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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Three-junction solar cell  

SciTech Connect

A photovoltaic solar cell is formed in a monolithic semiconductor. The cell contains three junctions. In sequence from the light-entering face, the junctions have a high, a medium, and a low energy gap. The lower junctions are connected in series by one or more metallic members connecting the top of the lower junction through apertures to the bottom of the middle junction. The upper junction is connected in voltage opposition to the lower and middle junctions by second metallic electrodes deposited in holes 60 through the upper junction. The second electrodes are connected to an external terminal.

Ludowise, Michael J. (Cupertino, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Wind loading on solar concentrators: some general considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A survey has been completed to examine the problems and complications arising from wind loading on solar concentrators. Wind loading is site specific and has an important bearing on the design, cost, performance, operation and maintenance, safety, survival, and replacement of solar collecting systems. Emphasis herein is on paraboloidal, two-axis tracking systems. Thermal receiver problems also are discussed. Wind characteristics are discussed from a general point of view; current methods for determining design wind speed are reviewed. Aerodynamic coefficients are defined and illustrative examples are presented. Wind tunnel testing is discussed, and environmental wind tunnels are reviewed; recent results on heliostat arrays are reviewed as well. Aeroelasticity in relation to structural design is discussed briefly. Wind loads, i.e., forces and moments, are proportional to the square of the mean wind velocity. Forces are proportional to the square of concentrator diameter, and moments are proportional to the cube of diameter. Thus, wind loads have an important bearing on size selection from both cost and performance standpoints. It is concluded that sufficient information exists so that reasonably accurate predictions of wind loading are possible for a given paraboloidal concentrator configuration, provided that reliable and relevant wind conditions are specified. Such predictions will be useful to the design engineer and to the systems engineer as well. Information is lacking, however, on wind effects in field arrays of paraboloidal concentrators. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on model heliostat arrays, but there are important aerodynamic differences between heliostats and paraboloidal dishes.

Roschke, E. J.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Finite element modeling of concentrating solar collectors for evauation of gravity loads, bending, and optical characterization.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.

Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

5

Final Report on Control Algorithm to Improve the Partial-Load Efficiency of Surface PM Machines with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

McKeever, John W [ORNL; Reddy, Patel [University of Wisconsin; Jahns, Thomas M [ORNL

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

FINAL REPORT ON CONTROL ALGORITHM TO IMPROVE THE PARTIAL-LOAD EFFICIENCY OFSURFACE PM MACHINES WITH FRACTIONAL-SLOT CONCENTRATED WINDINGS  

SciTech Connect

Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

Reddy, P.B.; Jahns, T.M.

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

Spletzer, B.L.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Load Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

11

LOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

Ohlinger, L.A.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

LOADED WAVEGUIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

1958-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

13

Review: Stability of nonlinear masonry members under combined load  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under examination is the post buckling of unreinforced load-bearing masonry walls or piers subject to a combined load consisting of a uniformly distributed axial load and a concentrated eccentric load at the top end. Fixed free-ended prismatic columns ... Keywords: Brick walls, Combined load, Instability, Masonry, No-tension material, Nonlinear constitutive law

Igino Mura

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Wind load reduction for heliostats  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Periodic load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiprocessor load balancing aims to improve performance by moving jobs from highly loaded processors to more lightly loaded processors. Some schemes allow only migration of new jobs upon arrival, while other schemes allow migration of ... Keywords: heavy traffic diffusion approximations, load balancing, periodic load balancing, reflected Brownian motion, resource sharing, transient behavior

Gísli Hjálmtýsson; Ward Whitt

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Manufacturing of ultra-high efficiency thin-film concentrator cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a research project to study developments required to expedite commercializing the GaAs solar cell concentrator technology. We baseline the GaAs concentrator cell and 1000X module design into pilot operation at Kopin Corporation. To attain these improvements, we will use Kopin's existing pilot line to produce cleavage of lateral epitaxial film for transfer (CLEFT) GaAs solar cells; these cells already exhibit efficiencies of about 24% at air mass 1.5. We will modify the CLEFT cell to form concentrators that perform well at 500--1000 suns. We will derive the know-how for this modification from an integration of Kopin and VS Corporation technologies. The pilot line will be broadened to include cell receiver and module assembly, using VS Corporation technology obtained from Varian as a baseline. A second-generation design will be formulated to address improvements in the module, and these will be incorporated into the pilot line along with the CLEFT concentrator cell. In parallel, we integrate Kopin's CLEFT GaAs cell technology with the advanced AlGaAs and InGaAs material technology obtained by VS Corporation from Varian to develop a near-term, two-junction mechanical stack with an efficiency of 35%. The receiver thus developed will be compatible with a three-junction approach that has been proposed elsewhere by Kopin. Using a three-junction stack can yield an efficiency of over 40%, and when such cells become available, the pilot line process will have been designed to use them. 11 refs.

Gale, R. (Kopin Corp., Taunton, MA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Battery loading device  

SciTech Connect

A battery loading device for loading a power source battery, built in small appliances having a battery loading chamber for selectively loading a number of cylindrical unit batteries or a one body type battery having the same voltage as a number of cylindrical unit batteries, whereby the one body type battery and the battery loading chamber are shaped similarly and asymmetrically in order to prevent the one body type battery from being inserted in the wrong direction.

Phara, T.; Suzuki, M.

1984-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

18

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition: The total load profile obtained from  load individual load types if  load profiles of individual load composition validation: Load profiles generated by the load 

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Discharge circuits and loads  

SciTech Connect

This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

Sarjeant, W.J.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Concentrating Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) are a promising alternative to flat-plate photovoltaics in high direct normal irradiance (DNI) environments. The technology’s basic operating characteristics offer significant upside compared with other solar technologies: higher system efficiencies of upwards of 30%+; higher capacity factors, generated through two-axis tracking, exceeding 30% in ideal locations; lower cellular degradation from heat compared to flat-plate PV; lower water requirements; and reduced footpri...

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

22

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

23

Structural load combinations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ or 1.0 x 10/sup -5/ during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Watershed Mercury Loading Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explains and illustrates a simplified stochastic framework, the Watershed Mercury Loading Framework, for organizing and framing site-specific knowledge and information on mercury loading to waterbodies. The framework permits explicit treatment of data uncertainties. This report will be useful to EPRI members, state and federal regulatory agencies, and watershed stakeholders concerned with mercury-related human and ecological health risk.

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

25

load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

26

Load-management decision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities require baseload, intermediate, and peaking plants to meet fluctuating customer demand. These can be supplemented with off-peak generation and storage and load management, which can take the form of direct utility control over interruptible and deferrable customers or customer incentives that require off-peak demand. Utilities should make a careful analysis of their load profile, their generation mix, their ability to shift loads, and customer attitudes before deciding on a load-management program that fits their individual needs. They should also be aware that load management is only a limited resource with a number of uncertainties. Research programs into customer relations, system reliability, communications devices, and special control switches and meters will help to relieve some of the uncertainties. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Gupta, P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

28

OpenEI - load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

29

building load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

30

electric load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

31

commercial load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

32

residential load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

33

Composite Load Model Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

34

Analysis of industrial load management  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Load Management, ILM, has increased the possibilities of changing load profiles and raising load factors. This paper reports on load profile measurements and feasible load management applications that could be implemented in industry e.g. bivalent systems for heating of premises and processes, load priority systems, energy storage and rescheduling processes or parts of processes due to differential electricity rates. Industrial load variations on hourly, daily and seasonal basis are treated as well as the impact by load management on load curves e g peak clipping, valley filling and increased off-peak electricity usage.

Bjork, C.O.; Karlsson, B.G.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Distribution substation load impacts of residential air conditioner load control  

SciTech Connect

An ongoing experiment to monitor the substation level load impacts of end-use load control is described. An overview of the data acquisition system, experimental procedures and analysis techniques are provided. Results of the 1983 and 1984 experiments demonstrate the value of aggregate load impact monitoring as a means of verifying load research results, calculating the diversity of end-use loads, and predicting the impacts of load management on the transmission and distribution systems.

Heffner, G.C.; Kaufman, D.A.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Mass-Loaded Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A key process within astronomy is the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between diffuse plasmas in many types of astronomical sources (including planetary nebulae, wind-blown bubbles, supernova remnants, starburst superwinds, and the intracluster medium) and dense, embedded clouds or clumps. This transfer affects the large scale flows of the diffuse plasmas as well as the evolution of the clumps. I review our current understanding of mass-injection processes, and examine intermediate-scale structure and the global effect of mass-loading on a flow. I then discuss mass-loading in a variety of diffuse sources.

J. M. Pittard

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

38

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

Treshow, M.

1960-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

40

Multidimensional spectral load balancing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

Hendrickson, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leland, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Buildings Stock Load Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on electricity demand control by applying some strategies in existing building to reduce it during the extreme climate period. The first part of this paper presents the objectives of the study: ? to restrict the startup polluting manufacturing units (power station), ? to limit the environmental impacts (greenhouse emission), ? to reduce the transport and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing models of tertiary buildings stocks (Schools, offices, Shops, hotels); ? Making simulations for different load shedding strategies to calculate potential peak power saving. The third part is dedicated to the description of the developed models: An assembly of the various blocks of the library of simbad and simulink permit to model building. Finally the last part prensents the study results: Graphs and tables to see the load shedding strategies impacts.

Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

OpenEI Community - load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

43

OpenEI Community - electric load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

44

OpenEI Community - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

45

OpenEI Community - residential load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

46

OpenEI Community - commercial load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

47

OpenEI Community - building load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

48

Proppant concentrator boosts foam frac effectiveness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently introduced propant concentrator appears to be reducing downtime and enhancing the overall effectiveness and practicality of foam fracturing. The basic purpose behind the proppant concentrator is to provide a method to allow higher proppant concentrations to be run in foam stimulation treatments. A concentrator removes liquid while pumping to allow a higher proppant load to be delivered to the well. This is accomplished by injecting the fluid/proppant slurry, which has been preblended, and passing it through a standard screen or centrifugal device. This allows removal of up to 50% of the liquid portion of the slurry and achieves a doubling of the proppant concentration prior to being foamed.

Not Available

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Load Capacity of Bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the stress analysis in a plastic body $\\Omega$, we prove that there exists a maximal positive number $C$, the \\emph{load capacity ratio,} such that the body will not collapse under any external traction field $t$ bounded by $Y_{0}C$, where $Y_0$ is the elastic limit. The load capacity ratio depends only on the geometry of the body and is given by $$ \\frac{1}{C}=\\sup_{w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D} \\frac{\\int_{\\partial\\Omega}|w|dA} {\\int_{\\Omega}|\\epsilon(w)|dV}=\\left\\|\\gamma_D\\right\\|. $$ Here, $LD(\\Omega)_D$ is the space of isochoric vector fields $w$ for which the corresponding stretchings $\\epsilon(w)$ are assumed to be integrable and $\\gamma_D$ is the trace mapping assigning the boundary value $\\gamma_D(w)$ to any $w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D$.

Reuven Segev

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in Indoor Plumes Speaker(s): David J. Wilson Date: October 19, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Why have people been able to get away with ignoring intermittency (periods of zero concentration or zero turbulent temperature difference) in heat and mass transfer for the past century? Why is intermittency crucially important in toxic load estimates for biological exposure? We will explore how a simple back-of-the-envelope model can be constructed for the respiration toxicology of concentration fluctuations at a fixed receptor (for example; your lungs). This simple model will show the origin of the toxic load exponent n=2.0 for concentration C in L=Cnt. An extensive set of

52

Variable loading roller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

Williams, D.M.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

53

Energy Basics: Linear Concentrator Systems for Concentrating...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

54

Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

Kurtz, S.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

55

MTS Table Top Load frame  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MTS Table Top Load frame MTS Table Top Load frame The Non-destructive Evaluation group operates an MTS Table Top Load frame for ultimate strength and life cycle testing of various ceramic, ceramic-matrix (FGI), carbon, carbon fiber, cermet (CMC) and metal alloy engineering samples. The load frame is a servo-hydraulic type designed to function in a closed loop configuration under computer control. The system can perform non-cyclic, tension, compression and flexure testing and cyclic fatigue tests. The system is comprised of two parts: * The Load Frame and * The Control System. Load Frame The Load Frame (figure 1) is a cross-head assembly which includes a single moving grip, a stationary grip and LVDT position sensor. It can generate up to 25 kN (5.5 kip) of force in the sample under test and can

56

Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

Kurtz, S.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

57

Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After the change in the economics of generating electricity which took place in 1973, many utilities are examining options to hold down their costs. One fact which is clear is that the difference between peak and off peak generating costs is much larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces during peak periods are both examples of load control which lower the costs borne by the utility. The other option is the use of seasonal surcharges or time-of-day rates to induce customers to alter their usage patterns. Both these load management options focus on reducing utility costs overall without regard to the cost to the consumers affected by the load management options. The issue, then, is whether industrial customers can find opportunities to lower their costs under load management.

Males, R.; Hassig, N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

Kurtz, S.

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

59

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

Wheat, S.R.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

High-Power Rf Load  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Static identification of delinquent loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effective use of processor caches is crucial to the performance of applications. It has been shown that cache misses are not evenly distributed throughout a program. In applications running on RISC-style processors, a small number of delinquent load instructions are responsible for most of the cache misses. Identification of delinquent loads is the key to the success of many cache optimization and prefetching techniques. In this paper, we propose a method for identifying delinquent loads that can be implemented at compile time. Our experiments over eighteen benchmarks from the SPEC suite shows that our proposed scheme is stable across benchmarks, inputs, and cache structures, identifying an average of 10 % of the total number of loads in the benchmarks we tested that account for over 90 % of all data cache misses. As far as we know, this is the first time a technique for static delinquent load identification with such a level of precision and coverage has been reported. While comparable techniques can also identify load instructions that cover 90 % of all data cache misses, they do so by selecting over 50 % of all load instructions in the code, resulting in a high number of false positives. If basic block profiling is used in conjunction with our heuristic, then our results show that it is possible to pin down just 1.3 % of the load instructions that account for 82 % of all data cache misses. 1.

Vlad-mihai Panait; Amit Sasturkar Ý

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's electricity price forecasting model, produces forecast of gas demand consistent with electric load. #12Gas demand Council's Market Price of Electricity Forecast Natural GasDemand Electric Load Aggregating Natural between the natural gas and electricity and new uses of natural gas emerge. T natural gas forecasts

Feinberg, Eugene A.

65

Linear Concentrator Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear receiver tube. The receiver contains a fluid that is...

66

building load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

67

load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51 51 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142234851 Varnish cache server load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: application/zip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data

68

Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (US)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load  

SciTech Connect

As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Laughner, T [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, K [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to...

71

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use...

72

Concentrating Solar Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

Not Available

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Loading capacity of various filters for lithium fire generated aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lithium aerosol loading capacity of a prefilter, HEPA filters and a sand and gravel bed filter was determined. The test aerosol was characterized and was generated by burning lithium in an unlimited air atmosphere. Correlation to sodium aerosol loading capacities were made to relate existing data to lithium aerosol loadings under varying conditions. This work is being conducted in support of the fusion reactor safety program. The lithium aerosol was generated by burning lithium pools, up to 45 kgs, in a 340 m/sup 3/ low humidity air atmosphere to supply aerosol to recirculating filter test loops. The aerosol was sampled to determine particle size, mass concentrations and chemical species. The dew point and gas concentrations were monitored throughout the tests. Loop inlet aerosol mass concentrations ranged up to 5 gr/m/sup 3/. Chemical compounds analyzed to be present in the aerosol include Li/sub 2/O, LiOH, and Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. HEPA filters with and without separators and a prefilter and HEPA filter in series were loaded with 7.8 to 11.1 kg/m/sup 2/ of aerosol at a flow rate of 1.31 m/sec and 5 kPa pressure drop. The HEPA filter loading capacity was determined to be greater at a lower flow rate. The loading capacity increased from 0.4 to 2.8 kg by decreasing the flow rate from 1.31 to 0.26 m/sec for a pressure drop of 0.11 kPa due to aerosol buildup. The prefilter tested in series with a HEPA did not increase the total loading capacity significantly for the same total pressure drop. Separators in the HEPA had only minor effect on loading capacity. The sand and gravel bed filter loaded to 0.50 kg/m/sup 2/ at an aerosol flow rate of 0.069 m/sec and final pressure drop of 6.2 kPa. These loading capacities and their dependence on test variables are similar to those reported for sodium aerosols except for the lithium aerosol HEPA loading capacity dependence upon flow rate.

Jeppson, D.W.; Barreca, J.R.

1980-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

74

Advanced nonintrusive load monitoring system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a need for flexible, inexpensive metering technologies that can be deployed in many different monitoring scenarios. Individual loads may be expected to compute information about their power consumption. Utility ...

Wichakool, Warit, 1977-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

OpenEI - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

76

Permanent Load Shift Control Strategies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Permanent Load Shifting for HVAC and other storage assets as it relates to summer on-peak demand, how it can be dynamically and autonomously controlled, and its relationship...

77

Building load control and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

Salomon, R.E.

1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Load transfer coupling regression curve fitting for distribution load forecasting  

SciTech Connect

The planning of distribution facilities requires forecasts of future substation and feeder loads. Extrapolation based on a curve fit to past annual peak loads is currently the most popular manner of accomplishing this forecast. Curve fitting suffers badly from data shifts caused by switching as loads are routinely moved from one substation to another during the course of utility operations. This switching contaminates the data, reducing forecast accuracy. A new regression application reduces error due to these transfers by over an order of magnitude. A key to the usefulness of this method is that the amount of the transfer, and its direction (whether it was to or from a substation), is not a required input. The new technique, aspects of computer implementation of it, and a series of tests showing its advantage over normal multiple regression methods are given.

Willis, H.L.; Powell, R.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Realizing load reduction functions by aperiodic switching of load groups  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the problem of scheduling ON/OFF switching of residential appliances under the control of a Load Management System (LMS). The scheduling process is intended to reduce the controlled appliances` power demand in accordance with a predefined load reduction profile. To solve this problem, a solution approach, based on the methodology of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), is introduced. This approach provides a flexible mathematical basis for studying different aspects of the scheduling problem. The conventional practices in this area are shown to be special cases of the PWM technique. By applying the PWM-based technique to the scheduling problem, important classes of scheduling errors are identified and analytical expressions describing them are derived. These expressions are shown to provide sufficient information to compensate for the errors. Detailed simulations of load groups` response to switching actions are use to support conclusions of this study.

Navid-Azarbaijani, N. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Banakar, M.H. [CAE Electronics Ltd., St. Laurent, Quebec (Canada)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSLF that incorporates motor  A?C, ZIP, and electronic load the fractions motors A?C, ZIP, and electronic loads.    Usethat incorporates motor  A?C, ZIP, and  electronic load 

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

load profile | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load profile Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 13:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load building...

84

Monthly Crustal Loading Corrections for Satellite Altimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite altimeter measurements of sea surface height include a small contribution from vertical motion of the seafloor caused by crustal loading. Loading by ocean tides is routinely allowed for in altimeter data processing. Here, loading by ...

R. D. Ray; S. B. Luthcke; T. van Dam

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Peak load management: Potential options  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Load Express  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

graphical interface makes Load Express a powerful engineering tool with a very short learning curve. The "rookie" or experienced user can quickly and accurately perform load...

87

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

88

Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

89

Concentration with uniform flux  

SciTech Connect

A modification of a parabolic cylinder concentrator is developed to procedure uniform flux. The controlling surface equation is given. A three-dimensional ray-trace technique is used to obtain the shape of the image at the focal plane of a thin slice of the mirror. Also, the concentration distribution for uniform flux is given. 1 references, 7 figures.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Method for loading resin beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

Notz, Karl J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rainey, Robert H. (Knoxville, TN); Greene, Charles W. (Knoxville, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are doweled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

Lembke, J.R.

1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

92

Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

Lembke, J.R.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

PRB rail loadings shatter record  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Automatic Electric Load Identification in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — A microgrid is the power system of choice for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. It should be able to adapt to changing load situations without the need for specialists to change the configuration of the microgrid controller. This paper proposes a self-configuring microgrid management system that is able to adjust both generation and demand of the system, so that also in case of growing electricity demand the grid can still be operable by disconnecting unessential loads. A crucial task for the microgrid controller is to automatically identify the connected loads on the basis of their consumption behaviors. For this, a template-matching algorithm is proposed that is based on Dynamic Time Warping, which is primarily used in speech recognition. It has been found that for load profile analysis, simple signal features such as the number of rising edges or the aggregated energy consumption in a given time window is sufficient to describe the signal. In contrast to speech recognition, frequency domain analysis is not necessary.

Self-configuring Microgrids; Friederich Kupzog; Tehseen Zia; Adeel Abbas Zaidi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

On-line load relief control  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of an investigation concerning the on-line prediction and enhancement of load relief. The effects of voltage fluctuation, system voltage profile control and generator voltage adjustment on load relief and load shedding operations during under-frequency transients are studied. The technique promoted in the paper may be used to reduce system spinning reserve or prospective load shedding.

Jovanovic, S.; Fox, B.; Thompson, J.G. (Queen' s Univ. of Belfast (United Kingdom))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Load Forecasting for Modern Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load forecasting is a fundamental activity for numerous organizations and activities within a utility, including planning, operations, and control. Transmission and Distribution (T&D) planning and design engineers use the load forecast to determine whether any changes and additions are needed to the electric system to satisfy the anticipated load. Other load forecast users include system operations, financial ...

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

97

Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load Forecast 2019 For use in Resource Adequacy Massoud Jourabchi #12;In today's presentation d l­ Load forecast methodology ­ Drivers of the forecast f i­ Treatment of conservation ­ Incorporating impact of weather ­ Forecast for 2019 #12;Regional Loads (MWA and MW)Regional Loads (MWA and MW

98

Evolving non-intrusive load monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) identifies used appliances in a total power load according to their individual load characteristics. In this paper we propose an evolutionary optimization algorithm to identify appliances, which are modeled as on/off ... Keywords: NILM, evolution, evolutionary algorithm, knapsack problem, non-intrusive load monitoring

Dominik Egarter; Anita Sobe; Wilfried Elmenreich

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Concentrator silicon cell research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project continued the developments of high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cells with the goal of achieving a cell efficiency in the 26 to 27 percent range at a concentration level of 150 suns of greater. The target efficiency was achieved with the new PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally diffused) cell structure, but only at low concentration levels around 20 suns. The PERL structure combines oxide passivation of both top and rear surfaces of the cells with small area contact to heavily doped regions on the top and rear surfaces. Efficiency in the 22 to 23 percent range was also demonstrated for large-area concentrator cells fabricated with the buried contact solar cell processing sequence, either when combined with prismatic covers or with other innovative approaches to reduce top contact shadowing. 19 refs.

Green, M.A.; Wenham, S.R.; Zhang, F.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Solar Photovoltaic Lab.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Organic photovoltaics and concentrators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

Mapel, Jonathan King

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Concentrator-quality evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of a reflecting solar concentrator depends, of course, on its surface reflectance, but there are other important factors. Among these are sun-tracking errors, surface-slope errors, and surface irregularities. It is appropriate to use statistics to describe and analyze these non-deterministic factors. A scheme for specifying the quality of a solar concentrator that includes all these effects is described and illustrated. It is believed that this procedure is optimum in the sense that it requires a minimum of measurements to obtain a complete enough description of a concentrator to determine its optical performance under any operating geometry. The specification scheme is, therefore, suitable for use in general systems analysis studies involving solar concentrators.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Concentration of perrhenate and pertechnetate solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of preparing a concentrated solution of a carrier-free radioisotope which includes the steps of: a. providing a generator column loaded with a composition containing a parent radioisotope; b. eluting the generator column with an eluent solution which includes a salt of a weak acid to elute a target daughter radioisotope from the generator column in a first eluate. c. eluting a cation-exchange column with the first eluate to exchange cations of the salt for hydrogen ions and to elute the target daughter radioisotope and a weak acid in a second eluate; d. eluting an anion-exchange column with the second eluate to trap and concentrate the target daughter radioisotope and to elute the weak acid solution therefrom; and e. eluting the concentrated target daughter radioisotope from the anion-exchange column with a saline solution.

Knapp, Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beets, Arnold L. (Clinton, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Guhlke, Stefan (Bonn, DE)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Joined concentric tubes  

SciTech Connect

Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Characterizing Household Plug Loads through Self-Administered Load Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Household miscellaneous loads, which include consumer electronics, are the fastest growing segment of household energy use in the United States. Although the relative energy intensity of applications such as heating and cooling is declining, the DOEAnnual Energy Outlook forecasts that the intensity of residential miscellaneous end uses will increase substantially by 2030. Studies by TIAX and Ecos Consulting reveal that miscellaneous devices8212smaller devices in terms of energy draw but growing in usage8...

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

105

Load-shape development aids planning  

SciTech Connect

The concept that provides capable, load-shape development, is being adopted by several utilities and power pools. Public Service Electric and Gas Company has developed a computer simulation model that can predict a utility's load shape for up to a 30-year period. The objective of the PSE and G model, known as EICS (Electric Load-Curve Synthesis) is to provide a demand profile, to examine the impact of load mangement and other activities upon a system's load shape, and to apply appropriate forecast non-load-management and load-management impacts before finally examining the resulting revised load-shape. Other models dealing with load-shape are discussed. Specifically, the Systems Control Inc. model for EPRI (SCI/EPRI), useful in performing accurate simulations of various load-control strategies involving customer appliance control is mentioned.

Gellings, C.W.

1979-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Load Scheduling with Profile Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Within the past five years, many manufactures have added hardware performance counters to their microprocessors to generate profile data cheaply. We show how to use Compaq's DCPI tool to determine load latencies which are at a fine, instruction granularity and use them as fodder for improving instruction scheduling. We validate our heuristic for using DCPI latency data to classify loads as hits and misses against simulation numbers. We map our classification into the Multiflow compiler's intermediate representation, and use a locality sensitive Balanced scheduling algorithm. Our experiments illustrate that our algorithm improves run times by 1% on average, but up to 10% on a Compaq Alpha. 1 Introduction This paper explores how to use hardware performance counters to produce fine grain latency information to improve compiler scheduling. We use this information to hide latencies with any available instruction level parallelism (ILP). (ILP for an instruction is the number of o...

Götz Lindenmaier; Kathryn S. McKinley; Olivier Temam

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Thermal test procedure for a paraboloid concentrator solar cooker  

SciTech Connect

Suitable thermal tests have been identified for performance evaluation of a concentrating solar cooker. These tests provide parameters that characterize the performance of the solar cooker, and are more or less independent of the climatic variables. The overall heat loss factor is obtained from the cooling curve and the optical efficiency factor is determined from the heating curve - both under full load conditions. The performance characteristic curve for the solar cooker is obtained and discussed. The study indicates that the no load test, which is useful in the case of a box type solar cooker, is not appropriate in the case of concentrator type cookers.

Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C.; Kumar, S. (Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING  

SciTech Connect

The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

Garrett, A.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

109

NREL's PV Incubator: Where Solar Photovoltaic Records Go to be Broken |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NREL's PV Incubator: Where Solar Photovoltaic Records Go to be NREL's PV Incubator: Where Solar Photovoltaic Records Go to be Broken NREL's PV Incubator: Where Solar Photovoltaic Records Go to be Broken June 28, 2011 - 11:44am Addthis NREL Principal Engineer Keith Emery prepares to load three-junction concentrator cells into NREL's
 High-Intensity Pulse Solar Simulator to test for efficiency. | Department of Energy Photo | Courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Photo by Dennis Schroeder | Public Domain | NREL Principal Engineer Keith Emery prepares to load three-junction concentrator cells into NREL's
 High-Intensity Pulse Solar Simulator to test for efficiency. | Department of Energy Photo | Courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Photo by Dennis Schroeder | Public Domain | Minh Le Minh Le

110

Photovoltaic solar concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

111

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

concentration concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol concentration A measure of the amount of aerosol particles (e.g. number, mass, volume) per unit volume of air. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

112

Electrical and Production Load Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector. The operating hours of small and medium sized manufacturing facilities are analyzed to identify the most common operating hour or shift work patterns. About 75% of manufacturing facilities fall into expected operating hour patterns with operating hours near 40, 80, 120 and 168 hours/week. Two types of load factors, electrical and production are computed for each shift classification within major industry categories in the U.S. The load factor based on monthly billing hours (ELF) increases with operating hours from about 0.4 for a nominal one shift operation, to about 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. On the other hand, the load factor based on production hours (PLF) shows an inverse trend, varying from about 1.4 for one shift operation to 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. When used as a diagnostic tool, if the PLF exceeds unity, then unnecessary energy consumption may be taking place. For plants operating at 40 hours per week, the ELF value was found to greater than the theoretical maximum, while the PLF value was greater than one, suggesting that these facilities may have significant energy usage outside production hours. The data for the PLF however, is more scattered for plants operating less than 80 hours per week, indicating that grouping PLF data based on operating hours may not be a reasonable approach to benchmarking energy use in industries. This analysis uses annual electricity consumption and demand along with operating hour data of manufacturing plants available in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database. The annual values are used because more desirable monthly data are not available. Monthly data are preferred as they capture the load profile of the facility more accurately. The data there come from Industrial Assessment Centers which employ university engineering students, faculty and staff to perform energy assessments for small to medium-sized manufacturing plants. The nation-wide IAC program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Sen, Tapajyoti

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

A compound parabolic concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) for solar energy applications is presented in this work. A prototype was built and its thermal performance was determined. Operating temperatures of the order of 150 /sup 0/C with a reasonable efficiency can be attained by means of a fixed CPC.

Manrique, J.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Automated fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

High loading uranium fuel plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Interruptible load control for Taiwan Power Company  

SciTech Connect

Load management is the planning and implementation of those utility activities designed to influence customer use of electricity in ways that will produce desired changes in the utility's load shape. Interruptible load program is an option of load management which provides incentive rate to customers to interrupt or reduce the power demand during the system peak period or emergency condition. Therefore, how to design a proper incentive rate is the most important issue in implementing this program. This paper describes three alternatives designed for the interruptible load program, one of which was activated by Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) and some preliminary results were obtained. The effect of the interruptible load to the system peak demand reduction and the change of daily load curve for large industrial customers were analyzed. This paper estimates the avoided cost and design more appropriate incentive rate structure for interruptible load program.

Chen, C.S.; Leu, J.T. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (TW))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Loads on drillpipe during jarring operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jarring implies heavy loads on the drillstring. The highest load on the drillpipe before jarring is at the rig floor. This paper discusses loads on drillpipe before, under, and after jarring. The authors show that for most situations, the shock wave from the jar impact does not imply additional load on the drillpipe compared with static load. The theoretical results are confirmed by measurements of a jarring operation with stuck point at [approx] 1,200 m measured depth. Loads on the drillpipe can be a limited factor in jarring operations because fear of possible additional loads from jarring dynamics may restrict the trip force (overpull) on the jar. The main conclusion is that dynamic jar forces do not give additional loads on drillpipe. This information can be used to set an optimal trip force on the jar.

Aarrestad, T.V.; Kyllingstad, A.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Derived Concentration Technical Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

196-2011 196-2011 April 2011 DOE STANDARD DERIVED CONCENTRATION TECHNICAL STANDARD U.S. Department of Energy AREA ENVR Washington, D.C. 20585 Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/standard.html DOE-STD-1196-2011 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Derived Concentration Technical Standard was a collaborative effort sponsored by the DOE Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, with support from Department subject matter experts (SMEs) in the field of radiation protection. This standard, which complements DOE Order (O) 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, was developed taking

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Concentrating Solar Thermal Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After nearly 20 years of commercial dormancy, concentrating solar thermal (CST) power development and investment activity is heating up globally. Encouraged by volatile energy prices, carbon markets, and renewable-friendly policies, an increasing number of established companies, newcomers, utilities, and government agencies are planning to deploy CST systems to tap the technologies' improving conversion efficiencies and low-cost electricity production potential. This renewable energy technology perspecti...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

122

Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Spinning reserve from hotel load response  

SciTech Connect

Even though preliminary tests were not conducted during times of highest system or hotel loading during the summer, they showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22 to 37 percent depending on the outdoor temperature and time of day. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator's command to shed load was issued and the load drop was very rapid. (author)

Kirby, Brendan; Kueck, John; Laughner, Theo; Morris, Keith

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Load Shape Library Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The downloadable report details EPRI's efforts to develop a framework of a load database and web-accessible repository of end-use and whole-premise data for application to energy efficiency assessments. The tool provides access to the best available end-use load data and whole-premise data by sector, region and building type. Improved end-use load research data will benefit load forecasters, system planners, energy efficiency program managers and rate design analysts by facilitating integration ...

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

125

Load Management - A Better Way  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ohio Edison Company serves about 800,000 customers in Ohio and Pennsylvania, making it one of the 20 largest electric utilities in the nation. The 'cost of service' concept has been basic to rate design throughout the history of the company, and is evident today as the demand related charges have escalated in recent rate cases reflecting the higher costs of installing new generating facilities at today's high construction and financing costs. This paper will describe one of the many applications of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows existing plants to be more fully utilized, resulting in lower costs to customers who use their electric service wisely and possibly lower rate increases in the future than would have been required otherwise.

Easley, J. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Load Scheduling with Profile Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Within the past five years, many manufactureshave added hardware performance counters to their microprocessors to generate profile data cheaply.Translating aggregate data such as basic block execution frequencies from the executable to the com-piler intermediate representation is fairly straightforward. In this paper, we show how to use Com-paq's DCPI tool to determine load latencies which are at a fine, instruction granularity and then usethem to provide fodder for improving instruction scheduling. We validate our heuristic for usingDCPI latency data to classify loads as hits and misses against simulation numbers, demonstratingthat we can gather correct latencies cheaply at runtime. We map our classification into the Multiflowcompiler's intermediate representation, and use a locality sensitive Balanced scheduling algorithm. Ourexperiments illustrate that our algorithm has the potential to improve run times by up to 10 % on a Com-paq Alpha when compared to Balanced scheduling, but that a variety of pitfalls make consistent im-provements difficult to attain. 1 Introduction In this paper, we explore how to use hardware per-formance counters to produce fine grain latency information to improve compiler scheduling. We usethis information to hide latencies with any avail\\Lambda The authors

unknown authors

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Glossary of terms related to load management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part I of the Glossary of Terms related to Load Management has been prepared by the Terminology Task Force of the Load Management Subcommittee. The glossary contains many definitions of terms used by the electric utility industry concerning the subject of Load Management. The terms are listed in alphabetical order and cross-referenced where necessary.

Gellings, C.W.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Properly Evaluating load-following products  

SciTech Connect

The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Adaptive load sharing for network processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel scheme for processing packets in a router is presented that provides load sharing among multiple network processors distributed within the router. It is complemented by a feedback control mechanism designed to prevent processor overload. Incoming ... Keywords: computer networks, feedback control, load balancing, load sharing, packet processing, router architecture

Lukas Kencl; Jean-Yves Le Boudec

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Efficient real-time divisible load scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Providing QoS and performance guarantees to arbitrarily divisible loads has become a significant problem for many cluster-based research computing facilities. While progress is being made in scheduling arbitrarily divisible loads, current approaches ... Keywords: Arbitrarily divisible loads, Cluster computing, Real-time computing, Scheduling efficiency

Anwar Mamat; Ying Lu; Jitender Deogun; Steve Goddard

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Domestic load scheduling using genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach using a genetic algorithm to optimize the scheduling of domestic electric loads, according to technical and user-defined constraints and input signals, is presented and illustrative results are shown. The aim is minimizing the end-user's ... Keywords: automated energy management, domestic load scheduling, electric loads, genetic algorithms

Ana Soares; Állvaro Gomes; Carlos Henggeler Antunes; Hugo Cardoso

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Neural-wavelet Methodology for Load Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intelligent demand-side management represents a future trend of power system regulation. A key issue in intelligent demand-side management is accurate prediction of load within a local area grid (LAG), which is defined as a set of customers with an appropriate ... Keywords: load forecasting, load identification, neural-wavelet

Rong Gao; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of concentrating N/sup 15/ in a liquid is described. Gaseous nitric oxide and at least one liquid selected from the group consisting of the aqueous oxyacids and oxides of nitrogen, wherein the atomic ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is greater than unity, are brought into intimate contact to cause an enrichment of the liquid and a depletion of the gas in N/sup 15/. The liquid is, thereafter, reacted with sulfur dioxide to produce a gas contuining nitric oxide. The gas contuining nitric oxide is then continuously passed in countercurrent contact with the liquid to cause further enrichment of the liquid.

Taylor, T.I.; Spindel, W.

1960-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Characterization of Photovoltaic Concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper will describe the resources at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for performing characterization of photovoltaic (PV) materials designed for operation under concentrated light. NREL has the capability to measure devices ranging from very small, unencapsulated research cells to reasonably sized, environmentally protected modules. Data gathering and interpretation are also ongoing areas of revision and improvement. The main goal of the current research is to reduce the measurement uncertainty to the lowest practical value. At present, the state of the art is limited at a ?5% level in measuring efficiency accurately.

Kiehl, J.; Emery, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Concentric Black Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new supersymmetric solutions of five-dimensional minimal supergravity that describe concentric black rings with an optional black hole at the common centre. Configurations of two black rings are found which have the same conserved charges as a single rotating black hole; these black rings can have a total horizon area less than, equal to, or greater than the black hole with the same charges. A numerical investigation of these particular black ring solutions suggests that they do not have closed timelike curves.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Jan B. Gutowski

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

137

Vapor concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

Bayly, John G. (Deep River, CA); Booth, Ronald J. (Deep River, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Analysis of the GaInP/GaAs/1-eV/Ge Cell and Related Structures for Terrestrial Concentrator Application: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the analysis of the potential of GaInP/GaAs/1-eV/Ge four-junction solar cell to improve on the efficiency of the state-of-the-art GaInP/GaAs/Ge benchmark. We emphasize three factors: (1) The newly proposed terrestrial concentrator spectrum has a lower ratio of red to blue light than does the old AM1.5 direct standard spectrum. (2) Standard two-layer antireflection coatings do not provide near-zero reflectance over the full spectral range of interest for these devices. (3) GaInNAs junctions used to date for the 1-eV junction have quantum efficiencies less than {approx}75%. These factors all limit the device current, adversely affecting the four-junction efficiency. We discuss strategies for ameliorating this problem, including going to alternate structures such as a GaInP/GaAs/0.9-eV three-junction device.

Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, S. R.; Geisz, J. F.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Low cutter load raise head  

SciTech Connect

A raise head having a multiplicity of cutters for enlarging a pilot hole into a larger diameter hole by disintegrating the earth formations that surround the pilot hole is provided that will require lower cutter loads to penetrate the formations being bored by directing the rock fracture planes toward the pilot hole forcing the rock to yield with less input energy. The cutters are positioned on the raise head to provide an earth formation contact profile with a major portion of said earth formation contact profile extending outward and upward from said pilot hole. The included angle between the major portion of the earth formation contact profile and the axis of the pilot hole is less than 90/sup 0/.

Saxman, W.C.

1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Kinesin's backsteps under mechanical load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinesins move processively toward the plus end of microtubules by hydrolyzing ATP for each step. From an enzymatic perspective, the mechanism of mechanical motion coupled to the nucleotide chemistry is often well explained using a single-loop cyclic reaction. However, several difficulties arise in interpreting kinesin's backstepping within this framework, especially when external forces oppose the motion of kinesin. We review evidence, such as an ATP-independent stall force and a slower cycle time for backsteps, that has emerged to challenge the idea that kinesin backstepping is due to ATP synthesis, i.e., the reverse cycle of kinesin's forward-stepping chemomechanics. Supplementing the conventional single-loop chemomechanics with routes for ATP-hydrolyzing backward steps and nucleotide-free steps, especially under load, gives a better physical interpretation of the experimental data on backsteps.

Changbong Hyeon; Stefan Klumpp; José N. Onuchic

2009-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High payload six-axis load sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Analysis Methodology for Industrial Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology is provided for evaluating the impact of various demand-side management (DSM) options on industrial customers. The basic approach uses customer metered load profile data as a basis for the customer load shape. DSM technologies are represented as load shapes and are used as a basis for altering the customers existing measured load shape. The impact of load shape changes on the customer is evaluated in terms of a change in the electric bill by using a software analytical tool called LOADEXPERT™. The software calculates the customer's bill for a particular rate structure and a given load shape. The output data from LOADEXPERT™ are used to calculate the rate of return on the DSM technology investment. Other uses of load profile data are provided.

Reddoch, T. W.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs minimized. Because of the difficulty in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly related. The decrease in motor speed from no load conditions, referred to as slip, can be determined with a non-contact, optical tachometer. Field measurements of motor slip were conducted at a textile plant to quantify motor load conditions. To verify the relationship between operating speed and load, measurements of motor power consumption on a representative number of motors were also conducted. The results of the motor survey, including number of motors, size, and load, are summarized in this paper along with an estimate of the savings from replacing oversized motors.

Brown, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

146

Universal solar concentrator panel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar concentrator device. It comprises: a solar energy receiver; and a flat solar energy reflector arranged to reflect solar energy to the receiver, the reflector including a substantially square-shaped frame limiting an inner space, individual flat reflective panels arranged in the space in a first group or rows extending in a first direction and a second group of rows extending in a second direction substantially transverse to the first direction and so that each of the panels is turnable about three mutually perpendicular axes, and means for mounting the panels so that they are turnable about the axes. The mounting means including first means which connect the panels in the rows extending in one of the directions so that the panels in each of the rows extending in the one direction are jointly turnable about a first one of the axes, second means for mounting each of the panels so that in each of the rows extending in the one direction each of the panels is turnable about a second one of the axes, and third means for mounting each panel in each of the rows extending in the one direction so that each of the panels is turnable about a third one of the axes. This patent also describes a solar concentrator device, wherein the receiver includes a box forming an inner chamber, a plurality of photovoltaic cells sealed with a clear plastic and accommodated in the chamber, and water filling the chamber and surrounding the photovoltaic cells.

Bagno, R.G.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

147

Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

Hinterberger, Henry (Batavia, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Wind loading on solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

On Load Balancing in a Dense Wireless  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the load balancing problem in a dense wireless multihop network, where a typical path consists of large number of hops, i.e., the spatial scales of a typical distance between source and destination, and mean distance between the neighbouring nodes are strongly separated. In this limit, we present a general framework for analysing the traffic load resulting from a given set of paths and traffic demands. We formulate the load balancing problem as a minmax problem and give two lower bounds for the achievable minimal maximum traffic load. The framework is illustrated by an example of uniformly distributed traffic demands in a unit disk with a few families of paths given in advance. With these paths we are able to decrease the maximum traffic load by factor of 33 40% depending on the assumptions. The obtained traffic load level also comes quite near the tightest lower bound.

Multihop Network Esa; Esa Hyytiä

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Profile Guided Load Marking for Memory Renaming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Memory operations remain a significant bottleneck in dynamically scheduled pipelined processors, due in part to the inability to statically determine the existence of memory address dependencies. Hardware memory renaming techniques have been proposed which predict which stores a load might be dependent upon. These prediction techniques can be used to speculatively forward a value from a predicted store dependency to a load through a value prediction table; however, these techniques require large and time-consuming hardware tables. In this paper we propose a software-guided approach for identifying dependencies between store and load instructions and the Load Marking (LM) architecture to communicate these dependencies to the hardware. Compiler analysis and profiles are used to find important store/load relationships, and these relationships are identified during execution via hints or an n-bit tag. For those loads that are not marked for renaming, we then use additional profiling inform...

Glenn Reinman; Brad Calder; Dean Tullsen; Gary Tyson; Todd Austin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Assessment of Industrial-Sector Load Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The load shapes of industrial-sector customers are becoming increasingly important for utility forecasting, marketing, and demand-side management planning and evaluation activities. This report analyzes load shapes for various industry segments and investigates the transfer of these load shapes across service territories. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Funders may download this report at http://my.primen.com/Applications/DE/Community/index.asp .

1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

153

Trends in electric utility load duration curves  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and analysis of annual and quarterly load duration curves for each of the 10 Federal regions. The report describes analyses performed to test for changes in load duration curve shapes over time. These analyses are intended to aid the electric utility analyses and modeling activities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) by expanding the understanding of current and expected load duration curve shapes. 7 figs., 13 tabs.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Loads, capacity, and failure rate modeling  

SciTech Connect

Both failure rate and load capacity (stress-strength) interferenece methodologies are employed in the reliability analysis at nuclear facilities. Both of the above have been utilized in a heuristic failure rate model in terms of load capacity inference. Analytical solutions are used to demonstrate that infant mortality and random aging failures may be expressed implicity in terms of capacity variability, load variability, and capacity deterioration, and that mode interactions play a role in the formation of the bathtub curve for failure rates.

Lewis, E.E.; Chen, Hsin-Chieh

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Reservoir compaction loads on casings and liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure drawdown due to production from a reservoir causes compaction of the reservoir formation which induces axial and radial loads on the wellbore. Reservoir compaction loads increase during the production life of a well, and are greater for deviated wells. Presented here are casing and liner loads at initial and final pressure drawdowns for a particular reservoir and at well deviation angles of 0 to 45 degrees.

Wooley, G.R.; Prachner, W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

NORMAL LOAD BEARING BY SITE SPECIFIC CANISTER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this calculation is to perform a preliminary analysis of the Site Specific Canister/Basket, subject to static gravity loads that include the self weight of the Canister Shell, the Basket, the Spent Nuclear Fuel, the Shield Plug and the related hardware, so that the loads are approximately known for sizing purposes. Based on these loads the stress levels in various components of the Site Specific Canister/Basket are evaluated.

NA

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

Mathew, Paul A.

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

159

Photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

Chiang, C.J.

1991-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

160

Load relaxation studies of zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect

The results of the present work have shown (1) the load relaxation data of Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range of 200/sup 0/C to 385/sup 0/C can be represented by the phenomenological model based on Hart's plastic equation of state; (2) the room temperature load relaxation data reflect the effects of deformation twinning; (3) at higher temperatures the load relaxation data suggest the contribution of grain boundary sliding; and (4) the effects of strain aging can be identified based on the load relaxation data.

Huang, F.H.; Sabol, G.P.; McDonald, S.G.; Li, C.Y.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

OpenEI Community - load profile  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

/0 en Commercial and /0 en Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! http://en.openei.org/community/blog/commercial-and-residential-hourly-load-data-now-available-openei <span class=Load data" src="http://en.openei.org/community/files/load_data_figure_small.jpg" style="width:527px; height:285px" title="" />Image source: NREL 

Files: 
application/zip icon

162

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Laboratory Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VALR Lab. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction Laboratory houses ADAM, our advanced thermal manikin, as well as a passenger compartment climate simulator, testing equipment...

163

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Load Express  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Create project files with Load Express in just 4 easy steps. Select a weather profile, enter simulation parameters, define the zonesrooms in the building and create air handler...

164

Effect of Nonproportional Loadings on Ductile Fracture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, This study aims at understanding the effects of load path ... D-2: Forging of Magnesium Alloy by Impulsive Energy at Room Temperature.

165

Thermoplastic Flour Containing Eugenol-loaded Chitosan ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermoplastic Flour Containing Eugenol-loaded Chitosan ... Properties of AA 7075 Reinforced with Nanometric ZrO2 Obtained by Ball-milling.

166

Building Energy Software Tools Directory : HVAC Residential Load...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD for the iPad Back to Tool HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD screenshot HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD screenshot HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD...

167

Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

15 Figure 12: Load profile by day of week, averaged over thebetween the average load profile and the profile of a givenfrom the average load profile. Figure 12: Load profile by

Price, Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Retail Building Title Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Retail Building Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-59293 Year of Publication 2006 Authors Hotchi, Toshifumi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and William J. Fisk Keywords market sectors, technologies Abstract Mock Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) events were implemented in a Target retail store in the San Francisco Bay Area by shutting down some of the building's packaged rooftop air-handling units (RTUs). Measurements were made to determine how this load shedding strategy would affect the outdoor air ventilation rate and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the sales area. Ventilation rates prior to and during load shedding were measured by tracer gas decay on two days. Samples for individual VOCs, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were collected from several RTUs in the morning prior to load shedding and in the late afternoon. Shutting down a portion (three of 11 and five of 12, or 27 and 42%) of the RTUs serving the sales area resulted in about a 30% reduction in ventilation, producing values of 0.50-0.65 air changes per hour. VOCs with the highest concentrations (>10 μg/m3) in the sales area included formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. Substantial differences in concentrations were observed among RTUs. Concentrations of most VOCs increased during a single mock CPP event, and the median increase was somewhat higher than the fractional decrease in the ventilation rate. There are few guidelines for evaluating indoor VOC concentrations. For formaldehyde, maximum concentrations measured in the store during the event were below guidelines intended to protect the general public from acute health risks.

169

Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Retail Building Title Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Retail Building Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2006 Authors Hotchi, Toshifumi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Mock Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) events were implemented in a Target retail store in the San Francisco Bay Area by shutting down some of the building's packaged rooftop air-handling units (RTUs). Measurements were made to determine how this load shedding strategy would affect the outdoor air ventilation rate and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the sales area. Ventilation rates prior to and during load shedding were measured by tracer gas decay on two days. Samples for individual VOCs, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were collected from several RTUs in the morning prior to load shedding and in the late afternoon. Shutting down a portion (three of 11 and five of 12, or 27 and 42%) of the RTUs serving the sales area resulted in about a 30% reduction in ventilation, producing values of 0.50-0.65 air changes per hour. VOCs with the highest concentrations (>10 μg/m3) in the sales area included formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. Substantial differences in concentrations were observed among RTUs. Concentrations of most VOCs increased during a single mock CPP event, and the median increase was somewhat higher than the fractional decrease in the ventilation rate. There are few guidelines for evaluating indoor VOC concentrations. For formaldehyde, maximum concentrations measured in the store during the event were below guidelines intended to protect the general public from acute health risks

170

Decentralized agent-based underfrequency load shedding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the transition to a smart grid efforts are being made to decentralize control of electric power systems and modernize protection schemes that are currently in use. One specific application of distributed control is underfrequency load shedding ... Keywords: UFLS, Underfrequency load shedding, intelligent agents

Sara Mullen; Getiria Onsongo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Design Ground Snow Loads for Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weight of snow with a mean recurrence interval of 50 years, called the design ground snow load, is used by engineers and planners to estimate the weight of snow that roofs must be designed to support National maps of ground snow load have ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin; Dennis J. Edgell; Molly A. Delaney

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Apparatus for loading a band saw blade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

Reeves, S.R.

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Protecting consumer privacy from electric load monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The smart grid introduces concerns for the loss of consumer privacy; recently deployed smart meters retain and distribute highly accurate profiles of home energy use. These profiles can be mined by Non Intrusive Load Monitors (NILMs) to expose much of ... Keywords: load monitor, privacy, smart meter

Stephen McLaughlin; Patrick McDaniel; William Aiello

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Quantifying the effectiveness of load balance algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load balance is critical for performance in large parallel applications. An imbalance on today's fastest supercomputers can force hundreds of thousands of cores to idle, and on future exascale machines this cost will increase by over a factor of a thousand. ... Keywords: framework, load balance, modeling, performance, simulation

Olga Pearce; Todd Gamblin; Bronis R. de Supinski; Martin Schulz; Nancy M. Amato

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Household type load's effects on photovoltaic systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar energy is one of the most important energy sources available because, besides the fact that it is not polluting the environment and it helps to the reduction of green house effect, it is free of charge and it can be easily converted to other ... Keywords: A.C. loads, D.C. loads, compact fluorescent lamp, photovoltaic system, power LED

Nazmi Ekren; Nevzat Onat; Safak Saglam

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Load Modeling Using a Measurement Based Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed in the second phase of a multi-year collaborative load modeling research program that was initiated in 2004. The measurement based approach described in this report will help utilities to develop representative load models using suitable measurement data.

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

177

Apparatus for loading a band saw blade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The Promise of Load Balancing the Parameterization of Moist Convection Using a Model Data Load Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parameterization of physical processes in atmospheric general circulation models contributes to load imbalances among individual processors of message-passing distributed-multiprocessor systems. Load imbalances increase the overall time to ...

S. P. Muszala; D. A. Connors; J. J. Hack; G. Alaghband

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the ULBNL-63728 Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non .............................................................................................................. 9 4. Baseline Profile (BLP) Models

180

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abbreviations ADDF ALM AMR CSP DOE DR ELRP ETS EWH FERC HVa Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM’s request. LBNLof load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Markets for concentrating solar power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report describes the markets for concentrating solar power. As concentrating solar power technologies advance into the early stages of commercialization, their economic potential becomes more sharply defined and increasingly tangible.

Not Available

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Combi Systems for Low Load homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

text styles text styles Combi Systems for Low Load Homes Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer * Low load homes are more common than ever. * Typical space heating and DHW equipment have capacities larger than necessary * A single heating plant could provide high efficiency heat at lower costs, increased durability and improved combustion safety Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System specifications, sizing, and installation optimization guidelines were all developed. * Contractor capability was developed in MN market, but may not be developed in all local. 4 Recommended Guidance * Determine peak load on system: - Space heating design load (ie 40,000 Btu/hr)

183

Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Photo of numerous parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors tracking the sun. Cooling towers and other generator equipment are in the midst of the troughs, and two water tanks are in the background. The Solar Electric Generating Station IV power plant in California consists of many parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors that track the sun. The cooling towers can be seen with the water plume rising into the air, and white water tanks are in the background. Credit: Sandia National Laboratory / PIX 14955 Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear

184

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Southwest Concentrating Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southwest Concentrating Solar Power 1000-MW Initiative Southwest Concentrating Solar Power 1000-MW Initiative Photos of various concentrating solar power systems. NREL, working through SunLab, supports the U.S. Department of Energy's goal to install 1,000 megawatts (MW) of new concentrating solar power systems in the southwestern United States by 2010. This level of deployment, combined with research and development to reduce technology component costs, could help reduce concentrating solar power electricity costs to $0.07/kilowatt-hour. At this cost, concentrating solar power can compete effectively in the Southwest's energy markets. To achieve the Initiative's goal, the U.S. Department of Energy is partnering with the Western Governors' Association to encourage concentrating solar power installations in Arizona, California, Colorado,

185

Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

benchmark and is bound to change as the proportion of plug load energy use grows in commercial buildings.

Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Combustion Impacts of Flexible Operation: Low Load, Load Following, and Increased Staging Impact on Boiler Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past few years, coal-fired generating units have changed from stable base load operation to flexible operation, including periods of prolonged low-load operation. These changes in operation can have various adverse effects on all plant equipment, particularly in older units and may impact their ability to operate without tube failures due to elevated levels of fireside corrosion and circumferential cracking. This report discusses the combustion-related impacts of low-load, load-following, ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

187

Energy Basics: Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

188

Energy Basics: Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

189

Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

An Analysis of Load Balancing Technology - Comparing LSF with other Load Balancing Software Packages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines what the load balancing needs of organizations are today, the solution LSF (Load Sharing Facility) provides for them, and how other currently available load balancing products compare to LSF. Jean Suplick (suplick@cxsoft.convex.com) CXSOFT Richardson, Texas January 1994 Why clusters?

Jean Suplick

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

Lu, Ning

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Filter loading corrections for real-time aethalometer measurements of fresh  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Filter loading corrections for real-time aethalometer measurements of fresh Filter loading corrections for real-time aethalometer measurements of fresh diesel soot. (2007) Title Filter loading corrections for real-time aethalometer measurements of fresh diesel soot. (2007) Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Jimenez, Jorge, Candis S. Claiborn, Timothy Larson, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Air and Waste Management Association Volume 57 Issue 7 Pagination 868-873 Abstract In this study, a correction was developed for the aethalometer to measure real-time black carbon (BC) concentrations in an environment dominated by fresh diesel soot. The relationship between the actual mass-specific absorption coefficient for BC and the BC-dependent attenuation coefficients was determined from experiments conducted in a diesel exposure chamber that provided constant concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM; PM(2.5); PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) from diesel exhaust. The aethalometer reported BC concentrations decreasing with time from 48.1 to 31.5 microg m(-3) when exposed to constant PM(2.5) concentrations of 55 +/- 1 microg m(-3) and b(scat) = 95 +/- 3 Mm(-1) from diesel exhaust. This apparent decrease in reported light-absorbing PM concentration was used to derive a correction K(ATN) for loading of strong light-absorbing particles onto or into the aethalometer filter tape, which was a function of attenuation of light at 880 nm by the embedded particles

193

Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Automatic Detection of Unsafe Component Loadings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic loading of software components (e.g., libraries or modules) is a widely used mechanism for improved system modularity and flexibility. Correct component resolution is critical for reliable and secure software execution, however, programming mistakes may lead to unintended or even malicious components to be resolved and loaded. In particular, dynamic loading can be hijacked by placing an arbitrary file with the specified name in a directory searched before resolving the target component. Although this issue has been known for quite some time, it was not considered serious because exploiting it requires access to the local file system on the vulnerable host. Recently such vulnerabilities started to receive considerable attention as their remote exploitation became realistic; it is now important to detect and fix these vulnerabilities. In this paper, we present the first automated technique to detect vulnerable and unsafe dynamic component loadings. Our analysis has two phases: 1) apply dynamic binary instrumentation to collect runtime information on component loading (online phase); and 2) analyze the collected information to detect vulnerable component loadings (offline phase). For evaluation, we implemented our technique to detect vulnerable and unsafe DLL loadings in popular Microsoft Windows software. Our results show that unsafe DLL loading is prevalent and can lead to serious security threats. Our tool detected more than 1,700 unsafe DLL loadings in 28 widely used software and discovered serious attack vectors for remote code execution. Microsoft has opened a Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) case on our reported issues and is working with us and other affected software vendors to develop necessary patches.

Taeho Kwon; Zhendong Su

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Load Data Analysis and PowerShape Training: Strategic Load Research and Advanced Topics in Load Profiling for Settlements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load shapes, representing usage patterns in the electric and gas industry, are a key factor in energy company operations and management. In the emerging restructured energy market, retail energy suppliers market energy to final customers and must arrange for electricity generation or gas delivery to meet their customers' needs. EPRI and Primen sponsored a workshop in September 2000 that addressed a range of issues associated with load shapes, including modeling, profiling for retail market settlement, re...

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

197

Space cooling demands from office plug loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Undersizing space cooling systems for office buildings can result in uncomfortable and angry tenants on peak cooling days. However, oversizing wastes money because more capacity is installed than is needed, and oversized systems have a lower energy efficiency which makes operating costs higher than necessary. Oversizing can adversely affect comfort as well, because oversized systems may provide poor humidity control and large temperature variations. Correct system sizing requires estimating building heat loads accurately. This paper discusses the heat load generated by the plug load, which includes any electrical equipment that is plugged into outlets.

Komor, P.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Planar micro-optic solar concentration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as compound parabolic concentrators and nonimagingas kaleidoscopes or compound parabolic concentrators whicha variation of the compound parabolic concentrator, however,

Karp, Jason Harris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion part-load behavior. Volume I. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Tests performed during 1980 to determine the part-load characteristics of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor for a combined-cycle power plant and to examine its behavior during load changing are discussed. Part-load operation was achieved by varying the bed temperature by amounts between 200 to 300/sup 0/F and the bed depth from between 9 and 10 ft at rates varying between 0.2 ft/min and 0.5 ft/min. The performance at part-load steady-state conditions and during transient conditions is reported with information on combustion efficiency (99% at full-load with 9 ft bed depth and 1650/sup 0/F bed temperature; 95% with 4 ft depth and 1390/sup 0/F); sulfur retention (95/sup 0/ at full load to 80% at low bed depth and low bed temperature); sulfur emissions (no definitive results); NO/sub x/ emissions (tendency for increase as bed temperature was reduced); alkali emissions (no bed temperature effect detected); and heat transfer. It was demonstrated that load can be altered in a rapid and controlled manner by changing combinations of bed depth temperature and pressure. The most important practical change was the reduction in O/sub 2/ concentration which occurred when the bed height was increased at a rapid rate. The extra energy required to reheat the incoming bed material resulted (in the most extreme case) in a temporary drop in excess air from 65% to 12%. In a full-scale plant the loss of heat from the stored bed material would be much lower and the excess air trough when increasing load would not be as pronounced. Nevertheless, it seems prudent to design full-scale plant for a full load excess air of not less than about 50% when using bed depth as a load control parameter.

Roberts, A. G.; Pillai, K. K.; Raven, P.; Wood, P.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Definition: Native Load | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Terms Load-Serving Entity References Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline...

202

Definition: Base Load | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Load Load Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Base Load The minimum amount of electric power delivered or required over a given period at a constant rate.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Baseload (also base load, or baseload demand) is the minimum amount of power that a utility or distribution company must make available to its customers, or the amount of power required to meet minimum demands based on reasonable expectations of customer requirements. Baseload values typically vary from hour to hour in most commercial and industrial areas. Related Terms electricity generation, power, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An in Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from

203

Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads  

SciTech Connect

As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

204

Impact of load type on microgrid stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

Monnin, Jared P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

High density load bearing insulation peg  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

206

Passive load control for large wind turbines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

Ashwill, Thomas D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac  

SciTech Connect

The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

208

High density load bearing insulation peg  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Peak Load Shifting by Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reviews the technology of storing energy in hot water and explores the potential for implementing this form of thermal energy storagethrough means of smart electric water heatersas a way to shift peak load on the electric grid. The report presents conceptual background, discusses strategies for peak load shifting and demand response, documents a series of laboratory tests conducted on a representative model of smart water heater, and...

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

210

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading  

SciTech Connect

This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

Oyague, F.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

ARM - Measurement - CO2 concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

: CO2 concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is...

212

Energy Basics: Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity...

213

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation andor concentration of aerosols and small liquidsolid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in...

214

Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

Buescher, Jr., Brent J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

216

Process for concentrated biomass saccharification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

217

Conditional model of peak and minimum loads and the load duration curve for electricity  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a model that extends the traditional model of electricity demand to account for intra-period load variation, the kind of variation that is important for evaluating marginal-cost-reflecting price structures. The time-of-day rate is one such price structure. The traditional model of electricity demand explains inter-period demand variation. It says nothing about load variation. The report explains how a model that integrates with previous studies of electricity demand might be formulated. It specifies two concrete models within this framework and estimates them for a number of different utility companies. The model's within-sample-period performance in predicting peak loads is presented for one version of the model extension along with estimations for other variations. In addition a number of plots of actual load distributions, a summation of load variation information, against the actual load distributions, are presented and used to evaluate the performance of specific models.

Trimble, J.L.; Stallings, D.E.; Thomas, B.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Cytokine-capture nanoparticles to quantify IL-2 concentrations within the immunological synapse during T cell activation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The feasibility of bringing a nascent technology for detection and quantification of local cytokine concentrations on cell surfaces to market is presented in this paper. Quantum dots or fluorochrome-loaded nanoparticles ...

Hong, Julee Y. (Julee Yang-A.), 1980-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: HVAC Residential Load...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD for the iPad Carmel Software logo HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD is a comprehensive HVAC heating and cooling load calculation application for the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE By BEREKET TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE Dissertation Approved: Dr. Jeffrey D- Original RTSM.......................................................153 4.4.1 RTSM Peak Design Cooling Load

222

Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

actions to influence load profiles of their customers atISO needs to influence the load profile of a Facility arebe a specific target load profile to be achieved while in

Piette, Mary Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Property Models for High Waste Loaded Hanford HLW Glasses  

High Waste Loading Was Shown for Selected Wastes Examples of the high loaded glasses Al 2O 3 loadings in the 24-26 wt% range compared to <15% for a

224

How and why distribution loads vary  

SciTech Connect

Because the maximum-use rates of gas customers having differing appliance combinations do not coincide, a distribution system's peak-hour flow rate depends on the relative proportions of the load contributed by the appliances of all the different types of residential, commercial, and industrial customers. The maximum load on Central Hudson's distribution system coincides with the maximum hourly gas flow rate for all residential space-heating purposes; however, Central Hudson analyzes the peak-hour load of its commercial and industrial customers individually. The gas-system sendout presented as a sendout-duration curve is a convenient way to show how these various loads determine gas requirements and to compare the economics of alternative supply methods. The sendout-duration curve consists of long-term weather data plotted against time intervals of 1-365 days. If the threshold temperature and the heating load per degree-day are known, the curve allows the calculation of both normal and design annual peakshaving quantities.

Haber, D.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Status of load management storage demonstrations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE is funding a nationwide demonstration of electric load management through the use of utility-controlled, customer-side thermal energy storage for residential space conditioning. The general concept of the projects was developed with the assistance of a broadly based working group drawn from the utility industry. This paper presents the current status of these demonstrations. Ten demonstrations are underway - five heat storage and five cool storage - using between 30 and 50 near-commercial thermal storage devices. The installations and experimental program are designed to: (1) collect reliable load research data for assessing the impact on the utility system; (2) delineate and solve installation problems; (3) establish maintainability; (4) illuminate customer and utility acceptance; and (5) generate cost data. The results obtained are expected to assist utilities in making local load-management decisions, to assist DOE in establishing priorities for R and D efforts in load management, and to provide objective information related to the electric system impact, energy conservation, and cost-effectiveness of this form of load management.

Long, H M; Mohre, D L

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A practical approach for electricity load forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—This paper is a continuation of our daily energy peak load forecasting approach using our modified network which is part of the recurrent networks family and is called feed forward and feed back multi context artificial neural network (FFFB-MCANN). The inputs to the network were exogenous variables such as the previous and current change in the weather components, the previous and current status of the day and endogenous variables such as the past change in the loads. Endogenous variable such as the current change in the loads were used on the network output. Experiment shows that using endogenous and exogenous variables as inputs to the FFFB-MCANN rather than either exogenous or endogenous variables as inputs to the same network produces better results. Experiments show that using the change in variables such as weather components and the change in the past load as inputs to the FFFB-MCANN rather than the absolute values for the weather components and past load as inputs to the same network has a dramatic impact and produce better accuracy.

T. Rashid; T. Kechadi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

Spletzer, Barry (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

228

CAST STONE FORMULATION AT HIGHER SODIUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Roberts, K.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

229

CAST STONE FORMULATION AT HIGHER SODIUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K.; Roberts, K.; Edwards, T.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

230

A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

Kelley, N.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Title Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number...

232

The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads and Overall Energy Performance Title The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads and Overall...

233

Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management Analysis Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management Analysis A disposal concept consists...

234

Definition: Dispersed Load By Substations | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

By Substations Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Dispersed Load By Substations Substation load information configured to represent a system for power flow or system...

235

Methods and apparatus for reduction of asymmetric rotor loads in ...  

A method for reducing load and providing yaw alignment in a wind turbine includes measuring displacements or moments resulting from asymmetric loads on the wind turbine.

236

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Prophet Load Profiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shots Keywords energy analysis, load profiling, cost comparison, energy budgeting, rate analysis, data collection, real-time monitoring, load shedding ValidationTesting NA...

237

Energetical factors in power systems with nonlinear loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the volt-ampere charac- teristic of the nonlinear load, an equivalent circuit, containing linear elements, can be determined. In this way, load-flow and.

238

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading...

239

Definition: Direct Control Load Management | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Control Load Management Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct Control Load Management Demand-Side Management that is under the direct control of the system operator....

240

Definition: Circuit Peak Load Management | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Circuit Peak Load Management Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Circuit Peak Load Management An application utilizing sensors, information processors, communications, and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Definition: Real-Time Load Transfer | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Real-time load transfer is achieved through real-time feeder reconfiguration and optimization to relieve load on equipment, improve asset utilization, improve distribution...

242

Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Research and develop...

243

Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

On loading rate effects in toughening processes  

SciTech Connect

Environmental crack tip reactions are a known source of premature fracture in oxides. These rate-dependent phenomena commonly are studied in strength tests where loading rate serves as the major experimental variable. A material susceptible to environmentally-assisted crack growth is stronger at fast testing rates. A topic which has received far less attention is the influence of stressing rate or loading rate on the shielding processes which occur at some distance from the crack tip, although the inverse has been studied by Deuerler et al. The authors present here the first known documentation of a loading rate effect on shielding phenomena in ceramic materials. For these experiments Coors AD 94 alumina was chosen for study.

Tandon, S.; Faber, K.T. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This  baseline  load  profile  (BLP)  is  key  to to  as  the  baseline  load  profile  or  BLP  and  is  key actual  and  estimated  load  profiles  look,  Figure  1 

Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote, Sila

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

SYSPLAN. Load Leveling Battery System Costs  

SciTech Connect

SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer`s monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer`s peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer`s side of the meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer`s load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.

Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

247

ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Organic Carbon Concentration The concentration of carbon bound in organic compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments ACSM : Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Field Campaign Instruments AEROSCARBON : Aerosol Carbon Analyzer AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Datastreams AOS : Aerosol Observing System Datastreams

248

Carbothermic Reduction of Niobium Concentrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Ferro Niobium is produced by aluminothermic reduction of the ... However, the niobium concentrate has impurities, such as phosphorus, lead and tin, ... Phase Transformation of Andalusite-Mullite and Its Fiber Reinforcement to ...

249

Concentrated solar power on demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes a new concentrating solar power central receiver system with integral thermal storage. Hillside mounted heliostats direct sunlight into a volumetric absorption molten salt pool, which also functions ...

Codd, Daniel Shawn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Matching equipment size to the cooling load  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a heat extraction rate analysis method, using ASHRAE algorithms that enables HVAC system designers to optimally size cooling equipment. The final stage of the cooling load calculation process determines the heat extraction rate required to achieve design conditions. Put another way, this stage determines the equipment capacity required to match the cooling load profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile. It is a stage in the design process that, in practice, may not be given the attention it deserves.

Bloom, B. (Harvey Toub Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

New method developed for LPG offshore loading  

SciTech Connect

An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

LOADED WAVE GUIDES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A periodically loaded waveguide having substantially coaxially arranged elements which provide an axial field for the acceleration of electrons is described. Radiofrequency energy will flow in the space between the inner wall of an outer guide and the peripheries of equally spaced irises or washes arranged coaxially with each other and with the outer guide, where the loading due to the geometry of the irises is such as to reduce the phase velocity of the r-f energy flowing in the guide from a value greater than that of light to the velocity of light or less.

Walkinshaw, W.; Mullett, L.B.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Concentrating Solar Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps These direct-normal solar radiation maps-filtered by solar resource and land availability-identify the most economically suitable lands available for deploying of large-scale concentrating solar power plants in the southwestern United States. Each of the following seven states, as well as the southwestern U.S. region, has two maps: the left and right maps represent analyses excluding land with slopes >1% and >3%, respectively. Lower-resolution jpg versions are available below; much higher-resolution pdf files, suitable for plotting large-scale posters, can be requested. You can also access an unfiltered direct-normal solar radiation map of the southwestern United States. Download Adobe Reader. Southwestern U.S.

255

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other...

256

Load relaxation studies of a metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of load relaxation studies of a commercial metallic glass as a function of temperature are reported. The data suggest that metallic glasses exhibit deformation behavior with flow laws similar to those governing plastic deformation in crystalline solids. The lack of appreciable work hardening in annealed material and the identification of an anelastic component are also indicated by the experimental observations. (GHT)

Hadnagy, T.D.; Krenisky, D.J.; Ast, D.G.; Li, C.Y.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Flexible loads in future energy networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a vignette of an information-rich energy network with flexible and responsive electrical loads in the form of a domestic refrigerator augmented with a thermal storage system and a supply-following controller that responds to the availability ... Keywords: renewable, supply-following

Jay Taneja, Ken Lutz, David Culler

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Exercising flexible load contracts: Two simple strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flexible load contract is a type of swing option where the holder has the right to receive a given quantity of electricity within a specified period, at a fixed maximum effect (delivery rate). The contract is flexible, in the sense that delivery (the ... Keywords: energy, exercise strategy, flexibility, swing option, uncertainty

Petter Bjerksund; Bjarte Myksvoll; Gunnar Stensland

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Demand or Request: Will Load Behave?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power planning engineers are trained to design an electric system that satisfies predicted electrical demand under stringent conditions of availability and power quality. Like responsible custodians, we plan for the provision of electrical sustenance and shelter to those in whose care regulators have given us the responsibility to serve. Though most customers accept this nurturing gladly, a growing number are concerned with the economic costs and environmental impacts of service at a time when technology (particularly distributed generation, storage, automation, and information networks) offers alternatives for localized control and competitive service. As customers’ and their systems mature, a new relationship with the electricity provider is emerging. Demand response is perhaps the first unsteady step where the customer participates as a partner in system operations. This paper explores issues system planners need to consider as demand response matures to significant levels beyond direct load control and toward a situation where service is requested and bargains are reached with the electricity provider based on desired load behavior. On one hand, predicting load growth and behavior appears more daunting than ever. On the other, for the first time load becomes a new resource whose behavior can be influenced during system operations to balance system conditions.

Widergren, Steven E.

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

260

Incentivizing Advanced Load Scheduling in Smart Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, researchers have proposed numerous advanced load scheduling algorithms for smart homes with the goal of reducing the grid's peak power usage. In parallel, utilities have introduced variable rate pricing plans to incentivize residential ... Keywords: Battery, Electricity, Energy, Grid

Ye Xu, David Irwin, Prashant Shenoy

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

262

Valve for fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

Christiansen, D.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Lifeline-based global load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On shared-memory systems, Cilk-style work-stealing has been used to effectively parallelize irregular task-graph based applications such as Unbalanced Tree Search (UTS). There are two main difficulties in extending this approach to distributed memory. ... Keywords: distributed work-stealing, global load balancing, uts, x10

Vijay A. Saraswat; Prabhanjan Kambadur; Sreedhar Kodali; David Grove; Sriram Krishnamoorthy

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Propagation in LHM slab loaded rectangular waveguide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strange properties of Left - Handed Materials (LHM), whose permittivity and permeability are both negative, is briefly introduced. The electric- and magnetic-field components are given in rectangular waveguide loaded with LHM by use of field component ... Keywords: cutoff wavelength, dispersion equation, group velocity, left-handed materials, rectangular waveguide

Rui-Lian Li

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Economic load dispatch using improved harmony search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the use of the improved harmony search method for solving economic load dispatch problems. The harmony search method mimics a jazz improvisation process by musicians in order to seek a fantastic state of harmony. To assess the searching ... Keywords: adaptive tabu search, economic dispatch, evolutionary programming, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization

T. Ratniyomchai; A. Oonsivilai; P. Pao-La-Or; T. Kulworawanichpong

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Load forecast and treatment of conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load forecast and treatment of conservation July 28th 2010 Resource Adequacy Technical Committee conservation is implicitly incorporated in the short-term demand forecast? #12;3 Incorporating conservation in the short-term model Our short-term model is an econometric model which can not explicitly forecast

267

1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Valve for fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems significantly limit our ability to differentiate between control-related and non-control related differences in substation-level load shape data. The usefulness and accuracy of the results were hampered by operational problems encountered during the measurement period as well as in sufficient number of load research grade interval meters at one cooperative. Given the larger sample size at one electric cooperative and more statistically-robust results, there is some basis to suggest that the Adjusted Diversified Demand Factor (ADDF) values used by the CSP somewhat over-state the actual load reductions. Given the results and limitations of the M&V approach as implemented, we suggest several options for PJM to consider: (1) require load aggregators participating in ISODR programs to utilize formal PURPA-compliant load research samples in their M&V plans, and (2) continue developing lower cost M&V approaches for mass market load control programs that incorporate suggested improvements described in this study.

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Microarchitecture support for improving the performance of load target prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presents a load target prediction scheme that mitigates the impact of load latency for modern microprocessors. The scheme uses a cache-like buffer to provide the base address, offset and operand size at the instruction fetching stage of a pipeline so ... Keywords: load target prediction, load-use stall, pipeline, speculative data access, superscalar procesor

Chung-Ho Chen; Akida Wu

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Load Balancing Content-Based Publish/Subscribe Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed content-based publish/subscribe systems suffer from performance degradation and poor scalability caused by uneven load distributions typical in real-world applications. The reason for this shortcoming is the lack of a load balancing scheme. ... Keywords: PADRES, Publish/subscribe, ToPSS, content-based routing, load balancing, load estimation, offload algorithms, subscriber migration

Alex King Yeung Cheung; Hans-Arno Jacobsen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Vehicle Tank & Loading Rack Meters - 2013-04-22  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vehicle Tank & Loading Rack Meters. Purpose: ... Participants should bring a calculator to the training. Materials & Supplies: ...

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

274

Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on up to stabilisation of the clusters. Finally, the load profiles are predicted by covariance analysis of electricity customer uses. This load curve is only available for customers with automated meter readingClassification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet Abstract The load curve, which gives

Cuesta, Juan Antonio

275

Reliability analysis of RC containment structures under combined loads  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and load combination design criteria for reinforced concrete containment structures under combined loads. The probability based reliability analysis method is briefly described. For load combination design criteria, derivations of the load factors for accidental pressure due to a design basis accident and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) for three target limit state probabilities are presented.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Kagami, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Trace gas concentration The amount per unit volume of trace gases other than carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapor, typically measured in conjunction with in situ aerosol measurements, e.g. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO : Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

277

Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of...

278

The Temperature Sensitivity of the Residential Load and Commercial Building Load  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a building modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building heating and cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. A building simulation software are first used to quantify the hourly energy consumption of different building types by end-use and by vintage. Then, the temperature sensitivities are derived based on the climate data inputs.

Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Correia, James; Leung, Lai R.; Wong, Pak C.

2009-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

279

Loading Effect Correction for Real-Time Aethalometer Measurements of Fresh  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Loading Effect Correction for Real-Time Aethalometer Measurements of Fresh Loading Effect Correction for Real-Time Aethalometer Measurements of Fresh Diesel Soot Title Loading Effect Correction for Real-Time Aethalometer Measurements of Fresh Diesel Soot Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Jimenez, Jorge, Candis S. Claiborn, Timothy Larson, Timothy Gould, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Volume 57 Issue 7 Pagination 868-873 Abstract In this study, a correction was developed for the aethalometer to measure real-time black carbon (BC) concentrations in an environment dominated by fresh diesel soot. The relationship between the actual mass-specific absorption co-efficient for BC and the BC-dependent attenuation coefficients was determined from experiments conducted in a diesel exposure chamber that provided constant concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM; PM2.5; PM <2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter) from diesel exhaust. The aethalometer reported BC concentrations decreasing with time from 48.1 to 31.5 μg m-3 when exposed to constant PM2.5 concentrations of 55 ± 1 μg m-3 and bscat 95 ± 3Mm-1 from diesel exhaust. This apparent decrease in reported light-absorbing PM concentration was used to derive a correction K (ATN) for loading of strong light-absorbing particles onto or into the aethalometer filter tape, which was a function of attenuation of light at 880 nm by the embedded particles.

280

Solar Tracing Sensors for Maximum Solar Concentrator ...  

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) relies on thermodynamic processes to convert concentrated light into useful forms of energy. Accurate sun tracking ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

change the cooling load profile for the mechanical systems.and the resulting cooling load profile has been reported inimplications for cooling load profile and peak cooling load

Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Technical Update: Load Modeling in Power System Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has been engaged in load modeling research since the 1980’s. In the past, EPRI conducted significant research in the area of load modeling and worked together with the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force in the development of the new composite load model developed and currently to be deployed in WECC. This work included extensive testing of various load components, such as residential air-conditioners, in the EPRI laboratories in Knoxville, TN. In ...

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

Conductor Wind Loading--Results of EPRI Field Validation Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive evaluation of current wind load methods indicates that several factors can adversely affect the performance of wind load models. There are wide variations and biased values associated with some of the wind parameters, and inaccurate drag coefficient and air density values can influence the wind load models. Several modified approaches were tested to properly incorporate wind gusts and spatial effects in wind load calculations. The improvement in the wind load predictions made by some of t...

1995-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

284

Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy  use  for  space  conditioning,  non? weather Physically,  space?conditioning  loads  are  affected  by 

Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote, Sila

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Concentrating solar collector: technical note  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Acurex Model 3002 concentrator is a reflecting parabolic trough collector designed to heat liquids or gases to temperatures between 140/sup 0/F and 350/sup 0/F. The cost effectiveness, performance, reliability, and technical description of the collector are presented.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Load-shape modeling in southeastern utility systems  

SciTech Connect

Load models are tools which have a wide range of application in the electric-utility industry. Some uses include monitoring load-management policies and helping with on-line commitment problems. The output from a load model can be placed in a suitable software environment where daily load curves are computed and displayed. Also, load models can be extended to perform forecasting functions. A weather sensitive load model that takes into account both weekdays and weekends on an hourly basis has been developed and applied to load shape modeling and short term forecasting on three southeastern electric utilities. A software package associated with the load modeling theory was developed and tested. This load-modeling program computes the daily load curve in terms of identifiable components. The program uses historical hourly load data to compute coefficients related to load components including base, growth, seasonal and weather. These coefficients can be used in a mathematical model to compute an estimate of the daily load curve with load values for each hour of the day. The load-modeling procedure described employs a linear least squares method for computing coefficients in the mathematical model.

Lebby, G.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

2012 CERTS LAAR Program Peer Review - Integration and Extension of Direct Load Management of Smart Loads - Anna Scaglioni, UC Davis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Integration and Extension of Direct Integration and Extension of Direct Load Management of Smart Loads Anna Scaglione, UC Davis GRA: Mahnoosh Alizadeh Project objective  Invent methods to "store" load demand for * Real-time "generation following" * Integration of load reserves as dispatchable assets in the Energy Market  Architecture for virtual "reserves" (queues) of electrical load demand * Watts to Job mapping (analysis)  Captures digitally the service requirements - Equal service type = Equal queue * Job to Watts mapping (synthesis)  Allows to optimally schedule the load profile Major technical accomplishments  Centralized model: Digital Direct Load Scheduling (DDLS) - Year 1-Year 2

288

A new generation of load sharing algorithms: the semi-adaptive load sharing algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed systems have become a popular computing environment. Due to their high potentials in improving performance and resource sharing, the evolution and maturing of technologies such as networks and computer hardware, have led to more realizations of distributed computing capabilities. One of the key factors that impacts the system's performance is how load sharing is handled. Most of the work done in load sharing algorithms focused on either one of two approaches: the static approach, or the dynamic approach. Static load sharing is characterized with its simplicity and minimal overhead induced on the system when performing load distribution. This is attributed to the fact that their load sharing decisions do not require any information exchange between nodes. However, static algorithms are not capable of adapting to traffic changes. Hence, this will affect the distributed system adaptability and stability features against load alteration. The second approach in load sharing algorithums is the dynamic approach. In this approach, nodes base their sharing decisions on the knowledge of the status on other nodes. This knowledge enables nodes to make improved decisions when selecting a remote execution site. Therefore, these algorithms provide the distributed system with adaptability and stability. Nevertheless, information exchange between nodes has proven to be expensive. The problem lies in the communication and processing overheads which these algorithms impose on the system. This research work presents a Semi-Adaptive load sharing approach that attempts to lay a common ground between the dynamic and the static approaches. This approach provides the system with adaptability features at are supplied with tools to control the level of adaptability and information exchange in the system. It is argued that this approach is adaptable, scalable, stable, fault tolerant, and will generate low and controlled system overheads. Two implementations of the Semi-Adaptive approach are presented: The Controller Load Sharing Protocol (CLSP) and The Pool Load Sharing Protocol (PLSP). The study of CLSP and PLSP include simulating their performance under various conditions. The simulation include comparing the performance of these two protocols against two load sharing algorithms representing the static and dynamic families. Furthermore, the properties of CLSP and PLSP are investigated. Finally, based on the study and analysis of both protocols, the research work proposes possible areas of improvement in the final conclusion.

Morsy, Hazem Kamal

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Calculations of slurry pump jet impingement loads  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a methodology to calculate the impingement load in the region of a submerged turbulent jet where a potential core exits and the jet is not fully developed. The profile of the jet flow velocities is represented by a piece-wise linear function which satisfies the conservation of momentum flux of the jet flow. The adequacy of the of the predicted jet expansion is further verified by considering the continuity of the jet flow from the region of potential core to the fully developed region. The jet impingement load can be calculated either as a direct impingement force or a drag force using the jet velocity field determined by the methodology presented.

Wu, T.T.

1996-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

290

Two-phase jet loads. [PWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-phase jets are currently being studied to improve engineering models for the prediction of loads on pipes and structures during LOCAs. Multi-dimensional computer codes such as BEACON/MOD2, CSQ, and TRAC-P1A are being employed to predict flow characteristics and flow-structure loading. Our ultimate goal is to develop a new approximate engineering model which is superior to the F.J. Moody design model. Computer results are compared with data obtained from foreign sources, and a technique for using the TRAC-P1A vessel component as a containment model is presented. In general, good agreement with the data is obtained for saturated stagnation conditions; however, difficulties are encountered for subcooled stagnation conditions, possibly due to nucleation delay and non-equilibrium effects.

Tomasko, D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Integrated Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Modeling Integrated Modeling NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team predicts the impact of advanced vehicle cooling technologies before testing by using an integrated modeling process. Evaluating the heat load on a vehicle under real world conditions is a difficult task. An accepted method to evaluate passenger compartment airflow and heat transfer is computational fluid dynamics. (CFD). Combining analytical models with CFD provides a powerful tool to assist industry both on current vehicles and on future design studies. Flow chart showing the vehicle integrated modeling process which considers solar radiation, air conditioning, and vehicles with CAD, glazing, cabin thermal/fluid, and thermal comfort modeling tools. Results are provided for fuel economy, tailpipe emissions and occupant thermal comfort.

292

EPRI/GRI Load Shape Workshop: Load Data Analysis for Gas and Electric Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load shapes, representing usage patterns in the electric and gas industry, are a key factor in energy company operations and management. In the emerging restructured energy market, retail energy suppliers market energy to final customers and must arrange for electricity generation or gas delivery to meet their customers' needs. EPRI and GRI sponsored a two-day workshop in June, 1999 that addressed a range of issues associated with load shapes, including modeling, profiling for retail market settlement, r...

1999-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

293

Load diagram for a perforated plate tray  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 decimals noggrannhet c. Upprita i x,y-diagrammet q-linjen och bestäm (grafiskt, eller med must be produced. The feed stream F is a saturated liquid, i.e. q = 1, while the reflux ratio R = 1Load diagram for a perforated plate tray vG, vL: velocities G, L: densities QL, QG: volume flows H

Zevenhoven, Ron

294

Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ellefson, Robert E. (Centerville, OH); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Combined transmission distribution load flow model employing system reduction and voltage variable load representation  

SciTech Connect

In the few decades since its introduction the digital computer has found widespread application within the electric power industry. One of the more fruitful areas for its utilization has been in the determination of the steady-state voltage conditions throughout the system. A power system naturally breaks down into two very distinct parts: transmission and distribution, and traditionally, the voltage problem has been separated the same way. In the transmission system it is referred to as a load flow problem, and in the distribution part it is called a voltage profile. In addition, the loads are often treated differently. Transmission loads are usually considered to be constant power, and the equations that result are therefore nonlinear. In the distribution portion the loads, though specified in terms of power, are sometimes handled as constant impedances, with linear equations. This work produced a new model wherein a mesh transmission system is combined with a radial distribution system and they are solved simultaneously. A system reduction technique is used to eliminate part of the transmission system from consideration, and thereby keep the problem at a manageable size. The solution algorithm incorporates a voltage variable load model which approximates the behavior of real loads more nearly than the common representations.

Enouen, P.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

ALPHA ATTENUATION DUE TO DUST LOADING  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies had been done in order to show the attenuation of alpha particles in filter media. These studies provided an accurate correction for this attenuation, but there had not yet been a study with sufficient results to properly correct for attenuation due to dust loading on the filters. At the Savannah River Site, filter samples are corrected for attenuation due to dust loading at 20%. Depending on the facility the filter comes from and the duration of the sampling period, the proper correction factor may vary. The objective of this study was to determine self-absorption curves for each of three counting instruments. Prior work indicated significant decreases in alpha count rate (as much as 38%) due to dust loading, especially on filters from facilities where sampling takes place over long intervals. The alpha count rate decreased because of a decrease in the energy of the alpha. The study performed resulted in a set of alpha absorption curves for each of three detectors. This study also took into account the affects of the geometry differences in the different counting equipment used.

Dailey, A; Dennis Hadlock, D

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

298

Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Definition: Direct Load Control Device | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Load Control Device Load Control Device Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct Load Control Device A remotely controllable switch that can turn power to a load or appliance on or off. Such a device could also be used to regulate the amount of power that a load can consume. Direct load control devices can be operated by a utility or third party energy provider to reduce a customer's energy demand at certain times.[1] Related Terms power, load References ↑ https://www.smartgrid.gov/category/technology/direct_load_control_device [[Ca LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. tegory: Smart Grid Definitionssmart grid,smart grid, |Template:BASEPAGENAME]]smart grid,smart grid, Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_Load_Control_Device&oldid=502631

300

G&T adds versatile load management system  

SciTech Connect

Wolverine`s load management system was designed in response to the need to reduce peak demand. The Energy Management System (EMS) prepares short term (seven day) load forecasts, based on a daily peak demand forecst, augmented by a similar day profile based on weather conditions. The software combines the similar day profile with the daily peak demand forecast to yield an hourly load forecast for an entire week. The software uses the accepted load forecast case in many application functions, including interchange scheduling, unit commitment, and transaction evaluation. In real time, the computer updates the accepted forecast hourly, based in actual changes in the weather and load. The load management program executes hourly. The program uses impact curves to calculate a load management strategy that reduces the load forecast below a desired load threshold.

Nickel, J.R.; Baker, E.D.; Holt, J.W.; Chan, M.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Silicon concentrator solar cell research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work conducted between December 1990 and May 1992 continuing research on silicon concentrator solar cells. The objectives of the work were to improve the performance of high-efficiency cells upon p-type substrates, to investigate the ultraviolet stability of such cells, to develop concentrator cells based on n-type substrates, and to transfer technology to appropriate commercial environments. Key results include the identification of contact resistance between boron-defused areas and rear aluminum as the source of anomalously large series resistance in both p- and n-type cells. A major achievement of the present project was the successful transfer of cell technology to both Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Solarex Corporation.

Green, M.A.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Dai, X.; Milne, A.; Cai, S.; Aberle, A.; Wenham, S.R. [Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (AU). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Development of concentrator solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Elastic-plastic strain acceptance criterion for structures subject to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local, or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

Solonick, W. [Electric Boat Corp., Groton, CT (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Elastic-Plastic Strain Acceptance Criteria for Structures Subject to Rapidly Applied Transient Dynamic Loading  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on material ductility considerations only and are set as a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local , or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

W.R. Solonick

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Residential equipment part load curves for use in DOE-2  

SciTech Connect

DOE-2 (DOE2 90) includes several correlation curves that predict the energy use of systems underpart load conditions. DOE-2 simulates systems on an hour-by-hour basis, so the correlations are intended to predict part load energy use (and efficiency) as a function of the part load ratio (PLR) for each hour, where PLR = Hourly Load/Available Capacity. Generally residential and small commercial HVAC equipment meets the load at off-design conditions by cycling on and off. Therefore, the part load correlations must predict the degradation due to this on and off operation over an hourly interval.

Henderson, Hugh; Huang, Y.J.; Parker, D.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

The effect of load parameters on system thermal performance  

SciTech Connect

The effects of load size, load profile and hot water set temperature on system thermal performance are investigated in order to determine the relative importance of these design parameters in sizing a solar water heating system. The WATSUN IV computer program was used to introduce various load sizes, load profiles and set temperatures to a base model. The results indicate that variations in load size have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the system. However, variations in load profile and hot water set temperature seem to have no significant effect on system performance.

Vakili, M.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

Price, Philip

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

311

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

312

Nonimaging concentrators for solar thermal energy. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A small experimental solar collector test facility has been established on the campus of the University of Chicago. This capability has been used to explore applications of nonimaging optics for solar thermal concentration in three substantially different configurations: (1) a single stage system with moderate concentration on an evacuated absorber (a 5.25X evacuated tube Compound Parabolic Concentrator or CPC), (2) a two stage system with high concentration and a non-evacuated absorber (a 16X Fresnel lens/CPC type mirror) and (3) moderate concentration single stage systems with non-evacuated absorbers for lower temperature (a 3X and a 6.5X CPC). Prototypes of each of these systems have been designed, built and tested. The performance characteristics are presented. In addition a 73 m/sup 2/ experimental array of 3X non-evacuated CPC's has been installed in a school heating system on the Navajo Indian Reservation in New Mexico. The full array has a peak noon time efficiency of approx. 50% at ..delta..T = 50/sup 0/C above ambient and has supplied about half the school's heat load for the past two heating seasons. Several theoretical features of nonimaging concentration have been investigated including their long term energy collecting behavior. The measured performance of the different systems shows clearly that non-tracking concentrators can provide solar thermal energy from moderately high low temperature regimes (> 50/sup 0/C above ambient) up into the mid-temperature region (well above 200/sup 0/C above ambient). The measured efficiency at 220/sup 0/C for the 5.25X CPC was as high or higher than that for any of the commercial tracking systems tested.

Winston, R.

1980-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

313

Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

Feinberg, Eugene A.

314

Distribution load study aids system planning  

SciTech Connect

The Walnut Metering Project is an experimental substation and distribution system metering installation designed to provide quantitative data for distribution system planning. The design and operation of the metering equipment are discussed. After 3 years of operation it was concluded that the primary economic benefits anticipated from the determination of substation area diversity characteristics did not materialize because the peaking characteristics of the substations in the area were typically coincident with each other. However, the data obtained had a significant positive impact, both economically and operationally, in the field of equipment loadability, and is beneficial to activities related to load projections and distribution system planning. (LCL)

Scofield J.M.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

DIELECTRIC-LOADED WAVE-GUIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent presents a particular arrangement for delectric loading of a wave-guide carrying an electromagnetic wave in the E or TM mode of at least the second order, to reduce the power dissipated as the result of conduction loss in the wave-guide walls. To achieve this desirabie result, the effective dielectric constants in the radial direction of adjacent coaxial tubular regions bounded approximateiy by successive nodai surfaces within the electromagnetic field are of two different values alternating in the radial direction, the intermost and outermost regions being of the lower value, and the dielectric constants between nodes are uniform.

Robertson-Shersby-Harvie, R.B.; Mullett, L.B.

1957-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

316

Analysis of parametric transformer with rectifier load  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a push-pull parametric transformer constructed using a pair of orthogonal-cores. The operating characteristics of the parametric transformer with a rectifier load were analyzed based on SPICE simulations. The analysis results show good agreement with experiment. It was found that the input surge current of the full-wave rectifier circuit with a smoothing capacitor can be compensated by the parametric transformer. Use of the parametric transformer as a power stabilizer is anticipated owing to its various functions such as for voltage regulation and overload protection.

Ichinokura, O.; Jinzenji, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Tajima, K. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Concentrating Solar Power Program overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the last decade, the US solar thermal industry has established a track record in the power industry by building and operating utility-scale power plants with a combined rated capacity of 354 megawatts (MW). The technology used in these power plants is based on years of research and development (R and D), much of it sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). DOE`s Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program is collaborating with its partners in the private sector to develop two new solar technologies -- power towers and dish/engines -- to meet the huge commercial potential for solar power.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Mathematical modeling of solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computational capability that models the operation of any solar energy collector that uses flux concentrators is a valuable aid in the planning, design, construction, calibration, safety analysis, and operation of the system. In addition to the usual optical considerations, the model should treat such imperfections as reflecting-surface slope errors, suntracking and alignment errors, and mirror-focusing errors. It should properly account for the angular distribution of incoming sun rays and the effects of atmospheric transmission on this distribution. A model with these capabilities is described, and two computer programs for implementing it are illustrated.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: HAP System Design Load  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HAP System Design Load HAP System Design Load HAP System Design Load logo. Provides the load estimating and system design features found in its popular cousin � Carrier�s Hourly Analysis Program (HAP). By focusing on system design features, the HAP System Design Load program serves as a simpler, more efficient tool for those users only interested in system design; energy simulation features are omitted. Like the HAP program, HAP System Design Load provides the ease of use of a Windows-based graphical user interface and the computing power of modern 32-bit software. HAP System Design Load uses a system-based approach to HVAC load estimating. This approach tailors sizing procedures and results to the specific type of system being considered. A wide variety of equipment types

320

Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - About the Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

same effect on fuel cell power sources of the future. The largest ancillary load is the air-conditioning system when it is operating. (Typically it imposes a mechanical load of...

322

Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging  

SciTech Connect

Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

Rauch, Emily M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Dynamic load management for MMOGs in distributed environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To support thousands of concurrent players in virtual worlds simulated by contemporary Massively Multiplayer Online Games, most implementations employ static game world partitioning for distributing the load among multiple game server instances. Further, ... Keywords: load balancing, mmogs

Herbert Jordan; Radu Prodan; Vlad Nae; Thomas Fahringer

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Load Profiling Based Routing for Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. To support the stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of real-time (e.g. audio/video) applications in integrated services networks, several routing algorithms that allow for the reservation of the needed bandwidth over a Virtual Circuit (VC), established on one of several candidate routes, have been proposed. Traditionally, such routing is done using the least-loaded concept, and thus results in balancing the load across the set of candidate routes. In this paper, we propose the use of load profiling as an attractive alternative to load balancing for routing guaranteed bandwidth VCs (flows). Load profiling techniques allow the distribution of "available" bandwidth across a set of candidate routes to match the characteristics of incoming VC QoS requests. We thoroughly characterize the performance of VC routing using load profiling and contrast it to routing using load balancing and load packing. We do so both analytically and via extensive simulations of multi-class traffic r...

Ibrahim Matta; Azer Bestavros; Marwan Krunz

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

deformation and failure of metals subjected to laser shock loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spall stress in laser pulse loading is much higher than in gas-gun loading because of the much ... Dynamic Contact Failure of Two Brittle Particles under Compression ... Natural Fiber Composite in a Novel Multi-Material Ballistic Armor.

326

Exploiting home automation protocols for load monitoring in smart buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring and controlling electrical loads is crucial for demand-side energy management in smart grids. Home automation (HA) protocols, such as X10 and Insteon, have provided programmatic load control for many years, and are being widely deployed in ...

David Irwin; Sean Barker; Aditya Mishra; Prashant Shenoy; Anthony Wu; Jeannie Albrecht

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Optimizing luminescent solar concentrator design.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) use fluorescent materials and light guides to convert direct and diffuse sunlight into concentrated wavelength-shifted light that produces electrical power in small photovoltaic (PV) cells with the goal of significantly reducing the cost of solar energy utilization. In this paper we present an optimization analysis based on the implementation of a genetic algorithm (GA) subroutine to a numerical ray-tracing Monte Carlo model of an LSC, SIMSOLAR-P. The initial use of the GA implementation in SIMSOLAR-P is to find the optimal parameters of a hypothetical 'perfect luminescent material' that obeys the Kennard Stepanov (K-S) thermodynamic relationship between emission and absorption. The optimization balances the efficiency losses in the wavelength shift and PV conversion with the efficiency losses due to re-scattering of light out of the collector. The theoretical limits of efficiency are provided for one, two and three layer configurations; the results show that a single layer configuration is far from optimal and adding a second layer in the LSC with wavelength shifted material in the near infrared region significantly increases the power output, while the gain in power by adding a third layer is relatively small. The results of this study provide a theoretical upper limit to the performance of an LSC and give guidance for the properties required for luminescent materials, such as quantum nanocrystals, to operate efficiently in planar LSC configurations.

Hernandez-Noyola, H.; Potterveld, D. H.; Holt, R. J.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( PHY)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

A fuzzy logic based approach to direct load control  

SciTech Connect

Demand side management programs are strategies designed to alter the shape of the load curve. In order to successfully implement such a strategy, customer acceptance of the program is vital. It is thus desirable to design a model for direct load control which may accommodate customer preferences. This paper presents a methodology for optimizing both customer satisfaction and utility unit commitment savings, based on a fuzzy load model for the direct load control of appliances.

Bhattacharyya, K.; Crow, M.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Load Profiling and Settlement for Retail Markets Methods Assessment Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retail electric competition requires estimation of hourly loads for each retail supplier. Load profiling is the means by which loads for customers who do not have hourly metering are accounted for. This report presents an assessment of alternative load profiling and settlement methods for retail electric markets and provides a framework for evaluating costs and benefits of potential improvements to profiling and settlement systems. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Fund...

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Load management strategies for electric utilities: a production cost simulation  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the development and application of a simulation model for analyzing strategies for managing the residential loads of electric utilities. The basic components of the model are (1) a production-cost model, which simulates daily operation of an electric power system; (2) a load model, which disaggregates system loads into appliance loads and other loads; and (3) a comparison model, which compares the production costs and energy consumption needed to meet a particular load profile to the corresponding costs and energy consumption required for another load profile. The profiles in each pair define alternative ways of meeting the same demand. A method for disaggregating load profiles into appliance components is discussed and several alternative strategies for residential load management for a typical northeastern electric utility are formulated. The method is based on an analysis of the composition of electric loads for a number of classes of residential customers in the model utility system. The effect of alternative load management strategies on the entire residential loadcurve is determined by predicting the effects of these strategies on the specific appliance components of the loadcurve. The results of using the model to analyze alternative strategies for residential load management suggest that load management strategies in the residential sector, if adopted by utilities whose operating and load characteristics are similar to those of the system modeled here, must take into account a wide variety of appliances to achieve significant changes in the total load profile. Moreover, the results also suggest that it is not easy to reduce costs significantly through new strategies for managing residential loads only and that, to be worthwhile, cost-reducing strategies will have to encompass many kinds of appliances.

Blair, P.D.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Behavior of Laminate Reactive Materials under Dynamic Loading ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Behavior of Laminate Reactive Materials under Dynamic Loading ... Atomistically-Informed Dislocation Dynamics Simulations of High Rate  ...

332

Failure Prediction of Complex Structures Under Loading and ...  

loads; environmental corrosion is another significant stress factor. ... among different materials and how they exhibit crack growth. This method can ...

333

Spinning Reserve from Hotel Air Conditioning Load - SHORT VERSION  

SciTech Connect

Even though preliminary tests were not conducted during times of highest system or hotel loading during the summer, they showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22 to 37 percent depending on the outdoor temperature and time of day. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator's command to shed load was issued and the load drop was very rapid.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Gas and Particulate Concentration Measurements and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to the species of interest as gas concentration standards ... for low concentrations and toxic and reactive gases. ... data set correlating liquid-phase fuels ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Concentrating Solar Power Facilities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrating Solar Power Facilities Concentrating Solar Power Facilities Florida Hawaii Southwest U.S. Addthis Browse By Topic TOPICS Energy Efficiency ---Home Energy Audits...

336

Federal Energy Management Program: Concentrating Solar Power...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies on Facebook...

337

SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A new approach applied to adaptive centralized load shedding scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of major contingencies of an electric power system is due to imbalance between loads and generated power. This leads to instability in the power system and hence to a blackout. A load shedding scheme may be used to avoid such problem by reducing ... Keywords: adaptive load shedding scheme, critical power, power system, threshold power

Hamid Bentarzi; Abderrahmane Ouadi; Nadir Ghout; Farid Maamri; Nikos E. Mastorakis

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Stefan P. Muszala  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Simulation by Stefan P. Muszala B.S., B.A. Rutgers and Computer Engineering 2008 #12;This thesis entitled: Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Engineering) Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Simulation Thesis directed by Dr. Daniel Connors

Colorado at Boulder, University of

340

Gravity Load Collapse of Building Frames during Earthquakes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gravity Load Collapse of Building Frames during Earthquakes J. P. Moehle, K. J. Elwood, H. Sezen to frames designed primarily for gravity loads. Columns generally were not designed to have strengths capacity of the column. As the axial capacity diminishes, the gravity loads carried by the column must

Sezen, Halil

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Dynamic modelling of metals - Time scales and target loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks in view of food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. However, dynamic models are needed ... Keywords: Critical loads, Delay times, Dynamic modelling, Metals, Scenario analysis, Target loads

Maximilian Posch; Wim de Vries

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Finite element modeling of transmission line under downburst wind loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the fact that extensive research has been carried out on transmission lines subjected to normal wind loads, their behaviour under high intensity wind loads (HIW), such as downburst, is poorly defined. This paper describes a detailed numerical ... Keywords: Downbursts, Finite element, Microbursts, Transmission line, Transmission tower, Wind load

A. Y. Shehata; A. A. El Damatty; E. Savory

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Variable Selection for Five-Minute Ahead Electricity Load Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use autocorrelation analysis to extract 6 nested feature sets of previous electricity loads for 5-minite ahead electricity load forecasting. We evaluate their predictive power using Australian electricity data. Our results show that the most important ... Keywords: very short-term electricity load forecasting, prediction, variable selection, autocorrelation analysis

Irena Koprinska; Rohen Sood; Vassilios Agelidis

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Power load forecasting Organization: Huizhou Electric Power, P. R. China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting are essential to the operation and planning of a utility company. Load forecasting helps an electric utility as electric load forecasting. In particular, ARMA (autoregressive moving average), ARIMA (autore- gressive

345

Workload-Aware Load Balancing for Clustered Web Servers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We focus on load balancing policies for homogeneous clustered Web servers that tune their parameters on-the-fly to adapt to changes in the arrival rates and service times of incoming requests. The proposed scheduling policy, AdaptLoad, monitors the incoming ... Keywords: Clustered Web servers, self-managing clusters, load balance, locality awareness, workload characterization, static and dynamic pages.

Qi Zhang; Alma Riska; Wei Sun; Evgenia Smirni; Gianfranco Ciardo

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Commercial Nonintrusive Load Monitoring System Beta Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring many different individual loads on customer premises is a costly, complex, and trouble-prone operation. The availability of a single instrument that could plug into the meter socket and measure individual premise loads would greatly simplify and reduce the cost of customer load monitoring. This report provides the test results of such a prototype instrument.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power to Concentrating Solar Power to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards Staff Photovoltaics Systems Integration Balance of Systems Concentrating Solar Power SunShot CSP Team Learn more about the SunShot concentrating solar power program staff by visiting the team's profile pages. Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory

348

Concentrating Solar Power: Technology Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) has the potential to contribute significantly to the generation of electricity by renewable energy resources in the U.S.. Thermal storage can extend the duty cycle of CSP beyond daytime hours to early evening where the value of electricity is often the highest. The potential solar resource for the southwest U.S. is identified, along with the need to add power lines to bring the power to consumers. CSP plants in the U.S. and abroad are described. The CSP cost of electricity at the busbar is discussed. With current incentives, CSP is approaching competiveness with conventional gas-fired systems during peak-demand hours when the price of electricity is the highest. It is projected that a mature CSP industry of over 4 GWe will be able to reduce the energy cost by about 50%, and that U.S. capacity could be 120 GW by 2050.

Mehos, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Parabolic concentrating collector: a tutorial  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tutorial overview of point-focusing parabolic collectors is presented. Optical and thermal characteristics of such collectors are discussed. Data representing typical achievable collector efficiencies are presented and the importance of balancing collector cost with concentrator quality is argued through the development of a figure of merit for the collector. The impact of receiver temperature on performance is assessed and the general observation made that temperatures much in excess of 1500 to 2000/sup 0/F can actually result in decreased performance. Various types of two-axis tracking collectors are described, including the standard parabolic deep dish, Cassegrainian and Fresnel, as well as two forms of fixed mirrors with articulating receivers. The present DOE program to develop these devices is briefly discussed, as are present and projected costs for these collectors. Pricing information is presented for the only known commercial design available on the open market.

Truscello, V.C.

1979-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Advanced evacuated tubular concentrator research  

SciTech Connect

Previous research projects led to the conceptual development and proof-of-concept of an advanced evacuated concentrating solar collector tube. The basic idea involves the integration of a nonimaging Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) inside an evacuated tube and coupled to a spectrally selective absorber. An experimental panel of these tubes achieved the highest operating efficiency at high temperatures ever measured with a non-tracking stationary solar collector. Subsequent studies have indicated that a mass-producible collector, incorporating the same concepts, can be developed which will deliver excellent performance across a broad range of temperatures, extending from about 50{degrees}C (suitable for domestic hot water and space heating) to well above 200{degrees}C (suitable for space cooling, process steam and many other end uses). Some form of advanced Integrated CPC (ICPC) remains the only simple and effective method for delivering solar thermal energy efficiently throughout the temperature range from 50{degrees}C to about 300{degrees}C without tracking. It has the potential to make practical and economical several cooling technologies which are otherwise not viable. In addition to its potential for driving cooling systems, this technology also provides a highly versatile solar source for virtually all thermal end uses including general purpose space and domestic hot water heating as well as industrial process heat. Research efforts have been directed towards designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of such a collector tube. We have been pursuing several paths. These include: (1) a small tube version, 52mm in diameter, based on the use of the T-17 commercially produced fluorescent glass tubing, which is the largest size lamp tubing produced in high volume in the United States, and (2) a large tube version, 125mm in diameter, compatible with the commercial design manufactured until recently by Corning France (the CORTEC collector).

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

64 kW concentrator Photovoltaics Application Test Center. Volume. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kaman Sciences Corporation has designed a 64 kW Concentrating Photovoltaic Applications Test Center (APTEC). The APTEC employs a combined concentrating photovoltaic array in a total energy system application for load sharing the electric and thermal demands of a large computer center with the interfaced electric and natural gas utility. The photovoltaic array is composed of two-axis tracking heliostats of Fresnel lens concentrating, silicon solar cell modules. The modules are cooled with a fluid which transfers heat to a ground coupled heat sink/storage unit for subsequent use in meeting the computer center's thermal load demand. The combined photovoltaic power system shares basic components - a power conditioning unit, batteries and thermal conditioning equipment - with the electric and natural gas utility service, improving the computer center's operating availability time and displacing a portion of the fossil fuel required to power the computer center with solar energy. The detailed system design is reported.

Jardine, D.M.; Jones, D.W.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

On traffic load distribution and load balancing in dense wireless multihop networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the load balancing problem in a dense wireless multihop network, where a typical path consists of a large number of hops, that is, the spatial scales of a typical distance between source and destination and mean distance between the neighboring ...

Esa Hyytiä; Jorma Virtamo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Probability based load factors for design of concrete containment structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a procedure for developing probability-based load combinations for the design of concrete containments. The proposed criteria are in a load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. The load factors and resistance factors are derived for use in limit states design and are based on a target limit state probability. In this paper, the load factors for accident pressure and safe shutdown earthquake are derived for three target limit state probabilities. Other load factors are recommended on the basis of prior experience with probability-based design criteria for ordinary building construction. 6 refs.

Hwang, H.; Kagami, S.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Energy Conversion – Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Energy Conversion – Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power, and  ...

355

Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads.

Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Physiological Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physiological Model Physiological Model The Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team developed a three-dimensional model to simulate human internal thermal physiological systems (muscle, blood, etc.) and thermoregulatory responses such as metabolic heat generation. The model was developed with ANSYS, a finite element software which computes heat flow by conduction, convection, and mass transport of the blood. A human tissue system model represents the human body, including the physiological and thermal properties of the tissues. The arms and legs consist of bone, muscle, fat, and skin. There are additional lung, abdominal, and brain tissues in the torso and head zones. The model calculates the conduction heat transfer based on the temperature gradients between the tissue nodes. Blood flow is modeled with a network of supply

358

Active load control techniques for wind turbines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: QwickLoad  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

QwickLoad QwickLoad QwickLoad logo QwickLoad uses the ASHRAE TFM (Transfer Function Method) algorithms combined with a screen interface that provides building load calculations. It includes a Duct Sizing Program and supports IP and SI units. QwickLoad Residential 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 10 zones. QwickLoad Commercial 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 500 zones. Zones and plenums can be added or deleted with one button click. Intuitive screens for entering building information. Default is automatically displayed. Construction types for roofs, walls, partitions, windows, shade types, and scheduling control. Complete air-conditioning and heating system control and supply, return, heating and cooling duct static pressure specification. Energy recovery ventilator can

360

Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Project demonstrates and promotes the use of responsive load to provide ancillary services; helps ISOsand grid operators understand the resource and how best to apply it. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability More Documents & Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience 2012 Load as a Resource Program Peer Review New York Independent System Operator, Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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361

Optimum matching of ohmic loads to the photovoltaic array  

SciTech Connect

Optimum matching of loads to the photovoltaic (PV) generator is most desirable for more accurate sizing, higher system performance and maximum utilization of the costly solar array generator. The quality of load matching depends on the PV array characteristics, the load characteristics, and the insolation profile. A matching factor is defined as the ratio of the load energy to the array maximum energy over a one day period. Optimum matching is achieved by determining the optimal array parameters with respect to the load parameters. Optimization is done using direct-search techniques. Results show that the theoretical optimum matching factor for an ohmic load is 94.34%. For an electrolytic load the matching factor could reach 99.83%. A maximum power tracker can be eliminated if optimum matching is achieved.

Khouzam, K.; Khouzam, L.; Groumpos, P. (Cleveland State Univ., OH (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Load Response Fundamentally Matches Power System Reliability Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system. Loads are frequently barred from providing the highest value and most critical reliability services; regulation and spinning reserve. Advances in communications and control technology now make it possible for some loads to provide both of these services. The limited storage incorporated in some loads better matches their response capabilities to the fast reliability-service markets than to the hourly energy markets. Responsive loads are frequently significantly faster and more accurate than generators, increasing power system reliability. Incorporating fast load response into microgrids further extends the reliability response capabilities that can be offered to the interconnected power system. The paper discusses the desired reliability responses, why this matches some loads' capabilities, what the advantages are for the power system, implications for communications and monitoring requirements, and how this resource can be exploited.

Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

Chiang, C.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hepatic Arterial Embolization with Doxorubicin-Loaded Superabsorbent Polymer Microspheres in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: The pharmacokinetic profile after hepatic arterial embolization with superabsorbent microspheres (QuadraSpheres) loaded with doxorubicin was studied. Methods: Rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumors were treated with intra-arterial administration of QuadraSpheres loaded with doxorubicin, or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using doxorubicin, Lipiodol and Embospheres, or hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of doxorubicin. Tumor specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, and plasma and tumor concentrations of doxorubicin were measured. Results: The peak plasma concentration of doxorubicin was lower in the QuadraSphere group (309.9 ng/ml) than in the HAI (673.4 ng/ml) or TACE (360.5 ng/ml) groups, suggesting higher tumor retention in the QuadraSphere group. Intratumoral doxorubicin levels declined to negligible levels at 1 and 3 days after treatment, respectively, in the HAI and TACE groups. In the QuadraSphere groups, intratumoral doxorubicin level declined after day 1, but was still detectable at 14 days after treatment and was higher than that in the other groups at 1, 3, and 7 days. Intratumoral doxorubicin fluorescence was detected at all time points in the QuadraSphere group, but only at 1 day after treatment in the TACE group. Conclusions: Hepatic arterial administration of doxorubicin-loaded QuadraSpheres enables the sustained release of doxorubicin to hepatic tumors.

Gupta, Sanjay, E-mail: sgupta@mdanderson.org; Wright, Kenneth C. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States); Ensor, Joe [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics (United States); Van Pelt, Carolyn S. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (United States); Dixon, Katherine A.; Kundra, Vikas [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

High Dielectric Dummy Loads for ITER ICRH Antenna Laboratory Testing: Numerical Simulation of One Triplet Loading by Ferroelectric Ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Up to now, classical 'water' loads have been used for low power testing of ITER ICRH prototype or mock-up antennas . A fair description of the antenna frequency response is obtained excepted for the phasing (0 {pi} 0 {pi}). High dielectric loads are requested to improve the antenna response in the low frequency band. In view of laboratory testing, dummy loads are also required to have efficient wave spatial attenuation to avoid standing waves and to minimize load volume. In this paper, barium titanate ceramic powders mixed with water are shown to exhibit very attractive electromagnetic properties. Coupling performance of one triplet of the ITER ICRH antenna to such kind of loads is numerically investigated. The radiated wave attenuation into the load is also characterized. In spite of its frequency dispersion, 'barium titanate' loads are shown to allow the characterization of the full scale triplet frequency response on a scaled-down mock-up.

Champeaux, S.; Gouard, Ph. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Bottollier-Curtet, H. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Kyrytsya, V.; Messiaen, A. [Laboratory of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Royal Military Academy, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

368

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use of relatively inexpensive materials such as plastic lenses and metal housings to capture the solar energy shining on a fairly large area and focus that energy onto a smaller area-the solar cell. One measure of the effectiveness of this approach is the concentration ratio-in other words, how much concentration the cell is receiving. Concentrator PV systems have several advantages over flat-plate systems. First, concentrator systems reduce the size or number of cells needed and

369

Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

An efficient load model for analyzing demand side management impacts  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of implementing Demand Side Management (DSM) in power systems is to change the utility's load shape--i.e. changes in the time pattern and magnitude of utility's load. Changing the load shape as a result of demand side activities could change the peak load, base load and/or energy demand. Those three variables have to be explicitly modeled into the load curve for properly representing the effects of demand side management. The impact of DSM will be manifested as higher or lower reliability levels. This paper presents an efficient technique to model the system load such that the impact of demand side management on the power system can be easily and accurately evaluated. The proposed technique to model the load duration curve will facilitate the representation of DSM impacts on loss-of-load probability, energy not served and energy consumption. This will provide an analytical method to study the impact of DSM on capacity requirements. So far iterative methods have been applied to study these impacts. The proposed analytical method results in a faster solution with higher accuracy. It takes only 18 seconds on an 80486 PC to solve each case study involving different peak and base loads, and energy use.

Rahman, S.; Rinaldy (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Dynamic model of power system operation incorporating load control  

SciTech Connect

Load management has been proposed as a means whereby an electric utility can reduce its requirements for additional generation, transmission, and distribution investments, shift fuel dependency from limited to more abundant energy resources, and improve the efficiency of the electric energy system. There exist, however, serious technological and economic questions which must be answered to define the cost trade-offs between initiating a load management strategy or adding additional capacity to meet the load. One aspect of this complex problem is to determine how the load profile might be modified by the load management option being considered. Towards this end, a model has been developed to determine how a power system with an active load control system should be operated to make the best use of its available resources. The model is capable of handling all types of conventional generating sources including thermal, hydro, and pumped storage units, and most appliances being considered for direct control including those with inherent or designed storage characteristics. The model uses a dynamic programming technique to determine the optimal operating strategy for a given set of conditions. The use of the model is demonstrated. Case study results indicate that the production cost savings that can be achieved through the use of direct load control are highly dependent on utility characteristics, load characteristics, storage capacity, and penetration. The load characteristics that produce the greatest savings are: large storage capacity; high coincidence with the system peak; large connected load per point; and moderately high diversity fraction.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Testing a new direct load control power line communication system  

SciTech Connect

South Carolina Electric and Gas is currently performing direct load control communications over power lines without using a power line carrier. This is the result of testing a load management system that combines the existing substation solid-state recording with voltage regulation capability. Using the solid-state recorder's extended control functions, the existing substation tap changer, a new patent-pending power line communications technique, and a patented voltage-step load control receiver, the system extends normal two-way communication between the utility operations and the substation with a one-way power line link to virtually any load. By varying the voltage level slightly, the system digitizes up to 32 different load control messages. The new voltage-step communication technique uses the substation's load tap changer to communicate one-way with the receivers over existing power lines. South Carolina Electric and Gas and the manufacturers have been performing a two-phase test of the load control system. Phase one testing showed that the percentage of successful load control message reception was 98%. Phase two testing is still in progress. Results to date show no deterioration of reception or equipment. Conclusions thus far are that the load management system is compatible with all installed utility equipment, and offers reliable direct load control.

Weers, D.D.; Shamsedin, M.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Decomposition of Rare Earth Loaded Resin Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fuel Cycle R and D (FCR and D) program within the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) is evaluating nuclear fuel cycle options, including once-through, modified open, and fully closed cycles. Each of these scenarios may utilize quite different fuel management schemes and variation in fuel types may include high thermal conductivity UO{sub 2}, thoria-based, TRISO, metal, advanced ceramic (nitride, carbide, composite, etc.), and minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels and targets. Researchers from the US, Europe, and japan are investigating methods of fabricating high-specific activity spherical particles for fuel and target applications. The capital, operating, and maintenance costs of such a fuel fabrication facility can be significant, thus fuel synthesis and fabrication processes that minimize waste and process losses, and require less footprint are desired. Investigations have been performed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) and the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) studying the impact of americium and curium on the fuel fabrication process. proof of concept was demonstrated for fabrication of MA-bearing spherical particles, however additional development will be needed for engineering scale-up. Researchers at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) and the Japan Atomic Energy Association (JAEA) have collaborated on research with ceramic-metallic (CERMET) fuels using spherical particles as the ceramic component dispersed in the metal matrix. Recent work at the CEA evaluates the burning of MA in the blanket region of sodium fast reactors. There is also interest in burning MA in Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The fabrication of uranium-MA oxide pellets for a fast reactor blanket or MA-bearing fuel for CANDU reactors may benefit from a low-loss dedicated footprint for producing MA-spherical particles. One method for producing MA-bearing spherical particles is loading the actinide metal on a cation exchange resin. The AG-50W resin is made of sulfonic acid functional groups attached to a styrene divinylbenzene copolymer lattice (long chained hydrocarbon). The metal cation binds to the sulfur group, then during thermal decomposition in air the hydrocarbons will form gaseous species leaving behind a spherical metal-oxide particle. Process development for resin applications with radioactive materials is typically performed using surrogates. For americium and curium, a trivalent metal like neodymium can be used. Thermal decomposition of Nd-loaded resin in air has been studied by Hale. Process conditions were established for resin decomposition and the formation of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The intermediate product compounds were described using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and wet chemistry. Leskela and Niinisto studied the decomposition of rare earth (RE) elements and found results consistent with Hale. Picart et al. demonstrated the viability of using a resin loading process for the fabrication of uranium-actinide mixed oxide microspheres for transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor. For effective transmutation of actinides, it will be desirable to extend the in-reactor burnup and minimize the number of recycles of used actinide materials. Longer burn times increases the chance of Fuel Clad Chemical or Mechanical Interaction (FCCI, FCMI). Sulfur is suspected of contributing to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) thus it is necessary to maximize the removal of sulfur during decomposition of the resin. The present effort extends the previous work by quantifying the removal of sulfur during the decomposition process. Neodymium was selected as a surrogate for trivalent actinide metal cations. As described above Nd was dissolved in nitric acid solution then contacted with the AG-50W resin column. After washing the column, the Nd-resin particles are removed and dried. The Nd-resin, seen in Figure 1 prior to decomposition, is ready to be converted to Nd oxide microspheres.

Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd (previously Solel Solar Systems) Place Beit-Shemesh, Israel Zip 99107 Sector Solar Product Israel-based subsidiary manufacturing solar thermal electricity generation (STEG) components for power plants, also develops some of its own STEG projects. Coordinates 31.75°, 35° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.75,"lon":35,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

375

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles Nobuyuki Yamaguchi,on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles Nobuyuki Yamaguchi,regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

WECS - load controlled pitch - variable load conversion to heat. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Load control circuitry was developed such that excess energy from a windmill, that would normally go back to the utility, be absorbed in thermal storage to heat domestic hot water. Also, associated with this objective is the development of instrumentation to measure the power curve of the windmill as a function of windspeed. An Enertech 4KW windmill and related equipment was used to meet this objective.

Secord, N.

1983-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

377

Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

380

DSM Load Growth Through Electrotechnology Application Assistance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper will discuss how a new "win-win" approach is emerging that improves both customer competitiveness and utility energy sales as both DSM and the utility's relationship with its customers mature. While most DSM resources have been invested in conservation efforts, the efficient load building aspects must no longer be ignored. As DSM "returns to its roots," electrotechnology applications assistance programs are beginning to provide measured results that are a key part of utility efforts to manage demand. Several innovative electrotechnology application programs exist but most share a combination of the following key attributes: 1) Immediate results-oriented electrotechnology applications assistance and implementation is provided to key customers, 2) Market research is conducted on a broad category of customers to determine appropriate electrotechnology applications and assistance, 3) An advertising and promotional campaign development/ implementation plan is created, 4) Technology transfer training is provided for customers and utility staff, and 5) An assessment is made for the development of a regional technology application center.

Merchant, D. G.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script In some cases a script needs to load modules before the script can be executed, but it can often be inconvenient or impossible to provide wrapper scripts which load the needed modules. CGI scripts on the gpweb resources or in the NERSC portal environment which require the genepool-specific python/perl/R or databases configuration modules are a strong example of this. NERSC provides the scriptEnv as a custom drop-in replacement for /usr/bin/env. scriptEnv loads your selected modules to allow your scripts to run easily and reproducibly. After constructing your scriptEnv, you only need replace the shebang line of your script to use your custom scriptEnv

382

Load Balancing Of Parallel Monte Carlo Transport Calculations  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Load Balancing Of Parallel Load Balancing Of Parallel Monte Carlo Transport Calculations R.J. Procassini, M. J. O'Brien and J.M. Taylor Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 The performance of parallel Monte Carlo transport calculations which use both spatial and particle parallelism is increased by dynamically assigning processors to the most worked domains. Since the particle work load varies over the course of the simulation, each cycle this algorithm determines if dynamic load balancing would speed up the calculation. If load balancing is required, a small number of particle communications are initiated in order to achieve load balance. This method has decreased the parallel run time by more than a factor of three for certain criticality

383

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.

Tsagarakis, G; Kiprakis, A E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Forecasting distribution system loads using curve shape clustering  

SciTech Connect

Trending using curve fitting to past small area load growth is an economical but not highly accurate method of forecasting loads for distribution planning. A new trending method uses clustering of historical load at the small area level as the forecast algorithm. This new method has significant performance advantages over normal curve fit methods and can be implemented in 16 bit integer arithmetic on most computers. The method and test results are discussed in detail.

Willis, H.L.; Northcote-Green, J.E.D.; Schauer, A.E.; Vismor, T.D.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

STLOAD 1.1 (Substation Terminal Equipment Loading Software)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI’s Substation Terminal Equipment Loading software (STLOAD 1.1) calculates temperatures and thermal ratings for substation equipment based on physical parameters of the equipment, electrical load, air temperature, and, where appropriate, solar heating and wind. This provides a convenient way for substation engineers to maximize the usage of existing substation terminal equipment under a wide variety of operating conditions. STLOAD can perform temperature and rating calculations for a daily load and am...

2009-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

387

Using DER in Transmission-Constrained Urban Load Pockets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban load centers are characterized by their dense population, environmental constraints, as well as transmission-constrained electricity delivery. They also have potentially high infrastructure investment costs for distribution system investments to meet peak load growth. This report looks at seven areas in the United States that have been identified as transmission-constrained load pockets, focusing on opportunities for using distributed energy resources (DER).

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

388

Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

End-Use Load Composition Estimation Using Smart Meter Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this research project is to enhance methodologies used to compute the fraction of load components (that is, motor; constant impedance, constant current, and constant power (ZIP); and electronic) needed for power system simulations that are attributable to each load class (that is, residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural) by using smart meter (advanced metering infrastructure [AMI]) data. The load component percentages obtained should be appropriate for an overall component-based...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conservation of electrical energy and load management can reduce industry's electric bills, conserves natural resources and reduces the need for new generating plants. In recent years, industry has implemented extensive conservation programs. Some load management has been implemented already. Additional load management is possible; however, optimizing it will require close industry and electric utility company cooperation to develop new incentives and rate structures to make it economically attractive. The limitations of existing rate structures and needed improvements are presented.

Jackson, C. E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Bubble deaeration of water at reduced unit loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Whenever the load is reduced, the parameters of the water and steam being introduced into the deaerator, as well as the pressure, also change. A study was conducted to ascertain the reasons for the improvement in water deaeration whenever the unit load is reduced. The study of the deaerator demonstrated that reducing the load on the turbine produces a reduction in the amount of oxygen contained in the feedwater from 25-30 to 8-12 ..mu..g/kg.

Kondrat'ev, A.D.; Kurnyk, L.N.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Load Following in Geothermal Plants: Capabilities and Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Typically, geothermal power plants are baseload facilities, but they may be operated in a load-following mode in the same manner as conventional steam plants. As grid penetration of renewable resources increases - especially those generation types with diurnal variations such as wind and solar - the ability of other power plants to load-follow becomes increasingly valuable.Load following is challenging in terms of the design, operations, and maintenance of flash and binary geothermal ...

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

393

Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

Burdick, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Surface runoff from full-scale coal combustion product pavements during accelerated loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under well-controlled conditions. An equivalent of 20 years of highway traffic loading was simulated at the OSU/OU Accelerated Pavement Load Facility (APLF). Three types of portland cement concrete driving surface layers were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (PC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). In general, the concentrations of minor and trace elements were higher in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates than in the leachates obtained from synthetic precipitation leaching procedure and ASTM leaching procedures. Importantly, none of the leachate concentrations exceeded the TCLP limits or primary drinking water standards. Surface runoff monitoring results showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, whereas there were little differences in release rates between PC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for Cr, elements were released as particulates (>0.45 {mu} m) rather than dissolved constituents. The incorporation of fly ash in the PC cement concrete pavements examined in this study resulted in little or no deleterious environmental impact from the leaching of inorganic elements over the lifetime of the pavement system.

Cheng, C.M.; Taerakul, P.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H. [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Effects of CCN Concentrations on Stratus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons between cloud-base CCN concentrations and cloud droplet concentrations in stratus clouds over San Diego and 100 km out to sea showed a positive correlation. The supersaturation in these clouds, as derived from the matching of the CCN ...

James G. Hudson

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Modeling The Potential For Thermal Concentrating Solar Power Technologies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we explore the tradeoffs between thermal storage capacity, cost, and other system parameters in order to examine possible evolutionary pathways for thermal Concen-trating Solar Power (CSP) technologies. A representation of CSP performance that is suit-able for incorporation into economic modeling tools is developed. We find that, as the fraction of electricity supplied by CSP technologies grows, the application of thermal CSP technologies might progress from current hybrid plants, to plants with a modest amount of thermal storage, and potentially even to plants with sufficient thermal storage to provide base load generation capacity. The representation of CSP cost and performance developed here was implemented in the ObjECTS MiniCAM long-term integrated assessment model. Datasets for global solar resource characteristics as applied to CSP technology were also developed. The regional and global potential of thermal CSP technologies is examined.

Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Stackhouse, Jr., Paul W.

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

397

Siting Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power Projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 2002, Congress asked the U.S. Department of Energy to develop and scope out an initiative to fulfill the goal of having 1,000 megawatts (MW) of new parabolic trough, power tower, and dish engine solar capacity supplying the southwestern United States. In this paper, we present a review of the solar resource for Arizona, California, Nevada, and New Mexico. These four states have the greatest number of ''premium'' solar sites in the country and each has a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). We present information on the generation potential of the solar resources in these states. We also present regions within New Mexico that may be ideally suited for developing large-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) plants because of their proximity to load and their access to unconstrained transmission.

Mehos, M.; Owens, B.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Estimating Contaminant Release Concentrations from Hanford ...  

& Transport Model Long-Term Performance Assessment ... sludge provide upper limit on future releases. 9 Metals Concentrations in Hanford Tank ...

399

New GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs, Triple-Bandgap, Tandem Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Terrestrial Concentrator Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs three-junction cells are grown in an inverted configuration on GaAs, allowing high quality growth of the lattice matched GaInP and GaAs layers before a grade is used for the 1-eV GaInAs layer. Using this approach an efficiency of 37.9% was demonstrated.

Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Geisz, J.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T.; Carapella, J.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Emery. K.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Kibbler, A.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the effect of thermal mass on cooling loads, and thereforelift radiant cooling using building thermal mass, Departmentlevel thermal modelling are recommended for design cooling

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California...

402

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LaaR Load Acting as a Resource (Texas) LMP Locational Marginal Price MCPE Market Clearing Price of Energy (Texas) NCAS Network Control Ancillary Services (Australia) NGC National...

403

Demand response can lower electric power load when needed - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

February 15, 2011 Demand response can lower electric power load when needed . Consumers can play a major role in ensuring reliable electricity supply by reducing ...

404

Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy… (more)

Brokish, Kevin Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads ...  

A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the ...

406

Loaded Transmission Error Measurement System for Spur and Helical Gears.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The majority of loaded static transmission error test stands developed in the past had little success generating accurate results versus analytical predictions for parallel-axis gearing.… (more)

Wright, Zachary Harrison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

HVAC Loads in High-Performance Homes (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation was delivered at the ASHRAE 2010 Annual Summer Conference on June 27, 2010, and addresses humidity and AC loads in energy efficient houses.

Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Winkler, J.

2010-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

408

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Chapter 7: Supplemental Load...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

care resources Small business resources State and local government resources ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual Chapter 7: Supplemental Load Reduction The Building Upgrade...

409

Definition: Generator-To-Load Distribution Factor | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on an identified transmission facility or Flowgate.1 Related Terms Load Shift Factor, transmission lines, Generator Shift Factor, transmission line, flowgate, smart grid...

411

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Water Resources. Water Conservation in California. DWRUse ENERGY CONSERVATION Water Conservation Pump Efficienciescussion of load Water Conservation some of these measures in

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Unit load and material handling considerations in facility layout design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 1, 2002 ... In this paper, the integration of unit load and material handling considerations in facility layout design is presented. This integration is based on ...

413

Dynamic response of fixed offshore platforms to environmental loads.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis a simplified method for dynamic response of jacket type offshore structures to extreme environmental load is investigated using existing experience and the… (more)

Azarhoushang, Azin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Capacity Assessment of a Transmission Tower under Wind Loading.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transmission towers play a vital role in power distribution networks and are often subject to strong wind loads. Lattice tower design is often based on… (more)

Mara, Thomas G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Automated Load Balancing of Medium-Voltage Distribution Circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility of using an automated system to maintain optimal load balance in distribution circuits. The practice used by many utilities is to use a line crew and engineering personnel to measure load balance at key points in each circuit and manually move single-phase lateral taps to different phases to obtain the desired load balance among the phases. This practice has many shortcomings: The load balance is achieved only for a single point in ...

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

416

NREL Develops Simulations for Wind Plant Power and Turbine Loads...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

loading due to wake turbulence. The current state of knowledge concerning wind turbine wakes and how they interact with other turbines and the atmospheric boundary layer is...

417

Peak load control energy saving and cycling system  

SciTech Connect

A control system for limiting peak load demand and/or saving electrical energy by cycling the individual loads within an electrical distribution system is described. Electrical power usage in a distribution system is continuously monitored and compared to a pre-set limit. Loads can be added and cycled according to a limit set by the operator. Loads can also be dropped in response to a signal proportional to the electrical power usage in a distribution system within limits defined by the operator.

Burch, J.

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

418

NREL's Concentrated Solar Radiation User Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Declared a national user facility in 1993, NREL's Concentrated Solar Radiation User Facility (CSR) allows industry, government, and university researchers to examine the effects and applications of as much as 50,000 suns of concentrated solar radiation using a High-Flux Solar Furnace and long-term exposure using an ultraviolet (UV) concentrator.

Lewandowski, A.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Assessment of Reactivity Margins and Loading Curves for PWR Burnup Credit Cask Designs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents studies to assess reactivity margins and loading curves for pressurized water reactor (PWR) burnup-credit criticality safety evaluations. The studies are based on a generic high-density 32-assembly cask and systematically vary individual calculational (depletion and criticality) assumptions to demonstrate the impact on the predicted effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, and burnup-credit loading curves. The purpose of this report is to provide a greater understanding of the importance of input parameter variations and quantify the impact of calculational assumptions on the outcome of a burnup-credit evaluation. This study should provide guidance to regulators and industry on the technical areas where improved information will most enhance the estimation of accurate subcritical margins. Based on these studies, areas where future work may provide the most benefit are identified. The report also includes an evaluation of the degree of burnup credit needed for high-density casks to transport the current spent nuclear fuel inventory. By comparing PWR discharge data to actinide-only based loading curves and determining the number of assemblies that meet the loading criteria, this evaluation finds that additional negative reactivity (through either increased credit for fuel burnup or cask design/utilization modifications) is necessary to accommodate the majority of current spent fuel assemblies in high-capacity casks. Assemblies that are not acceptable for loading in the prototypic high-capacity cask may be stored or transported by other means (e.g., lower capacity casks that utilize flux traps and/or increased fixed poison concentrations or high-capacity casks with design/utilization modifications).

Wagner, J.C.

2002-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

420

Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM)Technologies for End-Use Load Disaggregation: Laboratory Evaluation I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a laboratory evaluation to assess the cost versus accuracy performance of residential non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) technology. NILM is an evolving technology that can be deployed for utility and customer applications, such as end-use load disaggregation, energy audits, real-time customer information and appliance or load diagnostics. Commercial NILM products for utility and customer applications continue to emerge, although most products available today ...

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Nanofluidic Concentration Device for Biomolecules Utilizing Ion Concentration Polarization: Theory, Fabrication, and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, a new type of electrokinetic concentration devices has been developed in a microfluidic chip format, which allows efficient trapping and concentration of biomolecules by utilizing ion concentration polarization ...

Kim, Sung Jae

422

Improved load ratio method for predicting crack length  

SciTech Connect

The elastic compliance from unloading/reloading sequences in a load-displacement record estimates well crack length in elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests of compact tension [C(T)] and bending type specimens. The need for partial unloading of the specimen makes it difficult to run the test under static loading and impossible under either dynamic loading or very high temperatures. Furthermore, fracture toughness testing in which crack length is determined from elastic compliance requires high precision testing equipment and highly skilled technicians. As a result, such tests are confined usually to research laboratories and seldom used under production settings. To eliminate these problems, an improved load ratio method of predicting crack length is proposed that utilizes only the recorded load versus load-line displacement curve (or load versus crack-mouth-opening displacement curve) without unloading/reloading sequences. As a result, the instrumentation is much simpler than in the elastic compliance or potential drop methods. If only a monotonic load-displacement record is to be measured the fracture toughness test becomes almost as simple to perform as a tension test. The method described here improves in three ways the ``original load ratio method`` proposed by Hu et al. First, a blunting term is added to the crack length before maximum load. Second, a strain hardening correction is included after maximum load. And, third, the initial crack length and the physical (final) crack length measured at the end of the test serve to anchor the predicted crack lengths, forcing agreement between predicted and measured values. The method predicts crack extension with excellent accuracy in specimens fabricated from A302, A508, and A533B piping and pressure vessel steels, A588 and A572 structural steels, and HY-80 ship steel.

Chen, X.; Albrecht, P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Systems Research; Wright, W. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States). Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center; Joyce, J.A. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Load management and the La Vereda passive solar community  

SciTech Connect

Reviewed are preliminary data available from some of the passive solar homes now operational at the La Vereda subdivision in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The major emphasis is Load Management - an electric utility term pertaining to when and how much energy is used by the customer. A customer's home is considered to be Load Managed when its major demands for electricity occur at times during the day when the utility has surplus generation capacity. For most utilities this surplus occurs during the night and is referred to as the off-peak period. Compared to conventional electric homes, the La Vereda passive solar homes are Naturally Load Managed because most of their backup heating requirements occur during the utility's off-peak period. Naturally Load Managed homes like these allow the backup heating system to operate freely whenever the space needs heat. Load data from six La Vereda homes are compared to similar data from 1) a group of nonsolar super-insulated total electric homes, and 2) the utility's winter system peak day load profile. The comparison verifies the Natural Load Management characteristics of the well-designed passive solar home. The free operation of the backup heating system, especially during cloudy or severe weather, can reduce the Natural Load Management characteristics of the La Verda homes. Is it possible to Force Load Management on a home, regardless of weather conditions and still guarantee that all space heating requirements are satisfied with off-peak energy. One home at La Vereda is discussed that has an experimental Forced Load Management backup heating system designed to use energy only during the utility's off-peak period. Load data from this home is presented and compared to other homes at La Verda.

Pyde, S.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours Docket No. EO-05-01. Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours. Arial photograph showing plant and location of predicted SO2 violations, predicted in 2000. Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours More Documents & Publications Mirant Potomac, Alexandria, Virginia: Maximum Impacts Predicted by AERMOD-PRIME, Units 3, 1, 2 SO2 Case Mirant Potomac, Alexandria, Virginia: Maximum Impacts Predicted by AERMOD-PRIME, Units 4, 1, 2 SO2 Case Mirant Potomac, Alexandria, Virginia: Maximum Impacts Predicted by

425

Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protocols  for  Demand  Response  Load  Impacts  Estimates, Potter  2006.     The  Demand  Response Baseline, v.1.75.   Assessment  of  Demand  Response  and  Advanced  Metering, 

Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote, Sila

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations  

SciTech Connect

Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

Not Available

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Concentrating solar power Concentrating solar power (Redirected from Concentrating Solar Power) Jump to: navigation, search Concentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derived from NREL's concentrating solar power information page.)[1] Concentrating solar power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for electricity. CSP plants produce power by first using mirrors to focus sunlight to heat a working fluid. Ultimately, this high-temperature fluid is used to spin a turbine or power an engine that drives a generator. And the final product is electricity. Smaller CSP systems can be located directly where the power is needed. Larger, utility-scale CSP applications provide hundreds of megawatts of electricity for the power grid. Both linear concentrator and power tower

428

Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Concentrating solar power Concentrating solar power (Redirected from - Concentrating Solar Power) Jump to: navigation, search Concentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derived from NREL's concentrating solar power information page.)[1] Concentrating solar power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for electricity. CSP plants produce power by first using mirrors to focus sunlight to heat a working fluid. Ultimately, this high-temperature fluid is used to spin a turbine or power an engine that drives a generator. And the final product is electricity. Smaller CSP systems can be located directly where the power is needed. Larger, utility-scale CSP applications provide hundreds of megawatts of electricity for the power grid. Both linear concentrator and power tower

429

Analytical and demonstration experience with changing load profile. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography of load management and supply management projects, sponsored by EPRI, was developed. Summaries of project scope and results were made for a selection of these projects already completed. Finally, summaries of six utility load management demonstration projects were made, including project descriptions and presentation of selected results.

Isaksen, L.; Khan, S.; Ma, F.S.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Air Conditioning Load Prediction Based on DE-SVM Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) theory, and the model to predict air conditioning load was established. In order to optimize the behavior of SVM, the DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm was introduced into classic SVM. The DE-SVM model is applied ... Keywords: Air Conditioning load, DE-SVM, Prediction

Zhonghai Chen; Yong Sun; Guoli Yang; Tengfei Wu; Guizhu Li; Longbiao Xin

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Impact of Nonlinear Loads on Motor Generator Sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using backup generators with loads that create high harmonics can cause power quality problems. This report describes how to calculate voltage distortion based on the different impedance characteristics of a generator and the harmonic current characteristics of loads and discusses options for reducing the harmonics and mitigating their impact.

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

432

Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis Anthony in order to mitigate the unpredictable and non-controllable fluctuation of renewable power supply. We cast for optimally supplying renewable power to time-flexible electricity loads in the presence of a spot market

Oren, Shmuel S.

433

A Load Balancing Tool for Distributed Parallel Loops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large scale applications typically contain parallel loops with many iterates. The iterates of a parallel loop may have variable execution times which translate into performance degradation of an application due to load imbalance. This paper describes ... Keywords: adaptive loop scheduling, dynamic load balancing

Ricolindo L. Cariño; Ioana Banicescu

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Dynamic load balancing with adaptive factoring methods in scientific applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To improve the performance of scientific applications with parallel loops, dynamic loop scheduling methods have been proposed. Such methods address performance degradations due to load imbalance caused by predictable phenomena like nonuniform data distribution ... Keywords: Adaptive weighted factoring, Dynamic load balancing

Ricolindo L. Cariño; Ioana Banicescu

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-52235 Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS Kristina Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;#12;LBNL-52235 Investigation of Residential Central Air;#12;Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS i Table of Contents Acronyms

437

Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Cell with Dynamic PHEV Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Cell with Dynamic PHEV Loads F. R. Islam, H. R. Pota, M. S. Rahman and M. S. Ali Abstract--This paper presents the dynamics of photovoltaic (PV) cell with Plug for charging PHEVs with PV cell where PHEVs load are modelled based on third order battery model. System

Pota, Himanshu Roy

438

Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Provides recommendations for the specification and loading of power transformers complying with IEC 60076, from the point of view of operating temperatures and thermal ageing. Gives recommendations for loading above the name-plate rating and guidance for the planner to choose rated quantities for new installations.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Modeling simple trigeneration systems for the distribution of environmental loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integration of thermoeconomics and Life Cycle Analysis was carried out within the framework of an Environmental Management Information System. This combined approach identified where environmental loads were generated and tracked environmental loads ... Keywords: CO2, Environmental Management Information System, Environmental costs, Material flow networks, Trigeneration, Umberto software

Monica Carvalho; Miguel A. Lozano; Luis M. Serra; Volker Wohlgemuth

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Finite element analysis of laterally loaded fin piles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional analysis of laterally loaded fin piles is presented. The behaviour of fin piles is difficult to explain using simple pile-soil theories or two dimensional numerical analyses because of the complicated geometry of the piles. In this ... Keywords: 3D finite element models, Capacity of laterally loaded piles, Efficiency of fins, Fin piles, Mohr-Coulomb soil model, Monopiles

J. -R. Peng; M. Rouainia; B. G. Clarke

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Enhancements to ANNSTLF, EPRI's Short Term Load Forecaster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable hourly load forecasts are important to electric utilities, power marketers, energy service providers, and independent system operators. To meet this need, EPRI's Artificial Neural Net Short Term Load Forecaster (ANNSTLF), which is already implemented at more than thirty-five utilities, was recently enhanced for greater accuracy and user friendliness.

1997-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

442

Structural evaluation of the 2736Z Building for seismic loads  

SciTech Connect

The 2736Z building structure is evaluated for high-hazard loads. The 2736Z building is analyzed herein for normal and seismic loads and is found to successfully meet the guidelines of UCRL-15910 along with the related codes requirements.

Giller, R.A.

1994-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

443

Maria Research Reactor loaded with LEU - Otwock, Poland | National Nuclear  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Maria Research Reactor loaded with LEU - Otwock, Poland | National Nuclear Maria Research Reactor loaded with LEU - Otwock, Poland | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Video Gallery > Maria Research Reactor loaded with LEU - ... Maria Research Reactor loaded with LEU - Otwock, Poland Maria Research Reactor loaded with LEU - Otwock, Poland

444

Investigation of wind induced load on guyline anchors  

SciTech Connect

Most producing oil wells in the United States include guyline anchors to provide structural support for wind loaded service derricks. Recent safety regulations have focused attention on the load transferred to these anchors during high wind, but no definitive data has been available to establish precise requirements for such loading. In order to provide accurate and broadly acceptable data, a full scale field study was conducted on an actual servicing unit subject to severe wind. Load measured on the guyline anchors during the test indicates that there is less load on the guylines than standard criteria would predict. This result seems to be a singular property of oil well servicing units and is probably associated with both the flowfield around the derrick and the vertical velocity profile of the wind.

Hoyt, P.M.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Contract - 8-27-12  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services Cincinnati, Ohio, August 27, 2012 - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a competitive small business contract to Celeritex, LLC, (a Joint Venture between Project Services Group, LLC and DeNuke Contracting Services Inc.) of Suwanee, Georgia. The contract is to provide Mobile Loading Unit services in support of the National TRU Program and the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The contract has a value of up to $17.8 million, with a three-year performance period and two- one year extension options. This contract was limited to Small Businesses. The Mobile Loading Unit contractor will load Contact Handled (CH) and Remote Handled (RH)

446

Definition: Interruptible Load Or Interruptible Demand | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interruptible Load Or Interruptible Demand Interruptible Load Or Interruptible Demand Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Interruptible Load Or Interruptible Demand Demand that the end-use customer makes available to its Load-Serving Entity via contract or agreement for curtailment.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition View on Reegle Reegle Definition No reegle definition available. Also Known As non-firm service Related Terms transmission lines, electricity generation, transmission line, firm transmission service, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An inli LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ne Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Interruptible_Load_Or_Interruptible_Demand&oldid=502615"

447

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: TRACE Load 700  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Load 700 Load 700 TRACE Load 700 logo. Use TRACE Load 700 software - the building and load design modules of TRACE 700, Trane Air Conditioning Economics - to evaluate the effect of building orientation, size, shape, and mass based on hourly weather data and the resulting heat-transfer characteristics of air and moisture. To assure calculation integrity, the program uses algorithms recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Choose from eight different ASHRAE cooling and heating methodologies, including the Exact Transfer Function. The program encourages "what if" analyses, allowing the user to enter construction details in any order and then easily change the resulting building model as the design progresses. Multiple project views and "drag-and-drop"

448

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that

449

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that

450

Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

451

Grid Friendly Appliances – Load-side Solution for Congestion Management  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the effectiveness of deploying grid-friendly{trademark} appliances (GFAs) as a load-side solution for congestion management in a competitive electricity market, with the residential house ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) load used as an example. A GFA is an appliance that can have a sensor and a controller installed to detect price, voltage, or frequency signals and turn on/off according to certain control logic. By using the congestion price as a signal to shift GFA power consumption from high-price periods to low-price periods to reduce load in load pocket areas, transmission line congestion can be successfully mitigated. The magnitude of GFA load reduction and the location of the GFA resources are critical to relieve congestion on targeted lines while not causing other lines to congest. Simulation results are presented and the impact of implementing price-responsive GFAs on the power grid is also studied.

Lu, Ning; Nguyen, Tony B.

2006-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

Hydrodynamic design loads for the OTEC cold water pipe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ocean current and/or plant motion crossflows induce time dependent hydrodynamic loads on the OTEC cold water pipe due to vortex shedding. Design criteria were established for mean and fluctuating loads based on a review of the literature, analysis of test data acquired by SAI under a previous experimental program and an analytical extension of test results to higher Reynolds number. Baseline loads were specified for rigid cylinders in uniform flows. Modifications to the loads by current shear, stratification and cylinder motion, were investigated and final design criteria established. Limited structural response calculations were performed to demonstrate the use of the design criteria and to investigate briefly the possible structural response mode. Comparisons were made with alternate hydrodynamic loads, and recommendations were made for experimental verification.

Hove, D.; Shih, W.; Albano, E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Edison is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing energy management programs oriented toward end-use applications. The focus of the program is on five major types of commercial buildings: offices, grocery stores, restaurants, retail stores, and warehouses. End-use metering equipment is installed at about 50 buildings, distributed among these five types. The buildings selected have average demands of 100 to 300 kW. The metered end-uses vary among building types and include HVAC, lighting, refrigeration. plug loads, and cooking. Procedures have been custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. For example, the Load Profile Viewer is a PC-based software program for reviewing and validating the end-use load data.

Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Static Heat Loads in the LHC Arc Cryostats: Final Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This note presents the final assessment of the static heat loads in the LHC arc cryostats, using different experimental methods during the first commissioning period in 2007. This assessment further develops and completes previous estimates made during the commissioning of sector 7_8 [1]. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the internal energy balance during natural as well as powered warm-ups of the helium baths in different subsector. The helium inventory is calculated from the internal energy balance during powered warm-ups and matched with previous assessments. Furthermore, heat loads to the thermal shield are estimated from the non-isothermal cooling of the supercritical helium in line E. The comparison of measured heat loads with previous estimates and with budgeted values is then presented, while their correlation with some important parameters like insulation vacuum pressure and some heat ...

Parma, V

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Modeling and analysis of unsymmetrical transformer banks serving unbalanced loads  

SciTech Connect

It is a common practice to serve combination three-phase and single-phase loads from an unsymmetrical three-phase transformer bank and a four-wire secondary. Depending upon the loads and company standards, nine different transformer connections can be considered along with either an open four wire or a quadraplex secondary. The selection of the proper connection and transformer ratings can be achieved by the correct modeling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer bank, secondary, and loads. This paper develops the models for the nine transformer connections, the secondary, and the loads. A computer program has been written that allows the analysis of the system for loading and short-circuit studies. The paper includes several examples of different normal and abnormal operating conditions on some of the transformer connections.

Kersting, W.H. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Coll. of Engineering; Phillips, W.H. [WH Power Consultants, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Load as a reliability resource in restructured electricity markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent electricity price spikes demonstrate the value that demand-side responses could bring to a restructured US electricity system. This report considers how even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. The report provides a three-part assessment addressing the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets and the current and potential future role of customer loads as system reliability resources. The study begins by evaluating the extent to which customer loads might be able to provide electricity reliability or ancillary services and reviewing aspects of a large utility's direct load control program. The second phase of the assessment contains a survey of ways in which load has been used as a system reliability resource focusing on programs triggered by system conditions and a real-time price signal. It reviews the experience of: (1) the California ISO's Demand Relief and Participating Load programs; (2) Interruptible load programs in California; (3) the New England ISO's Load Management program; and (4) a ''mature'' program in New Zealand. The third phase of the assessment examines the status of the underlying metering, communication, and control technologies used to effect customer responses. The final section of the report provides a vision of how the future might look and uses it to outline a program of needed R&D to increase the role of customer loads as system reliability resources. Key elements of this research program include: addressing the needs of system operators, making effective use of load management assets, making use of new program design concepts, the design of end-use technologies, and benefiting from program experiences.

Kueck, J.D.; Kirby, B.J.; Eto, J.; Staunton, R.H.; Marnay, C.; Martinez, A.; Goldman, C.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Concentrating Solar Power Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of about 250 suns. This system can be used for large fields connected to the utility grid, hydrogen generation, or water pumping. Credit: Science Applications International Corporation / PIX 13464 Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity via a steam turbine or heat engine that drives a generator. Concentrating solar power offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for

458

Photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol: The effects of varying TiO{sub 2} concentration and light wavelength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of TiO{sub 2} surface loading and light conditions on the photocatalyzed degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) were examined, in order to address deficiencies in previous studies in which these issues were not examined satisfactorily. It is proposed that these factors explain differences in the reported reaction intermediate concentrations. Increasing the loading of TiO{sub 2} in a slurry has little effect on the rate of 4-CP disappearance. However, the concentration of 4-chlorocatechol (4-CC), a primary degradation product decreases with increasing TiO{sub 2}. The rate of mineralization increased with increasing TiO{sub 2} concentration was more rapid under conditions of lower light intensity. Significant adsorption of 4-CC on Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} was measured and these data are fitted well by a Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of 4-CC accounts for most of the changes in 4-CC concentration at different TiO{sub 2} loadings. An increased proportion of surface oxidation reactions at higher TiO{sub 2} loadings and lower light intensity may explain the higher rates of mineralization in thicker slurries. The quantum yield of reaction of 4-CP increased with decreasing wavelength of light from {phi} = 0.0 1, at {lambda} = 360 nm to {phi} = 0.07, at {lambda} = 300 nm. A relationship of d[4-CP]/dt {proportional_to} I{sup 0.8} was measured. 29 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Stafford, U.; Gray, K.A.; Kamat, P.V. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Automated Micro-Tracking Planar Solar Concentrators.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? One aim of solar concentrators is to reduce the cost of a solar power systems by reducing the amount of expensive semiconductor used in… (more)

Hallas, Justin Matthew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Modeling Carbon Concentration Profiles in Austenitic Stainless ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Modeling Carbon Concentration Profiles in Austenitic Stainless Steels Carburized at Low Temperatures. Author(s), Gary M. Michal, Xiaoting ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load three-junction concentrator" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002asl2.441 Meeting Report Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution, chemical composition, and...

462

Status of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several leading line- and point-focus photovoltaic concentrator system development programs are reviewed, including those by ENTECH, SEA Corporation, AMONIX, and Alpha Solarco. Concentrating collectors and trackers are gaining maturity and reaching product status as designs are made more manufacturable and reliable. Utilities are starting to take notice of this emerging technology, and several privately-funded utility installations are underway. Several advantages are offered by concentrators, including low system and capital cost and rapid production ramp-up. These are discussed along with issues generally raised concerning concentrator technology.

Maish, A.B.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Gravity Gold Concentration at Newmont Mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The process of gold recovery by gravity concentration is incorporated ... Energy Management Planning, Following the ISO 50001 Draft Standard.

464

PV FAQs: What's New in Concentrating PV?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This publication, one in a series of PV FAQs, addresses concentrating PV: what it is, how it works, the challenges it faces, recent breakthroughs, and its future direction.

Not Available

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

A combined microfluidic/dielectrophoretic microorganism concentrator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the development of a high-throughput microfluidic microorganism concentrator for pathogen detection applications. Interdigitated electrodes lining the bottom of the channel use positive dielectrophoretic ...

Gadish, Nitzan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Projects Home Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of concentrating solar power plants. Activities include testing large-scale systems and developing advanced technologies, components, instrumentation, and analysis techniques....

467

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Basics Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies can be a major contributor to our nation's future need for new, clean sources of energy, particularly in the Western...

468

Concentrating Solar Power: Energy from Mirrors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet explains how concentrating solar power technology works and the three types of systems in development today: trough, dish, and central receiver.

Poole, L.

2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

469

Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

470

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Webmaster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Your name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version Concentrating Solar Power Research Home Projects Research Staff Working with Us Data & Resources...

471

A solar concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis discusses aspects of a novel solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector that has been designed to produce both electricity and hot water.… (more)

Coventry, Joseph S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology ...  

Patent 7,667,833: Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a ...

473

Concentrating Solar Power (Revised) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Estimation of E. coli Concentrations from Non Point Sources Using GIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When developing a Watershed Protection Plan (WPP) or a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), it is often difficult to accurately assess the pollutant load for a watershed because not enough water quality monitoring data are available. According to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), there are 274 bacteria impairments in Texas water bodies out of 386 impaired water bodies. Bacteria water quality data are often more sparse than other types of water quality data, which hinders the development of WPPs or TMDLs. The Spatially Explicit Load Enrichment Calculation Tool (SELECT) was used to develop watershed protection plans for four rural watersheds in Texas that are impaired due to E. coli bacteria. SELECT is an automated Geographical Information System (GIS) tool that can assess pathogen loads in watersheds using spatial factors such as land use, population density, and soil type. WPPs were developed for four rural Texas watersheds: Buck Creek, Lampasas River, five sub watersheds of the Little Brazos River, and Geronimo Creek. A spatial watershed model was developed to simulate bacteria concentrations in streams resulting from non point sources using SELECT combined with a simple rainfall-runoff model and applied to the Geronimo Creek watershed. The watershed model applies a rainfall-driven loading function to the potential E. coli loads calculated by the output of SELECT. The simulated runoff volumes and E. coli concentrations from the model were compared to actual monthly E. coli data collected at two sampling sites near the outlet of a subwatershed. The results show how SELECT methodology was applied to each watershed and adapted based on stakeholder concerns and data availability. The highest potential contributors were identified and areas of concern were highlighted to more effectively apply best management practices (BMPs). The runoff volumes were predicted with very good agreement (E = 0.95, RSR = 0.21 to 0.22) for both sampling sites. The predicted E. coli concentrations did not agree with measured concentrations for both sites using eight different methods. The results indicate that the model does not include significant factors contributing to the transport of E. coli bacteria but can be modified to include these factors.

Mckee, Kyna

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Success stories will crack utility resistance to load management  

SciTech Connect

Advocates of load management see it as a solution to high fuel prices, better system load factors, and high utility earnings. Opposing views are investigated. It is conceded that both views have merit, but with proper attention to rate design, load management holds out hope for utility and customer alike. Westinghouse studies conclude that load management must be developed on a utility-specific basis. Many utilities are concerned that load management systems will reduce energy consumption and thus revenues. Experiences that utilities have had with radio and ripple control are briefly reviewed. Dr. Irwin Stelzer from the National Economic Research Associates says that, giving the customer the right price signal, the load curve will manipulate itself into the shape the customer wants. He advocates charging each customer precisely what it costs to deliver that customer's energy. It is seen that load management could improve the utility's income, possibly help defer the need for capital additions, and potentially help keep energy costs down. (MCW)

Owens, K.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

Murphy, L. M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Offshore loading-system design is aimed at higher efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Mobil Shipping and Transporation Co. has completed the design of an offshore loading system aimed at overcoming the limitations of existing terminals. The loading/mooring/storage system (LMS) is a semisubmersible vessel with ship mooring and loading facilities atop a box-shaped crude storage structure, which is well below the water line away from the effect of waves and clear of loading tankers' bows. The storage volume equals or exceeds that of a VLCC. There are 15 dual-purpose cargo/ballast tanks in the lower section with a control tower over the center tank. The loading system is designed to load 800,000 bbl of crude in about 12 hr. Each tank contains a diagonally suspended synthetic rubber diaphragm that will isolate crude from water ballast. Computer simulations based on North Sea weather data indicate that the LMS will allow marine loading efficiencies of at least 95Vertical Bar3< with total storage of a week's production or more. Other advantages of the LMS include the ability to moor shuttle tankers up to 200,000 dwt; self-contained repair and maintenance capabilities; and mobility. Variations of anchoring and riser systems for the LMS are discussed.

1978-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

479

Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Low-cost load research for electric utilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) developed two pragmatic approaches to meet most load-research objectives at a substantially lower cost than would be incurred with traditional techniques. GVEA serves three customer classes, with most of its load in the Fairbanks area. GVEA's new approaches simulate load curves for individual customer classes to the degree necessary to meet most load-research objectives for the utility, including applications to cost-of-service analysis, rate design, demand-side management, and load forecasting. These approaches make class load-shape information available to utilities that cannot otherwise afford to develop such data. Although the two approaches were developed for a small utility, they are likely to work at least as well for medium and large utilities. The first approach simulates class curves by combining load data from system feeders with information on customer mix and energy usage. GVEA's supervisory control and data acquisition system gives hourly data on feeder loads, and its billing database provides the number of customers and kilowatt-hour usage by customer class on each feeder. The second approach enhances load-research results by redefining target parameters. Data from several like-hours are used to calculate substitutes for the parameters traditionally defined from single-hour data points. The precision of peak responsibility estimates, for example, can be improved if several of the highest hourly demands in a given time period are used rather than the single highest hourly demand. Arguably, use of several highest hourly demands can also improve the reliability of the allocation of responsibility.

Gray, D.A.; Butcher, M.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

End-Use Load-Shape Estimation: Methods and Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In developing effective demand-side management plans and load forecasts, utilities need information on customer hourly load patterns over a range of end-uses. Such information may be obtained using the two methods described in this report for disaggregating whole-building load data. Both methods have been validated using end-use metered data. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Funders may download this report at http://my.primen.com/Applications/DE/Community/index.asp .

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool Agency/Company /Organization: California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Sector: Energy, Water Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, - Embodied Energy, Water Conservation Phase: Determine Baseline, "Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise" is not in the list of possible values (Bring the Right People Together, Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Develop Finance and Implement Projects, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed) for this property. Topics: GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Background analysis

483

Direct methanol fuel cells at reduced catalyst loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup -2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

Zelenay, P. (Piotr); Guyon, F. (Francois); Gottesfeld, Shimshon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z