Beam L-1 Isoclinics for Beam S-1 10... Calibration of Model for Beam 1 Sketch of a Beam Showing: (a) Locations of sections under consideration (b) dX, b Y, he, S, S, and the sign convention for r xy Horizontal and Vertical Stresses for Beam 1 13 22 Horizontal and Vertical Stresses for Beam...

  11. The photoelastic determination of the principal stresses in polygons having round central holes and subjected to a concentrated diagonal compressive load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priddy, Tommy Glynn

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PHOTOELASTIC DETERMINATION OF THE PRINCIPAL STRESSES IN POLYGONS HAVING ROUND CENTRAL HOLES AND SUMECTED TO A CONCENTRATED DIAGONAL COMPRESSIVE LOAD A Thesis TOMMY GLYNN PRIDDX Submitted to the Graduate Sohool of the Agrioultural...

  12. FINAL REPORT ON CONTROL ALGORITHM TO IMPROVE THE PARTIAL-LOAD EFFICIENCY OFSURFACE PM MACHINES WITH FRACTIONAL-SLOT CONCENTRATED WINDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, P.B.; Jahns, T.M.

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

  13. Final Report on Control Algorithm to Improve the Partial-Load Efficiency of Surface PM Machines with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, John W [ORNL; Reddy, Patel [University of Wisconsin; Jahns, Thomas M [ORNL

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

  14. A study of the dynamic response of a homogeneous, isotropic, semi-infinite, two-layered half-space to a concentrated vertical load on the free surface varying harmonically with time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corder, Paul Ray

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY OF THE DYNAMJC RESPONSE OF A HOMOGENEOUS, ZSOTROPIC, SEMI-INFZNITE, TWO-LAYERED HALF-SPACE TO A CONCENTRATED VERTICAL LOAD ON THE FREE SURFACE VARYING HARMONICALLY WITH TIME A Thesis By PAUL RAY CORDER Submitted to the Graduate...-LAYERED HALF-SPACE TO A CONCENTRATED VERTICAL LOAD ON THE FREE SURFACE VARYING HARMONICALLY WITH TIME A Thesis By PAUL RAY CORDER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Co. . ittee ) (Head of Department) (" ember) ~c +- January 1965...

  15. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve #12;1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve #12;What are they? How do you make one? #12;Describes

  16. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve 1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve What are they? How do you make one? Describes the percent of time a flow rate

  17. AdaptLoad: e ective balancing in clustered web servers under transient load conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riska, Alma

    manner [4, 17]. In this paper we concentrate on e#11;ective load sharing for a clustered web server makes e#11;ective request scheduling a diĆcult task that traditional load balancing methods failAdaptLoad: e#11;ective balancing in clustered web servers under transient load conditions #3; Alma

  18. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  19. Plug Load

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996)representative of thePlug-Load Sign In

  20. Load Management for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    customer management programs exist. EPRI Report (EM-1606) loads to beneficially alter a'utility's load curve. (Page 1-2) list them as: Load management alternatives are covered. 1. Direct or voluntary control of customer Load management methods can... and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report energy management programs. (EM-1606) states that "the objective of load manage ment is to alter the real or apparent pattern of Our load management program was designed electricity use in order to...

  1. Concentrating collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected specifications from sixteen concentrating collector manufacturers are tabulated. Eleven are linear parabolic trough collectors, and the others include slats, cylindrical trough, linear Fresnel lens, parabolic cylindrical Fresnel lens, and two point focus parabolic dish collectors. Also included is a brief discussion of the operating temperatures and other design considerations for concentrating collectors. (LEW)

  2. Buildings Stock Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing...

  3. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  4. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  5. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  6. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  7. 16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ke

    -to-day operations, system analysis in smart grids, system visualization, system performance reliability, energy..............................................................................................................397 #12;376 Smart Grids The load forecast generally provides annual peak values for the whole system saving, and accuracy in system planning [1­4]. * This work is partly supported by a collaborative

  8. A Fuzzy Model of Heavy Metal Loadings in Marine Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncheva, Ludmila I.

    A Fuzzy Model of Heavy Metal Loadings in Marine Environment L.I. Kuncheva1 , J. Wrench2 , L.C. Jain model of the loadings of heavy metals for two coastal areas of the Irish Sea (Liverpool Bay, Morecambe Bay, heavy metal concentrations, index of spa- tial distribution, spatial data analysis. 1

  9. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  10. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  11. Power System load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, Yu.N.; Semenov, V.A.; Sovalov, S.A.; Syutkin, B.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation in demand nonuniformity is analyzed for the Unified Electric Power System of the USSR and certain interconnected power systems; the conditions for handling such nonuniformity with utilization of generating equipment having differing flexibility capabilities are also considered. On this basis approaches and techniques for acting on user loads, load management, in order to assure a balance between generated and consumed power are considered.

  12. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  13. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic... production than the conventional process used in most studies to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate a batch load digestion process for methane production from dairy manure to determine the optimum influent total solids concentration...

  14. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  15. contingency Nominal loading margin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Member Member Fellow Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract: The change in the loading margin to voltage collapse when line outages occur the line outages of the IEEE 118 bus system. The results show the effective ranking of contingencies

  16. Cooling load estimation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

  18. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  19. The International Mass Loading Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Leonid

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Mass Loading Service computes four loadings: a) atmospheric pressure loading; b) land water storage loading; c) oceanic tidal loading; and d) non-tidal oceanic loading. The service provides to users the mass loading time series in three forms: 1) pre-computed time series for a list of 849 space geodesy stations; 2) pre-computed time series on the global 1deg x 1deg grid; and 3) on-demand Internet service for a list of stations and a time range specified by the user. The loading displacements are provided for the time period from 1979.01.01 through present, updated on an hourly basis, and have latencies 8-20 hours.

  20. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  1. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PROGRAM REVIEW 2013 Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power Principal Investigator: Prof. Gang Chen Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA...

  2. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Post-processing of concentrated fermented milk: influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Post-processing of concentrated fermented milk: influence of temperature and holding of particle clusters in concentrated, fermented milk (protein content 8.2% (w/w)) during post temperature load, thus, rapid cooling reduces the Dairy Sci. & Technol. (2012) 92:91­107 DOI 10.1007/s13594

  4. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components such as power sources, loads,  transformers and components such as power sources, loads,  transformers and 

  5. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, R.E.

    1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

  6. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

  7. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

  8. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrodynamic loading

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    loading High-Fidelity Hydrostructural Analysis of Ocean Renewable Power Company's (ORPC's) TidGen Turbine On March 19, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News,...

  10. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  11. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  12. Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (US)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

  13. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  14. Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: Seasonal occurrence and annual loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    of organic pollutants were determined · Seasonality of loads of PAHs, most pesticides, and antiinfectives were concise · In spite of low concentrations due to high water discharge, pollutant loads of the water run-off from China's land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage

  15. Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda IBRAHIM MATTA y the load across the set of candidate routes. In this paper, we propose the use of load profiling as an attractive alternative to load balancing for routing guaranteed bandwidth VCs (flows). Load profiling

  16. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  17. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  18. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  19. Liquidus temperature limited waste loading maximization for vitrified HLW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, P.; Vienna, J.D.; Schweiger, M.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquidus temperature often limits the loading of vitrified high-level waste in the glass. For spinel primary crystallization phase, the maximum achievable waste loading is determined analytically using first-order models, and then calculated for a Hanford nominal blend waste. The results show that the glass volume can be reduced if the glass melting temperature is not constrained and no restrictions are imposed on minimum B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and U{sub 2}O concentrations in the glass.

  20. Concentration in Green Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    , energy, infrastructure or transport. Participants in this specialization area work closely with the GreenConcentration in Green Design Research and Education Opportunities Carnegie Mellon University Civil and Environmental Engineering www.ce.cmu.edu M.S. Concentration Green Design - Course Only Track As an extension

  1. COFIN project Concentration Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COFIN project Concentration Fluctuations in Gas Releases by Industrial Accidents Final Summary of random concentration fluctuations in hazardous gas releases and the method was to derive empirical. In each measurement cycle the Lidar emits a short laser light pulse and detects the light Lidar reflected

  2. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for ...

  3. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  4. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs...

  5. Electrical and Production Load Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  6. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  7. Advanced nonintrusive load monitoring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichakool, Warit, 1977-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need for flexible, inexpensive metering technologies that can be deployed in many different monitoring scenarios. Individual loads may be expected to compute information about their power consumption. Utility ...

  8. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  9. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  10. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

  11. Sandia Energy - Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Resources Wind Software Downloads Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Sandia Wind...

  12. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  13. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  14. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  15. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, John R. (Overland Park, KS)

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector.

  16. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  17. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are doweled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  18. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  19. concentration 2-adrenoceptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    inhibitor concentration agonist acid expressed region isolated treatment 2-adrenoceptor serum stimulation acid product metabolism human treatment analysis new ester metabolites derivatives content isolated expression level binding complex mrna integrin collagen genes form normal synthesis production beta 1

  20. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  1. Joined concentric tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  2. MODELING AND CONTROL OF THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analyt- ical models) is well matched to the role of load following. Re- search into the behavior of TCLs began with the work was then employed in a minimum variance control law to demonstrate the load following capability of a population

  3. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  5. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  6. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

  7. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: concentrating photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrating photovoltaic Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership,...

  9. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  10. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  11. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  12. High-level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, P.; Bailey, A.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by the breakdown of the glass structure due to an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of the product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components.

  13. A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.

    A NOVEL APPROACH TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs... minimized. Because of the difficully in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly...

  14. Communication Load Reduction for Neural Network Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    the total amount of communication load, followed by a placement of partitions onto proces- sors 3]. We

  15. Load Management DSM: Past, Present & Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, E.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Several current load control programs have discovered that the best FIGURE 6 I marketing method is a "direct mailing" that gets across the message "Load Management will help keep everyone's electrical rates ~ low." The offer of the rebate may catch... thermostat was satisfied or whether the LCR prevented the electrical demand. At the 1993 DA/DSM conference, Scientific-Atlanta introduced the industry's first Load Management Interface &MI) circuit board which fits in a standard load control receiver...

  16. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  17. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    become apparent that dynamic, or sud- denly applied loads, present a different type of problem to the engineer. Wind loads on tall structures, pile driving, nuclear blasts, and many other familiar loading conditions cannot be de- scribed or handled... an earthquake or nuclear blast. Also under this category of loading is the pulse which would be purposely induced to fail the soil structure for the purpose of excavation or pile driving. As part of a broader research project concerned with pile dri- ving...

  18. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  19. Detecting Load Imbalance on the Cray XT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @cray.com) © Cray Inc. Slide 10 Profile with Load Distribution by Groups Table 1: Profile by Function GroupDetecting Load Imbalance on the Cray XT Luiz DeRose Programming Environment Director Cray Inc. ldr@cray.com #12;Slide 2 Motivation for Load Imbalance Analysis Increasing system software and architecture

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  1. Beam heat load in superconducting wigglers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casalbuoni, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The beam heat load is a fundamental input parameter for the design of superconducting wigglers since it is needed to specify the cooling power. In this presentation I will review the possible beam heat load sources and the measurements of beam heat load performed and planned onto the cold vacuum chambers installed at different synchrotron light sources.

  2. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  3. Balancing load under large and fast load changes in distributed computing systems A case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthomieu, Bernard

    have been written about load sharing or load balancing (see e.g. [2] for references), but our sharing'' [7] technique. Load transfer can be implemented by moving processes at the time they are created (placement), but this method would not handle load implosions. Instead, we will use preemptive migrations

  4. Dynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemper, Alfons

    server during runtime. Figure 1 shows the load curve of a typical interactive service. In the morningDynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load Forecasting Daniel-organizing infrastructures to react proactively. For this pur- pose we present two techniques: Short-term load forecasting

  5. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  6. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  7. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  8. Cytokine-capture nanoparticles to quantify IL-2 concentrations within the immunological synapse during T cell activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Julee Y. (Julee Yang-A.), 1980-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of bringing a nascent technology for detection and quantification of local cytokine concentrations on cell surfaces to market is presented in this paper. Quantum dots or fluorochrome-loaded nanoparticles ...

  9. Concentric tube support assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  10. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for generators. A partial list of load attributes andpartial list includes: • Minimum run times • Minimum off times • Minimum load

  11. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  12. Project Approval Form Concentration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Project Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate of Graduation:____________________________ Instructions: Please check one of the following ways in which you Plan to complete the project as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology. Depending upon

  13. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  14. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  15. Buckling analysis of singly curved shallow bi-layered arch under concentrated loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonawane, Mahesh

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    viable alternative to conventional sandwich materials in applications where the functional requirements can be met without the second face sheet of the sandwich. For structural applications bi-layered materials are required to have oil canning...

  16. Direct perturbation analysis on cables with concentrated loads P. Yu *, K. Pan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Pei

    cables, overhead transmission lines, etc. The study of vibrations of suspended cables is of great is the galloping of overhead transmission lines which may cause severe disruptions in the electrical supply and even a cas- cading collapse of a lineĂ?s supporting towers. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1

  17. Distribution of stresses in a tapered cantilever beam due to a concentrated load at the end

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhoit, James Cammack

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    212 228 246 248 233 233 207 202 233 271 272 0 840 15. 0 34o 1170 78. o 1089 312 58 TABM XVI 15 BKW SWAM BB THE~DHZTICAL ~BI TS y tuehes Elemeabary Beam Thecey os elk 'Cjy Psi Psi Psz Theoxy of Zlasiisi4y ~u Og Psi Psi Psi m. 840...

  18. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  19. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  20. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  1. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  2. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioner Testing in WECC,” IEEE Power  Engineering Air Conditioner Modeling, WECC Load Modeling Task  Force in power system studies: WECC progress update,? Power and 

  3. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lights HVAC Figure 15 Demand Response and Market AnalysisHVAC Load % of Total Hour of Day Figure 16 Demand Response and Market

  4. Neurocontrol of Pressurized Water Reactors in Load-Follow Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Chaung; Shen Chihming

    2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The neurocontrol technique was applied to control a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in load-follow operations. Generalized learning or direct inverse control architecture was adopted in which the neural network was trained off-line to learn the inverse model of the PWR. Two neural network controllers were designed: One provided control rod position, which controlled the axial power distribution, and the other provided the change in boron concentration, which adjusted core total power. An additional feedback controller was designed so that power tracking capability was improved. The time duration between control actions was 15 min; thus, the xenon effect is limited and can be neglected. Therefore, the xenon concentration was not considered as a controller input variable, which simplified controller design. Center target strategy and minimum boron strategy were used to operate the reactor, and the simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller.

  5. Doxorubicin physical state in solution and inside liposomes loaded via a pH gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    1998 Abstract We have examined doxorubicin's (DOX) physical state in solution and inside EPC noted that DOX loaded to 200^300 mM internal concentrations in citrate containing liposomes formed/perturbation of the vesicle membrane. The individual DOX fibers are putatively comprised of stacked DOX molecules. From end

  6. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  7. Effects of dynamic conditions and sheave efficiency on hook load, derrick load, and line tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Gregory Robert

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Approved as to style and content by: Hans...

  8. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  9. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  10. Thermionic converter in load-switching mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel'baum, M.A.; Es'kov, V.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical equivalent circuit is proposed for a thermionic electrogenerating element. It is suitable for calculation of transients in load-switching mode. Formulas are given for estimating circuit parameters. A sample numerical calculation is given for the transient between no-load and short-circuit regimes. The results may be employed to identify experimental data in the frequency domain.

  11. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  12. REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS EttoreBompard, Enrico of the nodal prices in competitive electricity markets based on the Pool paradigm. Such prices focus of the paper is on the explicit evaluation of the impactsof the reactive load onthenodal real

  13. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Wind induced torsional loads on structures A. Kareem Department of Civil Engineering, University degrees of freedom. If the resultant wind forces do not coincide with the centre of mass at each floor is also sensitive to the ratio of torsional to translational frequencies. There is no existing wind load

  14. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  15. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  16. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  17. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  18. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  19. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  20. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  1. Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate Records:____________________________ Instructions: ENG students declaring a Concentration in Nanotechnology should complete this form, obtain REQUIRED COURSES (Choose 1) 1. ENG EC 481­ Fundamentals of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology 4.0 ELECTIVES

  2. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  3. Method And Apparatus For Imparting Strength To Materials Using Sliding Loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Darcy Anne (Fremont, CA); Dawson, Daniel B. (Pleasanton, CA); Korellis, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: 1) asperity interactions and 2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example.

  4. Method and apparatus for imparting strength to a material using sliding loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, D.A.; Dawson, D.B.; Korellis, J.S.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads is disclosed. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: (1) asperity interactions and (2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example. 11 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for imparting strength to a material using sliding loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Darcy Anne (Fremont, CA); Dawson, Daniel B. (Pleasanton, CA); Korellis, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: 1) asperity interactions and 2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example.

  6. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  7. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  8. General solutions for thermopiezoelectrics with various holes under thermal loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    induced by thermal loads. The loads may be uniform remote heat ÂŻow, point heat source and temperature elastic plate with an hole of various shapes subjected to remote uniform mechanical loading. For plane

  9. Psychosocial mediators of ethnic disparities in Allostatic Load /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomfohr, Lianne Marie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Allostatic Load A dissertation submitted in partialPartial Associations between Posited Mediators with Ethnicity and Allostatic Load……………………………………………………………………………………Partial Associations between Posited Mediators with Ethnicity and Allostatic Load

  10. axial compressive load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  11. axial loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  12. axial loaded mri: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  13. axial compressive loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  14. Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

  15. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Ford, “Reactive self-tracking solar concentration: designFord, “Reactive self- tracking solar concentration: designAutomated Micro-Tracking Planar Solar Concentrators by

  16. Load-follow control simulation with optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Man-Sung; Christenson, J.M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the simulation of load-follow control operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the system model needs to describe both primary and secondary system behaviors, because the load-change signal in the secondary system delivers a change in the primary system through the thermal-hydraulic interactions in the steam generator. In this study, the characteristics of load-follow control for a PWR were investigated using a one-dimensional core model combined with a simplified nuclear steam supply system model using optimization. The overall system model includes one-dimensional core neutronics with all the space-dependent feedback effects, Xe-I dynamics, core thermal balances, primary loop thermal balances, and steam generator dynamic responses to turbine load changes. The final system equations were manipulated for the lumped parameter representations by using the model expansion technique for the core model.

  17. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  18. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  19. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  20. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much disturbances is that modeling the voltage sensitivity of the load is far more important than the  frequency 

  1. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  2. Hexavalent chromium at low concentration alters Sertoli cell barrier and connexin 43 gap junction but not claudin-11 and N-cadherin in the rat seminiferous tubule culture model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carette, Diane [INSERM U 1065, Team 5 “Physiopathology of Germ Cell Control: Genomic and Non Genomic Mechanisms” C3M, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); UMR S775, University Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saints Pčres, 75006, Paris (France); Perrard, Marie-Hélčne, E-mail: marie-helene.durand@ens-lyon.fr [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon I, CNRS, INRA, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon (France); Prisant, Nadia [University of Versailles/St Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); UMR S775, University Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saints Pčres, 75006, Paris (France); Gilleron, Jérome; Pointis, Georges [INSERM U 1065, Team 5 “Physiopathology of Germ Cell Control: Genomic and Non Genomic Mechanisms” C3M, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Segretain, Dominique [University of Versailles/St Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); UMR S775, University Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saints Pčres, 75006, Paris (France); Durand, Philippe [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon I, CNRS, INRA, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon (France); Kallistem SAS Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to toxic metals, specifically those belonging to the nonessential group leads to human health defects and among them reprotoxic effects. The mechanisms by which these metals produce their negative effects on spermatogenesis have not been fully elucidated. By using the Durand's validated seminiferous tubule culture model, which mimics the in vivo situation, we recently reported that concentrations of hexavalent chromium, reported in the literature to be closed to that found in the blood circulation of men, increase the number of germ cell cytogenetic abnormalities. Since this metal is also known to affect cellular junctions, we investigated, in the present study, its potential influence on the Sertoli cell barrier and on junctional proteins present at this level such as connexin 43, claudin-11 and N-cadherin. Cultured seminiferous tubules in bicameral chambers expressed the three junctional proteins and ZO-1 for at least 12 days. Exposure to low concentrations of chromium (10 ?g/l) increased the trans-epithelial resistance without major changes of claudin-11 and N-cadherin expressions but strongly delocalized the gap junction protein connexin 43 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. The possibility that the hexavalent chromium-induced alteration of connexin 43 indirectly mediates the effect of the toxic metal on the blood–testis barrier dynamic is postulated. - Highlights: ? Influence of Cr(VI) on the Sertoli cell barrier and on junctional proteins ? Use of cultured seminiferous tubules in bicameral chambers ? Low concentrations of Cr(VI) (10 ?g/l) altered the trans-epithelial resistance. ? Cr(VI) did not alter claudin-11 and N-cadherin. ? Cr(VI) delocalized connexin 43 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells.

  3. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Team

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures.

  4. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description.

  5. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  6. 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study emulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement as completed by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years 1991--92 through 2010--11. The study shows the federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electrical demand and monthly maximum generating capability -- capacity -- for OY 1991--92, 1996--97, 2001--02 and 2010--11. The federal system and regional monthly capacity surpluses/deficits are summarized for 20 operating years. 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Design of inflatable solar concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasquillo, Omar (Omar Y. Carrasquillo De Armas)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar concentrators improve the performance of solar collection systems by increasing the amount of usable energy available for a given collector size. Unfortunately, they are not known for their light weight and portability, ...

  8. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power...

  9. Physics and Astronomy Geophysics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Geophysics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Dept. to Geophysics 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 CHE 1101 Introductory Chemistry - I 3 CHE 1110 Introductory Chemistry

  10. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Wonjung

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of ...

  11. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  12. Optimal concentrations in nectar feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Wonjung

    Nectar drinkers must feed quickly and efficiently due to the threat of predation. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest energetic rewards, the sharp increase of viscosity with sugar concentration makes it the most ...

  13. Concentrated solar power on demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel Shawn

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new concentrating solar power central receiver system with integral thermal storage. Hillside mounted heliostats direct sunlight into a volumetric absorption molten salt pool, which also functions ...

  14. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  15. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  16. amplitude dynamic loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University February 6, 2001 Abstract We present the load-calculus, used to model dynamic loading, and prove it sound. The calculus extends the polymorphic -calculus with a...

  17. Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading...

  18. acute acid loading an: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 queries Meagher, Mary 29 An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid Engineering Websites Summary: An Automatic Load Sharing Approach...

  19. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  20. Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar Cells Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar...

  1. Activity Stream - NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data 22 days ago harvest created the dataset NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data 1 month ago harvest created...

  2. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA's Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem. The 1999 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix (available electronically only) detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 2000-01 through 2009-10. The study shows the Federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electricity demand, monthly energy demand, monthly energy generation, and monthly maximum generating capability--capacity--for OY 2000-01, 2004-05, and 2009-10. The Federal system and regional monthly capacity surplus/deficit projections are summarized for 10 operating years. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for wh

  3. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

  5. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  6. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  7. Improved Load Distribution for Load Rating of Low-Fill Box Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acharya, Raju

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The distribution of live loads on the top slab of a box culvert plays a major role in determining the rating factor of the culvert. The current AASHTO guidelines do not consider the effects of pavements present above the fill while determining the load distribution...

  8. Modality Effects on Cognitive Load and Performance in High-Load Information Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    INTRODUCTION Intelligent human-computer interfaces are often multimodal, i.e. the human-computer communications into the modality planning procedure for systems that support high-load human-computer interaction. Author Keywords-load information presenta- tion scenario. Mainly based on modality-related psychology theories, we selected five

  9. Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruani, Fernando

    Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero strength is highly desirable, and in the past years composite materials such as resin matrix filled- tors, and composites containing carbon black and titanium dioxide have recently been tested

  10. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  11. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  12. Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet Abstract The load curve, which gives of electricity customer uses. This load curve is only available for customers with automated meter reading. For the others, EDF must estimate this curve. Usually a clustering of the load curves is performed, followed

  13. Discharge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    : effective discharge, transport, sediment, constituents, rating curve, half-load Citation: Vogel, R. M., J. RDischarge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel Department of Civil and Environmental load is ultimately the quantity of interest, we define a new index, the half-load discharge, which

  14. ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION IN COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michal Duška; Martin Barták; František Drkal; Jan Hensen

    equation in cooling load calculations. The performance of nine different procedures (the four methods and

  15. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that demonstrated the quantitative impact of WL on the number of cells (each Saltstone vault contains two cells) required to disposition all of the {approx}100 million gallons of DSS available in the tanks. This calculation revealed that the number of cells required over the range of 0.48 to 0.62 w/cm ratio (equivalent to a WL range of 591 to 666 mL/L) varies from 65 to 57 cells (33 to 29 vaults). The intent of this oversimplified example was to show the range of variation in vaults expected due to w/cm ratio rather than to estimate the actual number of vaults required. There is a tradeoff between the waste loading and the processing and performance properties of Saltstone. The performance properties improve in general as the w/cm ratio decreases whereas the waste loading is reduced at lower w/cm ratios resulting in a larger number of Saltstone vaults. The final performance and processing requirements of Saltstone will determine the maximum waste loading achievable.

  16. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  17. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  18. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury sources in that area cannot account for the observed EGM peaks due to their diffuse source geometry and the large (170 km) transport distance involved. The EGM peak originating from northwestern Utah air may be from three known mercury sources west of Salt Lake City (Kennecott, US Magnesium, Clean Harbors Aragonite) and/or the 1600 MW coal-fired Intermountain Power plant near Delta. However, the relative importance of these short-term peaks for long-term watershed mercury loading (critical factor affecting fish concentrations) is not known, and there is a need to better quantify the annual frequency and magnitude of these different inputs over a longer period of time.

  19. Towards Increased Waste Loading in High Level Waste Glasses: Developing a Better Understanding of Crystallization Behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.

  20. Towards Increased Waste Loading in High Level Waste Glasses: Developing a Better Understanding of Crystallization Behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advancedmore »glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.« less

  1. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  2. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  3. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF SP&NDS SUBJECTED TO DTNAMIC LOADING A Tucsis By Gary N. Reeves Submitted to the Grad ate Coll Ee of the T xas AGM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deEree of MASTER OF SCIPNCE AuBust 19G7 Major... Subject: Civil EnEineering LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SANDS SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING A Thesis by Gary N. Reeves Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department Membe Me er August 1967 ACIINOWLEDGR&J. 'NTS I...

  4. Telemetering system supports load curtailment and billing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabry, R. (Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC (United States)); Biagini, D. (Landis and Gyr Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the greatest challenges facing electric utilities today is satisfying increasing peak demand without adding new generating capacity. Supporting utilities in this quest are state-of-the-art computer systems designed to accommodate complex load management as well as billing and load survey programs. The Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) is utilizing such computer technology along with an innovative organizational approach to implement a comprehensive energy plan for its customers. The plan is enabling the utility to meet the growing demand placed on its power system by intensive expansion in the greater Washington DC area.

  5. Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K.; Fox, K.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Aloy, A.; Trofimenko, A.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gerdes, K.D. [EM-21, Office of Waste Processing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent tank retrieval, blending, and treatment strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled-melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and Savannah River Site. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and glass durability. This paper summarizes the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in glass. In summary: Glasses with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading ranging from 25 to 27 wt% were formulated and tested at a crucible scale. Successful glass formulations with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that do not precipitate nepheline during CCC treatment and had spinel crystals 1 vol% or less after 24 hr heat treatment at 950 deg. C were obtained. The selected glass, HAL-17 with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, had viscosity and electrical conductivity within the boundaries for adequate processing in the Joule heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. This HAL-17 glass was successfully processed using small-scale (SMK) and larger scale (EP-5) melters. There was no indication of spinel settling during processing. The product glass samples from these melter tests contained 1 to 4 vol% spinel crystals that are likely formed during cooling. The PCT tests on the product glasses are underway. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to formulate the glasses with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that satisfy the property requirements and is processable with Joule-heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. The 'nepheline discriminator' for HAL-17 glass is 0.45, which supports that claim that the current rule ('nepheline discriminator' < 0.62) is too restrictive. Considering that the cost of HLW treatment is highly dependent on loading of waste in glass, this result provides a potential for significant cost saving for Hanford. The maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading that can be achieved will also depend on concentrations of other components in wastes. For example, the loading of waste used in this study was also limited by the spinel crystallization after 950 deg. C 24 hr heat treatment, which suggests that the concentrations of spinel-forming components such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, and MnO would be critical in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading achievable. The observed glass production rate per unit melter surface area of 0.75 MT/(d.m{sup 2}) for SMK test is comparable to the design capacity of WTP HLW melters at 0.8 MT/(d.m{sup 2}). However, the test with EP-5 melter achieved 0.38 MT/(d.m{sup 2}), which is roughly a half of the WTP design capacity. This result may imply that the glass with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may not achieve the WTP design production rate. However, this hypothesis is not conclusive because of unknown effects of melter size and operation

  6. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems significantly limit our ability to differentiate between control-related and non-control related differences in substation-level load shape data. The usefulness and accuracy of the results were hampered by operational problems encountered during the measurement period as well as in sufficient number of load research grade interval meters at one cooperative. Given the larger sample size at one electric cooperative and more statistically-robust results, there is some basis to suggest that the Adjusted Diversified Demand Factor (ADDF) values used by the CSP somewhat over-state the actual load reductions. Given the results and limitations of the M&V approach as implemented, we suggest several options for PJM to consider: (1) require load aggregators participating in ISODR programs to utilize formal PURPA-compliant load research samples in their M&V plans, and (2) continue developing lower cost M&V approaches for mass market load control programs that incorporate suggested improvements described in this study.

  7. Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

  8. Modularization and simulation techniques for heat balance-based energy and load calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard K. Strand

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Loads Toolkit research project is to obtain a heat balance based load calculation procedure that

  9. Development and application of the spatially explicit load enrichment calculation tool (select) to determine potential E. coli loads in watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riebschleager, Kendra Jean

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to contamination is the Load Duration Curve (LDC) method (USEPA, 2006a). The LDC approach was developed for assessing nutrient loading in streams (Cleland, 2002). This graphical approach combines daily 9 stream flow with water quality data for the pollutant... on the field data available, thus the LDC determines load reductions for the flow conditions at which measurements were taken (Li and Guo, 2003). Load reduction is based on the percent exceedance above the maximum allowable load line. In Texas, the water...

  10. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  11. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  12. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  13. load balancing tool for OASIS coupled systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LUCIA, load balancing tool for OASIS coupled systems Eric Maisonnave, Arnaud Caubel TR-CMGC-14-63 #12;Table of contents 1. Description of an OASIS3-MCT-based coupled system..............................................................................................14 #12;This document focuses on how to optimize performances of an OASIS3-MCT-based coupled system

  14. Analysis of the Load Impacts and Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Time of Use (TOU) rate plan, called "Analysis of the Load Impacts and Economic Benefits model. The TOU data was rerun through the new spreadsheet model and the results are reported here. · Participation in the TOU rate option also resulted in an average net reduction of 292 kWh/year in annual

  15. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  16. LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PhD Thesis LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION Serge Caparos Goldsmiths). This thesis examined (1) the shape of the profile of perceptual resources in space and (2) the effect of several factors on the focus of this profile. The spatial profile of perceptual resources was indexed

  17. A LOADING-DEPENDENT MODEL OF PROBABILISTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    of the salient features of large blackouts of electric power trans- mission systems+ This leads to a new loadings+ 1. INTRODUCTION Cascading failure is the usual mechanism for large blackouts of electric power and containing 50 million people @33#+ The vital importance of the electrical infrastructure to society motivates

  18. Fig. 1. Example System phase loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power system (SPS) consists of various components such as generators, cables, switchboards, load centers Transformer 9 25 12 Alternate path Generator switchboard Bus-tie breaker Generator 1 Generator 3 Generator 2 4 26 G 29 7 8 ABT 3 single phase cables Visualization for Shipboard Power Systems Karen L. Butler

  19. CALIFORNIA'S NEXT GENERATION OF LOAD MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy the need for new peaking generation capacity and associated transmission and distribution capacity's "load management" authority as a way to achieve higher levels of costeffective demand response

  20. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  1. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The PNCA defines the planning and operation of seventeen U.S. Pacific Northwest utilities and other parties with generating facilities within the region's hydroelectric (hydro) system. The hydroregulation study used for the 2004 White Book incorporates measures from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) Biological Opinion dated December 2000, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 2000 Biological Opinion (2000 FCRPS BiOps) for the Snake River and Columbia River projects. These measures include: (1) Increased flow augmentation for juvenile fish migrations in the Snake and Columbia rivers in the spring and summer; (2) Mandatory spill requirements at the Lower Snake and Columbia dams to provide for non-turbine passage routes for juvenile fish migrants; and (3) Additional flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon in the spring; The hydroregulation criteria for this analysis includes the following: (1) Detailed Operation Plan operation for Treaty reservoirs for Operating Year (OY) 2004; (2) PNCA planning criteria for OY 2004; and (3) Juvenile fish bypass spill levels for 2000 FCRPS BiOps implementation. The 2004 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2004 White Book analysis updates the 2003 White Book. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2006 through 2015. The study shows the Federal s

  2. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  3. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  4. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiancenumber concentration ARM Data

  6. Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Plan to complete the experiential component as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology to complete the experiential component for the Nanotechnology Concentration by: Research Experience in Lab

  7. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System from Concentrix Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics,CPV systems that use arrays of optics and photovoltaics,system so that arrays of paired concentrators and photovoltaics

  8. Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project February 13, 2014 - 5:00am Addthis...

  9. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A.L. Luque, and V.M.in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally movingUsing optics to boost photovoltaics,” Optics and Photonics

  10. Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies Photo of a CSP dish glistening in the sun. Multiple solar mirrors reflect...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, News, Renewable Energy, Solar On Thursday, June...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: multiscale concentrated solar power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrated solar power Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States Kick-Off On November 27, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Systems Air Force Research Laboratory Testing On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News,...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Sandia Wins Funding for High-Temperature Falling-Particle Solar-Energy Receiver On August 8, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities,...

  15. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  16. Loading and pre-loading processes generate a distinct siRNA population in Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi, E-mail: kazufumi.mochizuki@imba.oeaw.ac.at; Kurth, Henriette M.

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •The Tetrahymena Argonaute protein Twi1p binds to ?28–30-nt siRNAs called scnRNAs. •The size of scnRNAs is determined during a pre-loading process. •The 5? uracil bias of scnRNAs is attributed to pre-loading and loading processes. •The thermodynamic asymmetry of scnRNA duplex doesnot affect the guide strand decision. •scnRNAs may be produced non-sequentially from dsRNA substrates by Dicer. -- Abstract: The various properties of small RNAs, such as length, terminal nucleotide, thermodynamic asymmetry and duplex mismatches, can impact their sorting into different Argonaute proteins in diverse eukaryotes. The developmentally regulated 26- to 32-nt siRNAs (scnRNAs) are loaded to the Argonaute protein Twi1p and display a strong bias for uracil at the 5? end. In this study, we used deep sequencing to analyze loaded and unloaded populations of scnRNAs. We show that the size of the scnRNA is determined during a pre-loading process, whereas their 5? uracil bias is attributed to both pre-loading and loading processes. We also demonstrate that scnRNAs have a strong bias for adenine at the third base from the 3? terminus, suggesting that most scnRNAs are direct Dicer products. Furthermore, we show that the thermodynamic asymmetry of the scnRNA duplex does not affect the guide and passenger strand decision. Finally, we show that scnRNAs frequently have templated uracil at the last base without a strong bias for adenine at the second base indicating non-sequential production of scnRNAs from substrates. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the varying attributes of scnRNAs, which should help improve our understanding of the production and turnover of scnRNAs in vivo.

  17. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

  18. Concentrator Optics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text

  19. Deterministic Josephson Vortex Ratchet with a load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Knufinke; K. Ilin; M. Siegel; D. Koelle; R. Kleiner; E. Goldobin

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate experimentally a deterministic underdamped Josephson vortex ratchet -- a fluxon-particle moving along a Josephson junction in an asymmetric periodic potential. By applying a sinusoidal driving current one can compel the vortex to move in a certain direction, producing average dc voltage across the junction. Being in such a rectification regime we also load the ratchet, i.e., apply an additional dc bias current I_dc (counterforce) which tilts the potential so that the fluxon climbs uphill due to the ratchet effect. The value of the bias current at which the fluxon stops climbing up defines the strength of the ratchet effect and is determined experimentally. This allows us to estimate the loading capability of the ratchet, the output power and efficiency. For the quasi-static regime we present a simple model which delivers simple analytic expressions for the above mentioned figures of merit.

  20. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  1. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  2. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  3. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ellefson, Robert E. (Centerville, OH); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  4. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  5. Load Management and Houston Lighting and Power Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drawe, R. G.; Ramsay, I. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Defining Load Management as influencing of customer loads in order to shift the time use of electric power and energy, encompasses a broad spectrum of activities at Houston Lighting & Power Company. This paper describes those activities by directing...

  6. Structural loading of cross deck connections for trimaran vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, Jason L

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates the fundamental relationships of wave loading on cross deck structures for trimaran vessels. In contrast with a monohull ship, trimaran vessels experience several possible structural loading cases ...

  7. Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

  8. acute cholesterol loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  9. acute sodium loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  10. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heat transfer for cooling load calculation.heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationload calculation approach for radiant systems, Corgnati [17] also tackled the direct radiant heat

  11. assessing critical loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  12. aerodynamic loads estimated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  13. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  14. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  15. Improved Load Plan Design Through Integer Programming Based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The load plan determines which shipments are packed together into the ...... More importantly, however, from an implementation perspective, this “profile”.

  16. Dynamics of Helium-Loaded Grain Boundaries under Shear Deformation in ?-Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Fei; Yang, Li; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The defects produced in collision cascades will interact with microstructural features in materials, such as GBs and dislocations. The coupled motion of GBs under stress has been widely observed in simulations and experiments. Two symmetric tilt GBs with a common <110> tilt axis (?3 and ?11) in bcc iron are used to investigate the coupled motion of GBs under shear deformation. Also, we have explored the effect of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) loading on the GB motion, with different concentrations of interstitials randomly inserted around the GB plane. The simulation results show that the interstitial loading reduces the critical stress of the GB coupled motion for the ?3 GB. Furthermore, the interstitials and vacancies are inserted randomly at the GB plane and at a distance of 1 nm away from the GB plane, respectively, to understand the self-healing mechanism of GBs under stress. The behavior of the defect-loaded GBs depends on the GB structure. The loaded interstitials in the ?3 GB easily form <111> interstitial clusters that do not move along with the GB. The vacancies in the ?3 GB impede the GB motion. However, the interstitials move along with the ?11 GB and annihilate with vacancies when the GB moves into the vacancy-rich region, leading to the self-healing and damage recovery of the ?11 GB.

  17. Industrial Load Shaping: A Utility Strategy to Deal with Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D.

    manufacturing facilities. Both the customer and the utility should realize benefits from these changes. There are five generic load shaping categories: rescheduling operations, capacity additions, product storage, automation and flexible manufacturing... Implementation * Program Monitoring LOAD SHAPE ALTERNATIVES General categories of load shape alternatives include process rescheduling, capacity additions, product storage, automation and flexible manufacturing and electrotechnologies. Process rescheduling...

  18. Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time-Series Application of the Super Electric Energy System #12;Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time-Series Application of the SuperOPF." (PSERC

  19. AIAA980057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    AIAA­98­0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH MULTIPLE that is most useful in estimating fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. The histograms of rainflow counted turbulence measures---can be used to estimate fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. We first de­ scribe

  20. Load Alleviation on Wind Turbine Blades using Variable Airfoil Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Load Alleviation on Wind Turbine Blades using Variable Airfoil Geometry Peter Bjřrn Andersen, Mac Loads, Trailing Edge Flaps, PID control, Signal Noise. 1 Introduction Wind turbine blades are subject to 40% when signal noise is added to the control. Keywords: Wind Turbine, Load Alleviation, Fatigue

  1. Guide to Dowel LoadTransfer Systems for Jointed Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide to Dowel LoadTransfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements TECH BRIEF SEPTEMBER 2011 #12;#12;GUIDE TO DOWEL LOAD TRANSFER SYSTEMS FOR JOINTED CONCRETE ROADWAY PAVEMENTS i Technical and Subtitle Guide to Dowel Load Transfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements 5. Report Date

  2. Simultaneous confidence bands in curve prediction applied to load curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Simultaneous confidence bands in curve prediction applied to load curves J.M. Aza¨is1, S. Bercu2, J, load curve. 1 Introduction In curve prediction, one is generally interested in deriving simultaneous this technique in the numerical context of load curve pre- diction: power producers like EDF, the electrical

  3. Checkpointed Early Load Retirement Nevin Kirman Meyrem Kirman Mainak Chaudhuri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirer, Emin Gun

    Checkpointed Early Load Retirement Nevin Kirman Meyrem Kirman Mainak ChaudhuriŁ Jos´e F. Mart propose checkpointed early load retirement, a mechanism that combines register check- pointing and back-value prediction to consumers, and (3) EARly-retiring the long-latency load. This unclogs the ROB, thereby

  4. Lifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haenggi, Martin

    , battery depletion is emulated so that it becomes possible to actually measure the load balancingLifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks Daniele Puccinelli network. The use of load balancing schemes can be expected to provide significant lifetime benefits

  5. Exploratory Divertor Heat Load Studies for Compact Stellarator Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    of the divertor system is described in Sec. III, together with the plate heat load profile, and the conditions is power reaching the plate, AD is the total plate area, Wpk is the design peak heat load limitExploratory Divertor Heat Load Studies for Compact Stellarator Reactors T.K. Maua , H. Mc

  6. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes CALIFORNIA ENERGY #12;LBNL-49095 Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes Prepared of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators During Load Changes ii Abstract This report describes test

  7. THERMAL LOADING OF A DIRECT DRIVE TARGET IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    optics. A background gas, such as Xe, could reduce the damage on the wall from ion and heat loading fusion micro explosion (~ 10 Hz), ions and heat loads threaten to damage the reactor wall and driver. · The thermal loading of a target (radiation from the chamber wall and convection from the protective gas) may

  8. Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data,itiscommontoeithercarry out extensive simulation studies or undertake a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind here is to estimate extreme loads for an offshore wind turbine for which the environmental and load

  9. Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method Korn Saranyasoontorn, TX 78712 When interest is in establishing ultimate design loads for wind turbines such that a service). The parametric conditional load distri- butions require extensive turbine response simulations over the entire

  10. 2000 IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Seattle, USA Phantom Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Leszek S.

    exhibit a great variety of different features, while loads that generate such currents provide only very specific currents, characteristic for particular loads. Also some loads that gene- rate non on identification of non-periodic currents and their compensation by providing a technical tool for verification

  11. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.

  12. Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

  13. Abstract--This paper addresses the impact of load dynamics, and in particular induction motor loads, on voltage recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    load flow techniques or with full scale dynamic simulations. Studies are performed usually off-scale dynamic simulations. The approach uses load flow techniques with advanced modeling capabilities that allow from several classes of electric loads, such as induction motors. It is well known that the voltage

  14. Rotordynamic coefficients for a load-between-pad, flexible-pivot tilting pad bearing at high loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensley, John Eric

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic and static performance of a flexure-pivot tilting pad bearing is presented at a load between pad configuration for various load and speed combinations. A similar work performed on the same bearing at lower loads ranging from 0-1 MPa (0...

  15. Standard test method for uranium and plutonium concentrations and isotopic abundances by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in solutions. The purified uranium or plutonium from samples ranging from nuclear materials to environmental or bioassay matrices is loaded onto a mass spectrometric filament. The isotopic ratio is determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, the concentration is determined by isotope dilution. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Performance of Geogrid Reinforced Ballast under Dynamic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jowkar, Milad

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    string pot versus dynamic loading at 1100 psi (9 psi tie bearing pressure) 37 4.1.3 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 2500 psi (21 psi tie bearing pressure) 38 4.1.4 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 3500 psi (31 psi tie bearing pressure...) 39 4.1.5 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 4500 psi (38 psi tie bearing pressure) 41 4.1.6 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 4500 psi (soaked) (40 psi tie bearing pressure) 43 4.2 Unreinforced test 45 4.2.1 West string pot 45 4...

  17. Extension of load follow capability of a PWR reactor by optimal control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winokur, M.; Tepper, L.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of extending that part of the fuel life cycle during which a reactor is capable of sustaining load-follow operation is formulated as an optimal control problem. A two-node model representation of pressurized water reactor dynamics is used, leading to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Differential Dynamic Programming is used to solve directly the resulting nonlinear optimization problem and obtain the trajectories of soluble boron concentration and control rod insertion. Results of computations performed for a reference reactor are presented, showing how the optimal control policy stretches the capability of the reactor to follow an average daily load curve towards the end of the fuel life cycle.

  18. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If successful, the technique developed will provide a means of accurately and reproducibly loading a priori specified amounts of metals onto zeolites. In addition, we will try to relate the physico-chemical properties of the catalyst to'its catalytic activity.... The zeolite powder is placed in the round bottomed flask. The solution containing the cat. 'on to be exchanged is poured over zhe zeolite, and the slurry is stirred with a magnetic stirring bar. The temperature between the heating mantle and the flask...

  19. Taking a Bite out of Lighting Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = 100w PAR38 • No maintenance for years ? 50,000 LED vs.10,000 CFL • Improved light quality ? 80 CRI LED vs. 25 CRI HPS • Reduce HVAC cooling load • Advanced control options ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San... Fragile Durable Optical Efficiency 50 50 70-80 Indoor LED Advantages ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Expected ROI 1.17 Years Case Study: LUGGAGE & LEATHER Sugar Land, Texas ESL-KT-13...

  20. Taking a Bite out of Lighting Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Take a Bite Out of Lighting Loads With LEDs Stephen Williams Toshiba Sales Support Manager ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Some LED Advantages • Less electricity ? 18w LED... Fragile Durable Optical Efficiency 50 50 70-80 Indoor LED Advantages ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Expected ROI 1.17 Years Case Study: LUGGAGE & LEATHER Sugar Land, Texas ESL-KT-13...

  1. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  2. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  3. Load Response Fundamentally Matches Power System Reliability Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system. Loads are frequently barred from providing the highest value and most critical reliability services; regulation and spinning reserve. Advances in communications and control technology now make it possible for some loads to provide both of these services. The limited storage incorporated in some loads better matches their response capabilities to the fast reliability-service markets than to the hourly energy markets. Responsive loads are frequently significantly faster and more accurate than generators, increasing power system reliability. Incorporating fast load response into microgrids further extends the reliability response capabilities that can be offered to the interconnected power system. The paper discusses the desired reliability responses, why this matches some loads' capabilities, what the advantages are for the power system, implications for communications and monitoring requirements, and how this resource can be exploited.

  4. 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: electrical demand--firm loads--under the medium 1990 Draft Joint Load Forecast; generating resources; and contracts both inside and outside the region.

  5. Indoor design condition and the cooling load calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, T.Y. [Sun (Tseng-Yao), Rancho Palos Verde, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling load calculation involves two steps. The first is to determine the basic building load. This consists of external loads through the building envelope and internal loads from people, lights, appliances, and other heat sources. The required supply air quantity for each conditioned space generally is determined in the first step. This is because each relates only to the coil leaving and required room dry bulb temperatures (unless reheat is required to control the humidity level in the conditioned space). The second step, after completing the above, is to calculate the system cooling load. This step adapts the selected air distribution system to the building load and involves the introduction of the required outdoor air volume into the air conditioning system for ventilation. Proper psychrometric analysis is required to calculate the entering and leaving wet bulb conditions of the air passing through the cooling coil. These, together with the corresponding dry bulb temperatures, will determine the system cooling load.

  6. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  7. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  8. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  9. Modelling the settling of suspended sediments for concentrations close to the gelling concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling the settling of suspended sediments for concentrations close to the gelling concentration the sedimentation phase. In the case of cohesive sediments, the estimation of the gelling concentration, although and consolidation behaviour for concentrations close to the gelling concentration. Key words: sedimentation

  10. Modeling of concentrating solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng

    The conversion of solar power into electricity is dominated by non-concentrating photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal systems. Recently, it has been shown that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are a viable ...

  11. Thermal loading study for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of sensitivity analyses designed to assist the test planners in focusing their in-situ measurements on parameters that appear to be important to waste isolation. Additionally, the study provides a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of certain thermal management options. A decision on thermal loading is a critical part of the scientific and engineering basis for evaluating regulatory compliance of the potential repository for waste isolation. To show, with reasonable assurance, that the natural and engineered barriers will perform adequately under expected repository conditions (thermally perturbed) will require an integrated approach based on thermal testing (laboratory, and in-situ), natural analog observations, and analytic modeling. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needed input to assist in the planning of the thermal testing program. Additionally, designers required information on the viability of various thermal management concepts. An approximately 18-month Thermal Loading Study was conducted from March, 1994 until September 30, 1995 to address these issues. This report documents the findings of that study. 89 refs., 71 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. Modeling of highly loaded fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lister, G.G.; Lawler, J.E.; Curry, J.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical modeling of the positive column of fluorescent lamps under conditions of high current density are of current interest, particularly in view of recent developments in electrodeless lamps. Current models tend to overestimate radiation output, and consequently the maintenance electric field in these discharges. Under highly loaded conditions, mercury-rare gas fluorescent lamps exhibit strong mercury depletion on axis (cataphoresis), and an understanding of resonance radiation transport under these conditions is therefore vital to the development of models with a predictive capability. The authors have explored the effect of radial cataphoresis on resonance radiation trapping for situations in which the radiation transport is dominated by foreign gas broadening, Doppler broadening, or resonance collisional broadening of the spectral line. Several different production rates per unit volume of resonance (excited) atoms have also been studied. It is advantageous in many cases to parameterize the trapped decay rate in terms of the total number of ground state atoms in the positive column independent of their radial distribution. The results of this work have been included in a numerical model of the positive column and the predicted influence on discharge parameters will be presented for cases of interest to highly loaded lamps.

  13. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  14. Relative importance of multiple factors on terrestrial loading of DOC to Arctic river networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kicklighter, David W. [Ecosystem Center, The] [Ecosystem Center, The; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL] [ORNL; Mcclelland, James W [University of Texas] [University of Texas; Peterson, Bruce [Marine Biological Laboratory] [Marine Biological Laboratory; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska] [University of Alaska; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory] [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western Russia.

  15. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  16. Nanofluidic Concentration Device for Biomolecules Utilizing Ion Concentration Polarization: Theory, Fabrication, and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Jae

    Recently, a new type of electrokinetic concentration devices has been developed in a microfluidic chip format, which allows efficient trapping and concentration of biomolecules by utilizing ion concentration polarization ...

  17. 514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handbook--Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1997) and the Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual (Mc514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are Load Calculation Methods (942-RP)" are also given. INTRODUCTION Design cooling load calculation

  18. New GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs, Triple-Bandgap, Tandem Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Terrestrial Concentrator Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Geisz, J.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T.; Carapella, J.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Emery. K.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Kibbler, A.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs three-junction cells are grown in an inverted configuration on GaAs, allowing high quality growth of the lattice matched GaInP and GaAs layers before a grade is used for the 1-eV GaInAs layer. Using this approach an efficiency of 37.9% was demonstrated.

  19. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Profiles Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Central Research Institute of Electric PowerElectric Power Industry. A Meanwhile, load profiles of each

  20. Estimation of electropneumatic clutch actuator load characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    efficiency, reduced clutch wear and improved fuel consumption. Most attention in this trend has been given. [2003] concentrate on control and trajectory position tracking of similar electrohydraulic systems level of torque is required to be transmitted from the motor through the clutch disc, and hence

  1. Protecting Consumer Privacy from Electric Load Stephen McLaughlin Patrick McDaniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Patrick Drew

    energy use. These profiles can be mined by Non Intrusive Load Monitors (NILMs) to expose much sensors to collect and report load profiles. Load profiles are histories of energy usage collected as Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM): Load monitoring Load profile Lighting Oven Heater ... Appliance

  2. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  3. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  4. Estimating market potential for reducing customer peak loads through photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, J. [Citizens Advisory Panel, Central Islip, NY (United States); Perez, R. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past studies have quantified photovoltaics` (PV) peak load matching capability on a utility-wide scale. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the number of utility subloads (e.g., customers, substations) whose peak loads are well matched with solar availability. A simple tool based on the utility scale load-PV match is developed to estimate the market size of customer scale PV applications with high load-PV matches. Illustrative examples of customer owned PV economics are also provided. The authors show that (1) the market size of high load matching PV applications on the subload scale is significant even within utility systems whose load requirements are not particularly well matched with PV output; and (2) the cost of PV as a peak shaving resource for utility customers is approaching competitive levels.

  5. Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsagarakis, G; Kiprakis, A E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.

  6. Lateral load test of a drilled shaft in clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasch, Vernon R

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will be used to develop rational criteria for the design of drilled shafts that support precast panel retaining walls. The procedure used in conducting the study was: 1. Design and construct a reaction and loading system capable of applying large magnitude... lateral loads to large diameter drilled shafts. 2. Construct a large diameter instrumented drilled shaft. 3. Test the shaft by applying lateral loads. 4. Obtain undisturbed soil samples from the drilled shaft con- struction site and perform laboratory...

  7. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  8. A development of MOS linear active load schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallett, Robert Alan

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistor. A solution to this problem is to use a single or multiply interconnected MOS transistors to simulate resistors. These simulated resistors are termed "active loads". The advantages of using MOSFETs over passive monolithic resistors are the high...'s inverted parallel load . General description of the fully linear active block Fully linear active block Three transistor fully linear block Cktl Ckt2 Ckt3 Ckt4 Complex single transistor loads IPL DEPR FLAB I ? V measuring system THD measuring...

  9. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  10. UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    output data. 1 E.g., if the installed PV capacity is 10MW, the objective is for PV + SLC to meet 100% of the loads above a threshold equal to the utility peak minus 10 MW. 2 #12;UPEX-02 PV output data: PV output the report is PTC (AC output at 25 degrees ambient). Load data: Hourly SMUD system load data from 1996

  11. advanced load alleviation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    paradox of the pulsar wind nebula. Maxim Lyutikov 2002-02-19 89 A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution...

  12. Retrofitting unreinforced concrete masonry to resist tornado loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorshorst, Evan G. (Evan Gregory)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in structural design and building materials have significantly increased the performance of many structures under the extreme loading conditions associated with natural disasters such as earthquakes. However, ...

  13. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Customer Load Reductions during...

  14. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofInc, Altanta,GA, 2009. Cooling load differences betweensurface level 24-hour total cooling energy between radiant

  15. HVAC Loads in High-Performance Homes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Winkler, J.

    2010-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation was delivered at the ASHRAE 2010 Annual Summer Conference on June 27, 2010, and addresses humidity and AC loads in energy efficient houses.

  16. axle loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  17. alkohilimgi load lhiajalisemaks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  18. alkoholimgi load lhiajalisemaks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  19. adenosine triphosphate loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  20. autologous plasma loaded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  1. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dandan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Judkoff, R. ,room and calculation of air conditioning load. ASHRAE Trans,Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.

  2. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'

  3. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  4. activated carbon load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube composites to shock wave loading Materials Science Websites Summary: Dynamic response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube...

  5. activated carbon loaded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube composites to shock wave loading Materials Science Websites Summary: Dynamic response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube...

  6. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Presentation given at...

  7. A mixed integer programming approach to reduce fuel load ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramya Rachmawati

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 12, 2015 ... A mixed integer programming approach to reduce fuel load accumulation for prescribed burn planning. Ramya Rachmawati(ramya.rachmawati ...

  8. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used...

  9. Efficient approaches for the robust network loading problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The next section presents the formulations of the robust network load-. 3 ...... Figure 1: Performance profile comparing Compact-2, Benders-3, and Benders-4 for ...

  10. Newbie question: How to view commercial/residential load profile...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newbie question: How to view commercialresidential load profile datasets? Home > Groups > Buildings I have downloaded SAM (20112414) and cannot access open the .tar files. Help...

  11. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been a number of investigations into the effects of PV variability on distribution circuit voltage 1. Due to load data resolution limitations and the difficulty in estimating...

  12. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Project demonstrates and promotes the use of responsive load to provide ancillary services; helps ISOsand grid operators understand the resource and how best to apply it. Technical...

  13. air conditioning load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.; Deying, L. 2006-01-01 2 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: 1...

  14. active load management: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint...

  15. air conditioning loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an...

  16. Shock initiation studies on high concentration hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibson, L. Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been known to detonate for many years. However, because of its reactivity and the difficulty in handling and confining it, along with the large critical diameter, few studies providing basic information about the initiation and detonation properties have been published. We are conducting a study to understand and quantify the initiation and detonation properties of highly concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} using a gas-driven two-stage gun to produce well defined shock inputs. Multiple magnetic gauges are used to make in-situ measurements of the growth of reaction and subsequent detonation in the liquid. These experiments are designed to be one-dimensional to eliminate any difficulties that might be encountered with large critical diameters. Because of the concern of the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the confining materials, a remote loading system has been developed. The gun is pressurized, then the cell is filled and the experiment shot within less than three minutes. TV cameras are attached to the target so the cell filling can be monitored. Several experiments have been completed on {approx}98 wt % H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures; initiation has been observed in some experiments that shows homogeneous shock initiation behavior. The initial shock pressurizes and heats the mixture. After an induction time, a thermal explosion type reaction produces an evolving reactive wave that strengthens and eventually overdrives the first wave producing a detonation. From these measurements, we have determined unreacted Hugoniot information, times (distances) to detonation (Pop-plot points) that indicate low sensitivity, and detonation velocities of high concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O solutions that agree with earlier estimates.

  17. Estimation of Loads of Mercury, Selenium, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, Dioxins, and1 Organochlorine Pesticides from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to San2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Estimation of Loads of Mercury, Selenium, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, Dioxins, and1 Organochlorine concentrations from the Sacramento- San Joaquin River watershed were9 determined in water samples during flood 1.6 and 6.1%, respectively. Also monitored were PAHs, PBDEs (two years of19 data), and dioxins

  18. Investigation of optimal reactor control for a load-following PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, M.S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of optimal load-follow control of PWR plants are investigated in this study. A simple system model that describes main features of physical processes in the system was developed. The system model includes core neutronics with all the spatial dependent feedback effects, Xe-I dynamics, core thermal balances, primary-loop thermal balances, and steam-generator dynamic responses to turbine load changes. An optimal control problem that describes power-level control and power-distribution control problem together and considers all the important system operation limits as hard inquality constraints was formulated. The full-length control rod bank positions, part-length control rod positions, and boron concentration changes were modeled as control variables and turbine load variations were used as the forcing variable. Because modern PWR operating policy is to leave the part-length rods uninserted, the part-length rods were not used as a control variable in the optimal control calculations. The optimal control problem was converted to unconstrained nonlinear optimization problem by using the discretization approximation and the penalty function technique. The converted problem was solved by the nonlinear Gauss-Newton method which showed superior performance over all of the other tested optimization methods.

  19. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  1. Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, March 1- May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajchel, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P.; Fonseca, A.; Mauer, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be, concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and re-mixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology can enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant cost and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. Testing was also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back-filled, eliminating the need for tailings ponds. During the grant period, a laboratory-scale test apparatus (up to 3 GPM feed rate) was assembled and operated to demonstrate process performance over a range of feed temperatures and pressures. A dilute coal/water slurry from Consol, Inc.`s Rend Lake Preparation Plant was concentrated using the process to a maximum recorded solids loading of 61.9% solids by weight. Analytical results from the concentrate were evaluated by Destec Energy for suitability as an IGCC fuel.

  2. Funding Opportunity Announcement: CSP: Concentrating Optics for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the 2012 SunShot CSP Research and Development funding program, the CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS) funding program seeks to further CSP...

  3. Concentrating Solar Power (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities,...

  5. A combined microfluidic/dielectrophoretic microorganism concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadish, Nitzan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the development of a high-throughput microfluidic microorganism concentrator for pathogen detection applications. Interdigitated electrodes lining the bottom of the channel use positive dielectrophoretic ...

  6. Microtracking and Self-Adaptive Solar Concentration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  7. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable...

  9. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrations. ) 73 FIGURE Page 47 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEME mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 1%(w/w)) 48 Correlation between Kd and water concentration... in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA;DEMAW mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 2%(w/w)) 49 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEMAW mL:1 m...

  10. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    35), "Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications1 GW of concentrator photovoltaics using multijunction solarG. , “Technology Focus: Photovoltaics”, Nature Photonics, 2,

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolarReserve Is Testing Prototype Heliostats at NSTTF On March 3, 2015, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News &...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Concentrating Solar Power, Customers & Partners, Energy, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Solar Areva Solar is collaborating with Sandia National Laboratories on a new...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed On August 30, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage Systems, News, Renewable Energy, Solar The pump was delivered and...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat can also be efficiently and cheaply stored to produce electricity when the sun ... Solar Energy On February 3, 2011, in Solar Programs Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar...

  15. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waveguides to form a „bowtie?, joined by a SOE in thewe see visually depict the bowtie configuration and theb). As described, the bowtie concentrator no longer complies

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Funding Award On June 4, 2014, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility,...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Sectors in the United States View all EC Publications Related Topics Concentrating Solar Power CRF CSP EFRC Energy Energy Efficiency Energy Security National Solar Thermal...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measuring the effects of aerodynamicheating on radar transmissions ... Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) On April 13, 2011, in CSP R&D at Sandia Testing Facilities Software &...

  19. Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply CSP within the Federal sector.

  20. Infrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin, Yoed

    , not the instantaneous effect of heating within a single loading cycle. KEY WORDS--Infrared, temperature measurement, meInfrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis by Y. Rabin and D. Rittel ABSTRACT--Infrared temperature-sensing techniques have the major advantages of virtually

  1. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6034E Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Dandan Zhu1 , Tianzhen Energy, the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, of the U;Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads A joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley

  2. Load Alleviation through Adaptive Trailing Edge Control Surfaces: ADAPWING Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to investigate the potential of using adaptive trailing edge geometry on wind turbine blades as load alleviation field experienced by wind turbine blades is turbulent which causes fluctuating loads during nor- mal for the wind turbine industry if the alleviation systems do not add considerable extra cost. Recent work has

  3. Numerical Simulation of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures ­ p. #12;VOF Free Surface Flow Model Modelling of Free Surface-cell resolution of prescribed wave forms in relaxation zones · Support for dynamic mesh with 6-DOF solver meshNumerical Simulation of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures Hrvoje Jasak, Inno Gatin, Vuko

  4. Load as a Controllable Resource for Dynamic Security Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    to steer the system through events. Model predictive control is proposed for the higher-level control. Index Terms-- Load control, voltage collapse, model predictive control. I. INTRODUCTION DYNAMIC security1 Load as a Controllable Resource for Dynamic Security Enhancement Ian A. Hiskens, Fellow, IEEE

  5. Combining daylighting, personal controls, and load shedding offers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combining daylighting, personal controls, and load shedding offers enormous potential for reducing lighting system to respond to available daylight and demand response control · Allows building occupants--Consider the improved cost-effectiveness of wireless dimming to promote daylighting controls and load- shedding

  6. Dynamic Transfer Capability Analysis with Wind Farms and Dynamic Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    . An investigation on the effect of dynamics loads, wind farms and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices capability unnecessarily limits the power transfers and is a costly and inefficient use of a network with increasing loads, the need to transfer power over long transmission lines increases. Deregulation

  7. Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

  8. REVIEW OF METHODS TO REDUCE URBAN STORMWATER LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) capable of controlling or removing Hg and PCBs from urban for preliminary prioritization of best management practices (BMPs) (Section 5). Section 3: Describes areas and storm water, measurements of loads in stormwater, and demonstration that either loads

  9. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE By BEREKET, Australia 1998 Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University in partial TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE Dissertation Approved: Dr. Jeffrey D

  10. SURF 2005; final report Load Balancing Strategies for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SURF 2005; final report Load Balancing Strategies for Parallel SAMR Algorithms A Study of partial differential equations are important in many areas of science and technology. Only adaptive mesh in a load-balanced manner is even more difficult than for unstructured mesh refinement techniques. Therefore

  11. Improved current and charge amplifiers for driving piezoelectric loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    circuit. Low frequency bandwidths in the milli-Hertz range can be achieved. Keywords: Current, Charge acceptance14 ". Although the circuit topology of a charge or current amplifier is much the same as a simple short circuit the load every 400 ms or so, thus periodically discharging the load capacitance

  12. Structural evaluation of the 2736Z Building for seismic loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giller, R.A.

    1994-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2736Z building structure is evaluated for high-hazard loads. The 2736Z building is analyzed herein for normal and seismic loads and is found to successfully meet the guidelines of UCRL-15910 along with the related codes requirements.

  13. Structural load inventory database for the Kansas City federal complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Johnson, M.W.; Nakaki, D.K. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lynch, D.T.; Drury, M.A. [AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structural load inventory database (LID) has been developed to support configuration management at the DOE Kansas City Plant (KCP). The objective of the LID is to record loads supported by the plant structures and to provide rapid assessments of the impact of future facility modifications on structural adequacy. Development of the LID was initiated for the KCP`s Main Manufacturing Building. Field walkdowns were performed to determine all significant loads supported by the structure, including the weight of piping, service equipment, etc. These loads were compiled in the LID. Structural analyses for natural phenomena hazards were performed in accordance with UCRL-15910. Software to calculate demands on the structural members due to gravity loads, total demands including both gravity and seismic loads, and structural member demand-to-capacity ratios were also developed and integrated into the LID. Operation of the LID is menu-driven. The LID user has options to review and print existing loads and corresponding demand-to-capacity ratios, and to update the supported loads and demand-to-capacity ratios for any future facility modifications.

  14. Modelling of transient wind turbine loads during pitch motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling of transient wind turbine loads during pitch motion Niels.N. Sřrensen, Helge Aa. Madsen In connection with the design of wind turbines and their control algorithms, the transient loads, especially widespread tool in the wind turbine industry, the time constants necessary to describe these problems

  15. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  16. A Practical Approach to Dynamic Load Balancing Jerrell Watts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transfer Vector Calculation ¢ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¢ ¤ £ ¢ 8 2.3.1 Heat DiffusionA Practical Approach to Dynamic Load Balancing Jerrell Watts Scalable Concurrent Programming versions of the node adaption and movement routines which were used by the load balancing code; he also

  17. Temperature Aware Microprocessor Floorplanning Considering Application Dependent Power Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    heat diffusion model taking into account the ap- plication dependent power load for thermal analysis is calculated to evaluate each new floorplan, which is time-consuming. [7] proposed a simple deterministic heatTemperature Aware Microprocessor Floorplanning Considering Application Dependent Power Load Chun

  18. actinides loading optimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actinides loading optimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Building load control...

  19. Ris-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines Gunner Chr. Larsen, Knut Ronold, Hans E analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition to establish

  20. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  1. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  2. Recovery Act: Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects. 1) An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing. 2) A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution. 3) Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  3. Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

    2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

  4. Static Heat Loads in the LHC Arc Cryostats: Final Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parma, V

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note presents the final assessment of the static heat loads in the LHC arc cryostats, using different experimental methods during the first commissioning period in 2007. This assessment further develops and completes previous estimates made during the commissioning of sector 7_8 [1]. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the internal energy balance during natural as well as powered warm-ups of the helium baths in different subsector. The helium inventory is calculated from the internal energy balance during powered warm-ups and matched with previous assessments. Furthermore, heat loads to the thermal shield are estimated from the non-isothermal cooling of the supercritical helium in line E. The comparison of measured heat loads with previous estimates and with budgeted values is then presented, while their correlation with some important parameters like insulation vacuum pressure and some heat ...

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation Report to Congress U.S. Department of Energy This report is being of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106

  6. EFFECTS OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT ON SEVERAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT SIZES Marine Biiii OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT ON SEVERAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT SIZES Marine Binlo^'i., i i Report - Fisheries No. U EFFECTS OF VARIOUS 0ONCENTRATI)^S OF DDT ON SEVEKAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT

  7. Design of wetted wall bioaerosol concentration cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Youngjin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    wall bioaerosol cyclone concentrators that consume very low power and are capable of delivering very small liquid effluent flow rate of highly-concentrated hydrosol. The aerosol-to-aerosol penetration cutpoint for the cyclones is about 1µm. The aerosol...

  8. UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM CODES MAJORS AND CONCENTRATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Economics BS-ECON-3 BS Economics BS-FINM-3 BS Financial Management E132 Corporate Finance Emphasis E146 Quantitative Biology Emphasis E080 Toxicology Emphasis BS-ENR-1 BS Environmental and Natural Resources COBI Resources Management Concentration BS-FDSC-1 BS Food Science FDST Food Science and Technology Concentration

  9. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  10. Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater DAWN B. WOODARD, ROBERT L. WOLPERT in groundwater over the mid-Atlantic states, using measurements gathered during a pe- riod of ten years. A map- trations in air, pesticide concentrations in groundwater, or any other quantity that varies over

  11. Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load

  12. Requirements for Statistics Concentration The Statistics concentration or major may be tailored in accordance with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Robert A.

    Requirements for Statistics Concentration 6/9/11 The Statistics concentration or major are required, with at least 3 credit units from Statistics. STAT 621 may contribute in Statistics The following courses offered by the Department of Statistics are eligible

  13. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, C.P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)] [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Haines, T.A. [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)] [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  14. Numerical simulation of ice-induced loads on ships and comparison with field measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nřrvĺg, Kjetil

    Numerical simulation of ice-induced loads on ships and comparison with field measurements Biao Su Department of Marine Technology, NTNU May 28, 2013 #12;Motivation Local ice load Global ice load Ship's performance · Ice-hull interaction · Local ice load · Global ice load · Ship's performance #12;Outline

  15. Load capacity and rupture displacement in viscoelastic fiber bundles Theocharis Baxevanis1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

    for this critical load is given. For stress levels below the critical value, the system suffers only partial failureLoad capacity and rupture displacement in viscoelastic fiber bundles Theocharis Baxevanis1 loading, assuming global load sharing GLS for the redistribution of load following fiber failure. We

  16. Load Profiling for Efficient Route Selection in MultiClass Networks \\Lambda Azer Bestavros Ibrahim Matta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Load Profiling for Efficient Route Selection in Multi­Class Networks \\Lambda Azer Bestavros Ibrahim on the concept of ``load profiling'', which allows a distribution of ``available'' bandwidth across a set load­profiling approach when compared to traditional load­balancing and load­packing VC routing schemes

  17. Evaluation of A Load Profiling Approach to Routing Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of A Load Profiling Approach to Routing Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda Ibrahim Matta balancing practice and proposed the use of load profiling as an alternative. Load profiling techniques allow profiling and contrast it to routing using load balancing and load packing. We do so both analytically

  18. A Load Profiling Approach to Routing Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda Ibrahim Matta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Load Profiling Approach to Routing Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda Ibrahim Matta College recently proposed concept of load profiling [4]. We thoroughly characterize routing performance using load profiling and contrast it to rout­ ing using load balancing and load packing. We do so both analytically

  19. LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REALTIME SYSTEMS \\Lambda ``One Size Doesn't Fit All''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REAL­TIME SYSTEMS \\Lambda ``One Size Doesn't Fit All'' Azer Bestavros a new load­profiling strategy that allows the nodes of a distributed system to be unequally loaded. Using load profiling, the system attempts to distribute the load amongst its nodes so as to maximize

  20. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. TheLSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. Thesolar concentrators based on lens and mirrors with tracking

  1. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  2. Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L. M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  3. Uniform flux dish concentrators for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G; Wendelin, T

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have designed a unique and innovative molded dish concentrator capable of producing a uniform flux profile on a flat target plane. Concentration levels of 100--200 suns, which are uniform over an area of several square inches, can be directly achieved for collection apertures of a reasonable size ({approximately}1.5-m diameter). Such performance would be immediately applicable to photovoltaic (PV) use. Economic concerns have shown that the proposed approach would be less expensive thatn Fresnel lens concepts or other dish concentrator designs that require complicated and costly receivers to mix the flux to obtain a uniform distribution. 12 refs.

  4. Seasonal formaldehyde concentrations in an office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopinski, V.J.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation was to determine if there was a seasonal effect on formaldehyde emissions from paneling and shelving in a one story office building. Measurement of formaldehyde was done by standard impinger sampling techniques using 1% bisulfite absorbing solution and by using a dry diffusional formaldehyde monitor. Results show a definite seasonal trend for formaldehyde concentrations by either monitoring method. The formaldehyde concentrations for warm weather are about twice as great as those in cold weather. In addition the dry diffusional monitor concentrations determined were consistently low compared to impinger sampling.

  5. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion.

  6. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion. 3 figs.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of hydrogen loaded B-hydroquinone clathrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daschbach, John L.; Chang, Tsun-Mei; Corrales, Louis R.; Dang, Liem X.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the molecular interactions of hydrogen loaded beta-hydroquinone clathrate. It is found that at lower temperatures, higher loadings are more stable, whereas, at higher temperatures, lower loadings are more stable. This trend can be understood based on the interactions in the system. For loadings greater than one, the repulsive forces between the guest molecules shove each other towards the attractive forces between the guest and host molecules leading to a stabilized minimum energy configuration at low temperatures. At higher temperatures greater displacements take the system away from the shallow energy minimum and the trend reverses. The asymmetries of the clathrate cage structure are due to the presence of the attractive forces at loadings greater than one that lead to confined states. The nature of the cavity structure is nearly spherical for a loading of one, leads to preferential occupation near the hydroxyl ring crowns of the cavity with a loading of two, and at higher loadings, leads to occupation of the interstitial sites (the hydroxyl rings) between cages by a single H2 molecule with the remaining molecules occupying the equatorial plane of the cavity. At higher temperatures, the cavity is more uniformly occupied for all loadings, where the occupation of the interstitial positions of the cavities leads to facile diffusion. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was partially supported by NIDO (Japan), LDRD (PNNL), EERE U.S. Department of Energy, and by OBES, U.S. DOE. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

  8. Published in Proceedings of the XL2003 (Response of Structures to Extreme Loading) Conference, Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    , Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS USING INVERSE RELIABILITY K, USA ABSTRACT The reliability of wind turbines against extreme loads is the focus of this study loads for a 600kW three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine. Only operating loads ­ here, flapwise (out

  9. Electromagnetic fields in nonuniform disk-loaded waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayzatsky, M I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the base of general approach we obtain some results that can be useful in the process of tuning of nonunifrom disc-loaded waveguides. Our consideration has shown that simple values that characterize the detuning of the cells can be introduced only for the disc-loaded waveguide with parameters that change very slow. In general case it is needed to conduct full numerical simulation of specific disc-loaded waveguide and obtain all necessary coupling coefficients. After that one can start the tuning process on the base of bead-pull field distribution measurements.

  10. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  11. Environmental Protection Agency any waste load associated with sol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , disposal, or reuse include recov ery of solvents from waste streams and incineration of concentrated

  12. Concentrator E-F11 water test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethington, P.R.

    1994-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Process Test Report for performing operation testing with water of the modified E-F11 concentrator in PUREX on water. The test was performed to determine the effects of the following concentrator modifications; routing concentrator off-gasses via the PUREX air tunnel to the main stack, blanking of condenser cooling water, blanking of process condensate route to a crib, restricting flow to steam tube bundles, and routing of steam condensate to TK-F12. The test was successful. Concentrator boil-off rates of 6--7 gpm were achieved while the overheads exited the PUREX plant in vapor form. With minor recommended modifications, this process is recommended for use in processing PUREX deactivation flush solutions and other miscellaneous wastes accumulated during the completion of the deactivation project.

  13. Physics and Astronomy Engineering Electronics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Engineering Electronics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 2 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 PHY 4635 Advanced Microprocessors Grade PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics & Engineering 3 PHY 4620 Optics 4 PHY 4735

  14. What does stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations mean?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Schmalensee, Richard.; Reiner, David M.

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is applied to an exploration of the national emissions obligations that would be required to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at levels now under active ...

  15. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012, in CSP Images & Videos On September 26, 2012, in Image Gallery Videos Concentrating Solar Power Image Gallery A picture says a thousand words, especially on the World Wide...

  17. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  18. Modeling of FRP-jacketed RC columns subject to combined axial and lateral loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-Sheng

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LOCATIONS #6 u-bars @ 4" 3" PVC for axial load and verticalsteel Steel jacket encasing load stub 2" PVC for clevisattatch 3" PVC for axial load A B Vertical tiedown Column

  19. Operator Performance in Long Duration Control Operations: Switching from Low to High Task Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornburg, K. M.

    Long duration, low task load environments are typical for nuclear power plant control rooms, where operators, after hours of operating under a low task load situation, may have to shift to a high task load situation. The ...

  20. Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications of Thesis: Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications Cultus Lake, British Columbia experiences significant anthropogenic nutrient loadings and eutrophication

  1. Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants) W = zone cooling load (supply and return plenumm]. W L is the zone cooling load (supply and return plenumthe total UFAD cooling load between the supply plenum, the

  2. Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the UFAD cooling load between the supply plenum, zone (split the UFAD cooling load into the supply plenum, the zonesplit the UFAD cooling load into the supply plenum, zone and

  3. VaR Constrained Hedging of Fixed Price Load-Following Obligations in Competitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VaR Constrained Hedging of Fixed Price Load-Following Obligations in Competitive Electricity. In either case the entity holding the load following obligation is exposed to the load variation

  4. Determination of the Price-Load Curve by Using Smoothing Splines Under Tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Determination of the Price-Load Curve by Using Smoothing Splines Under Tension Master Thesis 4.2. Price-Load Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4 load and price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.5. Merit order curve with operating

  5. active cold loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterized by N2 adsorption and the hydrophilic-hydrophobic property was measured by water adsorption. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2 nanoparticles loaded on HMF(F20)...

  6. SHOCKLESS LOADING WITH RECOVERY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIAL RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaney, J M; Torralva, B; Lorenz, K T; Remington, B A; Wall, M; Kumar, M

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A new recovery based method for investigating material response to non-Hugoniot loading paths is described. The work makes use of a laser generated plasma piston that produces ramped loading at high strain rates (> {approx} 10{sup 7}/s). Large sample sizes are utilized to prevent reflected wave interactions. The overall deformation path is characterized by two transients: one at very high strain rate on the 5-10 nanosecond time scale and one at a lower strain rate occurring over a 1-2 microsecond timescale. It was found that a sufficiently large region of material experiences shockless loading conditions such that recovery based characterization is feasible. The presence of two strain transients makes the method more applicable to comparative assessments between shockless and shock loading conditions.

  7. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part I: Load Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6417E Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part I: Load Availability Profiles Resources 4 #12;#12;#12;CHAPTER 3: Results: DR Profiles 3.1 Projected Demand Response Availability in 2020

  8. Energy Storage for Use in Load Frequency Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitermann, Olivia

    Certain energy storage technologies are well-suited to the high-frequency, high-cycling operation which is required in provision of load frequency control (LFC). To limit the total stored energy capacity required while ...

  9. Responses of an articulated loading platform in waves and currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ran, Zhihuang

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The responses of an articulated loading platform (ALP) in regular and irregular unidirectional waves (with or without currents) are investigated both in frequency and time domain. The first- and second-order wave diffraction radiation are solved...

  10. Characterizing tensile loading responses of 3D printed samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haid, Christopher M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to characterize the loading response of samples manufactured through 3D printing. Tensile testing was performed on a number of 3D printed samples created through Fused Filament Fabrication ...

  11. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  12. Improving Dynamic Load and Generator Response Performance Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in dynamic simulations of power systems. Using the PCMDynamic Simulations: The Probabilistic Collocation Method,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,Dynamic Simulations with Improved Representation of Loads and their Connection to a Power System,”

  13. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  14. Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brokish, Kevin Martin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy penetration. Frequency-adaptive intelligent appliances are ...

  15. Nutrient load analysis of Lago de Yojoa, Honduras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trate, Tia M. (Tia Marie)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Yojoa, Honduras is an important natural resource to the people of Honduras. The lake's water quality has been a controversial subject. This thesis describes a nutrient load analysis performed to gain a better understanding ...

  16. Shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Jack S

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) provides a method of measuring component performance and source power quality through a single point of entry in the power distribution system. A study was performed utilizing the NILM ...

  17. A framework for non-intrusive load monitoring and diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris, James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of electrical and electromechanical systems places increasing demands on monitoring and diagnostic techniques. The non-intrusive load monitor (NILM) provides a low-cost, low-maintenance way to perform ...

  18. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenssen, P.D. (Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Aas (Norway). Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Nutrient sources and loadings for the proposed Millican Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigil, Samuel Alexander

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Lee(14), sources of phosphorus and nitrogen in urban runoff include fertilizers used on lawns, dust fall, leaves, wastes from pets, automobile ngine cmiosicns, and othe- combustion sources. Weibel, et al. , (38) found total phosphorus loadings of 0...

  20. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  1. analysis load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a water-loaded structure excited by an impulse force is of interest for the acoustic stealth of submarines Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 43 Mechanics of Fastening System Rail...

  2. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the potential peak load reductions from residential energy efficiency upgrades in hot and humid climates. First, a baseline scenario is established. Then, the demand and consumption impacts of individual upgrade measures are assessed. Several of these upgrades...

  3. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question ŤWhat are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  4. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

  5. Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, C. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conservation of electrical energy and load management can reduce industry's electric bills, conserves natural resources and reduces the need for new generating plants. In recent years, industry has implemented extensive conservation programs. Some...

  6. NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data...

  7. Improving shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard A. (Richard Alan), Nav. E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) measures equipment performance by measuring and analyzing the source power to the equipment at a single point in the electrical system. Previous studies have proven the usefulness of ...

  8. Undrained behavior of plate anchors subjected to general loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ming

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a method for predicting the undrained behavior of plate anchors, including out-of-plane loading of simple plates and performance of suction embedded plate anchors (SEPLA). Three dimensional finite element models are used...

  9. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 2006, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB) charged a seven-person Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force with: * examining approaches...

  10. Front End Loading (FEL) and Process Engineering Workflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spangler, Ryan

    2005-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Project development for the oil refining industry is typically performed through a process called Front End Loading (FEL). In recent years, the Process and Industrial Division of Burns and McDonnell has performed several ...

  11. Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes how an electric utility system is modeled by using load flow techniques to establish a validated power flow case suitable for simulating and evaluating alternative system scenarios. Details of the load flow model are supported by additional technical and descriptive information intended to correlate modeled electrical system parameters with the corresponding physical equipment that makes up the system. Pictures and technical specifications of system equipment from the utility, public, or vendor are provided to support this association for many system components. The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load flow parameters and other electrical system information.

  12. NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Open Data Catalog Dataset Activity Stream NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations...

  13. Sandia's research spans generation, storage, and load management at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kW diesel genset, fuel cells, and additional interchangeable generators. Storage capabilitiesSandia's research spans generation, storage, and load management at the component and systems participate in the generation of industry guidelines, protocols, electric codes, and national

  14. Scalability of Non-intrusive Load Monitoring for Shipboard Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris, James

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-intrusive load monitor has been demonstrated as an effective tool for evaluating and monitoring shipboard electro-mechanical systems through analysis of electrical power data. A key advantage of the non-intrusive ...

  15. Geometric nonlinear analysis of microbeam under electrostatic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murgude, Nikhil C.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the behavior of a microbeam subjected to electrostatic loading. Two devices, namely, a tungsten microtweezer and a clamped-clamped beam which is part of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), are used as the vehicles...

  16. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  17. Improved load models for multi-area reliability calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Sanjesh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPROVED LOAD MODELS FOR MULTI-AREA RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by SANJESH PATHAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1992 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering IMPROVED LOAD MODELS FOR MULTI-AREA RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by SAN JESH PATHAK Approved as to style and content by: Chanan Singh (Chair of Committee) Prasad Enjeti (Member) Ces . Mal, e...

  18. Effective Load Management for the City of College Station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hecox, O. D.; Bauer, V.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aspects a. Complete energy survey of all faci- lities whose utilities the city pays to Valerie Bauer Chairman College Station Energy Hanagement Committee College Station, TX establish load reduction possibilities. b. Sub-station load surveillance... for tech- nical assistance, resulting in Orlin D. Hecox assist- ing throughout the summer. Several meetings were arranged in June with city department heads to provide them with billing histories and meter sheets on their facilities and to outline...

  19. A study conducted on laterally loaded cylindrical footings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch, Kenneth Joseph

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY CONDUCTED ON LATERALLY LOADED CYLINDRICAL FOOTINGS A Thesis by Kenneth Joseph Koch Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree oi MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1968... Major Subject Civil Engineering A STUDY CONDUCTED ON LATERALLY LOADED CYLINDRICAL FOOTINGS A Thesis by Kenneth Joseph Koch Approved as to style and content by (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (M ber) May 1968...

  20. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

  1. A model for short term electric load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tigue, John Robert

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A MODEL FOR SHORT TERM ELECTRIC LOAD FORECASTING A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT TIGUE, III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1975 Major... Subject: Electrical Engineering A MODEL FOR SHORT TERM ELECTRIC LOAD FORECASTING A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT TIGUE& III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head Depart t) (Member) ;(Me r (Member) (Member) May 1975 ABSTRACT...

  2. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  3. Pilot plant used to develop load and pressure controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagata, Kazue; Yamada, Toshihiro; Hiza, Tomoyuki

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viewed from the perspective of the power-generation mixture in Japan, nuclear power plants will continue to be operated to meet the base load. Meanwhile, integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants will be required to serve as thermal power plants to cover the middle load, as is the case with conventional thermal power plants. In terms of operational performance, therefore, IGCC power plants will need to have a capability of following a wide range of load demand at high speed. For this purpose, a load and pressure controller was developed and tested during the operational research on a 200 tons/day entrained flow IGCC pilot plant at the Nakoso Power Station by the Engineering Research Association for IGCC Power Systems (IGC Association). This article reports on the development of the load and pressure controller and the results of the control test carried out to check the load follow capability of the pilot plant, while touching upon the simulation study also being conducted.

  4. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  5. Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.

  6. Line broadening studies on highly defective TiO/sub 2/ produced by high pressure shock loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morosin, B.; Graeber, E.J.; Graham, R.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced solid state reactivity of materials both during and after shock compression has been attributed to the introduction of large numbers of defects into the crystalline lattices and to reduction in the particle and crystalline size of powders. In particular, orders of magnitude increases in the catalytic activity has been observed in shock-modified TiO/sub 2/. Line broadening of x-ray diffraction profiles provides a means to determine the coherent crystallite size and the residual lattice strain resulting from defect concentrations. The present study on shock-loaded rutile is a detailed investigation of the influence of shock loading on residual lattice strain and coherent crystallite size. Annealing of shock-modified rutile powders is also studied.

  7. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    described in future papers. While the high peak-cooling ratecooling load can be in the range of 10-40% higher depending on the load conditions. Future

  8. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationheat gain and building thermal mass, which is particularly important in cooling load calculation,

  9. Cooling load calculations for radiant systems: are they the same traditional methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat transfer is handled in traditional cooling load calculationheat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationload calculations for radiant systems should use the ASHRAE heat

  10. California customer load reductions during the electricity crisis: Did they help to keep the lights on?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles A.; Eto, Joseph H.; Barbose, Galen L.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainability of Customer Load Reductions Customers reduced their electricity loads during summer 2001 through conservation behavior, increased attention to managing energy

  11. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)] [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  12. A molecular dynamics investigation of the unusual concentration dependencies of Fick diffusivities in silica mesopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, Rajamani; van Baten, Jasper M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to determine the self-diffusivitiy, D{sub i,self}, the Maxwell–Stefan diffusivity, Đ{sub i}, and the Fick diffusivity, D{sub i}, for methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3), n-butane (nC4), n-pentane (nC5), n-hexane (nC6), n-heptane (nC7), and cyclohexane (cC6) in cylindrical silica mesopores for a range of pore concentrations. The MD simulations show that zero-loading diffusivity Đ{sub i}(0) is consistently lower, by up to a factor of 20, than the values anticipated by the classical Knudsen formula. The concentration dependence of the Fick diffusivity, D{sub i} is found to be unusually complex, and displays a strong minimum in some cases; this characteristic can be traced to molecular clustering.

  13. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  14. Point-focus spectral splitting solar concentrator for multiple cells concentrating photovoltaic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maragliano, Carlo; Stefancich, Marco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present and experimentally validate a low-cost design of a spectral splitting concentrator for the efficient conversion of solar energy. The optical device consists of a dispersive prismatic lens made of polycarbonate designed to simultaneously concentrate the solar light and split it into its spectral components. With respect to our previous implementation, this device concentrates the light along two axes and generates a light pattern compatible with the dimensions of a set of concentrating photovoltaic cells while providing a higher concentration ratio. The mathematical framework and the constructive approach used for the design are presented and the device performance is simulated using ray-tracing software. We obtain spectral separation in the visible range within a 3x1 cm2 area and a maximum concentration of 210x for a single wavelength. The device is fabricated by injection molding and its performance is experimentally investigated. We measure an optical transmissivity above 90% in the...

  15. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  16. FY 93 Thermal Loading Systems Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.F. Saterlie

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Thermal Loading Systems Study being conducted by the is to identify a thermal strategy that will meet the performance requirements for waste isolation and will be safe and licensable. Specifically, both postclosure and preclosure performance standards must be met by the thermal loading strategy ultimately selected. In addition cost and schedule constraints must be considered. The Systems Engineering approach requires structured, detailed analyses that will ultimately provide the technical basis for the development, integration, and evaluation of the overall system, not just a subelement of that system. It is also necessary that the systems study construct options from within the range that are allowed within the current legislative and programmatic framework. For example the total amount of fuel that can legally be emplaced is no more than 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) which is composed of 63,000 MTU spent fuel and 7,000 MTU of defense high level waste. It is the intent of this study to begin the structured development of the basis for a thermal loading decision. However, it is recognized that to be able to make a final decision on thermal loading will require underground data on the effects of heating as well as a suite of ''validated'' models. It will be some time before these data and models are available to the program. Developing a final, thermal loading decision will, therefore, be an iterative process. In the interim, the objective of the thermal loading systems study has been to utilize the information available to assess the impact of thermal loading. Where technical justification exists, recommendations to narrow the range of thermal loading options can be made. Additionally, recommendations as to the type of testing and accuracy of the testing needed to establish the requisite information will be made. A constraint on the ability of the study to select an option stems from the lack of primary hard data, uncertainties in derived data, unsubstantiated models, and the inability to fully consider simultaneously coupled processes. As such, the study must rely on idealized models and available data to compare the thermal loading options. This report presents the findings of the FY 1993 MGDS Thermal Loading Systems Study. The objectives of the study were to: (1) if justified, place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading that is ''too hot''; (2) ''grade'' or evaluate the performance as a function of thermal loading of the potential repository to contain high level spent nuclear fuel against performance criteria; (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability; and (4) recommend the additional types of tests and/or analyses to be conducted to provide the necessary information for a thermal loading selection.

  17. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  18. Biological in situ Dose Painting for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Using Drug-Loaded Implantable Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cormack, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sridhar, Srinivas [Electronics Materials Research Institute, Northeastern University, and Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Suh, W. Warren; D'Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Makrigiorgos, G. Mike, E-mail: mmakrigiorgos@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Implantable devices routinely used for increasing spatial accuracy in modern image-guided radiation treatments (IGRT), such as fiducials or brachytherapy spacers, encompass the potential for in situ release of biologically active drugs, providing an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic ratio. We model this new approach for two types of treatment. Methods and Materials: Radiopaque fiducials used in IGRT, or prostate brachytherapy spacers ('eluters'), were assumed to be loaded with radiosensitizer for in situ drug slow release. An analytic function describing the concentration of radiosensitizer versus distance from eluters, depending on diffusion-elimination properties of the drug in tissue, was developed. Tumor coverage by the drug was modeled for tumors typical of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy treatments for various eluter dimensions and drug properties. Six prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy cases were analyzed by assuming implantation of drug-loaded spacers. Radiosensitizer-induced subvolume boost was simulated from which biologically effective doses for typical radiosensitizers were calculated in one example. Results: Drug distributions from three-dimensional arrangements of drug eluters versus eluter size and drug properties were tabulated. Four radiosensitizer-loaded fiducials provide adequate radiosensitization for {approx}4-cm-diameter lung tumors, thus potentially boosting biologically equivalent doses in centrally located stereotactic body treated lesions. Similarly, multiple drug-loaded spacers provide prostate brachytherapy with flexible shaping of 'biologically equivalent doses' to fit requirements difficult to meet by using radiation alone, e.g., boosting a high-risk region juxtaposed to the urethra while respecting normal tissue tolerance of both the urethra and the rectum. Conclusions: Drug loading of implantable devices routinely used in IGRT provides new opportunities for therapy modulation via biological in situ dose painting.

  19. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  20. Reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode load using Markov Chain Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikabdullah, N. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Singh, S. S. K.; Alebrahim, R.; Azizi, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); K, Elwaleed A. [Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Noorani, M. S. M. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to present the reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode loading by using a simple two state Markov Chain Model for an automotive crankshaft. The reliability analysis and prediction for any automotive component or structure is important for analyzing and measuring the failure to increase the design life, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of failures and safety risk. The mechanical failures of the crankshaft are due of high bending and torsion stress concentration from high cycle and low rotating bending and torsional stress. The Markov Chain was used to model the two states based on the probability of failure due to bending and torsion stress. In most investigations it revealed that bending stress is much serve than torsional stress, therefore the probability criteria for the bending state would be higher compared to the torsion state. A statistical comparison between the developed Markov Chain Model and field data was done to observe the percentage of error. The reliability analysis and prediction was derived and illustrated from the Markov Chain Model were shown in the Weibull probability and cumulative distribution function, hazard rate and reliability curve and the bathtub curve. It can be concluded that Markov Chain Model has the ability to generate near similar data with minimal percentage of error and for a practical application; the proposed model provides a good accuracy in determining the reliability for the crankshaft under mixed mode loading.

  1. Physics and Astronomy Radiation Safety Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Radiation Safety Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Environucleonics Lab 1 PHY 3211 Modern Physics II 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 PHY 4820 Medical Physics 3 CHE 1101 Intro. Chemistry I 3 CHE 1110 Intro. Chemistry I Lab 1 CHE 1102 Intro

  2. Physics and Astronomy Engineering/Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Engineering/Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Electromagnetic Fields & Waves 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics.) taken Grade PHY 4620 Optics 4 PHY 3211 Modern Physics II 3 PHY 4730 Analog Circuits 3 PHY 4640 Quantum

  3. Physics and Astronomy Chemical Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Chemical Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Dept Fields & Waves 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4640 Quantum Mechanics 3 PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics & Engineering 3 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 CHE 1101 Intro. Chemistry I 3 CHE 1110 Intro

  4. Nuclear Engineering Catalog 2013 Radiological Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Nuclear Engineering Catalog 2013 Radiological Concentration Fall Math 141 or 147 (4) FA, SP, SU-approved by the department. Courses in Nuclear Engineering other than 500, 502 or 598 may also be used as technical electives on academic performance. Factors considered include overall grade point average, performance in selescted

  5. Business of Fashion Concentration & Minor -Newark Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Business of Fashion Concentration & Minor - Newark Description The Business of Fashion program was designed to bridge the gap between creativity and business acumen. It is for artistic individuals who want to solidify their understanding of business, as well as for business students who want to learn how to apply

  6. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  7. BME ERGONOMICS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING CONCENTRATION1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    BME ERGONOMICS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING CONCENTRATION1 ­ F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Thomas J. Armstrong, Ph.D. (tja@umich.edu) Ergonomics /Rehabilitation Engineering: IOE 463 Measurement and Design of Work (3) (I, II) (Prerequisite: IOE 333 Ergonomics) BIOMED E 534

  8. Lasers and Optical Engineering Concentration Technical Electives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    Lasers and Optical Engineering Concentration Technical Electives Course Number Course Title Credits495ą Independent Study 1-3 n/a F,S,SS ECE503 Ultrafast Optics 3 ECE 342 S ECE504 Physical Optics 3 ECE 353 F ECE506 Optical Interferometry and Laser Metrology ECE 341; ECE 342; ECE 441 F ECE507 Plasma

  9. Nonimaging light concentrator with uniform irradiance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gee, Randy C. (Arvada, CO)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonimaging light concentrator system including a primary collector of light, an optical mixer disposed near the focal zone for collecting light from the primary collector, the optical mixer having a transparent entrance aperture, an internally reflective housing for substantially total internal reflection of light, a transparent exit aperture and an array of photovoltaic cells disposed near the transparent exit aperture.

  10. Measuring overall emittance of concentrator receiver pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerich, J.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Merriam, M.F.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and accurate method for measuring the overall emittance of receiver pipes used with cylindrical concentrators is described. Experimental measurements obtained for steel pipes with a black chrome over nickel selective surface are presented. The observed strong temperature dependence of emittance indicates that the use of room temperature emittance data will substantially overestimate collector efficiency. (SPH)

  11. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, R.

    1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  12. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  13. Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5 megawatt power plant for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company near Tracy, CA ­ the first solar related with system components, and traditional solar designs that limit installation locations. Many offerings. Currently, no solar company provides a complete photovoltaic or concentrating photovoltaic

  14. Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership Program of Study (39 credits) Effective January: EDSL 718: Organization and Control of American Schools (3) EDSL 719: Leadership in Educational Leadership (3) EDSL 823: School Finance (3) EDSL 849: The Principalship (3) Prerequisites: EDSL 718 & 719

  15. Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership Program of Study (39 credits) Effective August 2012: Organization and Control of American Schools (3) EDSL 719: Leadership in Educational Organizations (3) EDSL 727 825: Schools and the Law (3) EDSL 840: Supervision and Instructional Leadership (3) EDSL 823: School

  16. Original article The influence of dietary sulphur loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .8 % ofS resulted in an increase in rumen acetic acid concentration. Rumen lactic acid concentrations in S of the third month of the exper- iment in both groups. Blood plasma pyruvate was lower at the end sčche). Le régime supplémenté en S (0,8 %) conduit ŕ une augmentation de la concentration en acide

  17. The evaluation of a turbulent loads characterization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss an on-line turbulent load characterization system that has been designed to acquire loading spectra from turbines of the same design operating in several different environments and from different turbine designs operating in the same environment. This System simultaneously measures the rainflow-counted alternating and mean loading spectra and the hub-height turbulent mean shearing stress and atmospheric stability associated with the turbulent inflow. We discuss the theory behind the measurement configuration and the results of proof-of-concept testing recently performed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using a Bergey EXCEL-S 10-kW wind turbine. The on-line approach to characterizing the load spectra and the inflow turbulent scaling parameter produces results that are consistent with other measurements. The on-line approximation of the turbulent shear stress or friction velocity u* also is considered adequate. The system can be used to characterize turbulence loads during turbine deployment in a wide variety of environments. Using the WISPER protocol, we found that a wide-range, variable-speed turbine will accumulate a larger number of stress cycles in the low-cycle, high-amplitude (LCHA) region when compared with a constant speed rotor under similar inflow conditions.

  18. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  19. AGN Jet Mass Loading and Truncation by Stellar Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Hubbard; Eric G. Blackman

    2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Active Galactic Nuclei can produce extremely powerful jets. While tightly collimated, the scale of these jets and the stellar density at galactic centers implies that there will be many jet/star interactions, which can mass-load the jet through stellar winds. Previous work employed modest wind mass outflow rates, but this does not apply when mass loading is provided by a small number of high mass-loss stars. We construct a framework for jet mass-loading by stellar winds for a broader spectrum of wind mass-loss rates than has been previously considered. Given the observed stellar mass distributions in galactic centers, we find that even highly efficient (0.1 Eddington luminosity) jets from supermassive black holes of masses $M_{BH} \\la 10^4M_{\\odot}$ are rapidly mass loaded and quenched by stellar winds. For $10^4 M_{\\odot}jets is independent of the jet's mechanical luminosity. Stellar wind mass-loading is unable to quench efficient jets from more massive engines, but can account for the observed truncation of the inefficient M87 jet, and implies a baryon dominated composition on scales $\\ga 2$ kpc therein even if the jet is initially pair plasma dominated.

  20. Analysis of the Thermal Loads on the KSTAR Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.; Kim, W.C.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, S.B.; Sa, J.W.; Choi, C.H.; Cho, K.W.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Yusung-Ku, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale helium refrigeration system is one of the key components for the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device. In the design of the refrigeration system, an estimation of the thermal loads on the cold mass is an important issue according to the operation scenario. The cold mass of the KSTAR device is about 250 tons including 30 superconducting (SC) coils and the magnet structure. In addition to the static thermal loads, pulsed thermal loads to the refrigeration system have been considered in the operation stage. The main pulsed thermal loads on magnet system are AC losses in the SC coils and eddy current losses in the magnet structure that depend on the magnetic field variation rate. The nuclear radiation loss due to plasma pulse operation is also considered. The designed cooling capacity of the refrigeration system is estimated to be about 9 kW at 4.5 K isothermal. In this paper, calculation of the various kinds of thermal loads on KSTAR cryogenic system and design of the large-scale helium refrigeration system are presented.