National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for load patterns improve

  1. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  2. Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of gasoline-fueled HCCI. - Achieved loads up to 16.3 bar IMEP without engine knock & ultra-low NO X . g - Knock controlled by retarding combustion phasing. z Improvements are...

  3. Improved current and charge amplifiers for driving piezoelectric loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    across the diverse literature involving piezoelectric applications is the problem of hysteresis5,7 . WhenImproved current and charge amplifiers for driving piezoelectric loads Andrew J. Fleming and S. O, Callaghan 2308, Australia. ABSTRACT Piezoelectric transducers are known to exhibit less hysterisis when

  4. Heat rate and maximum load capability improvements through cycle isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coons, K. [Coronado Generating Station, Saint Johns, AZ (United States); Dimmick, J.G. [Leak Detection Services, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Major improvements in maximum load capability and gross turbine heat rate were obtained at Salt River Project`s Coronado Unit 1, resulting from work done during the Spring 1993 overhaul. Corrected maximum load increased by 13.1 MW -- from 403.8 MW prior to the overhaul compared to 416.9 MW after the overhaul. Corrected gross turbine heat rate was reduced 270 BTU/kWH -- from 7,920 BTU/kWH before the overhaul to 7,650 BTU/kWH after the overhaul. Of the work done, the repair of leaking valves had the largest impact on cycle performance. The reduction of cycle leakage accounted for an increase of 9.9 MW in maximum load capability and a reduction to gross turbine heat rate of 190 BTU. Weekly maximum load tests, which started in August 1992 with the installation of an on-line monitoring system, show that maximum load had decreased approximately 4 MW during the six months prior to the overhaul. During this time there were no significant changes in HP or IP efficiencies, or any other directly-measured cycle parameters. Therefore, this degradation was attributed to cycle isolation valve leakage. Acoustic emission leak detection methods were used to identify leaking valves prior to the outage. Of the 138 valves tested for leakage, 31 valves had medium to very large leaks. Of these 31 leaking valves identified, 30 were repaired or replaced.

  5. Improving Home Automation by Discovering Regularly Occurring Device Usage Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holder, Lawrence B.

    Improving Home Automation by Discovering Regularly Occurring Device Usage Patterns Edwin O in an environment can be mined to discover significant patterns, which an intelligent agent could use to automate of two prediction algorithms, thus demonstrating multiple uses for a home automation system. Finally, we

  6. Improving shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard A. (Richard Alan), Nav. E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) measures equipment performance by measuring and analyzing the source power to the equipment at a single point in the electrical system. Previous studies have proven the usefulness of ...

  7. Understanding and improving Web page load times on modern networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netravali, Ravi Arun

    2015-01-01

    This thesis first presents a measurement toolkit, Mahimahi, that records websites and replays them under emulated network conditions. Mahimahi improves on prior record-and-replay frameworks by emulating the multi-origin ...

  8. Improved Loading of Sulfate-Limited Waste in Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, A. S.; Soshnikov, R. A.; Trofimenko, A. V.; Vienna, John D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Holtzscheiter, Earl W.

    2006-02-28

    The loading of many wastes in borosilicate glass are limited by the allowable sulfate concentration (e.g., Hanford low-activity waste [LAW] and Idaho National Laboratory [INL] sodium-bearing waste [SBW]). By the Hanford baseline formulation method, the tolerated amount of sulfate in LAW is 0.77 wt% (as SO3) at the lowest soda contents, decreasing to 0.35 wt% at the highest soda contents. Roughly half of the Hanford LAW (on a glass mass basis) will be limited by sulfate tolerance of the glass melt. If the allowable concentrations of sulfate were to be increased only moderately, the cost and time required to vitrify the Hanford LAW would be significantly reduced.

  9. Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K.; Fox, K.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Aloy, A.; Trofimenko, A.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gerdes, K.D. [EM-21, Office of Waste Processing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Recent tank retrieval, blending, and treatment strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled-melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and Savannah River Site. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and glass durability. This paper summarizes the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in glass. In summary: Glasses with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading ranging from 25 to 27 wt% were formulated and tested at a crucible scale. Successful glass formulations with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that do not precipitate nepheline during CCC treatment and had spinel crystals 1 vol% or less after 24 hr heat treatment at 950 deg. C were obtained. The selected glass, HAL-17 with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, had viscosity and electrical conductivity within the boundaries for adequate processing in the Joule heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. This HAL-17 glass was successfully processed using small-scale (SMK) and larger scale (EP-5) melters. There was no indication of spinel settling during processing. The product glass samples from these melter tests contained 1 to 4 vol% spinel crystals that are likely formed during cooling. The PCT tests on the product glasses are underway. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to formulate the glasses with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that satisfy the property requirements and is processable with Joule-heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. The 'nepheline discriminator' for HAL-17 glass is 0.45, which supports that claim that the current rule ('nepheline discriminator' < 0.62) is too restrictive. Considering that the cost of HLW treatment is highly dependent on loading of waste in glass, this result provides a potential for significant cost saving for Hanford. The maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading that can be achieved will also depend on concentrations of other components in wastes. For example, the loading of waste used in this study was also limited by the spinel crystallization after 950 deg. C 24 hr heat treatment, which suggests that the concentrations of spinel-forming components such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, and MnO would be critical in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading achievable. The observed glass production rate per unit melter surface area of 0.75 MT/(d.m{sup 2}) for SMK test is comparable to the design capacity of WTP HLW melters at 0.8 MT/(d.m{sup 2}). However, the test with EP-5 melter achieved 0.38 MT/(d.m{sup 2}), which is roughly a half of the WTP design capacity. This result may imply that the glass with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may not achieve the WTP design production rate. However, this hypothesis is not conclusive because of unknown effects of melter size and operation

  10. Improved Load Plan Design Through Integer Programming Based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-21

    feasible solution, and the search for an improving solution is performed by solving ..... We model freight which enters the linehaul network at terminal u1 on day d1 as entering the ..... Set TERMS = array of top 25% of terminals with respect to Fd.

  11. Improved Static Resolution of Dynamic Class Loading in Java Jason Sawin Atanas Rountev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawin, Jason

    Improved Static Resolution of Dynamic Class Loading in Java Jason Sawin Atanas Rountev Ohio State. Unfor- tunately, the vast majority of static analyses for Java handle this feature either unsoundly or overly conser- vatively. We present a set of techniques for static reso- lution of dynamic

  12. Feasibility Studies on Disturbance Feedforward Techniques to Improve Wind Turbine Load Mitigation Performance: January 2009 -- January 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laks, J.H.; Dunne, F.; Pao, L. Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates disturbance feedforward and preview control to better understand the best possible improvement in load mitigation using advanced wind measurement techniques.

  13. Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xuesong

    1 Loading containers on double-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution-stack cars: Multi-objective optimization models and solution algorithms for improved safety and reduced maintenance cost Abstract To improve safety measures of loading containers on double-stack rail cars

  14. A Rolling Horizon Framework for Intermodal Loading Assignment to Improve Fuel Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    based on empirical data show significant aerodynamic efficiency benefits from these optimization models to counterbalance the effect of uncertainty. Appropriate weights are determined by simulations based on real data between Chicago and Los Angeles (LA). About 80% of the IM trains on this route are loaded or unloaded only

  15. Improvement of load-following capacity based on the flame radiation intensity signal in a power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei Wang; Qunxing Huang; Dong Liu; Jianhua Yan; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2008-05-15

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue due to the increasing commercialization of the power market. In the traditional boiler control system, the feedback signals come from the variations of the steam pressure and the steam flow, which leads to a large time delay. Therefore, a new method for the boiler control system based on radiation intensity for improving the load-following capacity of a coal-fired power plant has been developed in this paper. The system is implemented by adding the radiation intensity of the flame to the existing boiler control system as a complement. The radiation intensity obtained by the sensor can directly reflect the input heat in the boiler, with a faster response and higher sensitivity. Field tests on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant reveal that the improved boiler control system increases the load-following capacity. At the same time, the steam pressure variations are smaller as compared with those of the existing control system. 14 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for the Maskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ximan

    2006-01-01

    apertures of the pattern generator has been simulated in atracing code. New pattern generator design has been proposedfabricated pattern generator. Professor Ka-Ngo Leung Nuclear

  17. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Holland, G.; Hanada, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  18. Self-assembled nanoparticle surface patterning for improved digital image correlation in a scanning electron microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daly, Samantha

    of these techniques are expensive, require a cleanroom, or can only produce the pattern over small areas of the test, it is an inexpensive and fast patterning technique that does not require cleanroom access or specialized lithography

  19. Continuous Bayesian Network for Studying the Causal Links between Phosphorus Loading and Plankton Patterns in Lake Simcoe, Ontario,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    Patterns in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada Alexey Gudimov, Eavan O'Connor, Maria Dittrich, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M1C 1A4 Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada, L3Y 4X1 § Great Lakes Water Monitoring and Reporting Section, Ontario Ministry of the Environment

  20. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  1. Options for improving the load matching capability of distributed photovoltaics: Methodology and application to high-latitude data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Lund, Peter D.

    2009-11-15

    At high latitudes, domestic electricity demand and insolation are negatively correlated on both an annual and a diurnal basis. With increasing integration of distributed photovoltaics (PV) in low-voltage distribution grids of residential areas, limits to the penetration level are set by voltage rise due to unmatched production and load. In this paper a methodology for determining the impacts of three options for increased load matching is presented and applied to high-latitude data. The studied options are PV array orientation, demand side management (DSM) and electricity storage. Detailed models for domestic electricity demand and PV output are used. An optimisation approach is applied to find an optimal distribution of PV systems on different array orientations and a best-case evaluation of DSM and a storage model are implemented. At high penetration levels, storage is the most efficient option for maximising the solar fraction, but at lower overproduction levels, the impact of DSM is equal or slightly better. An east-west orientation of PV arrays is suggested for high penetration levels, but the effect of the optimised orientation is small. Without an optimised storage operation, the overproduced power is more efficiently reduced by DSM than storage, although this is highly dependent on the applied DSM algorithm. Further research should be focused on the DSM potential and optimal operation of storage. (author)

  2. Improving DOE-2's RESYS routine: User defined functions to provide more accurate part load energy use and humidity predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Hugh I.; Parker, Danny; Huang, Yu J.

    2000-01-01

    Hirsch & Associates. 1993. DOE-2 SUPPLEMENT, VERSION 2.1e.LBL34947. November DOE 1979. Test procedures for central airin the Proceedings. Improving DOE-2's RESYS Routine: User

  3. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Suilou; Schery, Stephen D.; Rodgers, John

    2000-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  4. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for theMaskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Ximan

    2006-05-18

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies have been studied. The dependence of the throughput with the exposure field size and the speed of the mechanical stage has been investigated. In order to perform maskless lithography, different micro-fabricated pattern generators have been developed for the MMRL system. Ion beamlet switching has been successfully demonstrated on the MMRL system. A positive bias voltage around 10 volts is sufficient to switch off the ion current on the micro-fabricated pattern generators. Some unexpected problems, such as the high-energy secondary electron radiations, have been discovered during the experimental investigation. Thermal and structural analysis indicates that the aperture displacement error induced by thermal expansion can satisfy the 3{delta} CD requirement for lithography nodes down to 25 nm. The cross-talking effect near the surface and inside the apertures of the pattern generator has been simulated in a 3-D ray-tracing code. New pattern generator design has been proposed to reduce the cross-talking effect. In order to eliminate the surface charging effect caused by the secondary electrons, a new beam-switching scheme in which the switching electrodes are immersed in the plasma has been demonstrated on a mechanically fabricated pattern generator.

  5. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  6. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  7. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, P.T. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (US); Rodgers, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-06-01

    'Improvement in understanding of the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (Environmental Continuous Air Monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAM''s with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions. As of May 1, 1998 (1/2 year into the project) the research-prototype 30-cm pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) is assembled and operational with an alpha particle energy resolution of better than 45 keV for 5-MeV alpha particles. Measurements of spectral resolution for alpha particles from radon decay products have been made as a function of filter type and dust loading conditions. So far, a study of ten filter types has found that the best combination of resolution and throughput is obtained with 3.0 \\265m Millipore fluoropore and 1.0 \\265m Corning FNMB filters. Experiments with gypsum and Portland cement dust in the size range 1 to 20 \\265m indicate significant degradation in alpha particle resolution for dust loading above about 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Study of metalized films for possible use as a PIC window indicate a minimum broadening of 5-MeV alpha particle peaks from 43 (no film) to 301 keV (with film) for AVR film type B8 (0.20 mg cm{sup -2} polycarbonate). A modified ECAM sampling head, equipped with an optical microscopy system feeding data to a high resolution video data capture and logging instrument, was constructed. This system will enable time-lapse study of dust build-up on ECAM filters and formation of dendrite structures that can reduce alpha-particle resolution.'

  8. Load Management Made Simple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.

    1985-01-01

    Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

  9. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors for each shift... The purpose of this paper is to analyze operating hours of small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in the United States and develop ranges of load factors for use as diagnostic tools for effective energy management. Load factor is defined...

  10. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  11. FINAL REPORT ON CONTROL ALGORITHM TO IMPROVE THE PARTIAL-LOAD EFFICIENCY OFSURFACE PM MACHINES WITH FRACTIONAL-SLOT CONCENTRATED WINDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, P.B.; Jahns, T.M.

    2007-04-30

    Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

  12. Final Report on Control Algorithm to Improve the Partial-Load Efficiency of Surface PM Machines with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, John W; Reddy, Patel; Jahns, Thomas M

    2007-05-01

    Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

  13. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  14. AIAA-2001-0044 Extreme Load Estimation for Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AIAA-2001-0044 Extreme Load Estimation for Wind Turbines: Issues and Opportunities for Improved design load estimation procedures for wind turbines often do not accurately treat the statistical nature of loads. Current practice for wind turbine load analysis is reviewed. The authors

  15. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  16. Load Management for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    categories: Thermal Energy Storage, Communication and Load Control, Interconnection and Operation of Power Systems, and Selective Load Promotions. The endeavors of the utility industry and Ohio Edison Company in three of the four categories are described...

  17. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  18. Using Whole-Building Electric Load Data in Continuous or Retro-Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-07-01

    Whole-building electric load data can often reveal problems with building equipment or operations. In this paper, we present methods for analyzing 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building operators, energy managers, and commissioning agents to better understand a building's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to 'ask the right questions' to discover opportunities for electricity waste elimination, energy efficiency, peak load management, and demand response. For example: Does the building use too much energy at night, or on hot days, or in the early evening? Knowing the answer to questions like these can help with retro-commissioning or continuous commissioning. The methods discussed here can also be used to assess how building energy performance varies with time. Comparing electric load before and after fixing equipment or changing operations can help verify that the fixes have the intended effect on energy consumption. Analysis methods discussed in this paper include: ways to graphically represent electric load data; the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads; and a regression-based electricity load model that accounts for both time of week and outdoor air temperature. The methods are illustrated by applying them to data from commercial buildings. We demonstrate the ability to recognize changes in building operation, and to quantify changes in energy performance. Some key findings are: 1) Plotting time series electric load data is useful for understanding electricity consumption patterns and changes to those patterns, but results may be misleading if data from different time intervals are not weather-normalized. 2) Parameter plots can highlight key features of electric load data and may be easier to interpret than plots of time series data themselves. 3) A time-of-week indicator variable (as compared to time-of-day and day-of-week indicator variables) improves the accuracy of regression models of electric load. 4) A piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence can be derived without the use of a change-point model (which would add complexity to the modeling algorithm) or assumptions about when structural changes occur (which could introduce inaccuracy). 5) A model that includes time-of-week and temperature dependence can be used for weather normalization and can determine whether the building is unusually temperature-sensitive, which can indicate problems with HVAC operation.

  19. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  20. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...

  1. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  2. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  3. Foam patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  4. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  5. USING LIGA BASED MICROFABRICATION TO IMPROVE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR: I. Effects of Different Micro Pattern on Overall Heat Transfer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.; Ibekwe, S.; Li, G.; Pang, S.S.; and Lian, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs in Figure 1) were originally developed for naval propulsion purposes, and then adapted to land-based applications. It has three parts: the reactor coolant system, the steam generator and the condenser. The Steam generator (a yellow area in Figure 1) is a shell and tube heat exchanger with high-pressure primary water passing through the tube side and lower pressure secondary feed water as well as steam passing through the shell side. Therefore, a key issue in increasing the efficiency of heat exchanger is to improve the design of steam generator, which is directly translated into economic benefits. The past research works show that the presence of a pin-fin array in a channel enhances the heat transfer significantly. Hence, using microfabrication techniques, such as LIGA, micro-molding or electroplating, some special microstructures can be fabricated around the tubes in the heat exchanger to increase the heat-exchanging efficiency and reduce the overall size of the heat-exchanger for the given heat transfer rates. In this paper, micro-pin fins of different densities made of SU-8 photoresist are fabricated and studied to evaluate overall heat transfer efficiency. The results show that there is an optimized micro pin-fin configuration that has the best overall heat transfer effects.

  6. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  7. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  8. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  9. Computational load in model physics of the parallel NCAR community climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalakes, J.G.; Nanjundiah, R.S.

    1994-11-01

    Maintaining a balance of computational load over processors is a crucial issue in parallel computing. For efficient parallel implementation, complex codes such as climate models need to be analyzed for load imbalances. In the present study we focus on the load imbalances in the physics portion of the community climate model`s (CCM2) distributed-memory parallel implementation on the Intel Touchstone DELTA computer. We note that the major source of load imbalance is the diurnal variation in the computation of solar radiation. Convective weather patterns also cause some load imbalance. Land-ocean contrast is seen to have little effect on computational load in the present version of the model.

  10. Adaptive Stack with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability, Reliability, and Durability under Automotive Load Cycle Adaptive Stack with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability, Reliability,...

  11. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  12. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  13. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  14. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  15. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  16. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  17. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  18. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  19. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  20. VIRTUAL TIME BASED DYNAMIC LOAD MANAGEMENT IN THE TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    VIRTUAL TIME BASED DYNAMIC LOAD MANAGEMENT IN THE TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM Peter L. Reiher Jet on parallel machines. Recently TWOS has been substantially improved by the addition of dynamic load management to processors. Because TWOS uses optimistic synchronization, existing load management theory, which tends

  1. Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Males, R.; Hassig, N.

    1981-01-01

    larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

  2. Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

    1999-01-01

    The CO-concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream.

  3. Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    The CO-concentration in the H{sub 2} feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel stream. 4 figs.

  4. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  5. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  6. An Analysis of Dual Zone Loading for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, William Christopher; Yim, Man-Sung

    2007-07-01

    The bumps current fuel assembly designs can achieve exceeds the fuel assembly burnups the current fleet of shipping casks can ship. One method of handling this situation which has been proposed is regionalized loading. This concept involves administratively separating the fuel basket of a shipping cask into two or more regions and loading fuel with different burnup, cooling times and enrichments into these regions. To evaluate how regionalized loading patterns might affect shipping spent nuclear fuel in comparison to uniform loading, a test case study was performed using fuel assemblies discharged from an actual nuclear plant and a shipping cask licensed by the NRC. Using the same fuel assemblies and shipping cask, results were obtained assuming a uniform loading pattern and compared to the results obtained assuming a dual zone loading pattern. Source terms for the analysis were generated using SAS2 and the dose levels were calculated using MCNPS. The analysis showed that the dual zone loading reduced the amount of time required to ship the given quantity of fuel by roughly thirty percent compared to the uniform loading. The average dose rate to the transportation workers and the public due to the implementation of dual zone loading increased. Implications of these increases are discussed. (authors)

  7. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  8. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  9. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  10. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  11. Effects of overstory composition and prescribed fire on fuel loading across a heterogeneous managed landscape in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    In the southeastern USA, land use history, forest management and natural geomorphic features have created heterogeneous fuel loads. This apparent temporal and spatial variation in fuel loads make it difficult to reliably assess potential fire behavior from remotely sensed canopy variables to determine risk and to prescribe treatments. We examined this variation by exploring the relationships between overstory forest vegetation attributes, recent fire history, and selected surface fuel components across an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape. Measurements of dead and live vegetation components of surface fuels were obtained from 624 permanent plots, or about 1 plot per 100 ha of forest cover. Within forest vegetation groups, we modeled the relationship between individual surface fuel components and overstory stand age, basal area, site quality and recent fire history, then stochastically predicted fuel loads across the landscape using the same linkage variables. The fraction of the plot variation, i.e., R2, explained by predictive models for individual fuel components ranged from 0.05 to 0.66 for dead fuels and 0.03 to 0.97 for live fuels in pine dominated vegetation groups. Stand age and basal area were generally more important than recent fire history for predicting fuel loads. Mapped fuel loads using these regressor variables showed a very heterogeneous landscape even at the scale of a few square kilometers. The mapped patterns corresponded to stand based forest management disturbances that are reflected in age, basal area, and fire history. Recent fire history was significant in explaining variation in litter and duff biomass. Stand basal area was positively and consistently related to dead fuel biomass in most groups and was present in many predictive equations. Patterns in live fuel biomass were related to recent fire history, but the patterns were not consistent among forest vegetation groups. Age and basal area were related to live fuels in a complex manner that is likely confounded with periodic disturbances that disrupt stand dynamics. This study complements earlier hazardous fuels research in the southeastern USA, and indicates that succession, disturbance, site quality and decomposition interact with forest management practices to create variable spatial and temporal conditions. The inclusion of additional land use, disturbance history, and soil-topographic variables coupled to improved sampling methods may increase precision and subsequent fuel mapping.

  12. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  13. Pattern Alteration: Principles of Pattern Alteration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-02-09

    This publication gives instructions on taking body measurements, measuring and altering pattern pieces, and checking the altered fit....

  14. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  15. Load Management - A Better Way 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows...

  16. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

    2009-06-28

    This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

  17. Quantum computing for pattern classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria Schuld; Ilya Sinayskiy; Francesco Petruccione

    2014-12-11

    It is well known that for certain tasks, quantum computing outperforms classical computing. A growing number of contributions try to use this advantage in order to improve or extend classical machine learning algorithms by methods of quantum information theory. This paper gives a brief introduction into quantum machine learning using the example of pattern classification. We introduce a quantum pattern classification algorithm that draws on Trugenberger's proposal for measuring the Hamming distance on a quantum computer (CA Trugenberger, Phys Rev Let 87, 2001) and discuss its advantages using handwritten digit recognition as from the MNIST database.

  18. Exploiting Flexibly Assignable Work to Improve Load Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinar, Ali

    - ences program, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research and performed at Sandia National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 apinar@lbl.gov Bruce Hendrickson Parallel Computing Sciences Department Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185­1110 bah@cs.sandia.gov ABSTRACT In many

  19. Improving shipboard maintenance practices using non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piber, Mark A. (Mark Augustin)

    2007-01-01

    (cont.) New casualty parameters were recorded and analyzed in an attempt to verify and expand on diagnostic software currently being developed for the vacuum aided sewage collection system. The analysis of the ships service ...

  20. A Dual Supply Buck Converter with Improved Light Load Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2013-05-02

    Power consumption is the primary concern in battery-operated portable applications. Buck converters have gained popularity in powering portable devices due to their compact size, good current delivery capability and high efficiency. However...

  1. Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    charge compression-ignition cycle. deer11dec.pdf More Documents & Publications HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine...

  2. Improved Lithium-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for Neutron Detection - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218 58 84 168 167Control -Innovation

  3. Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

  4. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  5. Phase front patterns in shape memory alloy strips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagoudas, D.C.; Howard, S.D. [Texas A& M Univ., TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Uniaxial thermomechanical tests of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Nitinol strips, below the austenitic start temperature, have shown the formation of multiple phase front patterns forming at approximately 45 degrees angle with respect to the applied load. These phase fronts, that separate self-accommodating martensitic variants from detwinned martensite, propagate along the specimen in the direction of applied load, until fully detwinned martensite is developed. Similar patterns of martensitic-austenitic phase fronts occur when the temperature is raised above austenitic finish, and uniaxial loading is applied to the strip specimens. An experimental study of this phenomenon, together with some preliminary modelling results will be presented. In contrast to the above uniform loading case, experimental results and numerical simulations for the propagation of a phase transformation front, induced by an imposed temperature gradient, will also be presented.

  6. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  7. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  8. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  9. The Greedy Exhaustive Dual Binary Swap methodology for fuel loading optimization in PWR reactors using the poropy reactor optimization Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haugen, Carl C. (Carl Christopher)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the development and analysis of a deterministic optimization scheme termed Greedy Exhaustive Dual Binary Swap for the optimization of nuclear reactor core loading patterns. The goal of this optimization ...

  10. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  11. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  12. Cointegration of the Daily Electric Power System Load and the Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanov, Stefan Z

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the cointegration of the daily electric power system load and the weather by a field intelligent system. The daily load has been modelled by dynamic regressions. A "Daily Artificial Dispather" thermal intelligent system has been costructed. Time and energy tests have been obtained for this intelligent system. The improvement in the daily load forecast, achieved by this intelligent system, has been obtained. The predicted daily electricity price has been found.

  13. SPE 173405-MS Assisted History Matching Using Pattern Recognition Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 173405-MS Assisted History Matching Using Pattern Recognition Technology Alireza Shahkarami of SPE copyright. Abstract This study aims to examine the application of pattern recognition technologies to improve the time and efforts required for completing a successful history matching project. The pattern

  14. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  15. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  16. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  17. {Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, William Jerome

    2010-01-01

    modeling and control of load management. Further, withoutA profit-based load management using linear programming”.with applica- tions to load management assessment and load

  18. Staying FIT: Efficient Load Shedding Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bottlenecks slow down processing and network transmission, and cause delayed outputs. Load management has been. Common load management techniques include adaptive load distribution, admis- sion control, and load

  19. Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol T.R. Meerburg , R.J. Boucherie , M.J.A.L. van objective is to guarantee safety, efficiency, and protection of the environment, that includes noise load contributes to the noise load at these points. If the cumulative load in an aviation year at an enforce- ment

  20. Motivational Design Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Chris

    2013-01-01

    1.5 Motivational design patterns . . . 1.5.1 Gameful3.2.3 Motivational design pattern definition . . . .3.2.42011). Gamification by Design: Im- plementing Game Mechanics

  1. Radio-frequency and microwave load comprising a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Everleigh, Carl A. (Raleigh, NC); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A billet of low-density carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) composite is machined into a desired attenuator or load element shape (usually tapering). The CBCF composite is used as a free-standing load element or, preferably, brazed to the copper, brass or aluminum components of coaxial transmission lines or microwave waveguides. A novel braze method was developed for the brazing step. The resulting attenuator and/or load devices are robust, relatively inexpensive, more easily fabricated, and have improved performance over conventional graded-coating loads.

  2. Radio-frequency and microwave load comprising a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Everleigh, C.A.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-04-21

    A billet of low-density carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) composite is machined into a desired attenuator or load element shape (usually tapering). The CBCF composite is used as a free-standing load element or, preferably, brazed to the copper, brass or aluminum components of coaxial transmission lines or microwave waveguides. A novel braze method was developed for the brazing step. The resulting attenuator and/or load devices are robust, relatively inexpensive, more easily fabricated, and have improved performance over conventional graded-coating loads. 9 figs.

  3. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis

  4. Scaling the Web Load Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Load Testing of Web Sites D evelopers typically measure a Web appli- cation on a Web site's IT infrastructure are a function of the site's expect- ed traffic. Ideally, you want, you shouldn't upgrade your Web servers if customers experience most delays in the database server

  5. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo, E-mail: guanjg@whut.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhai, Pengcheng [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7?mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple ?/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  6. Detailed End Use Load Modeling for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2010-04-09

    The field of distribution system analysis has made significant advances in the past ten years. It is now standard practice when performing a power flow simulation to use an algorithm that is capable of unbalanced per-phase analysis. Recent work has also focused on examining the need for time-series simulations instead of examining a single time period, i.e., peak loading. One area that still requires a significant amount of work is the proper modeling of end use loads. Currently it is common practice to use a simple load model consisting of a combination of constant power, constant impedance, and constant current elements. While this simple form of end use load modeling is sufficient for a single point in time, the exact model values are difficult to determine and it is inadequate for some time-series simulations. This paper will examine how to improve simple time invariant load models as well as develop multi-state time variant models.

  7. Beam-Loading Compensation for Super B-Factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teytelman, D.; /SLAC

    2005-12-14

    Super B-factory designs under consideration expect to reach luminosities in the 10{sup 35}-10{sup 36} range. The dramatic luminosity increase relative to the existing B-factories is achieved, in part, by raising the beam currents stored in the electron and positron rings. For such machines to succeed it is necessary to consider in the RF system design not only the gap voltage and beam power, but also the beam loading effects. The main effects are the synchronous phase transients due to the uneven ring filling patterns and the longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the fundamental impedance of the RF cavities. A systematic approach to predicting such effects and for optimizing the RF system design will be presented. Existing as well as promising new techniques for reducing the effects of heavy beam loading will be described and illustrated with examples from the PEP-II and the KEKB.

  8. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  9. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  10. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  11. Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forecast of 4) Calculate Hourly Load Allocation Factor s for each day for 2019 For use in RA analysis as a function ofthe load for electricity in the region as a function of cyclical, weather and economic variables

  12. Residential Load Management Program and Pilot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haverlah, D.; Riordon, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1986 LCRA embarked on residential load management to control peak summer loads. At that time, LCRA was considered a summer peaking utility, and residential air conditioning and water heating systems were selected for control. The program...

  13. Automated caching of behavioral patterns for efficient run-time monitoring Natalia Stakhanova1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Samik

    behavioral patterns can be a difficult, labor-intensive process, and (2) that use of such pattern behavior of malicious intruder [13]), or from a low-risk to a high-risk state (e.g., an un- expected load of users [7]). By providing early warning of possible, imminent risk in the dynamic execution envi- ronment

  14. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  15. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    -level crosswind loading on a square cross-section building. Reinhold et al.4 instrumented a building model

  16. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  17. Aalborg Universitet Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    the charging patterns of EV batteries, thus prolonging their lifetime and increasing the drivers' comfort levelAalborg Universitet Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

  18. Variability of Behaviour in Electricity Load Profile Clustering; Who Does Things at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Variability of Behaviour in Electricity Load Profile Clustering; Who Does Things at the Same Time://ima.ac.uk/dent 2 The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, UK Abstract. UK electricity market changes provide opportunities to alter households' electricity usage patterns for the benefit of the overall elec- tricity

  19. Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    for the same data. Two methods are described for forecasting daily peak loads up to one week ahead through, including generator unit commitment, hydro-thermal coordination, short-term maintenance, fuel allocation forecasting accuracies. STLF forecasting covers the daily peak load, total daily energy, and daily load curve

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  1. Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load Vsevolod V. Panteleenko and Vincent W. Freeh A modern web-hosting site is designed to handle load that is sometimes an order of magnitude greater than and performance study of the web booster architecture, which reduces web server load during peak periods. A web

  2. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  3. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  4. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  5. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    May 27-30, 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR12048 May 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FORfor increases in the building cooling load resulting from

  6. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  7. Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi; Nuzzo, Pierluigi; Iandola, Forrest; Kamgarpour, Maryam; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto; Tomlin, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Poweris to develop an optimal load management system based on thescheme where a high-level load management system receives as

  8. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Development Commission. Load Management in California. Staffon the Challenge of Load Management, Conservation Paper No.for Electric Utility Load Management. New York, New York:

  9. Visual cluster analysis and pattern recognition template and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.

    1999-05-04

    A method of clustering using a novel template to define a region of influence is disclosed. Using neighboring approximation methods, computation times can be significantly reduced. The template and method are applicable and improve pattern recognition techniques. 30 figs.

  10. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  11. Model Fidelity Study of Dynamic Transient Loads in a Wind Turbine Gearbox: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Moan, T.; Xing, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Transient events cause high loads in the drivetrain components so measuring and calculating these loads can improve confidence in drivetrain design. This paper studies the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative 750kW wind turbine gearbox response during transient events using a combined experimental and modeling approach. The transient events include emergency shut-downs and start-ups measured during a field testing period in 2009. The drivetrain model is established in the multibody simulation tool Simpack. A detailed study of modeling fidelity required for accurate load prediction is performed and results are compared against measured loads. A high fidelity model that includes shaft and housing flexibility and accurate bearing stiffnesses is important for the higher-speed stage bearing loads. Each of the transient events has different modeling requirements.

  12. Dynamic Load Balancing on Single- and Multi-GPU Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Long; Villa, Oreste; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gao, Guang R.

    2010-04-19

    The computational power provided by many-core graphics processing units (GPUs) has been exploited in many applications. The programming techniques supported and employed on these GPUs are not sufficient to address problems exhibiting irregular, and unbalanced workload. The problem is exacerbated when trying to effectively exploit multiple GPUs, which are commonly available in many modern systems. In this paper, we propose a task-based dynamic load-balancing solution for single- and multi-GPU systems. The solution allows load balancing at a finer granularity than what is supported in existing APIs such as NVIDIA’s CUDA. We evaluate our approach using both micro-benchmarks and a molecular dynamics application that exhibits significant load imbalance. Experimental results with a single-GPU configuration show that our fine-grained task solution can utilize the hardware more efficiently than the CUDA scheduler for unbalanced workload. On multi-GPU systems, our solution achieves near-linear speedup, load balance, and significant performance improvement over techniques based on standard CUDA APIs.

  13. Abstract--Power efficiency during heavy-and light-loading conditions in wireless portable applications is critical for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    and quiescent current flow during light loading conditions and (2) an adaptive PA bias-current generator1 Abstract-- Power efficiency during heavy- and light-loading conditions in wireless portable efficiency is improved with a 0.5-µm CMOS dynamically adaptive, dual-mode buck- boost power supply and bias

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Load Management for Electricity End Users 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The planning, design and implementation of load management is complex and expensive. The results of a load management program are subject to numerous uncertainties related to load characteristics, power cost savings, load management costs...

  15. Pattern Alteration: Large Abdomen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-08-04

    A large abdomen causes the hemline on a skirt to hike in front and pulls the side seam forward. This publication gives instructions on altering patterns for a basic skirt and pants....

  16. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  17. Corps Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    to mitigate environmental impacts of the proj- ect. The Corps? Fort Worth District and the City of Dallas are using an innovative approach to return floodplain value to the Trinity River, while improving flood damage reduction. Big Fossil Creek Watershed... flood damage; improve navigation channels and harbors; protect wetlands; and preserve, safeguard and enhance the environment. The Corps has been involved in the Trinity River Basin for more than 50 years, but the impetus for the current projects...

  18. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Statistical density modification can make use of local patterns of density found in protein structures to improve crystallographic phases. A method for improving crystallographic phases is presented that is based on the preferential occurrence of certain local patterns of electron density in macromolecular electron-density maps. The method focuses on the relationship between the value of electron density at a point in the map and the pattern of density surrounding this point. Patterns of density that can be superimposed by rotation about the central point are considered equivalent. Standard templates are created from experimental or model electron-density maps by clustering and averaging local patterns of electron density. The clustering is based on correlation coefficients after rotation to maximize the correlation. Experimental or model maps are also used to create histograms relating the value of electron density at the central point to the correlation coefficient of the density surrounding this point with each member of the set of standard patterns. These histograms are then used to estimate the electron density at each point in a new experimental electron-density map using the pattern of electron density at points surrounding that point and the correlation coefficient of this density to each of the set of standard templates, again after rotation to maximize the correlation. The method is strengthened by excluding any information from the point in question from both the templates and the local pattern of density in the calculation. A function based on the origin of the Patterson function is used to remove information about the electron density at the point in question from nearby electron density. This allows an estimation of the electron density at each point in a map, using only information from other points in the process. The resulting estimates of electron density are shown to have errors that are nearly independent of the errors in the original map using model data and templates calculated at a resolution of 2.6 Ĺ. Owing to this independence of errors, information from the new map can be combined in a simple fashion with information from the original map to create an improved map. An iterative phase-improvement process using this approach and other applications of the image-reconstruction method are described and applied to experimental data at resolutions ranging from 2.4 to 2.8 Ĺ.

  19. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  20. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  1. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Load Participation...

  2. The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Heavy duty diesel engine fuel economy is improved by lowering the viscosity of engine lubricant, especially when engine speed is increased or load is decreased, as in long distance on-highway driving

  3. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  4. Simulations of Alpha Wall Load in ITER. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2010-10-20

    The partially DOE funded International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will produce massive amounts of energetic charged alpha particles, which are imperfectly confined by a strong magnetic field. The wall of the experiment is designed to withstand an estimated wall load from these fusion alpha particles, but the accuracy of this estimate needs to be improved to avoid potentially catastrophic surprises when the experiment becomes operational. We have added a more accurate, gyro-dynamic model of particle motion to the existing drift-dynamic model in the DELTA5D simulation software used for the project. We have also added the ability to load a detailed engineering model of the wall and use it in the simulations.

  5. NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG OCTOBER 1999 #12;DISCLAIMER Government or any agency thereof. #12;GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG by General Atomics IR&D Funds GA PROJECT 4437 OCTOBER 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK

  6. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  7. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  8. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in Switzerland (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Decentralized customerlevel under frequency...

  9. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan

    2011-10-25

    Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.

  10. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  11. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  12. Pipette-friendly laminar flow patterning for cell-based assays Erwin Berthier, Jay Warrick, Ben Casavant and David J. Beebe*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, David J.

    destination for loaded fluid and balances the pressure applied to each branch for laminar flow patterningPipette-friendly laminar flow patterning for cell-based assays Erwin Berthier, Jay Warrick, Ben Laminar flow patterning (LFP) is a characteristic method of microfluidic systems that allows two (or more

  13. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hampden-Smith, M. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Kodas, T. T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto.

  14. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, R.R.; Ricco, A.J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto. 5 figures.

  15. Fixture for forming evaporative pattern (EPC) process patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Jordan, Ronald R. (Albany, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1993-01-01

    A method of casting metal using evaporative pattern casting process patterns in combination with a fixture for creating and maintaining a desired configuration in flexible patterns. A pattern is constructed and gently bent to the curvature of a suitable fixture. String or thin wire, which burns off during casting, is used to tie the pattern to the fixture. The fixture with pattern is dipped in a commercially available refractory wash to prevent metal adherence and sticking to the fixture. When the refractory wash is dry, the fixture and pattern are placed in a flask, and sand is added and compacted by vibration. The pattern remains in position, restrained by the fixture. Metal that is poured directly into the pattern replaces the pattern exactly but does not contact or weld to the fixture due to the protective refractory layer. When solid, the casting is easily separated from the fixture. The fixture can be cleaned for reuse in conventional casting cleaning equipment.

  16. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  17. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  18. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genčve, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  19. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  20. Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners John-frequency load pull tuners. Harmonic impedance control at the virtual drain is accomplished through the use the dramatic impact of varying 2nd harmonic termination. A 3rd harmonic termination is added to satisfy

  1. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  2. Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is allocated to generators in a power system. In these notes, we derive the proximity effect, the inertial, constant impedance loads, and the network reduced to generator internal nodes. This expression was: { }00

  3. Center for Diesel Research Potential Efficiency Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Center for Diesel Research Potential Efficiency Improvement by Accessory Load Reduction on Hybrid University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research #12;Center for Diesel Research Acknowledgements · Jeff;Center for Diesel Research Transit Energy Use and Cost · 633 M gallons diesel used for US transit in 2010

  4. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  5. NEWS & VIEWS PATTERN FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    no apologies for investing energy into problems of specific application to a particular process in nature, and having the curiosity to want to find out how they work. The general public, and especially children flow/surface growth system in a rarely explored region of parameter space for such pattern formation

  6. Pattern Alteration: Lengthening & Shortening 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-08-04

    Lengthening or shortening a pattern is often the only adjustment needed to correct fitting problems. This well-illustrated publication guides you through the steps to fix major fitting points associated with a garment that is too short or too long...

  7. 3.4 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT PATTERNS IN THE LOWER FRASER RIVER AND FRASER DELTA by Patrick McLaren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    81 3.4 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT PATTERNS IN THE LOWER FRASER RIVER AND FRASER DELTA 3.4 by Patrick Mc Division Environment Canada, Vancouver, B.C. SEDIMENT TRANSPORT PATTERNS IN THE LOWER FRASER RIVER AND FRASER DELTA The Fraser River delivers an estimated load of 17x106 t of sediment to the Fraser River

  8. Plug-Load Control and Behavioral Change Research in GSA Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Sheppy, M.

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) owns and leases over 354 million square feet (ft2) of space in over 9,600 buildings [1]. GSA is a leader among federal agencies in aggressively pursuing energy efficiency (EE) opportunities for its facilities and installing renewable energy (RE) systems to provide heating, cooling, and power to these facilities. According to several energy assessments of GSA's buildings conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), plug-loads account for approximately 21% of the total electricity consumed within a standard GSA Region 3 office building. This study aims to provide insight on how to effectively manage plug-load energy consumption and attain higher energy and cost savings for plug-loads. As GSA improves the efficiency of its building stock, plug-loads will become an even greater portion of its energy footprint.

  9. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system condition (e.g., forecast reserves fall below a threshold), rather than those triggered by price (e.g., real-time prices). Third, the report examines the status of the underlying metering, communication, and control technologies required to enable customer loads to participate in competitive electricity markets (Section 4). Following the three-part assessment, we offer preliminary thoughts on directions for future research (Section 5).

  10. UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    was initially devised to function with user-sited PV installations to maximize demand reduction. An efficient load reduction (middle). By shedding load in response to PV output and load requirements the SLC load control (DLC) enhancement. The aggregate of direct load controlled customers constitute a reliable

  11. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  12. A Framework of Short-Term Activity-Aware Load Forecasting Yong Ding, Martin Neumann and Michael Beigl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beigl, Michael

    the best use of electric energy and relieve the conflict between supply and demand [Niu et al., 2010]. However, inaccurate load forecasts will lead to not only monetary losses but also grid security losses), such as weather factors, climatic conditions, social activi- ties, and seasonal factors, past usage patterns

  13. Design of Pattern Matching Systems: Pattern, Algorithm, and Scanner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao

    2013-10-23

    Pattern matching is at the core of many computational problems, e.g., search engine, data mining, network security and information retrieval. In this dissertation, we target at the more complex patterns of regular expression ...

  14. Improvement of Sweep Efficiency in Gasflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore Mohanty

    2008-12-31

    Miscible and near-miscible gasflooding has proven to be one of the few cost effective enhance oil recovery techniques in the past twenty years. As the scope of gas flooding is being expanded to medium viscosity oils in shallow sands in Alaska and shallower reservoirs in the lower 48, there are questions about sweep efficiency in near-miscible regions. The goal of this research is to evaluate sweep efficiency of various gas flooding processes in a laboratory model and develop numerical tools to estimate their effectiveness in the field-scale. Quarter 5-spot experiments were conducted at reservoir pressure to evaluate the sweep efficiency of gas, WAG and foam floods. The quarter 5-spot model was used to model vapor extraction (VAPEX) experiments at the lab scale. A streamline-based compositional simulator and a commercial simulator (GEM) were used to model laboratory scale miscible floods and field-scale pattern floods. An equimolar mixture of NGL and lean gas is multicontact miscible with oil A at 1500 psi; ethane is a multicontact miscible solvent for oil B at pressures higher than 607 psi. WAG improves the microscopic displacement efficiency over continuous gas injection followed by waterflood in corefloods. WAG improves the oil recovery in the quarter 5-spot over the continuous gas injection followed by waterflood. As the WAG ratio increases from 1:2 to 2:1, the sweep efficiency in the 5-spot increases, from 39.6% to 65.9%. A decrease in the solvent amount lowers the oil recovery in WAG floods, but significantly higher amount of oil can be recovered with just 0.1 PV solvent injection over just waterflood. Use of a horizontal production well lowers the oil recovery over the vertical production well during WAG injection phase in this homogeneous 5-spot model. Estimated sweep efficiency decreases from 61.5% to 50.5%. In foam floods, as surfactant to gas slug size ratio increases from 1:10 to 1:1, oil recovery increases. In continuous gasflood VAPEX processes, as the distance between the injection well and production well decreases, the oil recovery and rate decreases in continuous gasflood VAPEX processes. Gravity override is observed for gas injection simulations in vertical (X-Z) cross-sections and 3-D quarter five spot patterns. Breakthrough recovery efficiency increases with the viscous-to-gravity ratio in the range of 1-100. The speed up for the streamline calculations alone is almost linear with the number of processors. The overall speed up factor is sub-linear because of the overhead time spent on the finite-difference calculation, inter-processor communication, and non-uniform processor load. Field-scale pattern simulations showed that recovery from gas and WAG floods depends on the vertical position of high permeability regions and k{sub v}/k{sub h} ratio. As the location of high permeability region moves down and k{sub v}/k{sub h} ratio decreases, oil recovery increases. There is less gravity override. The recovery from the field model is lower than that from the lab 5-spot model, but the effect of WAG ratio is similar.

  15. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  16. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Load and Time Dependent Software Rejuvenation Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telek, Miklós

    divided into design, coding and test­ ing phase. Traditionally, software quality improve­ mentModeling and Analysis of Load and Time Dependent Software Rejuvenation Policies S. Garg 1 , A running client­server type software systems by many clients, such software ``ages'' with time

  18. BIOMECHANICAL KIDNEY MODEL FOR PREDICTING TUMOR DISPLACEMENT IN THE PRESENCE OF EXTERNAL PRESSURE LOAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamarneh, Ghassan

    BIOMECHANICAL KIDNEY MODEL FOR PREDICTING TUMOR DISPLACEMENT IN THE PRESENCE OF EXTERNAL PRESSURE biomechanical model to simulate de- formations under additional external pressure load. A second CT scan that the biomechanical simula- tion improves by 29% the tumor localization. Index Terms-- Partial nephrectomy, image

  19. Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky Abstract This paper considers energy constrained routing pro- tocols and workload balancing techniques for improving MANET routing protocols and energy efficiency. We give new routing protocol

  20. Tackling the Load Uncertainty Challenges for Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    both users, by reducing their energy expenses, and utility companies, by improving the peak T Number of time slots a Nominal power of appliance a Ea Total required energy of appliance a a OperatingTackling the Load Uncertainty Challenges for Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid Pedram

  1. Bed-Material Load Computations for Nonuniform Sediments Baosheng Wu, M.ASCE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    Bed-Material Load Computations for Nonuniform Sediments Baosheng Wu, M.ASCE1 ; Albert Molinas, M developed for single particle sizes improves the accuracy of transport calculations for sediment mixtures.5. Sediment in transport also follows a lognormal distribution with a median diameter d50t generally finer

  2. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    model.   3.0 PV System Modeling Issues When modeling the PV systems in the electric  power electric grid.   4.0 Load Composition Data Tool 4.1. Introduction A power system model 

  3. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  4. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DETERMINING ELECTRIC MOTOR LOAD AND EFFICIENCY Most likely your operation's motors account for a large part of your monthly electric bill. Far too often motors are mismatched-or...

  5. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  6. Largest Ice-Bank Promotes Load Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brarmann, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    conservation measures were incorporated in the design of the new research facility, the ice-bank system has been the most cost-effective of the load management projects at Union Oil....

  7. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much disturbances is that modeling the voltage sensitivity of the load is far more important than the  frequency 

  8. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  9. Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

    1988-01-01

    custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. For example, the Load Profile Viewer is a PC-based software program for reviewing and validating the end-use load data....

  10. Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

    2008-01-01

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

  11. A three phase load flow algorithm for Shipboard Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina-Calder?on, M?onica M

    2003-01-01

    -Seidel and/or Newton Raphson techniques, were primarily developed for transmission system analysis. Distribution load flow analysis must incorporate its unique characteristics such as unbalanced loads, distributed loads, radial network structure, and one...

  12. Steady state load models for power system analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cresswell, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The last full review of load models used for power system studies occurred in the 1980s. Since then, new types of loads have been introduced and system load mix has changed considerably. The examples of newly introduced ...

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  14. Thickness effects on the plastic collapse of perforated plates with triangular penetration patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    2000-03-01

    This paper investigates the effects of plate thickness on the accuracy of limit load solutions obtained using an elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] equivalent solid [EQS] procedure for flat perforated plates with a triangular array of penetrations. The EQS approach for limit loads is based on an EQS collapse surface that is valid for generalized plane strain. This assumption is applicable for very thick plates but is known to be less reasonable for very thin plates where plane stress may be a better assumption. The limits of applicability of the generalized plane strain assumption are investigated by obtaining limit load solutions for perforated plates of various thicknesses that are subjected to in-plane and bending loads. Plastic limit load solutions obtained using three-dimensional EPP finite element analysis [FEA] of models which include each penetration explicitly are compared with solutions obtained using the EQS approximation. The penetration pattern chosen for this study has a ligament efficiency (ligament width-to-pitch ratio, h/P) of 0.32. For plates thicker than the pitch, the limit load calculated using the EQS method for both in-plane and bending loads is shown to be very accurate (within 4%) of the limit load calculated for the explicit model. On the other hand, for thin plates (t/P< 2), the EQS limit load is 5% greater than the explicit limit load for bending and 8% greater than the explicit limit load for in-plane loads. For thinner plates, the collapse surface is tied to the local geometry deformation and, hence, an equivalent solid plate representation of plastic collapse is a function of deformation mode and thickness.

  15. Does cellular aging relate to patterns of allostasis?. An examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    A recipe for accelerated cellular aging? Hormones (Athens).physbeh.2011.11.016. Does cellular aging relate to patternsAllostatic load; Telomere; Cellular aging; Stress; HPA axis

  16. Improved aethalometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.

    1988-01-25

    An improved aethalometer having a single light source and a single light detector and two light paths from the light source to the light detector. A quartz fiber filter is inserted in the device, the filter having a collection area in one light path and a reference area in the other light path. A gas flow path through the aethalometer housing allows ambient air to flow through the collection area of the filter so that aerosol particles can be collected on the filter. A rotating disk with an opening therethrough allows light for the light source to pass alternately through the two light paths. The voltage output of the detector is applied to a VCO and the VCO pulses for light transmission separately through the two light paths, are counted and compared to determine the absorption coefficient of the collected aerosol particles. 5 figs.

  17. Using Sequence Mining to Understand Daily Activity Patterns for Load Forecasting Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beigl, Michael

    Dynamic human activity is an important contributor to the varying local power consumption, particularly-time information around consumption and also influence of human activity information on power consumption [6], [7]. Therefore, insights into human activities and their correlations with power consumption can help power

  18. Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

  19. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  20. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting and Other Electric Loads Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads Compact fluorescent, light-emitting diode, and energy-saving incandescent light...

  1. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Loading by Distributed...

  2. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes This presentation was given at the...

  3. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  4. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    have been relaxed as third party load aggregators have developed and installed lower-cost communications equipment. These load aggregators targeted customers with small...

  5. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  6. Locality Aware Dynamic Load Management for Massively Multiplayer Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amza, Cristiana

    Locality Aware Dynamic Load Management for Massively Multiplayer Games Jin Chen Department with a dynamic load management algorithm enables us to better handle transient crowding by adaptively dispersing

  7. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

  8. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  9. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading...

  10. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  11. Improving Indoor Air Quality Improves the Performance of Office Work and School Work 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wargocki, P.

    2008-01-01

    strong incentive for providing indoor air of a quality that is better than the minimum levels required by present standards. IAQ can be improved by reducing the pollution load on the air by selecting low-polluting building and furnishing materials...

  12. Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Energy performance of LEED® for new construction buildings,The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification Gwen FuertesGreen Building Council for LEED certification. The study

  13. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  14. Mann 3600 Pattern Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoric Manhattan Project Sites inMann 3600 Pattern

  15. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

  16. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

  17. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  18. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  19. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  20. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  1. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  2. Modality Effects on Cognitive Load and Performance in High-Load Information Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    INTRODUCTION Intelligent human-computer interfaces are often multimodal, i.e. the human-computer communications into the modality planning procedure for systems that support high-load human-computer interaction. Author Keywords-load information presenta- tion scenario. Mainly based on modality-related psychology theories, we selected five

  3. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  4. Dimeric Drug Polymeric Nanoparticles with Exceptionally High Drug Loading and Quantitative Loading Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    Dimeric Drug Polymeric Nanoparticles with Exceptionally High Drug Loading and Quantitative LoadingChampaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education-molecule drugs in hydrophobic polymers or amphiphilic copolymers has been extensively used for preparing

  5. Experimental Study on Geocell-Reinforced Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Bases under Static and Cyclic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2011-01-13

    .1.2 Standard Proctor compaction curve of subgrade 94 Figure 5.1.3 CBR versus moisture content curve of subgrade 95 Figure 5.2.1 Schematic diagram for the set up of cyclic plate load test 96 Figure 5.2.2 Cyclic loading wave 97 Figure 5.2.3 Geotextile... and coastal protection, airfields, railroads, subgrade improvement, and reinforcement to base courses of road sections etc. since the 1970s. Today, there are many types of geosynthetic products (e.g., geogrid, geotextile, geocell, geomembrane, geonet...

  6. Longitudinal Bunch Pattern Measurements through Single Photon Counting at SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongyi; /UC, San Diego

    2012-09-07

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), a division of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is a synchrotron light source that provides x-rays for experimental use. As electrons are bent in the storage ring, they emit electromagnetic radiation. There are 372 different buckets which electrons can be loaded into. Different filling patterns produce different types of x-rays. What is the bunch pattern at a given time? Which filling pattern is better? Are there any flaws to the current injection system? These questions can be answered with this single photon counting experiment.

  7. PARAMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING WIND TURBINE FATIGUE LOADS FOR DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    1 PARAMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING WIND TURBINE FATIGUE LOADS FOR DESIGN Lance Manuel1 Paul S-4020 ABSTRACT International standards for wind turbine certification depend on finding long-term fatigue load loads. #12;2 INTRODUCTION Design constraints for wind turbine structures fall into either extreme load

  8. "Load Management Systems for Component-based Middleware"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, John

    "Load Management Systems for Component-based Middleware" Octavian Ciuhandu, B.E. Masters Management Services Characteristics . . . . . 26 3.3.2 Load Management Services Classification . . . . . . 28 3.3.3 Load Management Services Requirements . . . . . 30 3.3.4 Load Management Services Components

  9. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  10. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  11. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  12. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  13. Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity in California and the Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan H; Wiser, Ryan H; Fripp, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    Wind power production is variable, but also has diurnal and seasonal patterns. These patterns differ between sites, potentially making electric power from some wind sites more valuable for meeting customer loads or selling in wholesale power markets. This paper investigates whether the timing of wind significantly affects the value of electricity from sites in California and the Northwestern United States. We use both measured and modeled wind data and estimate the time-varying value of wind power with both financial and load-based metrics. We find that the potential difference in wholesale market value between better-correlated and poorly correlated wind sites is modest, on the order of 5-10 percent. A load-based metric, power production during the top 10 percent of peak load hours, varies more strongly between sites, suggesting that the capacity value of different wind projects could vary by as much as 50 percent based on the timing of wind alone.

  14. Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

  15. Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control Enrique Mallada Steven H. Low California prices to incentivize the users to adapt their consumption to the true cost of generation at the time to accept more readily a stochastically fluctuating energy source, such as wind or solar generation

  16. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  17. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  18. Exploiting Emerging Data for Enhanced Load Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Data for Enhanced Load Modeling Final Project Report Project Team Santiago Grijalva, Project Leader information about this project, contact Santiago Grijalva Van Leer E284 Georgia Tech 777 Atlantic Dr. N.W. E Kleitsch, American Transmission Company · Naim Logic, Salt River Project · Art Mander, Tri-State G

  19. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  20. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  1. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop was held October 25-26, 2011, in Washington, DC. This U.S. Department of Energy workshop was attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers. The results of the workshop informed the Demand Response and Energy Storage Study.

  2. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  3. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

  4. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  5. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  6. Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

  7. CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS Some recent progress in the patterning of crystalline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    of inversely replicated functional materials such as 3D ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials, which intensive studies aimed at improving the structural perfection and optical quality of colloidal crystals.[2, as these patterned structures are constituent parts in the construction of devices used in electronics, optics

  8. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  9. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzler, Dominik; Uppiredi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Li, Chen; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A.; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2015-11-13

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this study, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.

  10. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Metzler, Dominik; Uppiredi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Li, Chen; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A.; et al

    2015-11-13

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this study, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with thismore »work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.« less

  11. Ancillary-service details: regulation, load following, and generator response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine empirically these intrahour and interhour load changes and the responses of a utility`s generating resources to those load changes. We analyze data, primarily from one control area, to see how it maintains ACE close to zero in an effort to meet the A1 and A2 criteria. Overall, we estimate that load following costs US electric utilities over one billion dollars a year. We first test alternative ways to identify trends over multihour periods using both regression analysis and rolling averages. Then, we consider several metrics for intrahour load following. Next we examine characteristics of load following for different time-averaging periods and compare the dynamics of loads and load following generation across these time periods. Finally, we consider the contribution of each load to the total load following requirements of the control area.

  12. End-use load control for power system dynamic stability enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Winiarski, D.W.; Donnelly, M.K.

    1997-02-01

    Faced with the prospect of increasing utilization of the transmission and distribution infrastructure without significant upgrade, the domestic electric power utility industry is investing heavily in technologies to improve network dynamic performance through a program loosely referred to as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). Devices exploiting recent advances in power electronics are being installed in the power system to offset the need to construct new transmission lines. These devices collectively represent investment potential of several billion dollars over the next decade. A similar development, designed to curtail the peak loads and thus defer new transmission, distribution, and generation investment, falls under a category of technologies referred to as demand side management (DSM). A subset of broader conservation measures, DSM acts directly on the load to reduce peak consumption. DSM techniques include direct load control, in which a utility has the ability to curtail specific loads as conditions warrant. A novel approach has been conceived by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to combine the objectives of FACTS and the technologies inherent in DSM to provide a distributed power system dynamic controller. This technology has the potential to dramatically offset major investments in FACTS devices by using direct load control to achieve dynamic stability objectives. The potential value of distributed versus centralized grid modulation has been examined by simulating the western power grid under extreme loading conditions. In these simulations, a scenario is analyzed in which active grid stabilization enables power imports into the southern California region to be increased several hundred megawatts beyond present limitations. Modeling results show distributed load control is up to 30 percent more effective than traditional centralized control schemes in achieving grid stability.

  13. Pattern Alteration: Bodice Back Width 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-03-24

    If the back bodice of a garment is too tight or too loose because of a wide or narrow back, the pattern can be altered to make the garment fit better. This publication gives instructions on altering the bodice back width of patterns to solve...

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  15. Residential hybrid power for load leveling and efficiency gains: A concept overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Mubayi, V.; Salzano, F.

    1986-04-01

    In this new concept, a local direct current (DC) power distribution system for residential consumers is proposed for its advantages to both the utility and its customers. The DC distribution is limited to the short spans emanating from the residential power terminal. Alternating current power is maintained for its transmission advantages to the load center of the residence and is there converted to low voltage direct current for distribution in the house. This approach used in combination with electronically monitored appliance-resident electrical storage constitutes the basics of a new system that promises greatly improved load management and higher operating efficiency. The objective in this concept is to make the residential customer look like a quasi-steady state power consumer with the additional option for load shedding without any disturbance in service. Even utilities with a good overall match between supply and demand can benefit from this new approach and cut operating cost by redistributing demand more evenly throughout the hours of the day. The basic object is to improve the utility load curves by smoothing out the peaks and valleys of customer demand without resorting to the complex assorted options being considered today.

  16. Patterning by area selective oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Kamcev, Jovan; Black, Charles T.; Grubbs, Robert

    2015-12-29

    Technologies are described for methods for producing a pattern of a material on a substrate. The methods may comprise receiving a patterned block copolymer on a substrate. The patterned block copolymer may include a first polymer block domain and a second polymer block domain. The method may comprise exposing the patterned block copolymer to a light effective to oxidize the first polymer block domain in the patterned block copolymer. The method may comprise applying a precursor to the block copolymer. The precursor may infuse into the oxidized first polymer block domain and generate the material. The method may comprise applying a removal agent to the block copolymer. The removal agent may be effective to remove the first polymer block domain and the second polymer block domain from the substrate, and may not be effective to remove the material in the oxidized first polymer block domain.

  17. Method of patterning an aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Scott T.

    2012-07-24

    A method for producing a pattern in an aerogel disposed as a coating on a substrate comprises exposing the aerogel coating to the vapors of a hydrophobic silane compound, masking the aerogel coating with a shadow photomask and irradiating the aerogel coating with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The exposure to UV through the shadow mask creates a pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the aerogel coating. Etching away the hydrophilic regions of the aerogel coating, preferably with a 1 molar solution of sodium hydroxide, leaves the unwetted and unetched hydrophobic regions of the aerogel layer on the substrate, replicating the pattern of the photomask. The hydrophobic aerogel pattern can be further exposed to UV irradiation if desired, to create a hydrophilic aerogel pattern.

  18. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Finding Patterns in Behavioral Observations by Automatically Labeling Forms of Wikiwork in Barnstars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, David W.

    Finding Patterns in Behavioral Observations by Automatically Labeling Forms of Wikiwork everyday behavioral observations to develop tools that could improve understanding and sense making behavioral observations; observations that people make of those around them. In a large online community

  20. A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.

    1992-01-01

    TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs minimized. Because of the difficully..., oversizing is usually unwarranted and ultimately leads to ineffi-eiency and energy waste. This paper ex.amines methods to determine underloaded motor operdtion and presents an evaluation of the savings afforded by properly sizing of motors. MOTOR...

  1. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  2. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  3. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01

    V) are transi- tion metal oxides or sulfides on an alumina support. These catalysts were not specifically developed for hydrodenitrogenaiion but were adopted from hydrocracking or hydrodesul- furization (HDS) processes. HDN is more difficult than HDS; thus... No. ;&778365, "Hydrocracking and Hydrodenitrogenation of Shale Oil" (7). The patent disclosed a class of catalysi. s based on large pore zeolites loaded v;ith transition metals. The zeolite based catalysts were preferred over the traditional alumina...

  4. Loading Relativistic Maxwell Distributions in Particle Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ${\\approx}50\\%$ for generic cases and $100\\%$ for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  5. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01

    and medium size dairy operations unless the pro- cess can be made more efficient or some other economic benefit can be derived from the manure. A recent study indicated that a batch load process might be more efficient in waste stabilization and biogas... rate of biogas production was 0. 69 liters biogas/liter digester/ day. This volumetric biogas production increased with increasing influent total solids concentration. Influent concentration had little effect on other biogas production parameters...

  6. Proppant Fracture Conductivity with High Proppant Loading and High Closure Stress 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivers, Matthew Charles

    2011-08-08

    conditions. Proppant performance and fracture fluids, which carry the proppant into the fracture, and their subsequent clean-up during production, were studied. High strength proppant is ideal for deep fracture stimulations and in this study different... proppant loadings at different stresses were tested to see the impact of crushing and fracture width reduction on fracture conductivity. The preliminary test results indicated that oil at reservoir conditions improves clean-up of fracture fluid left...

  7. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  8. Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available September 25, 2014 - 11:43am Addthis OE's...

  9. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  10. Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    load management has been implemented already. Additional load management is possible; however, optimizing it will require close industry and electric utility company cooperation to develop new incentives and rate structures to make it economically...

  11. Load Management and Houston Lighting and Power Co. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drawe, R. G.; Ramsay, I. M.

    1984-01-01

    Defining Load Management as influencing of customer loads in order to shift the time use of electric power and energy, encompasses a broad spectrum of activities at Houston Lighting & Power Company. This paper describes those activities by directing...

  12. Calculation of Extreme Wave Loads on Coastal Highway Bridges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Bo

    2010-01-14

    Coastal bridges are exposed to severe wave, current and wind forces during a hurricane. Most coastal bridges are not designed to resist wave loads in such extreme situations, and there are no existing analytical methods to calculate wave loads...

  13. Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  15. Suspended sediment load studies of the Brazos River between Waco and Richmond, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadhwa, Nand P

    1961-01-01

    of the clay- sized fraction in the suspended sediment load, 70 Figure 17m Typical X-Ray diffraction patterns of the clay- sized fraction in the bank sediment. 74 ACKN OWLE D lR iEN TS The writer wishes to extend his appreciation to Mr. S. A. Lynch, Head... or tractive force of the stream exerted on the boundaries of the channels and are moved upward by momentary upward eddy curren+s. The upward movement is coun+eracted by the force of gravity, which tends to settle the particles and by momer'tary downward...

  16. PATTERNS OF PRIMARY MOULT IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, Marienne

    : primary moult and the rainfall migration model ...................................................... 73 species, migration. Ringers in southern Africa have been submitting primary moult data to SAFRINGi PATTERNS OF PRIMARY MOULT IN THE WEAVERS, PLOCEIDAE Hans-Dieter Oschadleus Thesis Presented

  17. Bayesian recursive data pattern tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Mikhalychev; Dmitri Mogilevtsev; Yong Siah Teo; Jaroslav Rehacek; Zdenek Hradil

    2015-11-05

    We present a simple and efficient Bayesian recursive algorithm for the data-pattern scheme for quantum state reconstruction, which is applicable to situations where measurement settings can be controllably varied efficiently. The algorithm predicts the best measurements required to accurately reconstruct the unknown signal state in terms of a fixed set of probe states. In each iterative step, this algorithm seeks the measurement setting that minimizes the variance of the data-pattern estimator, which essentially measures the reconstruction accuracy, with the help of a data-pattern bank that was acquired prior to the signal reconstruction. We show that with this algorithm, it is possible to minimize the number of measurement settings required to obtain a reasonably accurate state estimator by using just the optimal settings and, at the same time, increasing the numerical efficiency of the data-pattern reconstruction.

  18. Shelf circulation patterns off Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rider, Kelly Elizabeth

    2005-08-29

    Little has been published about the shelf circulation off the coast of Nigeria. Due to increased activity and associated incidents in the shallow waters offshore Nigeria, there is a need to more clearly define the near-shore circulation patterns...

  19. Wing Patterns in the Mist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Arnaud; Kapan, Durrell D; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2010-01-01

    wing patterns: an evo-devo model for understanding2007) The locus of evolution: evo devo and the genetics ofa revolution in this age of evo-devo and genomics [3]. Among

  20. I. Introduction Equivalent loading of induction machines are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabados, Barna

    phase synchronous machine. If the synchronous machine had a rotor with two windings with a spacial phaseI. Introduction Equivalent loading of induction machines are used to test machines for temperature loading tests, lead to the conclusion that synthetic loading is a viable simple test for large machines

  1. Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data,itiscommontoeithercarry out extensive simulation studies or undertake a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind here is to estimate extreme loads for an offshore wind turbine for which the environmental and load

  2. AIAA980057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    AIAA­98­0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH MULTIPLE that is most useful in estimating fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. The histograms of rainflow counted for flapwise loads on three horizontal axis wind tur­ bines(HAWTs). In the case of two of these turbines

  3. Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method Korn Saranyasoontorn, TX 78712 When interest is in establishing ultimate design loads for wind turbines such that a service). The parametric conditional load distri- butions require extensive turbine response simulations over the entire

  4. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    data. Ideally the method should be validated or updated with 1- second load data from the region-15-minute variability estimates for modeling dynamic load profiles. An autoregressive, AR(1) functionHigh-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling Andrew Pohl, Jay

  5. Lifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haenggi, Martin

    , battery depletion is emulated so that it becomes possible to actually measure the load balancingLifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks Daniele Puccinelli network. The use of load balancing schemes can be expected to provide significant lifetime benefits

  6. Stress and Cognitive Load in Multimodal Conversational Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    Stress and Cognitive Load in Multimodal Conversational Interactions Andreea Niculescu, Yujia Cao conversational interactions is determined by many influence parameters. Stress and cognitive load are two of them. In order to assess the impact of stress and cognitive load on the perceived conversational quality

  7. Automatic Intra-Application Load Balancing for Heterogeneous Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wei

    Automatic Intra-Application Load Balancing for Heterogeneous Systems Michael Boyer, Shuai Che AMD #12;2 | Automatic Intra-Application Load Balancing | June 14, 2011 Motivation Many applications;3 | Automatic Intra-Application Load Balancing | June 14, 2011 Leveraging Multiple Devices Writing correct

  8. Forecasting Hourly Electricity Load Profile Using Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koprinska, Irena

    Forecasting Hourly Electricity Load Profile Using Neural Networks Mashud Rana and Irena Koprinska--We present INN, a new approach for predicting the hourly electricity load profile for the next day from a time series of previous electricity loads. It uses an iterative methodology to make the predictions

  9. Monolithic pattern-sensitive detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet light (EUV) is detected using a precisely defined reference pattern formed over a shallow junction photodiode. The reference pattern is formed in an EUV absorber preferably comprising nickel or other material having EUV- and other spectral region attenuating characteristics. An EUV-transmissive energy filter is disposed between a passivation oxide layer of the photodiode and the EUV transmissive energy filter. The device is monolithically formed to provide robustness and compactness.

  10. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto, E-mail: a.striolo@ucl.ac.uk [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States) [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-28

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  11. Locality-Aware Randomized Load Balancing Algorithms for DHT Networks Haiying Shen and Cheng-Zhong Xu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    construction and main- tenance, these locality-aware algorithms can hardly deal with DHTs with churn of proximity to deal with the DHT churn. We further improve the randomized load balancing efficiency by d with churn, it performs no worse than the best churn resilient algorithm. 1 Introduction Over the past years

  12. Improving the Contribution of Economic Models in Evaluating Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laitner, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional representation of improved end-use efficiency in the manufacturing sector has tended to assume “a net cost” perspective. In other words, the assumption for many models is that any change within the energy end-use patterns must imply a...

  13. Software Aesthetics: tools and patterns of hypertext 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-09-30

    -rate days, a wave pattern is identified that is characteristic of high rain events. This wave pattern is then compared to the patterns of variability of brightness temperature using empirical orthogonal functions. A linear regression technique is used...

  14. Improving Work Flow Reliability Proceedings IGLC-7 275

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    , load, productivity, project planning and control, reliability, throughput, variability. 1 Director driven for speed. The production plans of upstream PUs is one source of information regarding work flow to significantly improve project performance because it allows the application of planning to production. If you

  15. Transformer Thermal Modeling: Improving Reliability Using Data Quality Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Transformer Thermal Modeling: Improving Reliability Using Data Quality Control Daniel J. Tylavsky--Eventually all large transformers will be dynamically loaded using models updated regularly from field measured data. Models obtained from measured data give more accurate results than models based on transformer

  16. Rotordynamic coefficients for a load-between-pad, flexible-pivot tilting pad bearing at high loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensley, John Eric

    2006-10-30

    The dynamic and static performance of a flexure-pivot tilting pad bearing is presented at a load between pad configuration for various load and speed combinations. A similar work performed on the same bearing at lower loads ranging from 0-1 MPa (0...

  17. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01

    Subject: Civil EnEineering LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SANDS SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING A Thesis by Gary N. Reeves Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department Membe Me er August 1967 ACIINOWLEDGR&J. 'NTS I... am indebted to Dz. II. M. Coylc ior his advice and guidan& e while serving as chairman of my Graduate Advisory Cormaii tcc. Grati- tude is also expressed to Dr. T. J. I:irsch for his suggestions and assistance, and to Dr. J. R. Runkles, both...

  18. Customer Load Eligibility Guidelines (CLEG), April 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding inCustomer-Comments Sign In About | CUSTOMER LOAD

  19. electric load data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan)data book Home Graham7781's picturedownloadelectric load

  20. Tackling Optimization Challenges in Industrial Load Control and Full-Duplex Radios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gholian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    xii List of Tables Industrial vs. residential loadII Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid 3and Related Work 4 Basic Industrial Load Control: A Case

  1. Experimental comparison of zone cooling load between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    be used for radiant system cooling load, which should beKeyword Radiant Cooling System, Cooling load, Air system,guidance on radiant system cooling load prediction and

  2. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter J.; Cooley, Kevin M.; Kirkham, Melanie J.; Bansal, Dinesh G.

    2012-09-20

    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  3. Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads.

  4. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  5. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  6. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Space sample light image Image Space lens Angular Space Q 4p sin(q) l Fourier Transform Scattering Pattern Fourier Transform Phase Problem Scattering Pattern...

  7. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a patterned structure on a longer mesoscopic length scale. One way for this pattern to emerge from building blocks that are nominally random and disordered is through hidden...

  8. Improved Battery Models of an Aggregation of Thermostatically Controlled Loads for Frequency Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    Integration and Regulating Reserve Service Vast and deep integration of renewable energy resources into the existing power grid is essential in achieving the envi- sioned sustainable energy future. Environmental, stochasticity, and intermittency characteristics of renewable energies, however, present challenges

  9. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster will describe preliminary emission results of gasoline/diesel RCCI in a medium-duty diesel engine.

  10. Improved Current and Charge Amplifiers for Driving Piezoelectric Loads, and Issues in Signal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    -Hertz range can be achieved. One application for such a device is the synthesis of piezoelectric shunt damping, transformations, implementation INTRODUCTION PIEZOELECTRIC transducers have found countless applications). One common theme across the diverse literature involving piezoelectric applications is the problem

  11. Improving energy efficiency in a pharmaceutical manufacturing environment : analysis of EUI and cooling load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Haoyu

    2009-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption without compromising the quality of products and the comfort of occupants is important in maintaining the competence of a pharmaceutical company. An energy management tool is developed to monitor ...

  12. A Dual-Supply Buck Converter with Improved Light-Load Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chao

    2012-07-16

    Power consumption and device size have been placed at the primary concerns for battery-operated portable applications. Switching converters gain popularity in powering portable devices due to their high efficiency, compact sizes and high current...

  13. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impactsand engineersAcquisition Office of Energy Efficiency

  14. Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingREnergy

  15. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott

    2011-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  16. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  17. Submicron patterned metal hole etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR); Liberman, Vladimir (Needham, MA); Morse, Jeffrey (Martinez, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A wet chemical process for etching submicron patterned holes in thin metal layers using electrochemical etching with the aid of a wetting agent. In this process, the processed wafer to be etched is immersed in a wetting agent, such as methanol, for a few seconds prior to inserting the processed wafer into an electrochemical etching setup, with the wafer maintained horizontal during transfer to maintain a film of methanol covering the patterned areas. The electrochemical etching setup includes a tube which seals the edges of the wafer preventing loss of the methanol. An electrolyte composed of 4:1 water: sulfuric is poured into the tube and the electrolyte replaces the wetting agent in the patterned holes. A working electrode is attached to a metal layer of the wafer, with reference and counter electrodes inserted in the electrolyte with all electrodes connected to a potentiostat. A single pulse on the counter electrode, such as a 100 ms pulse at +10.2 volts, is used to excite the electrochemical circuit and perform the etch. The process produces uniform etching of the patterned holes in the metal layers, such as chromium and molybdenum of the wafer without adversely effecting the patterned mask.

  18. Out of band radiation effects on resist patterning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Simi A .; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2011-03-11

    Our previous work estimated the expected out-of-band (OOB) flare contribution at the wafer level assuming that there is a given amount of OOB at the collector focus. We found that the OOB effects are wavelength, resist, and pattern dependent. In this paper, results from rigorous patterning evaluation of multiple OOB-exposed resists using the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3-NA MET are presented. A controlled amount of OOB is applied to the resist films before patterning is completed with the MET. LER and process performance above the resolution limit and at the resolution limits are evaluated and presented. The results typically show a negative impact on LER and process performance after the OOB exposures except in the case of single resist formulation, where resolution and performance improvement was observed.

  19. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction techniques for bulk polycrystalline materials under dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, P. K.; Hustedt, C. J.; Zhao, M.; Ananiadis, A. G.; Hufnagel, T. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Vecchio, K. S. [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Huskins, E. L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Casem, D. T. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Gruner, S. M. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tate, M. W.; Philipp, H. T.; Purohit, P.; Weiss, J. T. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Woll, A. R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kannan, V.; Ramesh, K. T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kenesei, P.; Okasinski, J. S.; Almer, J. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We have developed two techniques for time-resolved x-ray diffraction from bulk polycrystalline materials during dynamic loading. In the first technique, we synchronize a fast detector with loading of samples at strain rates of ?10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} s{sup ?1} in a compression Kolsky bar (split Hopkinson pressure bar) apparatus to obtain in situ diffraction patterns with exposures as short as 70 ns. This approach employs moderate x-ray energies (10–20 keV) and is well suited to weakly absorbing materials such as magnesium alloys. The second technique is useful for more strongly absorbing materials, and uses high-energy x-rays (86 keV) and a fast shutter synchronized with the Kolsky bar to produce short (?40??s) pulses timed with the arrival of the strain pulse at the specimen, recording the diffraction pattern on a large-format amorphous silicon detector. For both techniques we present sample data demonstrating the ability of these techniques to characterize elastic strains and polycrystalline texture as a function of time during high-rate deformation.

  20. Lighten Your Load...productwatch Using Geofoams to Reduce Structural Design Loads from the Ground

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, John S.

    - and roof- 8 insulation material. You can now add to these myriad consumer and structural uses the fact gravity and seismic loads. Perhaps most importantly, EPS geofoam has proven to be cost effective for both thermal insulation plus one or more others) can be obtained from one geofoam product which enhances

  1. Techniques for comparison, pattern matching and pattern discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, David

    and Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS2 9JT, U.K. (3) Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Latvia, Latvia Abstract. In this chapter we review techniques for sequence over sequences and distinguish pattern matching from string comparison, reviewing the use of dynamic

  2. Loading and Regeneration Analysis of a Diesel Particulate Filter with a Radio Frequency-Based Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sappok, Alex; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF soot levels and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based soot emission measurement instrument (TEOM). Comparison with pressure drop measurements show the RF technique is unaffected by exhaust flow variations and exhibits a high degree of sensitivity to DPF soot loading and good dynamic response. Additional computational and experimental work further illustrates the spatial resolution of the RF measurements. Based on the experimental results, the RF technique shows significant promise for improving DPF control enabling optimization of the combined engine-aftertreatment system for improved fuel economy and extended DPF service life.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controls, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Most of Chicago’s older multifamily housing stock is heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. The cost of heat is typically absorbed into the owner’s operating cost and is then passed to tenants. Central boilers typically have long service lifetimes; the incentive for retrofit system efficiency upgrades is greater than equipment replacement for the efficiency-minded owner. System improvements as the “low-hanging fruit” are familiar, from improved pipe insulation to aftermarket controls such as outdoor temperature reset (OTR) or lead/lag controllers for sites with multiple boilers. Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. In this project, the Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) installed and monitored an ALM aftermarket controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at two Chicago area multifamily buildings with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are oversized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also, savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, oversized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less oversized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  4. Auxiliary Cooling Loads in Passively Cooled Buildings: An Experimental Research Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairey, P.; Vieira, R.; Chandra, S.; Kerestecioglu, A.; Kalaghchy, S.

    1984-01-01

    Currently accepted methods of passive cooling offset only sensible building loads. In the warm, humid southeastern gulf coast climates the latent building load can comprise 35% of the building load in the typical residence. As the sensible load...

  5. A fast map-making preconditioner for regular scanning patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nćss, Sigurd K.; Louis, Thibaut E-mail: thibaut.louis@astro.ox.ac.uk

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution Maximum Likelihood map-making of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually performed using Conjugate Gradients with a preconditioner that ignores noise correlations. We here present a new preconditioner that approximates the map noise covariance as circulant, and show that this results in a speedup of up to 400% for a realistic scanning pattern from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The improvement is especially large for polarized maps.

  6. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  7. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  8. Optically Loaded Semiconductor Quantum Memory Register

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danny Kim; Andrey A. Kiselev; Richard S. Ross; Matthew T. Rakher; Cody Jones; Thaddeus D. Ladd

    2015-07-30

    We propose and analyze an optically loaded quantum memory exploiting capacitive coupling between self-assembled quantum dot molecules and electrically gated quantum dot molecules. The self-assembled dots are used for spin-photon entanglement, which is transferred to the gated dots for long-term storage or processing via a teleportation process heralded by single-photon detection. We illustrate a device architecture enabling this interaction and we outline its operation and fabrication. We provide self-consistent Poisson-Schroedinger simulations to establish the design viability and refine the design, and to estimate the physical coupling parameters and their sensitivities to dot placement. The device we propose generates heralded copies of an entangled state between a photonic qubit and a solid-state qubit with a rapid reset time upon failure. The resulting fast rate of entanglement generation is of high utility for heralded quantum networking scenarios involving lossy optical channels.

  9. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  10. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1988-03-15

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  11. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1989-04-18

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are doweled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  12. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, John R. (Overland Park, KS)

    1989-04-18

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector.

  13. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, Jongsung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hongseob [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa1-dong, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: opera69@chollian.net

    2005-07-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel.

  14. From the Academy Body patterning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Nipam H.

    Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 Early patterning of the body during animal development is a fundamental process neural network, respectively. When we plan a new house, we first fashion a blueprint indicating animal) begins with a fertilized egg, and through proliferation, this single cell becomes many. This mass

  15. Measuring Cognitive Load in Multimedia Instruction: A Comparison of Two Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management of such loads. The three types of load identified by CLT include intrinsic load, germane loadMeasuring Cognitive Load in Multimedia Instruction: A Comparison of Two Instruments David Windell March, 2007 Abstract The current study looks to review two popular self-report measures (NASA Task Load

  16. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  19. Relative importance of multiple factors on terrestrial loading of DOC to Arctic river networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kicklighter, David W.; Hayes, Daniel J; Mcclelland, James W; Peterson, Bruce; Mcguire, David; Melillo, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western Russia.

  20. Strain rate and inertial effects on impact loaded single-edge notch bend specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, P.M.; Dodds, R.H. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Many problems in fracture mechanics of ductile metals involve surface breaking defects located in structures subjected to impact or blast. When the severity of impact loads is sufficient to produce large inelastic deformations, the assessment of crack-tip conditions must include the effects of plasticity, strain rate and inertia. This work examines the interaction of impact loading, inelastic material deformation and rate sensitivity with the goal of improving the interpretation of ductile fracture toughness values measured under dynamic loading. The authors focus on shallow and deeply notched bend test specimens, SE(B)s, employed routinely to measure the static fracture toughness of a material. A thorough understanding of the test specimen`s dynamic behavior is a prerequisite to the application of measured fracture properties in structural applications. Three-dimensional, nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed for SE(B) fracture specimens subjected to impact loading. Loading rates obtained in conventional drop tower tests are applied in the analyses. An explicit time integration procedure coupled with an efficient (one-point) element integration scheme is employed to compute the dynamic response of the specimen. Strain-rate sensitivity is introduced via a new, efficient implementation of the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive model. Material properties for A533B steel are used in the analyses. Static analyses of the SE(B) specimens provide baseline responses for assessment of inertial effects. Similarly, dynamic analyses using a strain-rate insensitive material provide reference responses for the assessment of strain rate effects. Strains at key locations on the specimens and the support reactions are extracted from the analyses to assess the accuracy of static formulas commonly used to estimate applied J values. Inertial effects on the applied J are quantified by examining the acceleration component of J evaluated through a domain integral procedure.

  1. Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Eto, J.H.

    2010-12-20

    In this study we develop and apply new methods of data analysis for high resolution wind power and system load time series, to improve our understanding of how to characterize highly variable wind power output and the correlations between wind power and load. These methods are applied to wind and load data from the ERCOT region, and wind power output from the PJM and NYISO areas. We use a wavelet transform to apply mathematically well-defined operations of smoothing and differencing to the time series data. This approach produces a set of time series of the changes in wind power and load (or ?deltas?), over a range of times scales from a few seconds to approximately one hour. A number of statistical measures of these time series are calculated. We present sample distributions, and devise a method for fitting the empirical distribution shape in the tails. We also evaluate the degree of serial correlation, and linear correlation between wind and load. Our examination of the data shows clearly that the deltas do not follow a Gaussian shape; the distribution is exponential near the center and appears to follow a power law for larger fluctuations. Gaussian distributions are frequently used in modeling studies. These are likely to over-estimate the probability of small to moderate deviations. This in turn may lead to an over-estimation of the additional reserve requirement (hence the cost) for high penetration of wind. The Gaussian assumption provides no meaningful information about the real likelihood of large fluctuations. The possibility of a power law distribution is interesting because it suggests that the distribution shape for of wind power fluctuations may become independent of system size for large enough systems.

  2. Mitigation measures for fish habitat improvement in Alpine rivers affected by hydropower operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitigation measures for fish habitat improvement in Alpine rivers affected by hydropower operations In mountainous areas, high-head-storage hydropower plants produce peak load energy. The resulting unsteady water habitat improvement. This method was applied to an Alpine river downstream of a complex storage hydropower

  3. Recommendations for Improving Fecal Coliform Pollution Control in Gwinnett County, Georgia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radcliffe, David

    Recommendations for Improving Fecal Coliform Pollution Control in Gwinnett County, Georgia Upper for Improving Fecal Coliform Pollution Control 2 1.0 BACKGROUND and INTRODUCTION The 1972 Amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act require the creation of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for a body of water

  4. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofInc, Altanta,GA, 2009. Cooling load differences betweensurface level 24-hour total cooling energy between radiant

  5. Sandia's research spans generation, storage, and load management at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kW diesel genset, fuel cells, and additional interchangeable generators. Storage capabilities technology integration, microgrid communications, enhanced efficiency, load control, and specialized tests

  6. HVAC Loads in High-Performance Homes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Winkler, J.

    2010-06-27

    This presentation was delivered at the ASHRAE 2010 Annual Summer Conference on June 27, 2010, and addresses humidity and AC loads in energy efficient houses.

  7. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been a number of investigations into the effects of PV variability on distribution circuit voltage 1. Due to load data resolution limitations and the difficulty in estimating...

  8. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'

  9. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Presentation given at...

  10. Comverge contribution to load participation of ancillary services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyaji, Wendell

    2011-10-25

    Presents Comverge demand response program summary. Discusses advantages of residential aggregation and real-time load management. Compares residential and commercial.

  11. Waste Loading Enhancements for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WASTE LOADING ENHANCEMENTS FOR HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE GLASSES Albert A. Kruger, Glass Scientist DOE-WTP Project Office Engineering Division US Department of Energy Richland,...

  12. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change Patrick Sullivan, Jesse Colman, and Eric Kalendra National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL...

  13. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California...

  14. Prognostic Control and Load Survivability in Shipboard Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Laurence J.

    2011-02-22

    bus. Generators 2MTG and 2ATG work together to energize loads connected to the port bus. The Forward/Aft Split Bus Mode separates the generators in half forming a left-hand region (fore) and a right hand-region (aft) pairing generators 1MTG and 2... is to maximize the energized loads in case there is a disturbance adhering to constraints of the source node, load node, intermediate node, edge capacity, radiality, and voltage. The results display the capacities of each load and the new path taken to supply...

  15. Retrofitting unreinforced concrete masonry to resist tornado loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorshorst, Evan G. (Evan Gregory)

    2013-01-01

    Advances in structural design and building materials have significantly increased the performance of many structures under the extreme loading conditions associated with natural disasters such as earthquakes. However, ...

  16. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air...

  17. NUCLEAR REACTORS; PIPES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; SUPPORTS; DYNAMIC LOADS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Limit analysis of pipe clamps Flanders, H.E. Jr. 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; PIPES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; SUPPORTS; DYNAMIC LOADS; HEAT TRANSFER; HYDRAULICS; REACTOR SAFETY;...

  18. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The task of sealing the battery stack using vibration welding has undergone significant improvement resulting in a viable production process. Through several design iterations, a solid technology base for larger battery stack designs was established. Internal stack stresses can now be modeled, in addition to fluid velocity and fluid pressure distribution, through the use of a finite element analysis computer program. Additionally, the Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc. (JCBGI) proprietary FORTRAN model has been improved significantly, enabling accurate performance predictions. This modeling was used to improve the integrity and performance of the battery stacks, and should be instrumental in reducing the turnaround time from concept to assembly.

  19. Power Factor Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    and disadvantages of various locations in the electrical network are described including the cost of installation and network capacity improvement. Sizing of capacitors is also covered. Finally, some case studies involving power factor improvement are presented...

  20. Development and application of the spatially explicit load enrichment calculation tool (select) to determine potential E. coli loads in watersheds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riebschleager, Kendra Jean

    2009-05-15

    . coli Load Resulting from Cattle: a) Prior Study (Teague, 2007) and b) Automated. ......................................... 65 Figure 3.5. Difference in Potential E. coli Load Resulting from Wildlife a) Feral Hogs (Teague, 2007), b) Feral Hogs (This... study), c) Deer (Teague, 2007), d) Deer (This study)................................................ 66 Figure 3.6. Difference in Potential E. coli Loads from Feral Hogs Between Previous Study and This Study...

  1. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  2. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  3. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  4. The Effect of Copper Loading on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide by Ammonia Over Cu-SSZ-13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Tran, Diana N.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF; Lee, Jong H.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of Cu loading on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 was examined over 20-80% ion-exchanged Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts. High NO reduction efficiency (80-95%) was obtained over all catalyst samples between 250 and 500°C, and the gas hourly space velocity of 200,000 h-1. Both NO reduction and NH3 oxidation activities under these conditions were found to increase slightly with increasing Cu loading at low temperatures. However, NO reduction activity was suppressed with increasing Cu loadings at high temperatures (>500oC) due to excess NH3 oxidation. The optimum Cu ion exchange level appears to be ~40-60% as higher than 80% NO reduction efficiency was obtained over 50% Cu ion-exchanged SSZ-13 up to 600oC. The NO oxidation activity of Cu-SSZ-13 was found to be low regardless of Cu loading, although it was somewhat improved with increasing Cu ion exchange level at high temperatures. During the “fast” SCR (i.e., NO/NO2 =1), only a slight improvement in NOx reduction activity was obtained for Cu-SSZ-13. Regardless of Cu loading, near 100% selectivity to N2 was observed; only a very small amount of N2O was produced even in the presence of NO2. Based on the Cu loading, the apparent activation energies for NO oxidation and NO SCR were estimated to be ~58 kJ/mol and ~41 kJ/mol, respectively.

  5. Electrohydrodynamic Patterning of Functional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg Oppenheimer, Pola

    2014-05-27

    requires an iterative, multistep, procedure, rendering the patterning process intricate and less reproducible. The growing demand for bet- ter performance, reduced energy consumption, high-throughput and higher levels of complexity and integration raise... in which additional external forces influence the stability of thin films is ad- dressed. The hydrodynamic equations under the constraint of volume conservation are solved within a linear stability analysis and under the lubrication approximation...

  6. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  7. How loads affect coiled tubing life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, E.J. Inc., AK )

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue testing was performed on 1-3/4-in OD, 0.125 in. wall thickness (WT) coiled tubing using a standard coiled tubing unit (CTU) as shown in this paper. Testing was conducted under Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil well, conditions to determine the effects of axial load, internal pressure and bending stress on the longevity, or usable running footage, that can be expected with larger diameter tubing. The CTU was rigged up in a standard configuration with injector head 50 ft off the ground, the worst case for bending on most currently available North Slope units. Internal pressure was supplied by a small triplex pump and the end of tubing was closed off with a fishing neck and bull plug. Weight, for the first four tests, was suspended from the coiled tubing by a special clamp. The tubing was cycled up and over the guide arch until a loss of internal coiled tubing pressure (CTP) occurred, or until the tubing became stuck in the stripper brass.

  8. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  9. Fabrication of a Hybrid Microfluidic System Incorporating both Lithographically Patterned Microchannels and a 3D Fiber-Formed Microfluidic Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Leon M.

    A device containing a 3D microchannel network (fabricated using sacrificial melt-spun microfibers) sandwiched between lithographically patterned microfluidic channels offers improved delivery of soluble compounds to a large ...

  10. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Flanigan, J.; Rohr, M. E-mail: berndsen@phas.ubc.ca; and others

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ?9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The performance of this system can be improved over time as more training data are accumulated. This AI system has been integrated into the PALFA survey pipeline and has discovered six new pulsars to date.

  11. Exploiting Home Automation Protocols for Load Monitoring in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    @cs.williams.edu Abstract Monitoring and controlling electrical loads is crucial for demand-side energy management in smart their use in load monitoring. In this paper, we highlight challenges in de- signing AutoMeter, a system]: Miscella- neous; K.6.2 [Management of Computing and Informa- tion Systems]: Installation Management

  12. Dynamic Transfer Capability Analysis with Wind Farms and Dynamic Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    . An investigation on the effect of dynamics loads, wind farms and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices capability unnecessarily limits the power transfers and is a costly and inefficient use of a network with increasing loads, the need to transfer power over long transmission lines increases. Deregulation

  13. Ris-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines Gunner Chr. Larsen, Knut Ronold, Hans E-R-1111(EN) 2 Abstract An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution

  14. Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

    2006-05-31

    This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

  15. Retention of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Loads by Coastal Plain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retention of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Loads by Coastal Plain Floodplains Gregory B. Noe for their cumulative retention of the annual river loads of nutrients or sediments. Here we report measurements of sediment accretion and associated carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accu- mulation as sedimentation over

  16. Distributional Analysis for Model Predictive Deferrable Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    for demand response. There are two major categories of demand response, direct load control (DLC) and price-based demand response. See [1] for a discussion of the contrasts between these approaches. In this paper we focus on direct load control with the goal of using demand response to reduce variations

  17. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  18. Topological design solutions for structures under transmissible loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Moshe

    . It will be noted that in many solutions one can discern a marked difference between the underlying load­bearing) elements whose basic task is to transfer the applied forces to the load­bearing part of the assembly. The main purpose of the present work is to induce the algorithm to produce the 'structural' part

  19. Structural evaluation of the 2736Z Building for seismic loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giller, R.A.

    1994-09-23

    The 2736Z building structure is evaluated for high-hazard loads. The 2736Z building is analyzed herein for normal and seismic loads and is found to successfully meet the guidelines of UCRL-15910 along with the related codes requirements.

  20. Structural load inventory database for the Kansas City federal complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Johnson, M.W.; Nakaki, D.K. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lynch, D.T.; Drury, M.A. [AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division

    1995-12-01

    A structural load inventory database (LID) has been developed to support configuration management at the DOE Kansas City Plant (KCP). The objective of the LID is to record loads supported by the plant structures and to provide rapid assessments of the impact of future facility modifications on structural adequacy. Development of the LID was initiated for the KCP`s Main Manufacturing Building. Field walkdowns were performed to determine all significant loads supported by the structure, including the weight of piping, service equipment, etc. These loads were compiled in the LID. Structural analyses for natural phenomena hazards were performed in accordance with UCRL-15910. Software to calculate demands on the structural members due to gravity loads, total demands including both gravity and seismic loads, and structural member demand-to-capacity ratios were also developed and integrated into the LID. Operation of the LID is menu-driven. The LID user has options to review and print existing loads and corresponding demand-to-capacity ratios, and to update the supported loads and demand-to-capacity ratios for any future facility modifications.

  1. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6034E Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Dandan Zhu1 , Tianzhen Energy, the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, of the U;Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads A joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley

  2. DejaVu: A Complex Event Processing System for Pattern Matching over Live and Historical Data Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    with SQL · Automata-based pattern computation · Optimizations to reduce pattern matching cost · input · architectural extensions · cost model and optimizations Optimizing PCQ Processing ·cost-model based ·Throughput improvements up to 2 orders of magnitude SQL-based Uniform Query Language[1] SELECT symbolL, initPrice

  3. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  4. Analysis of DESY-Flash LLRF Measurements for the ILC Heavy Beam Loading Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cancelo, Gustavo; Chase, Brian; Davidsaver, Michael; /Fermilab; Carwardine, J.; /Argonne; Simrock, Stefan; Ayvazyan, Valeri; Grecki, Mariusz; /DESY; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2009-06-01

    In September 2008 the DESY-FLASH accelerator was run with up to 550, 3 nano-coulomb bunches at 5 Hz repetition rate. This test is part of a longer-term study aimed at validating ILC parameters by operation as close as possible to ILC beam currents and RF gradients. The present paper reports on the analysis that has been done in order to understand the RF control system performance during this test. Actual klystron power requirements and beam stability are evaluated with heavy beam loading conditions. Results include suggested improvements for upcoming tests in 2009.

  5. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  6. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Kalendra, Eric

    2015-07-28

    Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.

  7. Adhesion clusters under shared linear loading: a stochastic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Erdmann; U. S. Schwarz

    2004-03-22

    We study the cooperative rupture of multiple adhesion bonds under shared linear loading. Simulations of the appropriate Master equation are compared with numerical integration of a rate equation for the mean number of bonds and its scaling analysis. In general, force-accelerated rupture is rather abrupt. For small clusters and slow loading, large fluctuations occur regarding the timepoint of final rupture, but not the typical shape of the rupture trajectory. For vanishing rebinding, our numerical results confirm three scaling regimes predicted before for cluster lifetime as a function of loading rate. For finite rebinding, the intermediate loading regime becomes irrelevant, and a sequence of two new scaling laws can be identified in the slow loading regime.

  8. A Model Graphene Diffraction Pattern Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    A Model Graphene Diffraction Pattern Frank Rioux The purpose of this tutorial is to model graphene d Pj k px j py k 2 i 1 A Graphene Model Diffraction Pattern #12;

  9. Patterning Organic Electronics Based on Nanoimprint Lithography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Yi-Chen

    2014-04-25

    transferring straight-line sidewalls into the substrate. Other than straight-line sidewall patterns, this method also fabricated ring-shaped patterns including circles, squares, and concentric squares. Finally, a new structure of organic solar cells (OSCs...

  10. Optimal signal patterns for dynamical cellular communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells transmit information via signaling pathways, using temporal dynamical patterns. As optimality with respect to environments is the universal principle in biological systems, organisms have acquired an optimal way of transmitting information. Here we obtain optimal dynamical signal patterns which can transmit information efficiently (low power) and reliably (high accuracy) using the optimal control theory. Adopting an activation-inactivation decoding network, we reproduced several dynamical patterns found in actual signals, such as steep, gradual and overshooting dynamics. Notably, when minimizing the power of the input signal, optimal signals exhibit the overshooting pattern, which is a biphasic pattern with transient and steady phases; this pattern is prevalent in actual dynamical patterns as it can be generated by an incoherent feed-forward loop (FFL), a common motif in biochemical networks. We also identified conditions when the three patterns, steep, gradual and overshooting, confer advantages.

  11. Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load

  12. Minor Actinides Loading Optimization for Proliferation Resistant Fuel Design - BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-09-01

    One approach to address the United States Nuclear Power (NP) 2010 program for the advanced light water reactor (LWR) (Gen-III+) intermediate-term spent fuel disposal need is to reduce spent fuel storage volume while enhancing proliferation resistance. One proposed solution includes increasing burnup of the discharged spent fuel and mixing minor actinide (MA) transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel. Thus, we can reduce the spent fuel volume while increasing the proliferation resistance by increasing the isotopic ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, MAs are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. A typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of adding MAs (237Np and/or 241Am) to enhance proliferation resistance and improve fuel cycle performance for the intermediate-term goal of future nuclear energy systems. However, adding MAs will increase plutonium production in the discharged spent fuel. In this work, the Monte-Carlo coupling with ORIGEN-2.2 (MCWO) method was used to optimize the MA loading in the UO2 fuel such that the discharged spent fuel demonstrates enhanced proliferation resistance, while minimizing plutonium production. The axial averaged MA transmutation characteristics at different burnup were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality and the ratio of 238Pu/Pu discussed.

  13. TALSPEAK EXTRACTION SYSTEM UNDER VARIABLE LOADING CONDITIONS - PART 2: SPECIATION STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Troy A.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2011-10-03

    The reported investigation was performed to gain structural information on the organic phase complex species in the Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) process under various loading conditions. In conjunction with the distribution studies of the TALSPEAK system constituents, presented in Part 1 of this investigation, loaded bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP)/isooctane was evaluated using various spectroscopic techniques including NMR, FTIR and visible absorbance spectroscopy. Liquid-liquid distribution and vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) aggregation results correlate with observed changes in the spectroscopic signatures as a function of organic phase loading and water partitioning. Explicit FTIR spectral interpretation of the HDEHP spectra is complex due to overlapping phosphorus absorbance bands, and in this work a combination of the spectroscopic techniques was utilized to elucidate the phosphorus-lanthanide complex structure and changes in speciation due to aggregation. The results from this research will benefit an overall improved prediction of the TALSPEAK process performance under flow conditions.

  14. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-05-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describes the CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  15. A Monte Carlo Analysis of Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Process Load Cell Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, James R; Whitaker, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    As uranium enrichment plants increase in number, capacity, and types of separative technology deployed (e.g., gas centrifuge, laser, etc.), more automated safeguards measures are needed to enable the IAEA to maintain safeguards effectiveness in a fiscally constrained environment. Monitoring load cell data can significantly increase the IAEA s ability to efficiently achieve the fundamental safeguards objective of confirming operations as declared (i.e., no undeclared activities), but care must be taken to fully protect the operator s proprietary and classified information related to operations. Staff at ORNL, LANL, JRC/ISPRA, and University of Glasgow are investigating monitoring the process load cells at feed and withdrawal (F/W) stations to improve international safeguards at enrichment plants. A key question that must be resolved is what is the necessary frequency of recording data from the process F/W stations? Several studies have analyzed data collected at a fixed frequency. This paper contributes to load cell process monitoring research by presenting an analysis of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the expected errors caused by low frequency sampling and its impact on material balance calculations.

  16. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  17. Patterns of Service-Oriented Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdun, Uwe

    Patterns of Service-Oriented Architecture Uwe Zdun Email: zdun@infosys.tuwien.ac.at, zdun-Oriented Architecture 1 #12;Agenda · Service-oriented architectures (SOA) · Patterns and pattern languages · Basic service architecture · SOA layers and basic remoting architecture · SOA variation points and adaptation

  18. DESIGN OF PARAMETRICALLY FORCED PATTERNS AND QUASIPATTERNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucklidge, Alastair

    . Pattern formation, quasipatterns, superlattice patterns, mode interactions, Fara­ day waves. AMS subject three­wave interactions between driven and weakly damped modes play a key role in determining which is limited is that the theory re­ quires strong damping of all modes apart from the driven pattern

  19. Patterning of graphene Wenbin Li,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    Patterning of graphene Ji Feng,a Wenbin Li,b Xiaofeng Qian,b Jingshan Qi,c Liang Qib and Ju Li of carbon (graphene, graphane, etc.) are amenable to unique patterning schemes such as cutting, bending theoretical understanding and processing routes for patterning graphene and highlight potential applications

  20. FPGA Implementation of a Pattern Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FPGA Implementation of a Pattern Generator Jakob Toft, s012012 Technical University of Denmark The target of this project is to create a system that generates signal patterns based on user input is used to analyze outputs based on specific input of the circuit being tested. The Pattern Generator

  1. Optimizing the performance of Ice-storage Systems in Electricity Load Management through a credit mechanism. An analytical work for Jiangsu, China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Yafeng; Shen, Bo; Hu, Huajin; Fan, Fei

    2015-01-12

    Ice-storage air-conditioning is a technique that uses ice for thermal energy storage. Replacing existing air conditioning systems with ice storage has the advantage of shifting the load from on-peak times to off-peak times that often have excess generation. However, increasing the use of ice-storage faces significant challenges in China. One major barrier is the inefficiency in the current electricity tariff structure. There is a lack of effective incentive mechanism that induces ice-storage systems from achieving optimal load-shifting results. This study presents an analysis that compares the potential impacts of ice-storage systems on load-shifting under a new credit-based incentive scheme andmore »the existing incentive arrangement in Jiangsu, China. The study indicates that by changing how ice-storage systems are incentivized in Jiangsu, load-shifting results can be improved.« less

  2. Optimizing the performance of Ice-storage Systems in Electricity Load Management through a credit mechanism. An analytical work for Jiangsu, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yafeng; Shen, Bo; Hu, Huajin; Fan, Fei

    2015-01-12

    Ice-storage air-conditioning is a technique that uses ice for thermal energy storage. Replacing existing air conditioning systems with ice storage has the advantage of shifting the load from on-peak times to off-peak times that often have excess generation. However, increasing the use of ice-storage faces significant challenges in China. One major barrier is the inefficiency in the current electricity tariff structure. There is a lack of effective incentive mechanism that induces ice-storage systems from achieving optimal load-shifting results. This study presents an analysis that compares the potential impacts of ice-storage systems on load-shifting under a new credit-based incentive scheme and the existing incentive arrangement in Jiangsu, China. The study indicates that by changing how ice-storage systems are incentivized in Jiangsu, load-shifting results can be improved.

  3. The classification of football patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Braungart; D. Kotschick

    2006-06-08

    We prove that every spherical football (also known as a spherical soccer ball) is a branched cover, branched only in the vertices, of the standard football made up of 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. We also give examples showing that the corresponding result is not true for footballs of higher genera. Moreover, we classify the possible pairs (k,l) for which football patterns on the sphere exist satisfying a natural generalisation of the usual incidence relation between pentagons and hexagons to k-gons and l-gons.

  4. Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-11-01

    Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

  5. Experimental evaluation of rotary engine timing gear loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulina, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The function of the timing gear of a rotary engine is to control the angular velocity of the rotor in relation to that of the crankshaft. The only load on the gear consists of the friction load due to the rotor seals, the torsional motion of the rotor and any torque developed on the rotor caused by uneven pressure distribution across the rotor flank. In the design of the gear and attachments an estimate of the loads must be made. In the case of an aircraft engine, knowing the actual loads and designing accordingly would result in the most weight effective configuration. A specially instrumented stationary gear of a Deere 0.67 liter SCORE III rotary engine was used to measure the peak torque during test stand operation. The results of the test confirm that rotor friction and torsional motion (due to drive line dynamics) produce the prime gear load below 70% design speed. At the higher engine speeds, a sub-system resonance of the rotor contributes significantly to the total load on the gear. The results of this test, together with the results of three earlier tests conducted on stationary gears are used to establish a design guide. This design guide relates the stationary gear load to crankshaft mean torque and engine displacement.

  6. Association mining consists of pattern mining and rule generation. The first phase often takes a long time to find all frequent patterns, also including much noise. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Huizhi "Elly"

    Association mining consists of pattern mining and rule generation. The first phase often takes consuming activity that can generate many redundant rules. To improve the quality of association mining in databases, this thesis provides a new technique, granule-based association mining, for knowledge discovery

  7. Construction of KP solitons from wave patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarbarish Chakravarty; Yuji Kodama

    2013-09-10

    We often observe that waves on the surface of shallow water form complex web-like patterns. They are examples of nonlinear waves, and these patterns are generated by nonlinear interactions among several obliquely propagating waves. In this note, we discuss how to construct an exact soliton solution of the KP equation from such web-pattern of shallow water wave. This can be regarded as an "inverse problem" in the sense that by measuring certain metric data of the solitary waves in the given pattern, it is possible to construct an exact KP soliton solution which can describe the non-stationary dynamics of the pattern.

  8. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  9. Improved wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  10. A new generation of load sharing algorithms: the semi-adaptive load sharing algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morsy, Hazem Kamal

    1997-01-01

    Distributed systems have become a popular computing environment. Due to their high potentials in improving performance and resource sharing, the evolution and maturing of technologies such as networks and computer hardware, have led to more...

  11. Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

  12. Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

  13. Electromagnetic fields in nonuniform disk-loaded waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayzatsky, M I

    2015-01-01

    On the base of general approach we obtain some results that can be useful in the process of tuning of nonunifrom disc-loaded waveguides. Our consideration has shown that simple values that characterize the detuning of the cells can be introduced only for the disc-loaded waveguide with parameters that change very slow. In general case it is needed to conduct full numerical simulation of specific disc-loaded waveguide and obtain all necessary coupling coefficients. After that one can start the tuning process on the base of bead-pull field distribution measurements.

  14. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Lower Cleanroom Roof Quick Load Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-11-17

    This engineering note documents calculations done to determine the margin of safety for the lower clean room roof. The analysis was done to give me a feeling of what the loads, stresses and capacity of the roof is prior to installation and installation work to be done for the helium refrigerator upgrade. The result of this quick look showed that the calculated loads produce stress values and loads at about half the allowables. Based on this result, I do not think that special precautions above personal judgement are required for the installation work.

  15. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  16. Published in Proceedings of the XL2003 (Response of Structures to Extreme Loading) Conference, Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    , Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS USING INVERSE RELIABILITY K, USA ABSTRACT The reliability of wind turbines against extreme loads is the focus of this study loads for a 600kW three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine. Only operating loads ­ here, flapwise (out

  17. Development of a Detailed Simulation Model to Support Evaluation of Water Load Shifting Across a Range of Use Patterns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel, A.; Tuohy, P.

    2014-01-01

    match renewable supply Solar Demand Forecast Supply Forecast Occupant Information 0 100 200 300 400 0 4 8 1 2 1 6 2 0 2 4 P o w e r ( k W ) Time of day (h) Renewable Electricity Generation Community Electricity Demand This project has received funding... of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK ESL-IC-14-09-02 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 Orchestrate energy demand to better match renewable generation Maximise economic revenues from...

  18. An improved microgrid arrangement for integrated imaging polarimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirakawa, Keigo

    An improved microgrid arrangement for integrated imaging polarimeters Daniel A. LeMaster1, microgrid polarimetric imaging systems have been built using a 2 × 2 repeating pattern of polarization.1364/XX.99.099999 1. Introduction An integrated microgrid imaging polarimeter consists of a repeating

  19. Shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Jack S

    2004-01-01

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) provides a method of measuring component performance and source power quality through a single point of entry in the power distribution system. A study was performed utilizing the NILM ...

  20. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01

    the potential peak load reductions from residential energy efficiency upgrades in hot and humid climates. First, a baseline scenario is established. Then, the demand and consumption impacts of individual upgrade measures are assessed. Several of these upgrades...

  1. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  2. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  3. Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading Karl Suabedissen1, Christina Peabody2 #12;Outline · Motivation · Battery Structure · Testing and Results · Conclusions #12;Motivation · Lithium polymer batteries are everywhere. · Efforts to create flexible batteries. · Restrictive battery

  4. An Innovative Approach Towards National Peak Load Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; ElSherbini, A.; Alghimlas, F.; Al-Taqi, H.; Al-Hadban, Y.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative approach was developed and implemented in eight governmental buildings to reduce their load during the peak demand hours in summer of 2007. The innovative approach implemented in these buildings included pre-closing treatment (PCT...

  5. Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brokish, Kevin Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy penetration. Frequency-adaptive intelligent appliances are ...

  6. On Load Balancing in a Dense Wireless Multihop Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyytiä, Esa

    3000, FIN 02015 TKK, Finland Abstract-- We study the load balancing problem in a dense wireless Research Center and by the Academy of Finland (grant n:o 202204). maximum is not a topic of this paper

  7. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08proc.pdf More Documents & Publications CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab...

  8. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Shiftable Pumping Load for the State Water Project at FullAlternative Futures The State Water Project LIST OF TABLESTable 10 Present and Projected Water Requirements by Use and

  9. CBEI - Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (system definition) Accomplishments - Water-Side Load Metering Swope School of Music Cooling Season Results (AHU-7) July15 - July 21, 2014 (Period 2) Daily -2.6% 2.0%...

  10. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  11. NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    miscellaneous electric load plugs, and appliances found in "common households" given by costs broken out by months. All data within each cell is a floating point number with the...

  12. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  13. Nutrient load analysis of Lago de Yojoa, Honduras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trate, Tia M. (Tia Marie)

    2006-01-01

    Lake Yojoa, Honduras is an important natural resource to the people of Honduras. The lake's water quality has been a controversial subject. This thesis describes a nutrient load analysis performed to gain a better understanding ...

  14. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question ŤWhat are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  15. Load frequency control of interconnected power systems with system constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Md Ershadul H

    1993-01-01

    So far, researches in load frequency controls ( LFC) are involved in analysis of dynamic responses under normal conditions of the - interconnected power systems. In This research considers some system constraints (for example, one area fails...

  16. Analytical Methods for Implementing Industrial Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassig, N.; Chan, M.; Carlson, R.

    1982-01-01

    Many utilities have completed long-term planning studies and have shown that a load management program is cost effective. They are now actively implementing large-scale, system-wide programs such as demand subscription, interruptable rates, and time...

  17. Characterizing tensile loading responses of 3D printed samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haid, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to characterize the loading response of samples manufactured through 3D printing. Tensile testing was performed on a number of 3D printed samples created through Fused Filament Fabrication ...

  18. Energy Storage for Use in Load Frequency Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitermann, Olivia

    Certain energy storage technologies are well-suited to the high-frequency, high-cycling operation which is required in provision of load frequency control (LFC). To limit the total stored energy capacity required while ...

  19. Uniformly Loaded Rectangular Thin Plates with Symmetrical Boundary Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2010-01-27

    In the article the Fourier series analytical solutions of uniformly loaded rectangular thin plates with symmetrical boundary conditions are considered. For all the cases the numerical values are tabulated.

  20. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

  1. Geometric nonlinear analysis of microbeam under electrostatic loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murgude, Nikhil C.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the behavior of a microbeam subjected to electrostatic loading. Two devices, namely, a tungsten microtweezer and a clamped-clamped beam which is part of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), are used as the vehicles...

  2. Code of Practice Safety of Load on Vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1972-01-01

    The object of the Code is to provide operators, drivers and loading staff with guidance as to the basic safety principles that must be followed generally, and as to some particular precautions that can be taken to ensure ...

  3. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part I: Load Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6417E Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part I: Load Availability Profiles Resources 4 #12;#12;#12;CHAPTER 3: Results: DR Profiles 3.1 Projected Demand Response Availability in 2020

  4. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    Building Systems Active Load Management with Advanced WindowEconomy. Active Load Management with Advanced Window WallAC03-76SF00098. Active Load Management with Advanced Window

  5. Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled Electric Springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Jayantika; Krishnanand, KR; Panda, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    L. Goel, "Demand side load management of smart grids usingP. Shenoy, "Demand-side load management in smart homes," inLoad-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled

  6. Load Management in Distributed Video Servers Nalini Venkatasubramanian and Srinivas Ramanathan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    Load Management in Distributed Video Servers Nalini Venkatasubramanian and Srinivas Ramanathan policies for load management in distributed video servers. We propose a predictive placement policy evaluations indicate that a load management procedure which uses a judicious combination of the different

  7. Analytical Modeling of Wood Frame Shear Walls Subjected to Vertical Load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyendinh, Hai

    2011-08-08

    A nonlinear automated parameter fitted analytical model that numerically predicts the load-displacement response of wood frame shear walls subjected to static monotonic loading with and without vertical load is presented. This analytical model...

  8. Protecting Consumer Privacy from Electric Load Stephen McLaughlin Patrick McDaniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Patrick Drew

    isolation and recovery, and support for alternative energy sources, e.g., consumer generated wind and solar as Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM): Load monitoring Load profile Lighting Oven Heater ... Appliance

  9. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  10. Optimizing Process Loads in Industrial Cogeneration Energy Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.; Babson, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    W OPTIMIZING PROCESS LOADS IN INDUSTRIAL COGENERAnON ENERGY SYSTEMS DJ. Ahner Manager, Generation Technology Power Tecbnologies, Inc. Schenectady, New York ABSTRACT Optimum dispatcb of energy supply systems can result in large savings... and industrial cogeneration are extended to solving this trigeneration problem where the optimum dispatch of the final load devices (i.e. compressors, fans, pumps, etc.) are an integral part of the total energy system optimization. An example industrial...

  11. Industrial Load Shaping: A Utility Strategy to Deal with Competition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D.

    1987-01-01

    SHAPING: A UTILITY STRATEGY TO DEAL WITH COMPETITION DONALD BULES BULES AND ASSOCIATES SAN FRANCISCO, ABSTRACT In recent years competition from various sources such as cogeneration and bypass has led many utilities to refocus attention... on the utility as the only electric supplier. The electric utility industry is faced with declining industrial sales, declining system load factor and excess baseload capacity. Industrial load shaping restructures traditional facility operations so...

  12. Partnership with Industries- A Successful "Conservation and Load Management Program" 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    WERE RECOMMENDED IN THREE ELEMENTS OF THE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE, STAFFING LEVELS, AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. A CONSERVATION AND LOAD MANAGEMENT (CLM) DEPARTMENT WAS FORMED AT THE CORPORATE LEVEL IN 1982. THE NEW DEPARTMENT WAS GIVEN..., WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS, TOURS AND BRIEFINGS, VIDEO PROGRAMS, AND PERSONAL CONTACTS EACH AIMED AT SPECIFIC TARGET AUDIENCES. THE CONSERVATION AND LOAD MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT WAS GIVEN THE MISSION TO PLAN, DEVELOP, EVALUATE, MARKET AND MONITOR...

  13. A study of spring rates of dynamically loaded helical springs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitwell, Franklin Carroll

    1965-01-01

    . 4 28 30 33 6. Test Results for Spring No. 5 . 35 7. Test Results for Spring No. 6 38 8. Test Results for Spring No. 7 40 9. Dimensionless Values 41 10. Galvanometer Damping 42 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Overall View of Experimental... Apparatus 8 3. Recording Equipment and Potentiometer Type Calibrator . . 9 Loading Mechanism and Variable Speed Drive . . . . . . . . 10 4 ~ Rear View of Variable Speed Drive and Loading Mechanism Showing Arrangement of Pulleys, Belt, and Shaft...

  14. Quantitative patterns in drone wars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Bernado, J; Johnson, N F

    2014-01-01

    Attacks by drones (i.e., unmanned combat air vehicles) continue to generate heated political and ethical debates. Here we examine instead the quantitative nature of drone attacks, focusing on how their intensity and frequency compares to other forms of human conflict. In contrast to the power-law distribution found recently for insurgent and terrorist attacks, we find that the severity of attacks is well described by a lognormal distribution, indicating that the dynamics underlying drone attacks differ from these other forms of human conflict. Likewise, the pattern in the timing of attacks is consistent with one side having almost complete control. We show that these novel features can be reproduced and understood using a generative mathematical model in which resource allocation to the dominant side is regulated through a feedback loop.

  15. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  16. Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2010-12-01

    The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.

  17. Solar Forecast Improvement Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For the Solar Forecast Improvement Project (SFIP), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is partnering with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and IBM to develop more...

  18. Canal dike system improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, W.H.; Asce, M.; Rook, M.E. [GEI Consultants, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of New England Power Company`s (NEP) continuing effort to maintain a safe and operable generating facility, significant structural improvements were made between 1992 and 1993 to the Deerfield No. 5 Hydroelectric Development`s 2,750 meter (9,000 feet) long canal dike system. These improvements were the result of extensive geotechnical field exploration and instrumentation programs. To improve stability, expedited construction improvements were made producing over 340 meters (1,100 feet) of improved dikes with stabilization berms and filter blankets for seepage and slope stability protection. Currently, NEP operates the facility with restrictions on maximum allowable water elevations, performs daily inspections and periodic instrument readings to assure continued public safety. A key component to accomplishing the canal dike system improvements in a timely and efficient manner was the level of cooperation established between NEP and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). This cooperation was promoted in part through open discussions on canal dike issues, the owner`s acceptance of obligation, and FERC`s willingness to work with NEP to achieve responsive solutions.

  19. Modeling Low-Platinum-Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Wonseok

    2013-01-01

    of Low Pt- Loading Cathodes in PEM Fuel Cells, in8th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineeriung &Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers Wonseok Yoon*

  20. Cooling load calculations for radiant systems: are they the same traditional methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    of Radiant vs. Air System Cooling Loads Recent simulationsystem, the radiant system cooling Advertisement formerly inthe mea- sured radiant system cooling load. The RTS method

  1. Building Electricity Load Forecasting via Stacking Ensemble Learning Method with Moving Horizon Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Eric M.; Moura, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    K. W. Yau, “Predicting electricity energy con- sumption: Afor building-level electricity load forecasts,” Energy andannealing algorithms in electricity load forecasting,”

  2. SPOTL: Some Programs for Ocean-Tide Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of deep ocean tidal energy dissipation based onJ. H. (1973), Tidal patterns and energy balance in the Gulf

  3. The patterns speeds of NGC 6946

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toonen, Silvia; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Beckman, John; de Zeeuw, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We study the kinematics of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by investigating the velocity field from H-alpha Fabry-Perot observations, determined the pattern speed of the bar by using the Tremaine-Weinberg method, and find a main pattern speed of 21.7 (+4.0,-0.8) km/s/kpc. Our data clearly suggest the presence of an additional pattern with a pattern speed more than twice that of the large pattern in this galaxy. We use the epicycle approximation to deduce the location of the resonance radii and subsequently determine the pattern speed between the radii, and find that inside the Inner Inner Lindblad Resonance radius, a bar-like system has evolved.

  4. The pattern speeds of NGC 6946

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvia Toonen; Kambiz Fathi; Jesús Falcón-Barroso; John Beckman; Tim de Zeeuw

    2008-01-18

    We study the kinematics of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by investigating the velocity field from H-alpha Fabry-Perot observations, determined the pattern speed of the bar by using the Tremaine-Weinberg method, and find a main pattern speed of 21.7 (+4.0,-0.8) km/s/kpc. Our data clearly suggest the presence of an additional pattern with a pattern speed more than twice that of the large pattern in this galaxy. We use the epicycle approximation to deduce the location of the resonance radii and subsequently determine the pattern speed between the radii, and find that inside the inner Inner Lindblad Resonance radius, a bar-like system has evolved.

  5. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    California, San Diego, have recently used coherent soft x-ray scattering with angular Fourier analysis to discover that the disordered domain patterns do, in fact, exhibit...

  6. Energy Pumpkin Patterns | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    pumpkin this Halloween Pumpkin Patterns More Documents & Publications The Harnessed Atom - Teachers' Edition The Harnessed Atom - Student Edition Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics...

  7. Forbidden ordinal patterns in higher dimensional dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Amigó; M. B. Kennel

    2007-11-12

    Forbidden ordinal patterns are ordinal patterns (or `rank blocks') that cannot appear in the orbits generated by a map taking values on a linearly ordered space, in which case we say that the map has forbidden patterns. Once a map has a forbidden pattern of a given length $L_{0}$, it has forbidden patterns of any length $L\\ge L_{0}$ and their number grows superexponentially with $L$. Using recent results on topological permutation entropy, we study in this paper the existence and some basic properties of forbidden ordinal patterns for self maps on n-dimensional intervals. Our most applicable conclusion is that expansive interval maps with finite topological entropy have necessarily forbidden patterns, although we conjecture that this is also the case under more general conditions. The theoretical results are nicely illustrated for n=2 both using the naive counting estimator for forbidden patterns and Chao's estimator for the number of classes in a population. The robustness of forbidden ordinal patterns against observational white noise is also illustrated.

  8. Characterization of geothermal reservoir crack patterns using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with form History Characterization of geothermal reservoir crack patterns using shear-wave splitting Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  9. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-11-422

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this CRADA work is to support Eaton Innovation Center (Eaton) efforts to develop advanced load identification, management technologies, and solutions to reduce building energy consumption by providing fine granular visibility of energy usage information and safety protection of miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) in commercial and residential buildings. MELs load identification and prediction technology will be employed in a novel 'Smart eOutlet*' to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and design tools and building power management systems. The work scoped in this CRADA involves the following activities: development and validation of business value proposition for the proposed technologies through voice of customer investigation, market analysis, and third-party objective assessment; development and validation of energy saving impact as well as assessment of environmental and economic benefits; 'smart eOutlet' concept design, prototyping, and validation; field validation of the developed technologies in real building environments. (*Another name denoted as 'Smart Power Strip (SPS)' will be used as an alternative of the name 'Smart eOutlet' for a clearer definition of the product market position in future work.)

  10. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE CONCEPTUAL DHLW DISPOSAL CONTAINER LOADED WITH PU/CS GREENFIELD GLASS (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-11-13

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: Characterize the conceptual Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) Disposal Container design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with a plutonium/cesium greenfield glass waste form. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the conceptual DHLW disposal container design do not preclude compatibility with the MGDS if it is loaded with alternate waste forms. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual DHLW disposal container design loaded with an alternative waste form containing a plutonium/cesium mixture under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design loaded with this alternative waste form has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts. Future design efforts will focus on specific DHLW vendor designs and improved waste form data when they become available.

  11. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  12. Conditional random fields for pattern recognition applied to structured data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burr, Tom; Skurikhin, Alexei

    2015-07-14

    Pattern recognition uses measurements from an input domain, X, to predict their labels from an output domain, Y. Image analysis is one setting where one might want to infer whether a pixel patch contains an object that is “manmade” (such as a building) or “natural” (such as a tree). Suppose the label for a pixel patch is “manmade”; if the label for a nearby pixel patch is then more likely to be “manmade” there is structure in the output domain that can be exploited to improve pattern recognition performance. Modeling P(X) is difficult because features between parts of the modelmore »are often correlated. Therefore, conditional random fields (CRFs) model structured data using the conditional distribution P(Y|X = x), without specifying a model for P(X), and are well suited for applications with dependent features. This paper has two parts. First, we overview CRFs and their application to pattern recognition in structured problems. Our primary examples are image analysis applications in which there is dependence among samples (pixel patches) in the output domain. Second, we identify research topics and present numerical examples.« less

  13. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. Currently, uncertainties associated with wind and load forecasts, as well as uncertainties associated with random generator outages and unexpected disconnection of supply lines, are not taken into account in power grid operation. Thus, operators have little means to weigh the likelihood and magnitude of upcoming events of power imbalance. In this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a framework has been developed for incorporating uncertainties associated with wind and load forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications. A new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope including balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration has been proposed. The approach includes three stages: forecast and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence levels. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis, incorporating all sources of uncertainties of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the “flying brick” technique has been developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation algorithm has been developed to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals.

  14. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Richard L. (Livermore, CA); Casamajor, Alan B. (Pleasanton, CA); Parsons, Richard E. (Orinda, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Coupling mechanism (11) for engaging and lifting a load (12) has a housing (19) with a guide passage (18) for receiving a knob (13) which is secured to the load (12) through a neck (15) of smaller diameter. A hollow ball (23) in the housing (19) has an opening (27) which receives the knob (13) and the ball (23) is then turned to displace the opening (27) from the housing passage (18) and to cause the neck (15) to enter a slot (29) in the ball (23) thereby securing the load (12) to the coupling mechanism (11) as elements (49) of the housing (19) block travel of the neck (15) back into the opening (27) when the ball (23) is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load (12) and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball (23) motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball (23) is preferably turned by a motor (32) through worm gearing (36) and the coupling mechanism (11) may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism (11) is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements (12).

  15. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  16. AGN Jet Mass Loading and Truncation by Stellar Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Hubbard; Eric G. Blackman

    2006-04-28

    Active Galactic Nuclei can produce extremely powerful jets. While tightly collimated, the scale of these jets and the stellar density at galactic centers implies that there will be many jet/star interactions, which can mass-load the jet through stellar winds. Previous work employed modest wind mass outflow rates, but this does not apply when mass loading is provided by a small number of high mass-loss stars. We construct a framework for jet mass-loading by stellar winds for a broader spectrum of wind mass-loss rates than has been previously considered. Given the observed stellar mass distributions in galactic centers, we find that even highly efficient (0.1 Eddington luminosity) jets from supermassive black holes of masses $M_{BH} \\la 10^4M_{\\odot}$ are rapidly mass loaded and quenched by stellar winds. For $10^4 M_{\\odot}jets is independent of the jet's mechanical luminosity. Stellar wind mass-loading is unable to quench efficient jets from more massive engines, but can account for the observed truncation of the inefficient M87 jet, and implies a baryon dominated composition on scales $\\ga 2$ kpc therein even if the jet is initially pair plasma dominated.

  17. Handbook of five methodologies for the assessment of load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report provides a summary description and evaluation of five methodologies that have been developed for the assessment of utility costs and benefits of load-management programs, including marginal-costing methodologies and an integrated set of utility-system planning and production costing models. Of the two basic methods, the first uses marginal-cost data to compute the cumulative reduction in utility-system costs realized in moving units of load from periods of high marginal cost to periods of low marginal cost. The present value of these cost savings may be compared directly with the costs of implementing the load-management program. The second method relies on an evaluation of future total-system costs. System planning and production-costing models are used to calculate the total fixed and variable costs of meeting baseline and alternative-load configurations. The difference between baseline system costs and the costs with load management may then be compared to the costs of implementing the program. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are summarized briefly.

  18. Dosimetric equivalence of non-standard high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy catheter patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunha, J Adam M; Pouliot, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether alternative HDR prostate brachytherapy catheter patterns can result in improved dose distributions while providing better access and reducing trauma. Methods: Prostate HDR brachytherapy uses a grid of parallel needle positions to guide the catheter insertion. This geometry does not easily allow the physician to avoid piercing the critical structures near the penile bulb nor does it provide position flexibility in the case of pubic arch interference. On CT data from ten previously-treated patients new catheters were digitized following three catheter patterns: conical, bi-conical, and fireworks. The conical patterns were used to accommodate a robotic delivery using a single entry point. The bi-conical and fireworks patterns were specifically designed to avoid the critical structures near the penile bulb. For each catheter distribution, a plan was optimized with the inverse planning algorithm, IPSA, and compared with the plan used for treatment. Irrelevant of catheter geometry, a p...

  19. Improving Stormwater Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Raul

    2005-01-01

    stream_source_info Improving Stormwater Quality.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5574 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Improving Stormwater Quality.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 Stormwater QualityStory by Raul L. Garcia tx H2O | pg. 18 The City of Houston, Harris County, theHarris County Flood Control District and the Texas Department of Transportation have teamed up through a Joint Task Force (JTF) to address Houston...

  20. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  1. The symmetry of M.C. Escher's Circle Limit IV pattern and related patterns.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Doug

    the program to draw patterns with more complex symmetries. · Use 3D printing technology to create a "heaven

  2. Patterns for Refinement Automation Alexei Iliasov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    Patterns for Refinement Automation Alexei Iliasov1 , Elena Troubitsyna2 , Linas Laibinis2 in rigorous modelling and design by increasing automation of development steps. We introduce a notion establishes a basis for building a tool that would support formal system development via pattern reuse

  3. Design Patterns for Library Optimization Douglas Gregor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    Design Patterns for Library Optimization Douglas Gregor Dept. of Computer Science Rensselaer of software libraries, focusing especially on object-oriented numerical libraries. We formalize three design patterns that we have ab- stracted from many existing libraries and discuss the role of these for

  4. Fast Kernel Learning for Multidimensional Pattern Extrapolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    patterns is in general diffi- cult, and developing Gaussian process models for this purpose involves challenges than scaling a standard Gaussian process model. One faces additional computational constraints models are unable to perform pattern discovery and extrapolation. While recent approaches such as [5

  5. Lithographically Patterned Channels Spatially Segregate Kinesin Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hancock, William O.

    Lithographically Patterned Channels Spatially Segregate Kinesin Motor Activity and Effectively Received March 25, 2003 ABSTRACT To extract useful work from biological motor proteins, it is necessary microfabrication to construct 1.5-µm-deep channels in SU-8 photoresist patterned on glass. Although motor proteins

  6. Understanding Design Patterns with Design Rationale Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baniassad, Elisa

    Understanding Design Patterns with Design Rationale Graphs Elisa Baniassad and Gail C. Murphy christa.schwanninger@mchp.siemens.de ABSTRACT A Design Pattern presents a proven solution to a common design problem using a combination of informal text, diagrams, and examples. Often, to suitably describe

  7. OWL Change Management Patterns Rim Djedidi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OWL Change Management Patterns Rim Djedidi1 , and Marie-Aude Aufaure2 1 Computer Science Department, we focus on issues related to change management, particularly consistency maintenance and we present in this paper, an overview of Change Management Patterns (CMP) that we have defined to model the three

  8. Semiregular patterns on surfaces Craig S. Kaplan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Craig S.

    Semiregular patterns on surfaces Craig S. Kaplan Computer Graphics Lab, David R. Cheriton School a pattern. Finally, this paper greatly simpli- fies the previous remeshing-based approach of Kaplan et al section, and discuss it in the context of related work by Kaplan et al. and others in Section 3. 2

  9. A pattern language for sacred secular places 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Melanie Rachel

    2006-08-16

    Â?Pattern LanguageÂ? is a term popularized by Christopher Alexander and his coauthors of the book A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein in the late 1970Â?s. Though intended to enable every citizen...

  10. Mining Sequential Patterns from Temporal Streaming Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malerba, Donato

    Mining Sequential Patterns from Temporal Streaming Data A. Marascu and F. Masseglia INRIA Sophia.Marascu,Florent.Masseglia}@sophia.inria.fr Abstract. In recent years, emerging applications introduced new con- straints for data mining methods of our knowledge, no method has been proposed for mining sequential patterns in data streams. We argue

  11. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    decreases the roads' level of service, while at the same time increasing both fuel consump- tion5Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas Pu Wang1,2 , Timothy Hunter4 , Alexandre M. Bayen4 patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own

  12. A constitutive model for unsaturated cemented soils under cyclic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, C; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Huang, M S

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of plastic bounding surface model, the damage theory for structured soils and unsaturated soil mechanics, an elastoplastic model for unsaturated loessic soils under cyclic loading has been elaborated. Firstly, the description of bond degradation in a damage framework is given, linking the damage of soil's structure to the accumulated strain. The Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) was considered for the suction effects. The elastoplastic model is then integrated into a bounding surface plasticity framework in order to model strain accumulation along cyclic loading, even under small stress levels. The validation of the proposed model is conducted by comparing its predictions with the experimental results from multi-level cyclic triaxial tests performed on a natural loess sampled beside the Northern French railway for high speed train and about 140 km far from Paris. The comparisons show the capabilities of the model to describe the behaviour of unsaturated cemented soils under cyclic loading.

  13. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  14. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauser, Aaron D. (Washington, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB); Coldren, Dana R. (Fairbury, IL)

    2009-04-28

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  15. Microchannel cross load array with dense parallel input

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2004-04-06

    An architecture or layout for microchannel arrays using T or Cross (+) loading for electrophoresis or other injection and separation chemistry that are performed in microfluidic configurations. This architecture enables a very dense layout of arrays of functionally identical shaped channels and it also solves the problem of simultaneously enabling efficient parallel shapes and biasing of the input wells, waste wells, and bias wells at the input end of the separation columns. One T load architecture uses circular holes with common rows, but not columns, which allows the flow paths for each channel to be identical in shape, using multiple mirror image pieces. Another T load architecture enables the access hole array to be formed on a biaxial, collinear grid suitable for EDM micromachining (square holes), with common rows and columns.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  17. Reaction Diffusion patterns in Pseudoplatystoma fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldo Ledesma-Durán; Héctor Juárez-Valencia; Iván Santamaría-Holek

    2016-01-05

    This paper studies how patterns derived from a system of reaction-diffusion equations may vary significantly depending upon boundary and initial conditions, as well as in the spatial dependence of the coefficients involved. From an extensive numerical study of the BVAM model, we demonstrate that the geometric pattern of a reaction-diffusion system is not uniquely determined by the value of the parameters in the equation. From this result, we suggest that the variability of patterns among individuals of the same species may have its roots in this sensitivity. Furthermore, this study analyzes briefly how the inclusion of the advection and the space dependency in the parameters of the model influences the forms of a specific pattern. The results of this study are compared to the skin patterns that appear in Pseudoplatystom} fishes.

  18. EQUIVALENT STATIC WIND LOAD DISTRIBUTION OF COUPLED BUFFETING RESPONSE OF BRIDGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    EQUIVALENT STATIC WIND LOAD DISTRIBUTION OF COUPLED BUFFETING RESPONSE OF BRIDGES Xinzhong Chen in terms of the equivalent static wind loads. The gust response factor (GRF) approach that assumes the equivalent static loads having the same distribution of the mean static wind loads is widely used

  19. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01

    cost of service differentials, maintenance of the extensive and lightly-loaded network, and overloaded substations

  20. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.