National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for load generating capacity

  1. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  2. INVESTING IN NEW BASE LOAD GENERATING CAPACITY

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Hydrocarbon Gas2 II NowIII IIUI

  3. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  4. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  5. Micro-grid operation of inverter based distributed generation with voltage and frequency dependent loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeineldin, H. H.

    Distribution systems are experiencing increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG). One attractive option is to use the available DG capacity during utility outages by forming planned micro-grids. Load sharing ...

  6. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  7. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  8. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 2, Capacity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Monthly totals of utility loads and capacities extrapolated as far as 2009 with a probability estimate of enough water resources for hydro power.

  9. Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is allocated to generators in a power system. In these notes, we derive the proximity effect, the inertial, constant impedance loads, and the network reduced to generator internal nodes. This expression was: { }00

  10. Biomass Power Generation Market Capacity is Estimated to Reach...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Power Generation Market Capacity is Estimated to Reach 122,331.6 MW by 2022 Home > Groups > Renewable Energy RFPs Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150)...

  11. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The renewable supply may comprise, for example, a photovoltaic power supply or a wind-based power supply.

  12. Figure 1. The net load, or power load minus wind and solar generation, for the state of California on March 31.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nehorai, Arye

    increase in solar and wind installations. This graph, often called a "Duck Curve" in the industry because can have. When a power grid has a large #12;2 amount of solar power capacity, the middle of this curve1 Figure 1. The net load, or power load minus wind and solar generation, for the state

  13. Ancillary-service details: regulation, load following, and generator response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine empirically these intrahour and interhour load changes and the responses of a utility`s generating resources to those load changes. We analyze data, primarily from one control area, to see how it maintains ACE close to zero in an effort to meet the A1 and A2 criteria. Overall, we estimate that load following costs US electric utilities over one billion dollars a year. We first test alternative ways to identify trends over multihour periods using both regression analysis and rolling averages. Then, we consider several metrics for intrahour load following. Next we examine characteristics of load following for different time-averaging periods and compare the dynamics of loads and load following generation across these time periods. Finally, we consider the contribution of each load to the total load following requirements of the control area.

  14. Sandia's research spans generation, storage, and load management at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kW diesel genset, fuel cells, and additional interchangeable generators. Storage capabilities technology integration, microgrid communications, enhanced efficiency, load control, and specialized tests

  15. Better Building Alliance, Plug and Process Loads in Commercial Buildings: Capacity and Power Requirement Analysis (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.

  16. Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Energy System #12;Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time the electric power industry and educating the next generation of power engineers. More information about PSERC will fundamentally alter the traditional generation technology mix. This will place a greater value on technologies

  17. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S.; Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

  18. NON-DESTRUCTIVE DETERMINATION OF SERVICEABILITY AND LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF FLOOR SLABS USING DYNAMIC METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , output-only modal analysis, Frequency Domain Decomposition, system identification, model updating in this case is the verification of the serviceability and the load bearing capacity towards the certification particularly powerful. The big advantage is that the exciting forces need not to be measured. As a consequence

  19. Experimental Characterization of the Effect of Charring on the Residual Load Carrying Capacity of a Structural Fibre Reinforced Composite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, David J; Torero, Jose L

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study conducted to investigate the residual load carrying capacity of a commonly used structural composite plastic, isophthalic polyester, reinforced with S-glass fibreglass when exposed to heat-fluxes ...

  20. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Northeastern","Coal","Public Service Co of Oklahoma",1815 2,"Redbud Power...

  1. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Bath County","Pumped storage","Virginia Electric & Power Co",3003 2,"North...

  2. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"US GSA Heating and Transmission","Natural gas","US GSA Heating and...

  3. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Vermont Yankee","Nuclear","Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee",619.4 2,"Kingdom Community...

  4. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Dynegy Moss Landing Power Plant","Natural gas","Dynegy -Moss Landing LLC",2529...

  5. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. Currently, uncertainties associated with wind and load forecasts, as well as uncertainties associated with random generator outages and unexpected disconnection of supply lines, are not taken into account in power grid operation. Thus, operators have little means to weigh the likelihood and magnitude of upcoming events of power imbalance. In this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a framework has been developed for incorporating uncertainties associated with wind and load forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications. A new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope including balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration has been proposed. The approach includes three stages: forecast and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence levels. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis, incorporating all sources of uncertainties of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the “flying brick” technique has been developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation algorithm has been developed to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals.

  6. Stress generation during lithiation of high-capacity electrode particles in lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ting

    Stress generation during lithiation of high-capacity electrode particles in lithium ion batteries S in controlling stress generation in high-capacity electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Ó 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium ion battery; Lithiation

  7. Did English Generators Play Cournot? Capacity Withholding in the Electricity Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Richard J.

    2004-06-16

    The electricity industry in England and Wales was restructured in March 1990. The integrated Central Electricity Generating Board was divided into three generating companies and the National Grid Company (NGC), responsible for transmission. NGC also operated... published the load factors of its stations, while the MMC published information on the load factors of National Power and PowerGen’s coal-fired stations in its 1996 reports into their merger proposals. NGC provided load-duration curves, showing...

  8. Dynamic Long-Term Modelling of Generation Capacity Investment and Capacity Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eager, Dan; Hobbs, Benjamin; Bialek, Janusz

    2012-04-25

    is the mix and amount of generation investment over time in response to policies promoting high penetrations of variable output renewable power such as wind. Modelling the dynamics of merchant generation investment in market environments can inform the debate...

  9. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sandy","Coal","Kentucky Power Co",1060 9,"Riverside Generating LLC","Natural gas","Riverside Generating Co LLC",825 10,"J K Smith","Natural gas","East Kentucky Power Coop, Inc",784...

  10. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    General Electric Co",487 9,"Hermiston Generating Plant","Natural gas","Hermiston Generating Co LP",464 10,"Biglow Canyon Wind Farm","Wind","Portland General Electric Co",449....

  11. Global Installed Capacity of Coal Fired Power Generation to Reach...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    offers comprehensive data with regard to the size, growth, and forecast of this market. Coal fired power generation has been a very common energy producing technique for...

  12. Temporal vs. Stochastic Granularity in Thermal Generation Capacity ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    smryan

    2013-07-25

    [20] S. Jin, A. Botterud, S. Ryan, "Impact of demand response on thermal generation investment with high wind penetration,". Iowa State Univerity, Technical ...

  13. Capacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads full cell studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads ­ full ion battery-super capacitor hybrid system is preferred over a lithium ion battery for higher rates ion battery ($100 W/kg). Also, since the inter- nal resistance of the super capacitor is smaller than

  14. Real-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    , e.g., plug-in electric vehicles, dryers, air conditioners, etc. The penetration of deferrable loads has a root-mean- square error of around 18% of the nameplate capacity look- ing 24 hours ahead [16

  15. Competitive electricity markets and investment in new generating capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from the U.S. and some other countries indicates that organized wholesale markets for electrical energy and operating reserves do not provide adequate incentives to stimulate the proper quantity or mix of generating ...

  16. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (MW)" 1,"Chalk Point LLC","Petroleum","NRG Chalk Point LLC",2248 2,"Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant","Nuclear","Calvert Cliffs Nuclear PP LLC",1716 3,"Morgantown Generating...

  17. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mile Point Nuclear Sta LLC",1924.1 4,"Northport","Natural gas","National Grid Generation LLC",1593.1 5,"Oswego Harbor Power","Petroleum","NRG Oswego Harbor Power...

  18. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8,"Kennecott Power Plant","Coal","Kennecott Utah Copper",212.7 9,"Milford Wind Corridor I LLC","Wind","First Wind O&M, LLC",203.5 10,"West Valley Generation...

  19. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Generating Station","Natural gas","Public Service Co of NM",235.6 9,"New Mexico Wind Energy Center","Wind","FPL Energy New Mexico Wind LLC",204 10,"Maddox","Natural...

  20. RESTRICTING THE WEAK-GENERATIVE CAPACITY OF SYNCHRONOUS TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shieber, Stuart

    RESTRICTING THE WEAK-GENERATIVE CAPACITY OF SYNCHRONOUS TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMARS STUART M. SHIEBER: Synchronous tree-adjoining grammars, weak-generative ca- pacity, machine translation, natural reasons. First, the weak-generative expressivity of TAGs is increased through the synchronization

  1. Long-term contracts for new investments in power generation capacity : pain or gain?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakhrani, Vivek A. (Vivek Ashok)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a debate has ensued regarding the role of long-term power purchase agreements for securing investments in power generation capacity in organized wholesale markets. This thesis illuminates the issues ...

  2. Did English generators play cournot? : capacity withholding in the electricity pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Electricity generators can raise the price of power by withholding their plant from the market. We discuss two ways in which this could have affected prices in the England and Wales Pool. Withholding low-cost capacity which ...

  3. Dynamic modelling of generation capacity investment in electricity markets with high wind penetration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eager, Daniel

    2012-06-25

    The ability of liberalised electricity markets to trigger investment in the generation capacity required to maintain an acceptable level of security of supply risk has been - and will continue to be - a topic of much ...

  4. Real-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Real-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation Lingwen Gan to handle the un- certainties of renewable generation. It is expected that a large number of deferrable for the random fluctuations in renewable generation. Work on deferrable load control falls into two categories

  5. Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost Siyu Yue of electricity consumers is an effective way to alleviate the peak power demand on the elec- tricity grid- ple users cooperate to perform load demand scheduling in order to minimize the electricity generation

  6. Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brokish, Kevin Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy penetration. Frequency-adaptive intelligent appliances are ...

  7. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  8. Improvement of load-following capacity based on the flame radiation intensity signal in a power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei Wang; Qunxing Huang; Dong Liu; Jianhua Yan; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2008-05-15

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue due to the increasing commercialization of the power market. In the traditional boiler control system, the feedback signals come from the variations of the steam pressure and the steam flow, which leads to a large time delay. Therefore, a new method for the boiler control system based on radiation intensity for improving the load-following capacity of a coal-fired power plant has been developed in this paper. The system is implemented by adding the radiation intensity of the flame to the existing boiler control system as a complement. The radiation intensity obtained by the sensor can directly reflect the input heat in the boiler, with a faster response and higher sensitivity. Field tests on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant reveal that the improved boiler control system increases the load-following capacity. At the same time, the steam pressure variations are smaller as compared with those of the existing control system. 14 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A comparison and case study of capacity credit algorithms for intermittent generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.

    1997-03-01

    As the electric utility industry moves toward a new structure the responsibility of providing a reliable portfolio of generating resources may be shifted among the various entities m the industry To evaluate whether to undertake a construction project for new generating resources, utilities have traditionally used sophisticated models to assist in the comparison of alternative resources. It is not clear how this type of evaluation will be carried out after the restructuring dust has settled. What is clear, however, is that the market will require some way to measure capacity credit of new power plants, and future contracts will contain provisions under which buyer and seller must agree on capacity measures. This paper co the traditional capacity credit calculations with algorithms that are not nearly so labor intensive.

  10. Integration of MHD load models with circuit representations the Z generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Jones, Brent Manley; McBride, Ryan D.; Bailey, James E.; Jones, Michael C.; Gomez, Matthew Robert.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Nakhleh, Charles; Stygar, William A.; Savage, Mark Edward; Wagoner, Timothy C.; Moore, James K.

    2013-03-01

    MHD models of imploding loads fielded on the Z accelerator are typically driven by reduced or simplified circuit representations of the generator. The performance of many of the imploding loads is critically dependent on the current and power delivered to them, so may be strongly influenced by the generators response to their implosion. Current losses diagnosed in the transmission lines approaching the load are further known to limit the energy delivery, while exhibiting some load dependence. Through comparing the convolute performance of a wide variety of short pulse Z loads we parameterize a convolute loss resistance applicable between different experiments. We incorporate this, and other current loss terms into a transmission line representation of the Z vacuum section. We then apply this model to study the current delivery to a wide variety of wire array and MagLif style liner loads.

  11. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  12. Laser vaporization clusters from metal loaded graphite used for SWNT generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Laser vaporization clusters from metal loaded graphite used for SWNT generation Toshikazu Mukaea, The Univ. of Tokyo In order to study the generation mechanism of SWNTs, we have studied metal-carbon binary clusters generated by the laser vaporization of Ni/Co and Ni/Y doped graphite materials used

  13. Real-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    -time so as to ease the incorporation of renewable energy into the grid, and so are recognized as priority deferrable loads in order to compensate for the random fluctuations of renewable energy. However, realizingReal-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation Lingwen Gan

  14. Real-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    of renewable energy into the grid, and so are recognized as priority areas for the future smart grid by both for the random fluctuations of renewable energy. However, realizing the potential of deferrable loads re- quiresReal-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation Lingwen Gan

  15. Optimal distributed power generation under network load constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    , small wind turbine or central heating power units) can be inserted into any transmission line, mainly because of the development of novel components for decentral power generation (solar panels, small wind turbines and heat pumps). This gives rise to the question how many units of each type (solar panel

  16. Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu , Huan

    Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage Huan Xu, Ufuk to the intermittency in the power output. These difficulties can be alleviated by effectively utilizing energy storage turbines, supplemented with energy storage. We use a simple storage model alongside a combination

  17. Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huan

    Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage Huan Xu, Ufuk, and energy storage. costs [7], [8], [9]. Reference [10] uses a probabilistic model to predict the feasibility Topcu, Steven H. Low, Christopher R. Clarke, and K. Mani Chandy Abstract-- The integration of renewable

  18. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  19. How and why Tampa Electric Company selected IGCC for its next generating capacity addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    As the title indicates, the purpose of this paper is to relate how and why Tampa Electric Company decided to select the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) for their next capacity addition at Polk Power Station, Polk Unit No. 1. For a complete understanding of this process, it is necessary to review the history related to the initial formulation of the IGCC concept as it was proposed to the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Initiative Round Three. Further, it is important to understand the relationship between Tampa Electric Company and TECO Pay Services Corporation (TPS). TECO Energy, Inc. is an energy related holding company with headquarters in Tampa, Florida. Tampa Electric Company is the principal, wholly-owned subsidiary of TECO Energy, Inc. Tampa Electric Company is an investor-owned electric utility with about 3200 MW of generation capacity of which 97% is coal fired. Tampa Electric Company serves about 2,000 square miles and approximately 470,000 customers, in west central Florida, primarily in and around Hillsborough County and Tampa, Florida. Tampa Electric Company generating units consist of coal fired units ranging in size from a 110 MW coal fired cyclone unit installed in 1957 to a 450 MW pulverized coal unit with wet limestone flue gas desulfurization installed in 1985. In addition, Tampa Electric Company has six (6) No. 6 oil fired steam units totaling approximately 220 MW. Five (5) of these units, located at the Hookers Point Station, were installed in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Tampa Electric also has about 150 MW of No. 2 oil fired start-up and peaking combustion turbines. The company also owns a 1966 vintage 12 MW natural gas fired steam plant (Dinner Lake) and two nO. 6 oil fired diesel units with heat recovery equipment built in 1983 (Phillips Plant).

  20. Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question ŤWhat are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  1. Capacity to increase walking speed is limited by impaired hip and ankle power generation in lower functioning persons post-stroke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delp, Scott

    Capacity to increase walking speed is limited by impaired hip and ankle power generation in lower ankle power generation and increased hip power generation has been proposed as an important mechanism

  2. Load Management Made Simple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.

    1985-01-01

    Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

  3. Cascading Failure Risk Variation with Generator Dispatch and System Load Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezaei, Pooya

    2013-01-01

    Industry reliability rules increasingly require utilities to study and mitigate cascading failure risk in their system. Motivated by this, this paper describes how cascading failure risk, in terms of expected blackout size, varies with power system load level and pre-contingency dispatch. We used Monte Carlo sampling of random branch outages to model contingencies, and a model of cascading failure to estimate blackout sizes. The risk associated with different blackout sizes is separately estimated in order to separate small, medium, and large blackout risk. Results from N-1 secure models of the IEEE RTS case and a 2383 bus case indicate that blackout risk does not always increase with load level, particularly for large blackout risk. The results also show that risk is highly dependent on the method used for generator dispatch. Minimum cost methods of dispatch can result in larger long distance power transfers, which can increase cascading failure risk.

  4. A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ituzaro, Fred Agyekum

    2012-07-16

    Smart radial distribution grids will include advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and significant distributed generators (DGs) connected close to loads. DGs in these radial distribution systems (RDS) introduce bidirectional power flows (BPFs...

  5. Public Service Commission Authorization to Utilize an Alternative Method of Cost Recovery for Certain Base Load Generation (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Senate Bill 2793 authorizes the Public Service Commission (PSC) to utilize an alternative cost recovery for certain base load generation. The PSC is authorized to include in an electric...

  6. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the dismantling, replacement and supply of electrical overhead travelling cranes with a load capacity of up to 10 tonnes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the dismantling, replacement and supply of electrical overhead travelling cranes with a load capacity of up to 10 tonnes

  7. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the dismantling, refurbishment, replacement and supply of electrical overhead travelling cranes with a load capacity in excess of 10 tonnes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the dismantling, refurbishment, replacement and supply of electrical overhead travelling cranes with a load capacity in excess of 10 tonnes

  8. Power Dispatch and Load Control with Generation Uncertainty Pedram Samadi, Shahab Bahrami, Vincent W.S. Wong, and Robert Schober

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    and demand. We formulate an optimization problem to jointly minimize the generation cost and discomfort cost there is no control over the load, our proposed algorithm reduces the generation cost by better matching it possible for inverters, which act as an interface between the photovoltaic (PV) units and the grid

  9. Prognostic Control and Load Survivability in Shipboard Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Laurence J.

    2011-02-22

    bus. Generators 2MTG and 2ATG work together to energize loads connected to the port bus. The Forward/Aft Split Bus Mode separates the generators in half forming a left-hand region (fore) and a right hand-region (aft) pairing generators 1MTG and 2... is to maximize the energized loads in case there is a disturbance adhering to constraints of the source node, load node, intermediate node, edge capacity, radiality, and voltage. The results display the capacities of each load and the new path taken to supply...

  10. Improving the Capacity or Output of a Steam Turbine Generator at XYZ Power Plant in Illinois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amoo-Otoo, John Kweku

    2006-05-19

    revenue from increased generation, reducing fuel consumption while also benefiting the environment through reduced emissions. Also as competition revolutionizes, the power generation industry is taking a close look at aging steam turbines...

  11. Comparison of the response of two and four-stroke diesel-generator sets to transient loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willett, Kenneth Ray

    1979-01-01

    load1ng. The experimental apparatus necessary to conduct this research cons1sts of: ~ The diesel-generator sets. T hree diesel generator sets of comparable power outputs were chosen. . The instrumentat1on system. Instrumentat1on was developed...- ing the plates into the water by means ot a crank and pulley system. The deeper the plates were immersed the lower the resistance and the greater the load, as can be seen from examination of Kirchhoff's Law and the definition of 3-phase power...

  12. A Markov method for generating capacity reliability evaluation including operating considerations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asgarpoor, Sohrab

    1981-01-01

    =NN 00 61 1=1 N OQ 61 J= I N E( I J)=O CONTINUE KG=0 00 30 KK I NLL (F(KK NE I) GO TO 31 GQ TO 32 IF(I OAO&KK) LT LOAD(KK-I IF(LOAD(KK) GT ~ LQAD(KX-I IF&KG GT ~ OI GO TQ 44 CQ TQ 32 N=NN 00 36 J I N SD & KK ~ J) =58& KK-I J )-SB (K CONTINUE... N=NN UNITS WHICH HAS FAILED IN CLASS ) I 6), IF& J& ~ V(J) 5X, I5) &) 0 70 33 )) GQ TQ 32 K+I ~ J) 33 CALL MOOST &A ~ IF D V CAP ~ 4EW 4 LQAD LAM Ul?N NC, N KK ~ ALPHA ~ ST 1 CAPP KL NT I NF, CAPS ~ KAPS 53 SD 'VR NU PS, TS DELTS) 84 85 86...

  13. Economizer recirculation for low-load stability in heat recovery steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuscino, R.T.; Shade, R.L. Jr.

    1986-04-15

    An economizer system is described for heating feedwater in a heat recovery steam generator which consists of: at least first and second economizer tube planes; each of the economizer tube planes including a plurality of generally parallel tubes; the tubes being generally vertically disposed; each of the economizer tube planes including a top header and a bottom header; all of the plurality of tubes in each economizer tube plane being connected in parallel to their top and bottom headers whereby parallel feedwater flow through the plurality of tubes between the top and bottom headers is enabled; one of the top and bottom headers being an inlet header; a second of the top and bottom headers being an outlet header; a boiler feed pump; the boiler feed pump being effective for applying a flow of feedwater to the inlet header; means for serially interconnecting the economizer tube planes; the means for serially interconnecting including means for flowing the feedwater upward and downward in tubes of alternating ones of the economizer tube planes between the inlet header and the outlet header; means for conveying heated feedwater from the outlet header to a using process; means for recirculating at least a portion of the heated feedwater from the outlet header to an inlet of the boiler feed pump; and the means for recirculating including means for relating the portion to a steam load in the using process whereby an increased flow is produced through all of the economizer tube planes at values of the steam load below a predetermined value and a condition permitting initiation of reverse flow in any of the tubes is substantially reduced.

  14. Online Capacity Identification of Multitier Websites Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    to resource contention and algorithmic overhead for load management [15]. Knowledge about the server capacity

  15. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  16. Generation Following with Thermostatically Controlled Loads via Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers Sharing Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Eric M.; Moura, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    5 minute ahead forecasts of wind and solar generationUsing actual wind and solar generation forecasts, ambientCalifornia ISO Wind and Solar Generation 5-Min Forecasts for

  17. Generation Following with Thermostatically Controlled Loads via Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers Sharing Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Eric M.; Moura, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5-minute wind and solar power forecasts reported6 presents the wind and solar power generation for theimpacts of wind generation on california power systems,”

  18. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  19. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  20. EIA - Electricity Generating Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural Gas UsageDiesel pricesDieselAnnualElectricity

  1. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  2. Optimal energy-harvesting cycles for load-driven dielectric generators in plane strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Springhetti; E. Bortot; G. deBotton; M. Gei

    2014-03-13

    The performances of energy harvesting generators based on dielectric elastomers are investigated. The configuration is of a thin dielectric film coated by stretchable electrodes at both sides. The film is first stretched, then charged and subsequently, afterwards it is released, and finally the charge is harvested at a higher electric potential. The amount of energy extracted by this cycle is bounded by the electric breakdown and the ultimate stretch ratio of the film as well as by structural instabilities due to loss of tension. To identify the optimal cycle that complies with these limits we formulate a constraint optimization problem and solve it with a dedicated solver for two typical classes of elastic dielectrics. As anticipated, we find that the performance of the generator depends critically on the ultimate stretch ratio of the film. However, more surprising is our finding of a universal limit on the dielectric strength of the film beyond which the optimal cycle is independent of this parameter. Thus, we reveal that, regardless of how large the dielectric strength of the material is, there is an upper bound on the amount of harvested energy that depends only on the ultimate stretch ratio. We conclude the work with detailed calculations of the optimal cycles for two commercially available elastic dielectrics.

  3. Welfare Impacts of Electricity Generation Sector Reform in the Philippines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toba, Natsuko

    2004-06-16

    ) and the lack of a long-term debt instrument in the domestic financial system; (iv) inordinate delays in implementing new base load plants and in environmental clearances due to the public protests; (v) declining hydro power generation capacity; (vi...

  4. Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis Anthony compares to price responsive demand in terms capacity gains and energy market revenues for renewable to renewable generation. I. INTRODUCTION Renewable power is emerging as a mainstream source of energy supply

  5. Proposed changes to generating capacity 1980-1989 for the contiguous United States: as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1980 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-01

    The changes in generating capacity projected for 1980 to 1989 are summarized. Tabulated data provide summaries to the information on projected generating unit construction, retirements, and changes, in several different categories and groupings. The new generating units to be completed by the end of 1989 total 699, representing 259,490 megawatts. This total includes 10 wind power and one fuel cell installations totaling 48.5 MW to be completed by the end of 1989. There are 321 units totaling 13,222 MW to be retired. There are capacity changes due to upratings and deratings. Summary data are presented for: total requirement for electric energy generation for 1985; hydroelectric energy production for 1985; nuclear energy production for 1985; geothermal and other energy production for 1985; approximate non-fossil generation for 1985; range of fossil energy requirements for 1985; actual fossil energy sources 1974 to 1979; estimated range of fossil fuel requirements for 1985; coal capacity available in 1985; and computation of fuel use in 1985. Power plant capacity factors are presented. Extensive data on proposed generating capacity changes by individual units in the 9 Regional Electric Reliability Councils are presented.

  6. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  7. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  8. Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines, present electric system networks are experiencing the difficulty of constrained transmission lines: Photovoltaic Generation, Power System Economics, Dispersed Generation, Transmission-Constrained Interconnected

  9. Integration and operation of post-combustion capture system on coal-fired power generation: load following and peak power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...

  10. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  11. As one of the most promising materials for high capacity electrode in next generation of lithium ion batteries, silicon has attracted great deal of attention in recent years. Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doctoral Defense Mechanics of Silicon Electrodes in Lithium Ion Batteries Yonghao An Advisor: Prof. Hanqing ion batteries, silicon has attracted great deal of attention in recent years. AdvancedAs one of the most promising materials for high capacity electrode in next generation of lithium

  12. If current capacity were to be expanded so that all of the non-recycled municipal solid waste that is currently sent to U.S. landfills each year could instead be converted to energy, we could generate enough electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    that is currently sent to U.S. landfills each year could instead be converted to energy, we could generate enough electricity to supply 13.8 million homes with power. If current capacity were to be expanded so that the U so that we could convert our non-recycled waste to alternative energy instead of landfilling it, we

  13. Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Load Management - A Utility Viewpoint 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A few years ago our response to an inquiry regarding availability of electric service for a large industrial load was something like: 'Let us put this into our production model to determine whether we will have adequate generating capacity to commit...

  14. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  15. Capacity Markets 1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    is the ability of the electric system to supply the aggregate electric power and energy requirements. There may be situations where the total generation is in fact sufficient, but the transmission between/or load control during peak periods), and/or storage. Maintaining adequacy has always been a primary

  16. Cost Bases for Incentive Rates Applicable to Industrial Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, C. N.

    1987-01-01

    ; they involve a depressed economy base in all or certain segments of the service area, a decrease in load, excess generation capacity, and an increase in base rates. An increase in rates may also be related to the commercial operation of a base load unit, i... utility has completely abandoned a pricing structure that is in any way related to cost. Some of the incentive rates are very short lived and reflect transient economic conditions while others tend to reflect long-term economic relationships...

  17. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  18. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  19. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  20. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  1. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, Victor; Cole, Wesley; Sullivan, Patrick; Brinkman, Gregory; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  2. Abstract--The aim of this paper is to present a new method for the allocation of new generation capacity, which takes into ac-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    and read- justs capacity to bring fault currents within the specifications of switchgear. The method may require upgrading of switchgear. Currently, the significant cost of upgrading is transferred, which consid- ers fault level constraints introduced by existing switchgear. II. THEORY A. Definitions

  3. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'

  4. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  5. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  6. Capacity Value of Wind Plants and Overview of U.S. Experience (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides an overview and summary of the capacity value of wind power plants, based primarily on the U.S. experience. Resource adequacy assessment should explicitly consider risk. Effective load carrying capability (ELCC) captures each generators contribution to resource adequacy. On their own, reserve margin targets as a percent of peak can't capture risks effectively. Recommend benchmarking reliability-based approaches with others.

  7. Verification of voltage/frequency requirement for emergency diesel generator in nuclear power plant using dynamic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Jin-Suk; Roh, Myung- Sub

    2014-02-12

    One major cause of the plant shutdown is the loss of electrical power. The study is to comprehend the coping action against station blackout including emergency diesel generator, sequential loading of safety system and to ensure that the emergency diesel generator should meet requirements, especially voltage and frequency criteria using modeling tool. This paper also considered the change of the sequencing time and load capacity only for finding electrical design margin. However, the revision of load list must be verified with safety analysis. From this study, it is discovered that new load calculation is a key factor in EDG localization and in-house capability increase.

  8. Capacity Markets for Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    and design of electricity capacity markets. Our work has twoMarkets for Electricity capacity markets, and so, when thesemain features of electricity capacity markets. We have used

  9. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Byron Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Byron Generating Station" ,"Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  10. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Dresden Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dresden Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

  11. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Braidwood Generation Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Braidwood Generation Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

  12. Kansas Nuclear Profile - Wolf Creek Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    April 2012" "Next Release Date: February 2013" "Wolf Creek Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor...

  13. Washington Nuclear Profile - Columbia Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Columbia Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

  14. Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS): Distributed Generation Agency...

  15. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  16. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  17. Effect of Large Scale Transmission Limitations on Renewable Energy Load Matching for Western U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.; Short, W.; Gilchrist, B.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the Western U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. Without energy storage and assuming unlimited energy flows between regions, wind and PV can meet up to 80% of loads in Western U.S. while less than 10% of the generated power is curtailed. Limiting hourly energy flows by the aggregated transmission line carrying capacities decreases the fraction of the load that can be met with wind and PV generation to approximately 70%.

  18. Message Passing for Integrating and Assessing Renewable Generation in a Redundant Power Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdeborová, Lenka; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of "firm" generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch settings where no generator is overloaded.

  19. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Capacity Planning submodule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.

  20. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  1. Robustness of scale-free networks to cascading failures induced by fluctuating loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizutaka, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Taking into account the fact that overload failures in real-world functional networks are usually caused by extreme values of temporally fluctuating loads that exceed the allowable range, we study the robustness of scale-free networks against cascading overload failures induced by fluctuating loads. In our model, loads are described by random walkers moving on a network and a node fails when the number of walkers on the node is beyond the node capacity. Our results obtained by using the generating function method shows that scale-free networks are more robust against cascading overload failures than Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi random graphs with homogeneous degree distributions. This conclusion is contrary to that predicted by previous works which neglect the effect of fluctuations of loads.

  2. EVALUATION OF PV GENERATION CAPICITY CREDIT FORECAST ON DAY-AHEAD UTILITY MARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    EVALUATION OF PV GENERATION CAPICITY CREDIT FORECAST ON DAY-AHEAD UTILITY MARKETS Richard Perez predict the effective capacity of grid-connected PV power plants. The predicted and actual utility peak load reduction performance of PV power plants are compared for two case studies: ConEdison in New York

  3. SYSTEM WIDE ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN THE NEW ENGLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Numbers With Location · Substation Capacities and Installed Loads Without this information, the study that would be useful is: Cost and location of all planned transmission and distribution upgrades was to evaluate the benefits and costs associated with a distributed generation unit from the perspectives

  4. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    generation capacity in liberalized electricity markets.capacity expansion in imperfectly competitive restructured electricity markets.

  5. Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    for the same data. Two methods are described for forecasting daily peak loads up to one week ahead through, including generator unit commitment, hydro-thermal coordination, short-term maintenance, fuel allocation forecasting accuracies. STLF forecasting covers the daily peak load, total daily energy, and daily load curve

  6. Property:GeneratingCapacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 Jump to: navigation, search This is a propertyGenDelToGrid Jump

  7. New Jersey Nuclear Profile - PSEG Salem Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PSEG Salem Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

  8. New Jersey Nuclear Profile - PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

  9. California Nuclear Profile - San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

  10. Illinois Nuclear Profile - LaSalle Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LaSalle Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

  11. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    refinery as of January 1, 2006 Tables 1 Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2006 PDF 2 Production Capacity of...

  12. UMTS Capacity and Throughput Maximization for Different Spreading Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akl, Robert

    for signal-to-interference threshold from 5 dB to 10 dB and spreading factor values of 256, 64, 16, and 4 Erlang capacity based on the Lost Call Held (LCH) model as described in [4]. This algorithm calculates expression of Erlang capacity for a single type of traffic loading and compare analytical results

  13. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    generation, including hourly generation and load profiles,by incorporating hourly generation and load profiles,power with the same hourly generation profile. The marginal

  14. Shannon Capacity Ramsey Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radziszowski, Stanislaw P.

    Shannon Capacity Ramsey Numbers Old links between Shannon and Ramsey New links between Shannon and Ramsey Bounds on Shannon Capacity and Ramsey Numbers from Product of Graphs Xiaodong Xu1 Stanislaw Institute of Technology, NY, USA March 2014 1/24 #12;Shannon Capacity Ramsey Numbers Old links between

  15. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  16. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

  17. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public Service, Salt River Project, Xcel and Nevada Power Company as well as the Arizona electric cooperatives. In the second phase of the project, three years of 10 second power output data of the SGSSS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of frequency domain analysis, normal statistical distribution analysis and finally maximum/minimum differential output analysis to test the applicability of these mathematic methods in accurately modeling the output variations produced by clouds passing over the SGSSS array.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  19. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  20. Environmental Assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies across the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), for the proposed granting of DOE permission of offloading activities to support the movement Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies (SGSAs) across the Savannah River Site (SRS). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact. On the basis of the floodplain/wetlands assessment in the EA, DOE has determined that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed activities and that the proposed action has been designed to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain of the SRS boat ramp. No wetlands on SRS would be affected by the proposed action.

  1. Table 16. Renewable energy generating capacity and generation

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved ReservesCubicper ThousandFeet) and Plant2,616 2,5881,289 1,228 1,28949533334

  2. ORISE: Capacity Building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Building Because public health agencies must maintain the resources to respond to public health challenges, critical situations and emergencies, the Oak Ridge Institute...

  3. Seismic load-resisting capacity of plastered straw bale walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiaw, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sing-Yee)

    2010-01-01

    Straw bales have been incorporated into buildings for centuries, but only recently have they been explored in academic settings for their structural potential. Straw bale building is encountering a growing audience due to ...

  4. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  5. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  6. Shaped Offset QPSK Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin, Cenk

    2012-08-31

    In this work we compute the capacities and the pragmatic capacities of military-standard shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In the pragmatic approach, SOQPSK is treated as a...

  7. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  8. Energy Storage for Use in Load Frequency Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitermann, Olivia

    Certain energy storage technologies are well-suited to the high-frequency, high-cycling operation which is required in provision of load frequency control (LFC). To limit the total stored energy capacity required while ...

  9. Assessment of Wind/Solar Co-located Generation in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven M. Wiese

    2009-07-20

    This paper evaluates the opportunity to load co-located wind and solar generation capacity onto a constrained transmission system while engendering only minimal losses. It quantifies the economic and energy opportunities and costs associated with pursuing this strategy in two Texas locations �¢���� one in west Texas and the other in south Texas. The study builds upon previous work published by the American Solar Energy Society (ASES) which illuminated the potential benefits of negative correlation of wind and solar generation in some locations by quantifying the economic and energy losses which would arise from deployment of solar generation in areas with existing wind generation and constrained transmission capacity. Clean Energy Associates (CEA) obtained and incorporated wind and solar resource data and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT)) load and price data into a model which evaluates varying levels of solar thermal, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind capacity against an assumed transmission capacity limit at each of the two locations.

  10. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  11. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  12. Stochastic capacity modeling to support demand/capacity gap planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niles, Augusta (Augusta L.)

    2014-01-01

    Capacity strategy has established methods of dealing with uncertainty in future demand. This project advances the concept of capacity strategy under conditions of uncertainty in cases where capacity is the primary source ...

  13. From Packet to Power Switching: Digital Direct Load Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh; Thomas, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    At present, the power grid has tight control over its dispatchable generation capacity but a very coarse control on the demand. Energy consumers are shielded from making price-aware decisions, which degrades the efficiency of the market. This state of affairs tends to favor fossil fuel generation over renewable sources. Because of the technological difficulties of storing electric energy, the quest for mechanisms that would make the demand for electricity controllable on a day-to-day basis is gaining prominence. The goal of this paper is to provide one such mechanisms, which we call Digital Direct Load Scheduling (DDLS). DDLS is a direct load control mechanism in which we unbundle individual requests for energy and digitize them so that they can be automatically scheduled in a cellular architecture. Specifically, rather than storing energy or interrupting the job of appliances, we choose to hold requests for energy in queues and optimize the service time of individual appliances belonging to a broad class whi...

  14. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  15. Protecting Consumer Privacy from Electric Load Stephen McLaughlin Patrick McDaniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Patrick Drew

    isolation and recovery, and support for alternative energy sources, e.g., consumer generated wind and solar as Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM): Load monitoring Load profile Lighting Oven Heater ... Appliance

  16. If current capacity were to be expanded so that all of the non-recycled municipal solid waste that is currently sent to U.S. landfills each year could instead be converted to energy, we could generate enough electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    If current capacity were to be expanded so that all of the non-recycled municipal solid waste.S. could convert all its non-recycled plastics into oil each year, we could produce 5.7 billion gallons so that we could convert our non-recycled waste to alternative energy instead of landfilling it, we

  17. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Diakov, Victor; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  18. Capacity expansion planning of alternative resources Formulation of a new mechanism to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Capacity expansion planning of alternative resources ­ Formulation of a new mechanism to procure · Gap between net revenues produced by energy markets and the capital costs of investing in new capacity GENERATING CAPACITY, MIT 2006 . FTI Consulting, "Evaluation of the New York Capacity Market", March 2013

  19. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Robert W. (Wilkinsburg, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  20. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  1. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  2. Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-09-01

    The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

  3. Capacity Demand Power (GW)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Capacity Demand Power (GW) Hour of the Day The "Dip" Electricity Demand in Electricity Demand Every weekday, Japan's electricity use dips about 6 GW at 12 but it also shows that: · Behavior affects naHonal electricity use in unexpected ways

  4. Mesh Generator Matthew Hanlon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    1 Mesh Generator Matthew Hanlon 9804817 hanlonmj@dsc.gla.ac.uk Class CS4H Session 2002 from two dimensional slices. Medical data stored as sets of slices can be used to generate a three was developed with the following requirements: · Load a set of slices into the system · Generate a mesh for each

  5. Unit Commitment Considering Generation Flexibility and Environmental Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; Zhu, Yunhua; Lu, Ning; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-07-31

    This paper proposes a new framework for power system unit commitment process, which incorporates the generation flexibility requirements and environmental constraints into the existing unit commitment algorithm. The generation flexibility requirements are to address the uncertainties with large amount of intermittent resources as well as with load and traditional generators, which causes real-time balancing requirements to be variable and less predictable. The proposed flexibility requirements include capacity, ramp and ramp duration for both upward and downward balancing reserves. The environmental constraints include emission allowance for fossil fuel-based generators and ecological regulations for hydro power plants. Calculation of emission rates is formulated. Unit commitment under this new framework will be critical to the economic and reliable operation of the power grid and the minimization of its negative environmental impacts, especially when high penetration levels of intermittent resources are being approached, as required by the renewable portfolio standards in many states.

  6. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  7. Cogeneration System Size Optimization Constant Capacity and Constant Demand Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Kcomt, J. B.; Turner, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    is made up by auxiliary boilers. 2. Isolated Operation, Thermal Load Following: the system is sized to match or exceed the maximum thermal load. Any electrical load deficit is made up by auxiliary generator. 3. Electrically Baseloaded, the system... is sized to meet - or slightly exceed the minimum electrical demand. 4. Thermally Baseloaded, the system is sized to meet - or slightly exceed the minimum thermal demand. 5. Maximum Legal System Size, as determined by the Public Utilities...

  8. Structural load inventory database for the Kansas City federal complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Johnson, M.W.; Nakaki, D.K. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lynch, D.T.; Drury, M.A. [AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division

    1995-12-01

    A structural load inventory database (LID) has been developed to support configuration management at the DOE Kansas City Plant (KCP). The objective of the LID is to record loads supported by the plant structures and to provide rapid assessments of the impact of future facility modifications on structural adequacy. Development of the LID was initiated for the KCP`s Main Manufacturing Building. Field walkdowns were performed to determine all significant loads supported by the structure, including the weight of piping, service equipment, etc. These loads were compiled in the LID. Structural analyses for natural phenomena hazards were performed in accordance with UCRL-15910. Software to calculate demands on the structural members due to gravity loads, total demands including both gravity and seismic loads, and structural member demand-to-capacity ratios were also developed and integrated into the LID. Operation of the LID is menu-driven. The LID user has options to review and print existing loads and corresponding demand-to-capacity ratios, and to update the supported loads and demand-to-capacity ratios for any future facility modifications.

  9. An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

    2004-06-01

    This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity. The projects were sorted into eight categories (capacitors, load transfer, new feeder, new line, new substation, new transformer, reconductoring, and substation capacity increase) and descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, total cost, number of observations, and standard deviation) were constructed for each project type. Furthermore, statistical analysis has been performed using ordinary least squares regression analysis to identify how various project variables (e.g., project location, the primary customer served by the project, the type of project, the reason for the upgrade, size of the upgrade) impact the unit cost of the project.

  10. CACM:Current-aware Capacity Management in Consolidated Server Enclosures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavrilovska, Ada

    to this study, we suggest the need for `location-aware' methods for load placement and migration. This paperCACM:Current-aware Capacity Management in Consolidated Server Enclosures Hui Chen, Meina Song in electrical current levels across these two domains. This paper describes experiments designed to validate

  11. Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control Enrique Mallada Steven H. Low California prices to incentivize the users to adapt their consumption to the true cost of generation at the time to accept more readily a stochastically fluctuating energy source, such as wind or solar generation

  12. Identification and definition of unbundled electric generation and transmission services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Vancoevering, J.

    1995-03-01

    State and federal regulators, private and public utilities, large and small customers, power brokers and marketers, and others are engaged in major debates about the future structure of the electric industry. Although the outcomes are far from certain, it seems clear that customers will have much greater choices about the electric services they purchase and from whom they buy these services. This report examines the ``ancillary`` services that are today buried within the typical vertically integrated utility. These ancillary services support and make possible the provision of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. These ancillary services include: Management of generating units; reserve generating capacity to follow variations in customer loads, to provide capacity and energy when generating units or transmission lines suddenly fall, to maintain electric-system stability, and to provide local-area security; transmission-system monitoring and control; replacement of real power and energy losses; reactive-power management and voltage regulation; transmission reserves; repair and maintenance of the transmission network; metering, billing, and communications; and assurance of appropriate levels of power quality. Our focus in this report, the first output from a larger Oak Ridge National Laboratory project, is on identification and definition of these services. Later work in this project will examine more closely the costs and pricing options for each service.

  13. Capacity Requirements to Support Inter-Balancing Area Wind Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2009-07-01

    Paper examines the capacity requirements that arise as wind generation is integrated into the power system and how those requirements change depending on where the wind energy is delivered.

  14. Why Are We Talking About Capacity Markets? (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.

    2011-06-01

    Capacity markets represent a new and novel way to achieve greater economic use of variable generation assets such as wind and solar, and this concept is discussed in this presentation.

  15. Examination of Capacity and Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy on Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2008-07-01

    When wind plants serve load within the balancing area, no additional capacity required to integrate wind power into the system. We present some thought experiments to illustrate some implications for wind integration studies.

  16. Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson C.

    2002-09-01

    The restructuring of regional and national electricity markets in the U.S. and around the world has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators to control and manage the load patterns of wholesale and retail end-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called Load Management, have re-emerged as an important element in the fine-tuning of newly restructured electricity markets. During the summers of 1999 and 2001 they played a vital role in stabilizing wholesale markets and providing a hedge against generation shortfalls throughout the U.S.A. Demand Response Programs include ''traditional'' capacity reservation and interruptible/curtailable rates programs as well as voluntary demand bidding programs offered by either Load Serving Entities (LSEs) or regional Independent System Operators (ISOs). The Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) has been monitoring the development of new types of Demand Response Programs both in the U.S. and around the world. This paper provides a survey and overview of the technologies and program designs that make up these emerging and important new programs.

  17. Load Management for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    categories: Thermal Energy Storage, Communication and Load Control, Interconnection and Operation of Power Systems, and Selective Load Promotions. The endeavors of the utility industry and Ohio Edison Company in three of the four categories are described...

  18. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  19. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  20. Spinning Reserve from Pump Load: A Technical Findings Report to the California Department of Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, BJ

    2005-05-06

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), at the request of the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating opportunities for electrical load to provide the ancillary service of spinning reserve to the electric grid. The load would provide this service by stopping for a short time when there is a contingency on the grid such as a transmission line or generator outage. There is a possibility that a significant portion of the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO's) spinning reserve requirement could be supplied from the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) pumping load. Spinning reserve has never been supplied from load before, and rule changes would be needed to allow it. In this report, we are presenting technical findings on the possibility of supplying spinning reserve from pumping system load. In parallel, we are pursuing the needed rule changes with the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and the CAISO. NERC and FERC have agreed that they have no prohibition against supplying spinning reserve from load. The WECC Minimum Operability Reliability Criteria working group has agreed that the concept should be considered, and they are presently discussing the needed tariff and rule changes. Presently, spinning reserve is provided by generation that is actually spinning but is operating at low power levels and can be ramped up quickly to provide reserve power. In a sense, this is an inefficient and environmentally unfriendly way of providing reserves because it requires the generator to operate at a low power level that may be inefficient and may discharge more pollutants per kW than operating at rated power. It would be better if this generation capacity were in a position to bid into the energy market. Providing an additional supply of spinning reserve would tend to reduce prices for both reserves and the regular electric energy market. The CAISO is presently in the process of redesigning its market rules for ancillary services. The time is right to pursue this opportunity to supply spinning reserve from load. It is our hope that the CDWR will endorse this recommendation. ORNL will then work with FERC, NERC, WECC, and the CAISO to obtain the needed rule changes. This project would provide the CDWR with another option in the complex process of obtaining its energy at the lowest possible cost, while at the same time providing more flexibility to the ISO and relief to the energy market. After this project is implemented in California, we hope that the practice spreads across the nation, allowing much more flexibility in energy markets and increasing the availability of reserve services.

  1. Transmission Capacity Forum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum Sign In About | Careers |

  2. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity Report

  3. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity Report5

  4. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity

  5. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity Operable

  6. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space5,168Capacity

  7. Heat capacity of silver paint A. LeR. Dawson and D. H. Ryan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Heat capacity of silver paint A. LeR. Dawson and D. H. Ryan Department of Physics, Center; accepted for publication 15 March 1996 The heat capacity [CP(T)] of a silver loaded paint has been measured,3 however, we have found a silver paint Flexible Silver No. 16 Ref. 4 to be better than Apiezon N for many

  8. Heat Capacity of Silver Paint A.LeR. Dawson and D.H. Ryan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Heat Capacity of Silver Paint A.LeR. Dawson and D.H. Ryan Department of Physics The heat capacity (C P (T )) of a silver loaded paint has been measured between 3 K and 30 K. It is shown is Apiezon N grease [2,3], however, we have found a silver paint (Flexible Silver #16 [4]) to be better than

  9. Predicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis of AE signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis Available online 26 July 2005 Abstract This paper presents an alternative approach to the problem, based the unloading and loading phases of a cycle test and it showed a clear correlation with the bending failure load

  10. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  11. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  12. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...

  13. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  14. A Dynamic Water-filling Method for Real-Time HVAC Load Control Based on Model Predictive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Lin

    load potential. Existing work, such as [3], usually needs accurate long-term load and renewable energy between the fluctuation of non-renewable power generation and the limited demand response potential at users' side. By changing the elastic load w.r.t. both renewable energy generation and inelastic load

  15. Industrial Load Shaping: A Utility Strategy to Deal with Competition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D.

    1987-01-01

    SHAPING: A UTILITY STRATEGY TO DEAL WITH COMPETITION DONALD BULES BULES AND ASSOCIATES SAN FRANCISCO, ABSTRACT In recent years competition from various sources such as cogeneration and bypass has led many utilities to refocus attention... on the utility as the only electric supplier. The electric utility industry is faced with declining industrial sales, declining system load factor and excess baseload capacity. Industrial load shaping restructures traditional facility operations so...

  16. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  17. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-30

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy`s activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration`s annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment.

  18. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Related Articles Tacoma Power's Cushman Hydroelectric Project installed a new two-generator powerhouse that increases electric generation capacity by 3.6 megawatts and captures...

  19. Swing Dynamics as Primal-Dual Algorithm for Optimal Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    al. studied the aggregate response character- istics when individual loads are turned on networks, loads can pro- vide flexible, fast responsive, and decentralized sources for frequency regulation and generation-demand balancing, com- plementary to generation control. We consider an optimal load control (OLC

  20. Optimal Power Flow as a Tool for Fault Level Constrained Network Capacity Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vovos, Panagis; Harrison, Gareth P; Wallace, Robin; Bialek, Janusz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new method for the allocation of new generation capacity, which takes into account fault level constraints imposed by protection equipment such as switcvhgear. It simulates new generation ...

  1. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Lower Cleanroom Roof Quick Load Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-11-17

    This engineering note documents calculations done to determine the margin of safety for the lower clean room roof. The analysis was done to give me a feeling of what the loads, stresses and capacity of the roof is prior to installation and installation work to be done for the helium refrigerator upgrade. The result of this quick look showed that the calculated loads produce stress values and loads at about half the allowables. Based on this result, I do not think that special precautions above personal judgement are required for the installation work.

  2. Fire Experiments of Thin-Walled CFRP Pretensioned High Strength Concrete Slabs Under Service Load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrasi, Giovanni; Maluk, Cristian; Bisby, Luke; Hugi, Erich; Kanik, Birol

    2012-06-14

    deteriorates at elevated temperature and that high strength concrete tends to an explosive spalling failure mode when subjected to a fire. The bond strength reductions in fire, their impacts on the load-bearing capacity of prestressed concrete structures...

  3. A hierarchical heuristic approach for machine loading problems in a partially grouped environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Hwan

    2004-09-30

    The loading problem in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) lies in the allocation of operations and associated cutting tools to machines for a given set of parts subject to capacity constraints. This dissertation proposes a hierarchical approach...

  4. Demonstrating Structural Adequacy of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures for Beyond Design-Basis Pressure Loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braverman, J.I.; Morante, R.

    2010-07-18

    ABSTRACT Demonstrating the structural integrity of U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) containment structures, for beyond design-basis internal pressure loadings, is necessary to satisfy Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements and performance goals. This paper discusses methods for demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment for beyond design-basis pressure loadings. Three distinct evaluations are addressed: (1) estimating the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structure (10 CFR 50 and US NRC Standard Review Plan, Section 3.8) ; (2) demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment subjected to pressure loadings associated with combustible gas generation (10 CFR 52 and 10 CFR 50); and (3) demonstrating the containment structural integrity for severe accidents (10 CFR 52 as well as SECY 90-016, SECY 93-087, and related NRC staff requirements memoranda (SRMs)). The paper describes the technical basis for specific aspects of the methods presented. It also presents examples of past issues identified in licensing activities related to these evaluations.

  5. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  6. Load management alternatives to transmission and distribution construction: Toledo-Wren case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Lyke, A.J.; Tawil, J.J.; De Steese, J.G.; Tepel, R.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to predict the feasibility of using load management as an alternative to construction of transmission and distribution capacity. A forecasting model was developed and applied to a particular case. Several problems were identified in the test case, necessitating modification of the model. The authors conclude that the modified version of the model allows accurate assessment of the effects of load management and conservation measures on transmission capacity. 13 figs. (JDH)

  7. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    M. (2007) Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review ofDepends on price level Ancillary Services Resource ~5 sec. –Emergency Capacity Energy Ancillary Services Currently not

  8. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  9. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-05-15

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

  10. Power and Frequency Control as it Relates to Wind-Powered Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacommare, Kristina S H

    2011-01-01

    5   2.2   Balancing Areas and Generating Plantvariations of load and generating plant output closely so as1. Balancing Areas and Generating Plant Types Simulations

  11. Distributed, Secure Load Balancing with Skew, Heterogeneity, and Churn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed, Secure Load Balancing with Skew, Heterogeneity, and Churn Jonathan Ledlie and Margo rates of node join and leave (churn), and wide variation in node network and storage capacity be heavy-tailed, and because node availability and churn rates may change over time. Learning to adapt

  12. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  13. 1256 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 18, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2003 Short-Term Hydrothermal Generation Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    , and economic load dispatch. Considering a scheduling horizon period of a week, hourly generation schedules

  14. TRANSMISSION AND GENERATION INVESTMENT IN ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... generation capacity by private firms in liberalized electricity markets. ... Electricity Markets, Network Expansion, Transmission Management. 1 ...... renewables: Using two-stage optimisation to evaluate flexibility and the cost of.

  15. Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load

  16. Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST Yunqian University, China jiz@seu.edu.cn Abstract-With the increase of wind turbine dimension and capacity, the wind turbine structures are subjected to prominent loads and fatigue which would reduce the lifetime of wind

  17. Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications Donghwa Shin, Younghyun--Modern batteries (e.g., Li-ion batteries) provide high discharge efficiency, but the rate capacity effect in these batteries drastically decreases the discharge efficiency as the load current increases. Electric double

  18. Automotive Power Generation and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caliskan, Vahe

    This paper describes some new developments in the application of power electronics to automotive power generation and control. A new load-matching technique is introduced that uses a simple switched-mode rectifier to achieve ...

  19. CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES Public Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES School of Public Health Dean Principal Investigator Community Advisory System Faculty & Students School of Public Health Faculty & Students Prince George's County Washington, D.C. Community Members Practitioners, Residents and Public Health Professionals Research Projects Forum (CAC

  20. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    Only Load Electricity Generation By Fuel in the U.S.electricity generation from most sources, except oil, is growing to meet the growing demand and that fossil fuels

  1. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  2. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew (Clifton Park, NY); Steigerwald, Robert Louis (Burnt Hills, NY); Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Burnt Hills, NY)

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  3. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado",969 4,"Rawhide","Natural gas","Platte River Power Authority",668 5,"Rocky Mountain Energy Center","Natural gas","Public Service Co of Colorado",580...

  4. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,"Johnsonville","Coal","Tennessee Valley Authority",2250.8 4,"Raccoon Mountain","Pumped storage","Tennessee Valley Authority",1616.3 5,"Gallatin...

  5. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LLC",2001.9 2,"Brayton Point","Coal","Brayton Point Energy LLC",1518.5 3,"Northfield Mountain","Pumped storage","FirstLight Power Resources, Inc. - MA",1124 4,"Canal","Petroleum",...

  6. Indonesia Power Generation Capacity is Estimated to Reach 90...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    overview of these companies, followed by their financial overview, business strategies, technical performance analysis, operational standards, and awards and achievements. The...

  7. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Power Co",2069 3,"Ludington","Pumped storage","Consumers Energy Co",1872 4,"Midland Cogeneration Venture","Natural gas","Midland Cogeneration Venture",1864.6 5,"Dan E...

  8. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Power Co",1282 9,"McIntosh Combined Cycle Facility","Natural gas","Georgia Power Co",1256.8 10,"Thomas A Smith Energy Facility","Natural gas","Oglethorpe Power Corporation",1250...

  9. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LLC",2220 4,"Marshall (NC)","Coal","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2078 5,"Sherwood H Smith Jr Energy Complex","Natural gas","Duke Energy Progress - (NC)",1872 6,"Brunswick...

  10. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    States Power Co - Minnesota",503 9,"Riverside (MN)","Natural gas","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",470 10,"Blue Lake","Natural gas","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",453...

  11. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Service Co of NH",400.2 6,"S C Moore","Hydroelectric","TransCanada Hydro Northeast Inc.,",190.8 7,"Comerford","Hydroelectric","TransCanada Hydro Northeast...

  12. A stochastic multiscale model for electricity generation capacity ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-04-21

    or demand elasticity (a major objective of demand response programs). The contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows: 1. We formulate the ...

  13. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coop",380 6,"Wyodak","Coal","PacifiCorp",332 7,"Top of the World Windpower Project","Wind","Duke Energy Top Of the World WindPower",200 8,"TransAlta Wyoming...

  14. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Creek Station","Natural gas","Basin Electric Power Coop",290 7,"Buffalo Ridge II LLC","Wind","Iberdrola Renewables Inc",210 8,"Prairie Winds SD1","Wind","Basin Electric Power...

  15. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8,"Greater Des Moines","Natural gas","MidAmerican Energy Co",492.6 9,"Rolling Hills Wind Farm","Wind","MidAmerican Energy Co",443.9 10,"Pioneer Prairie Wind...

  16. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Peck","Hydroelectric","USCE-Missouri River District",200 8,"NaturEner Rim Rock Energy","Wind","NaturEner Rim Rock Energy LLC",180 9,"J E Corette Plant","Coal","PPL Montana LLC",153...

  17. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Center","Natural gas","Verso Paper Androscoggin LLC",136.6 7,"Kibby Wind Power Project","Wind","TransCanada Maine Wind Development Inc",132 8,"Great Lakes Hydro...

  18. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Inc",646 6,"Lawrence Energy Center","Coal","Westar Energy Inc",534 7,"Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC","Wind","AE Power Services LLC",470.4 8,"Hutchinson Energy Center","Natural...

  19. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tail Power Co",427 7,"Stanton","Coal","Great River Energy",187.9 8,"Tatanka Wind Power LLC","Wind","Acciona Wind Energy USA LLC",180 9,"Langdon Wind LLC","Wind","FPL...

  20. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    II","Natural gas","Ocean State Power II",218.6 6,"Pawtucket Power Associates","Natural gas","Pawtucket Power Associates LP",60 7,"Johnston LFG Turbine Plant","Other...

  1. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,"Catawba","Nuclear","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2290.2 4,"Bad Creek","Pumped Storage","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",1360 5,"Winyah","Coal","South Carolina Public...

  2. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price toStocks 2009CubicAnalysisYear Jana.

  3. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price toStocks 2009CubicAnalysisYear Jana.Alabama"

  4. Economic Dispatch of Electric Generation Capacity | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus,Department ofDepartment of Energy News MediaMuscle CarA

  5. Tri-Laboratory Linux Capacity Cluster 2007 SOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, M

    2007-03-22

    The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program (formerly know as Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative, ASCI) has led the world in capability computing for the last ten years. Capability computing is defined as a world-class platform (in the Top10 of the Top500.org list) with scientific simulations running at scale on the platform. Example systems are ASCI Red, Blue-Pacific, Blue-Mountain, White, Q, RedStorm, and Purple. ASC applications have scaled to multiple thousands of CPUs and accomplished a long list of mission milestones on these ASC capability platforms. However, the computing demands of the ASC and Stockpile Stewardship programs also include a vast number of smaller scale runs for day-to-day simulations. Indeed, every 'hero' capability run requires many hundreds to thousands of much smaller runs in preparation and post processing activities. In addition, there are many aspects of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) that can be directly accomplished with these so-called 'capacity' calculations. The need for capacity is now so great within the program that it is increasingly difficult to allocate the computer resources required by the larger capability runs. To rectify the current 'capacity' computing resource shortfall, the ASC program has allocated a large portion of the overall ASC platforms budget to 'capacity' systems. In addition, within the next five to ten years the Life Extension Programs (LEPs) for major nuclear weapons systems must be accomplished. These LEPs and other SSP programmatic elements will further drive the need for capacity calculations and hence 'capacity' systems as well as future ASC capability calculations on 'capability' systems. To respond to this new workload analysis, the ASC program will be making a large sustained strategic investment in these capacity systems over the next ten years, starting with the United States Government Fiscal Year 2007 (GFY07). However, given the growing need for 'capability' systems as well, the budget demands are extreme and new, more cost effective ways of fielding these systems must be developed. This Tri-Laboratory Linux Capacity Cluster (TLCC) procurement represents the ASC first investment vehicle in these capacity systems. It also represents a new strategy for quickly building, fielding and integrating many Linux clusters of various sizes into classified and unclassified production service through a concept of Scalable Units (SU). The programmatic objective is to dramatically reduce the overall Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of these 'capacity' systems relative to the best practices in Linux Cluster deployments today. This objective only makes sense in the context of these systems quickly becoming very robust and useful production clusters under the crushing load that will be inflicted on them by the ASC and SSP scientific simulation capacity workload.

  6. Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads in a Commercial Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads in a Commercial Office to cost-effectively generate representative MELs energy data for future studies, this study addressed

  7. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  8. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  9. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  10. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Capacity F t P f d P li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6/19/2013 1 Solar Photovoltaic ­ Capacity F t P f d P li Generating Resources Advisory Committee Advisor Model (SAM), version 2013.1.15 Technology: Solar PV (PVWatts system model)Technology: Solar PV (MWh) (First year output, each year thereafter degrades 0.5%) 6 #12;6/19/2013 4 Shape of PNW Solar PV

  12. Avoiding Distribution System Upgrade Costs Using Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; DeSteese, John G.; Speer, Gregory A.

    2004-01-20

    PNNL, in cooperation with three utilities, developed a database and methodology to analyze and characterize the avoided costs of Distributed Generation (DG) deployment as an alternative to traditional distribution system investment. After applying a number of screening criteria to the initial set of 307 cases, eighteen were selected for detailed analysis. Alternative DG investment scenarios were developed for these cases to permit capital, operation, maintenance, and fuel costs to be identified and incorporated into the analysis. The “customer-owned” backup power generator option was also investigated. The results of the analysis of the 18 cases show that none yielded cost savings under the alternative DG scenarios. However, the DG alternative systems were configured using very restrictive assumptions concerning reliability, peak rating, engine types and acceptable fuel. In particular it was assumed that the DG alternative in each case must meet the reliability required of conventional distribution systems (99.91% reliability). The analysis was further constrained by a requirement that each substation meet the demands placed upon it by a one in three weather occurrence. To determine if, by relaxing these requirements, the DG alternative might be more viable, one project was re-examined. The 99.91% reliability factor was still assumed for normal operating conditions but redundancy required to maintain reliability was relaxed for the relatively few hours every three years where extreme weather caused load to exceed present substation capacity. This resulted in the deferment of capital investment until later years and reduced the number of engines required for the project. The cost of both the conventional and DG alternative also dropped because the centralized power generation, variable O&M, and DG fuels costs were calculated based on present load requirements in combination with long-term forecasts of load growth, as opposed to load requirements plus a buffer based on predictions of extraordinary weather conditions. Application of the relaxed set of assumptions reduced the total cost of the DG alternative by roughly 57 percent from $7.0 million to $3.0 million. The reduction, however, did not change the overall result of the analysis, as the cost of the conventional distribution system upgrade alternative remained lower at $1.7 million. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a system of backup generators to defer investment in distribution system infrastructure. Rather than expanding substation capacity at substations experiencing slow load growth rates, PNNL considered a scenario where diesel generators were installed on location at customers participating in a program designed to offer additional power security and reliability to the customer and connection to the grid. The backup generators, in turn, could be used to meet peak demand for a limited number of hours each year, thus deferring distribution system investment. Data from an existing program at one of the three participating utilities was used to quantify the costs associated with the backup generator scenario. The results of the “customer owned” backup power generator analysis showed that in all cases the nominal cost of the DG scenario is more than the nominal cost of the base-case conventional distribution system upgrade scenario. However, in two of the cases the total present value costs of the alternative backup generator scenarios were between 15 and 22% less than those for the conventional scenarios. Overall, the results of the study offer considerable encouragement that the use of DG systems can defer conventional distribution system upgrades under the right conditions and when the DG configurations are intelligently designed. Using existing customer-owned DG to defer distribution system upgrades appears to be an immediate commercially-viable opportunity.

  13. Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building and Training (WEACT) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building and...

  14. Hybrid Zero-capacity Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergii Strelchuk; Jonathan Oppenheim

    2012-07-04

    There are only two known kinds of zero-capacity channels. The first kind produces entangled states that have positive partial transpose, and the second one - states that are cloneable. We consider the family of 'hybrid' quantum channels, which lies in the intersection of the above classes of channels and investigate its properties. It gives rise to the first explicit examples of the channels, which create bound entangled states that have the property of being cloneable to the arbitrary finite number of parties. Hybrid channels provide the first example of highly cloneable binding entanglement channels, for which known superactivation protocols must fail - superactivation is the effect where two channels each with zero quantum capacity having positive capacity when used together. We give two methods to construct a hybrid channel from any binding entanglement channel. We also find the low-dimensional counterparts of hybrid states - bipartite qubit states which are extendible and possess two-way key.

  15. Reliability Evaluation of Electric Power Generation Systems with Solar Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samadi, Saeed

    2013-11-08

    Conventional power generators are fueled by natural gas, steam, or water flow. These generators can respond to fluctuating load by varying the fuel input that is done by a valve control. Renewable power generators such as ...

  16. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  17. Unloading using auger tool and foam and experimental identification of liquid loading of low rate natural gas wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bose, Rana

    2007-09-17

    Low-pressure, low-producing natural gas wells commonly encounter liquid loading during production. Because of the decline in the reservoir pressure and the flow capacity, wells can fall below terminal velocity. Identifying and predicting the onset...

  18. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  19. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  20. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  1. Factory capacity limits Machine dependencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, Simon

    Factory capacity limits Machine dependencies Employee scheduling Raw material availability Other internal operations (and also possibly the actions of other suppliers that supply raw materials) and at an international workshop at the multi-agent conference (AAMAS'06). Manufacturer Customer demand Penalties for non

  2. Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Males, R.; Hassig, N.

    1981-01-01

    larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

  3. Constrained capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Wenyan

    2011-08-08

    though) as the deflnition of outage capacity in (2.4). Telatar conjectured that the optimal input covariance matrix Q is a diagonal matrix with the power equally shared among a subset of the transmit antennas [1]. Furthermore, the higher the rate... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B. Outage Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 III PSK CONSTRAINED MIMO CAPACITY : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 A. PSK Constrained MIMO Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1. The Covariance Matrix...

  4. Electrical transient stability and underfrequency load shedding analysis for a large pump station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shilling, S.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-12-31

    Electrical transients from faults, loss of generation, and load swings can disrupt pump station operations. Isolated stations with no utility tie and those with weak utility ties are especially at risk. Relative to this problem, the following four main issues are addressed: (1) Analyze the methods that use high-speed underfrequency load shedding to maintain system stability and preserve station operations. (2) Analyze combustion gas turbine generator and diesel generator transient responses, as they pertain to the Electrical Engineer. (3) Discuss system component modeling and the use of low voltage circuit switching devices to shed loads. (4) Compare two computer analysis program outputs for underfrequency load shedding responses.

  5. Electrical transient stability and underfrequency load shedding analysis for a large pump station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shilling, S.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-01-01

    Electrical transients from faults, loss of generation, and load swings can disrupt pump station operations. Isolated stations with no utility tie, and those with weak utility ties, are especially at risk. Relative to this problem, the following four main issues are addressed: (1) analyze the methods that use high-speed underfrequency load shedding to maintain system stability and preserve station operations; (2) analyze combustion gas turbine generator and diesel generator transient responses, as they pertain to the electrical engineer; (3) discuss system component modeling and the use of low voltage circuit switching devices to shed loads; (4) compare two computer analysis program outputs for underfrequency load shedding responses.

  6. Using heat demand prediction to optimise Virtual Power Plant production capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurink, Johann

    1 Using heat demand prediction to optimise Virtual Power Plant production capacity Vincent Bakker that generate electricity (and heat) at the kilowatt level, which allows them to be installed in households distributed electricity generation (micro-generation e.g. solar cells, micro Combined Heat and Power (micro

  7. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  8. Aalborg Universitet Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    that the electrical distance between the generators and the load centers is controlled. The shunt- connected FACTS-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance bus, equivalent SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate when

  9. Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-04-01

    California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility.

  10. Quantifying the influence of ground motion duration on structural collapse capacity using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jack W.

    not provide a comprehensive assessment of the influence of duration on collapse safety. By incorporating, Stanford, CA 94305, USA #12;2 Current seismic design standards and loading protocols for component testing on evaluating structural collapse. Structural collapse capacity is an important metric used to calibrate seismic

  11. Capacity Value: Evaluation of WECC Rule of Thumb; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo

    2015-06-09

    This presentation compares loss of load expectation and wind and solar capacity values to the rules of thumb used in the Western Interconnection planning and provides alternative recommendations to the modeling efforts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council's Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee.

  12. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  13. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  14. High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laxson, A.; Hand, M. M.; Blair, N.

    2006-10-01

    This study used two different models to analyze a number of alternative scenarios of annual wind power capacity expansion to better understand the impacts of high levels of wind generated electricity production on wind energy manufacturing and installation rates.

  15. WIND: A Tool for Capacity-constrained Design of Resilient Multi-tier Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Sridhar

    Deployment tool (WIND), uses an MILP solver (CPLEX) to generate topologies with varying parameters (theWIND: A Tool for Capacity-constrained Design of Resilient Multi-tier Wireless Mesh Networks

  16. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Filburn, Thomas (Granby, CT)

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  17. Optimizing Process Loads in Industrial Cogeneration Energy Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.; Babson, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    W OPTIMIZING PROCESS LOADS IN INDUSTRIAL COGENERAnON ENERGY SYSTEMS DJ. Ahner Manager, Generation Technology Power Tecbnologies, Inc. Schenectady, New York ABSTRACT Optimum dispatcb of energy supply systems can result in large savings... and industrial cogeneration are extended to solving this trigeneration problem where the optimum dispatch of the final load devices (i.e. compressors, fans, pumps, etc.) are an integral part of the total energy system optimization. An example industrial...

  18. Want to Put an End to Capacity Markets? Think Real-Time Pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeder, Mark

    2006-07-15

    The amount of generation capacity that must be installed to meet resource adequacy requirements often causes the energy market to be suppressed to the point that it fails to produce sufficient revenues to attract new entry. A significant expansion in the use of real-time pricing can, over time, cause the energy market to become a more bountiful source of revenues for generators, allowing the elimination of the capacity market. (author)

  19. Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The current and future projected cost and performance characteristics of new electric generating capacity are a critical input into the development of energy projections and analyses.

  20. Next-Generation Wind Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and reliability of next-generation wind technologies while lowering the cost of wind energy. The program's research efforts have helped to increase the average capacity...

  1. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Variable generation Value of lost load Introduction Longestimates of the value of lost load (VOLL) (Stoft, 2002). 16costs equal to the value of lost load (VOLL) and reliability

  2. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Variable generation Value of lost load Introduction TheIn particular, the value of lost load is assumed to be $$200/kW-yr and the value of lost load is assumed to be $

  3. Diophantine Generation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlapentokh, Alexandra

    Diophantine Generation, Horizontal and Vertical Problems, and the Weak Vertical Method Alexandra Shlapentokh Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Generation Diophantine Sets Diophantine Generation Properties of Diophantine Generation Diophantine Family of Z Diophantine Family of a Polynomial Ring Going Down Horizontal

  4. Capacity planning in a transitional economy: What issues? Which models?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mubayi, V.; Leigh, R.W.; Bright, R.N.

    1996-03-01

    This paper is devoted to an exploration of the important issues facing the Russian power generation system and its evolution in the foreseeable future and the kinds of modeling approaches that capture those issues. These issues include, for example, (1) trade-offs between investments in upgrading and refurbishment of existing thermal (fossil-fired) capacity and safety enhancements in existing nuclear capacity versus investment in new capacity, (2) trade-offs between investment in completing unfinished (under construction) projects based on their original design versus investment in new capacity with improved design, (3) incorporation of demand-side management options (investments in enhancing end-use efficiency, for example) within the planning framework, (4) consideration of the spatial dimensions of system planning including investments in upgrading electric transmission networks or fuel shipment networks and incorporating hydroelectric generation, (5) incorporation of environmental constraints and (6) assessment of uncertainty and evaluation of downside risk. Models for exploring these issues include low power shutdown (LPS) which are computationally very efficient, though approximate, and can be used to perform extensive sensitivity analyses to more complex models which can provide more detailed answers but are computationally cumbersome and can only deal with limited issues. The paper discusses which models can usefully treat a wide range of issues within the priorities facing decision makers in the Russian power sector and integrate the results with investment decisions in the wider economy.

  5. Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity at Different Sites in California and the Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fripp, Matthias; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Electricity Anemometer Data Percentage Change Due to Wind Timing TrueWind Data at Same Locations Load- Weighted Capacity Factor Market

  6. Comparison of Capacity Value Methods for Photovoltaics in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-07-01

    This report compares different capacity value estimation techniques applied to solar photovoltaics (PV). It compares more robust data and computationally intense reliability-based capacity valuation techniques to simpler approximation techniques at 14 different locations in the western United States. The capacity values at these locations are computed while holding the underlying power system characteristics fixed. This allows the effect of differences in solar availability patterns on the capacity value of PV to be directly ascertained, without differences in the power system confounding the results. Finally, it examines the effects of different PV configurations, including varying the orientation of a fixed-axis system and installing single- and double-axis tracking systems, on the capacity value. The capacity value estimations are done over an eight-year running from 1998 to 2005, and both long-term average capacity values and interannual capacity value differences (due to interannual differences in solar resource availability) are estimated. Overall, under the assumptions used in the analysis, we find that some approximation techniques can yield similar results to reliability-based methods such as effective load carrying capability.

  7. Distributed Sustainable Generation Dispatch via Evolutionary Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundur, Deepa

    and solar panels are sustainable but unreliable as these have inherently variable generation capacities The power grid is composed of a diverse mix of energy generation systems designed to provision for all types such as wind and solar power generators are green en- ergy sources with lower levelized costs [4

  8. Capacity Factor Risk At Nuclear Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Yangbo

    We develop a model of the dynamic structure of capacity factor risk. It incorporates the risk that the capacity factor may vary widely from year-to-year, and also the risk that the reactor may be permanently shutdown prior ...

  9. Neural substrates of cognitive capacity limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschman, Tim

    Cognition has a severely limited capacity: Adult humans can retain only about four items “in mind”. This limitation is fundamental to human brain function: Individual capacity is highly correlated with intelligence measures ...

  10. On the capacity of bosonic channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, Christopher Graham

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of the bosonic channel with additive Gaussian noise is unknown, but there is a known lower bound that is conjectured to be the capacity. We have quantified the gap that exists between this known achievable ...

  11. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  12. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  13. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors for each shift... The purpose of this paper is to analyze operating hours of small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in the United States and develop ranges of load factors for use as diagnostic tools for effective energy management. Load factor is defined...

  14. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  15. Information Capacity of Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Vinod

    Information Capacity of Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes R Rajesh CABS, DRDO Bangalore, India Email by which the harvested energy is used. We find its Shannon capacity when it is transmitting its observations over an AWGN channel and show that the capacity achieving energy management policies are related

  16. Electric Power Generation and Transmission (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electric power generating facilities with a combined capacity greater than 25 MW, as well as associated transmission lines, may not be constructed or begin operation prior to the issuance of a...

  17. Reliability of islanded microgrids with stochastic generation and prioritized load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marden, Mirjana Milosevic

    The potential to improve distribution system reliability is a primary motivation behind the development and deployment of microgrids. Previous studies have illustrated substantial reliability benefits of dispatchable ...

  18. Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2010-12-01

    The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.

  19. Load Management - A Better Way 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows...

  20. Capacity Allocation in Multi-cell UMTS Networks for Different Spreading Factors with Perfect and Imperfect Power Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akl, Robert

    -to-interference thresh- old from 5 dB to 10 dB and spreading factor values of 256, 64, 16, and 4. 1. Introduction 3G Erlang capacity based on the Lost Call Held (LCH) model as described in [4]. This algorithm cal- culates derive a closed form ex- pression of Erlang capacity for a single type of traffic loading and compare

  1. A new generation of load sharing algorithms: the semi-adaptive load sharing algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morsy, Hazem Kamal

    1997-01-01

    Distributed systems have become a popular computing environment. Due to their high potentials in improving performance and resource sharing, the evolution and maturing of technologies such as networks and computer hardware, have led to more...

  2. Optically Loaded Semiconductor Quantum Memory Register

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danny Kim; Andrey A. Kiselev; Richard S. Ross; Matthew T. Rakher; Cody Jones; Thaddeus D. Ladd

    2015-07-30

    We propose and analyze an optically loaded quantum memory exploiting capacitive coupling between self-assembled quantum dot molecules and electrically gated quantum dot molecules. The self-assembled dots are used for spin-photon entanglement, which is transferred to the gated dots for long-term storage or processing via a teleportation process heralded by single-photon detection. We illustrate a device architecture enabling this interaction and we outline its operation and fabrication. We provide self-consistent Poisson-Schroedinger simulations to establish the design viability and refine the design, and to estimate the physical coupling parameters and their sensitivities to dot placement. The device we propose generates heralded copies of an entangled state between a photonic qubit and a solid-state qubit with a rapid reset time upon failure. The resulting fast rate of entanglement generation is of high utility for heralded quantum networking scenarios involving lossy optical channels.

  3. Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    utility customers. Using a hybrid energy resource optimization framework, we explore optimal configuration to come from a mixture of locally managed small-scale hydroelectricity, biogas generators and accompanying of the Baram River Basin in Sarawak as the basin next scheduled for mega hydroelectricity development

  4. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity, US Data. 6. Distributed Generation: Standby Generation and Cogeneration Ozz Energy Solutions, Inc. February 28 th , 2005. For more information about...

  5. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1982-08-10

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices. 11 figs.

  6. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karlicek, Robert F. (1920 Camino Centroloma, Fullerton, CA 92633)

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices.

  7. Solid state pulsed power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Fengfeng; Saddoughi, Seyed Gholamali; Herbon, John Thomas

    2014-02-11

    A power generator includes one or more full bridge inverter modules coupled to a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) through an inductive resonant branch. Each module includes a plurality of switches that are switched in a fashion causing the one or more full bridge inverter modules to drive the semiconductor opening switch SOS through the resonant circuit to generate pulses to a load connected in parallel with the SOS.

  8. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  9. Summary of Market Opportunities for Electric Vehicles and Dispatchable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distribution capacity depending on customer load shape, but they would not require new generation capacity.) Figure 12. Hourly load profiles for the balancing area served by...

  10. Voluntary Initiative: Partnering to Enhance Program Capacity...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Peer Exchange Call Series: Voluntary Initiative: Partnering to Enhance Program Capacity, Call Slides and Summary, May 8, 2014. Call Slides and Summary More Documents &...

  11. Increasing the Capacity of Existing Power Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    The capacity of the grid has been largely unchanged for decades and needs to expand to accommodate new power plants and renewable energy projects.

  12. ,"Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  13. Solar Energy and Capacity Value (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This is a one-page, two-sided fact sheet on the capacity of solar power to provide value to utilities and power system operators.

  14. ,"Texas Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9...

  15. Increasing water holding capacity for irrigation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Increasing water holding capacity for irrigation Reseachers recommend solutions for sediment trapping in irrigation system LANL and SNL leveraged technical expertise to determine...

  16. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. With a focus on enabling smaller,...

  17. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Kono, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    ?A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  18. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  19. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  20. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  1. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  2. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  3. NO2 Aging and Iodine Loading of Silver-Functionalized Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, K K [ORNL; Bruffey, S H [ORNL; Walker, J F [ORNL; Jubin, R T [ORNL

    2014-07-31

    Off-gas treatment systems in used fuel reprocessing which use fixed-bed adsorbers are typically designed to operate for an extended period of time before replacement or regeneration of the adsorbent. During this time, the sorbent material will be exposed to the off-gas stream. Exposure could last for months, depending on the replacement cycle time. The gas stream will be at elevated temperature and will possibly contain a mixture of water vapor, NOx, nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents in addition to the radionuclides of capture interest. A series of studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed iodine sorbent materials under increasingly harsh off-gas conditions. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of up to 6 months of aging under dry air and under humid air conditions on the iodine loading behavior of Ag0-functionalized aerogels. This study examines the effects of extended exposure (up to 6 months) to NO2 on the iodine loading capacity of Ag0- functionalized aerogels. Material aged for 1 and 2 months appeared to have a similar total loading capacity to fresh material. Over an aging period of 4 months, a loss of approximately 15% of the total iodine capacity was seen. The iodine capacity loss on silver-functionalized aerogels due to NO2 was smaller than the iodine capacity loss due to humid or dry air aging.

  4. AIAA-2004-0502 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    wind speed. For wind turbine generator systems, a similar reliability-based design format is employedAIAA-2004-0502 1 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS USING INVERSE, Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT* The influence of turbulence conditions on the design loads for wind turbines

  5. EECS 598 Special Topic Analysis of Electric Power Distribution Systems and Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    and Loads Mondays and Wednesdays, 9:00am-10:30am, EECS Building 3427 Fall 2014; however, with increased amounts of distributed generation (photovoltaics, small-scale wind), distributed storage, and controllable loads, it has become more and more

  6. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2008-05-06

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  7. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  8. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  9. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  10. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  11. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  12. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  13. Effects of rotor tip blade loading variation on compressor stage performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiralap, Aniwat

    2015-01-01

    Changes in loss generation associated with altering the rotor tip loading of an embedded compressor stage is assessed. Steady and unsteady three-dimensional computations, complemented by control volume analyses, for varying ...

  14. Rigid-Plastic Approximations for Predicting Plastic Deformation of Cylindrical Shells Subject to Dynamic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoo Fatt, Michelle S.

    A theoretical approach was developed for predicting the plastic deformation of a cylindrical shell subject to asymmetric dynamic loads. The plastic deformation of the leading generator of the shell is found by solving for ...

  15. Managing Capacity For Telecommunications Networks Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    the underlying risk factor in the bandwidth market, and then apply real options theory to the upgrade decision, this real options approach has not been used pre- viously in the area of network capacity planning--uncertain demand for capacity, real options, net- work planning I. INTRODUCTION In the past, bandwidth was traded

  16. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  17. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  18. Random Choices for Churn Resilient Load Balancing in Peer-to-Peer Networks Song Fu and Cheng-Zhong Xu Haiying Shen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    Random Choices for Churn Resilient Load Balancing in Peer-to-Peer Networks Song Fu and Cheng heterogeneity and churn to the load distribution in P2P networks. We prove that by using d-way random choices schemes, the length of the longest queue in P2P systems with heterogeneous nodal capacity and node churn

  19. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics and Their Influence on Capacity Value: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-04-01

    Traditional probabilistic methods have been used to evaluate resource adequacy. The increasing presence of variable renewable generation in power systems presents a challenge to these methods because, unlike thermal units, variable renewable generation levels change over time because they are driven by meteorological events. Thus, capacity value calculations for these resources are often performed to simple rules of thumb. This paper follows the recommendations of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation?s Integration of Variable Generation Task Force to include variable generation in the calculation of resource adequacy and compares different reliability metrics. Examples are provided using the Western Interconnection footprint under different variable generation penetrations.

  20. {Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, William Jerome

    2010-01-01

    modeling and control of load management. Further, withoutA profit-based load management using linear programming”.with applica- tions to load management assessment and load

  1. Staying FIT: Efficient Load Shedding Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bottlenecks slow down processing and network transmission, and cause delayed outputs. Load management has been. Common load management techniques include adaptive load distribution, admis- sion control, and load

  2. Dual Baud Rate Generator Programmable Divider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, Tim

    to excessive loading. The output of the oscillatorlbuffer is applied to the dividers for generation, inclusive. If the divisor is even, the output will be square: otherwise the output will be high longer thanAPPENDIX B #12;#12;Dual Baud Rate Generator Programmable Divider FEATURES PIN CONFi

  3. Analyzing the Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity at Different Sites in California and the Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fripp, Matthias; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    generator portfolio, as well as computing resources that would make it prohibitive for estimating the capacity contribution from wind power

  4. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  5. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  6. The effect of vitrification technology on waste loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, P.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site are going to be permanently disposed of by incorporation into a durable glass. These wastes will be separated into low and high-level portions, and then vitrified. The low-level waste (LLW) is water soluble. Its vitrifiable part (other than off-gas) contains approximately 80 wt% Na{sub 2}O, the rest being Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O, and minor components. The challenge is to formulate durable LLW glasses with as high Na{sub 2}O content as possible by optimizing the additions of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and ZrO{sub 2}. This task will not be simple, considering the non-linear and interactive nature of glass properties as a function of composition. Once developed, the LLW glass, being similar in composition to commercial glasses, is unlikely to cause major processing problems, such as crystallization or molten salt segregation. For example, inexpensive LLW glass can be produced in a high-capacity Joule-heated melter with a cold cap to minimize volatilization. The high-level waste (HLW) consists of water-insoluble sludge (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, and others) and a substantial water-soluble residue (Na{sub 2}O). Most of the water-insoluble components are refractory; i.e., their melting points are above the glass melting temperature. With regard to product acceptability, the maximum loading of Hanford HLW in the glass is limited by product durability, not by radiolytic heat generation. However, this maximum may not be achievable because of technological constraints imposed by melter feed rheology, frit properties, and glass melter limits. These restrictions are discussed in this paper. 38 refs.

  7. Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol T.R. Meerburg , R.J. Boucherie , M.J.A.L. van objective is to guarantee safety, efficiency, and protection of the environment, that includes noise load contributes to the noise load at these points. If the cumulative load in an aviation year at an enforce- ment

  8. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  9. Incorporating Wind Generation Forecast Uncertainty into Power System Operation, Dispatch, and Unit Commitment Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Ma, Jian; Subbarao, Krishnappa

    2010-10-19

    In this paper, an approach to evaluate the uncertainties of the balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration requirements is proposed. The approach includes three steps: forecast data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of grid balancing requirements for a specified time horizon and a given confidence level. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on histogram analysis, incorporating sources of uncertainty of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the "flying-brick" technique is developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation process is used to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals. To demonstrate the validity of the developed uncertainty assessment methods and its impact on grid operation, a framework for integrating the proposed methods with an EMS system is developed. Demonstration through integration with an EMS system illustrates the applicability of the proposed methodology and the developed tool for actual grid operation and paves the road for integration with EMS systems from other vendors.

  10. Incorporating Uncertainty of Wind Power Generation Forecast into Power System Operation, Dispatch, and Unit Commitment Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Subbarao, Krishnappa

    2011-06-23

    An approach to evaluate the uncertainties of the balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration requirements is proposed. The approach includes three steps: forecast data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of grid balancing requirements for a specified time horizon and a given confidence level. An assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on histogram analysis, incorporating sources of uncertainty - both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures). A new method called the 'flying-brick' technique is developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation process is used to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals. To demonstrate the validity of the developed uncertainty assessment methods and its impact on grid operation, a framework for integrating the proposed methods with an EMS system is developed. Demonstration through EMS integration illustrates the applicability of the proposed methodology and the developed tool for actual grid operation and paves the road for integration with EMS systems in control rooms.

  11. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  12. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  13. Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

  14. Bulalo field, Philippines: Reservoir modeling for prediction of limits to sustainable generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strobel, Calvin J.

    1993-01-28

    The Bulalo geothermal field, located in Laguna province, Philippines, supplies 12% of the electricity on the island of Luzon. The first 110 MWe power plant was on line May 1979; current 330 MWe (gross) installed capacity was reached in 1984. Since then, the field has operated at an average plant factor of 76%. The National Power Corporation plans to add 40 MWe base load and 40 MWe standby in 1995. A numerical simulation model for the Bulalo field has been created that matches historic pressure changes, enthalpy and steam flash trends and cumulative steam production. Gravity modeling provided independent verification of mass balances and time rate of change of liquid desaturation in the rock matrix. Gravity modeling, in conjunction with reservoir simulation provides a means of predicting matrix dry out and the time to limiting conditions for sustainable levelized steam deliverability and power generation.

  15. Durham University, School of Engineering, Low Voltage Micro-generation Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    designed at Durham University for use in a vertical axis wind turbine is used in conjunction micro-generation laboratory consists of one load emulator, one wind turbine generator emulator, one PV, frequency etc) from the ESU emulator, wind turbine generator emulator and three-phase load system, Figure 3

  16. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  17. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  18. Capacity Building Project with Howard University

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this initiative is to build community capacity for public participation in environmental and energy decision making. The target communities are those impacted by U.S. Department of...

  19. World crude capacity, conversion capability inch upward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-12-19

    Reported world crude capacity increased almost 1 million b/d, while conversion processes--fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydrocracking, coking--increased more than 1.7 million b/d or 8.3%, according to the Journal's most recent survey of world refining capacity. As a measure of capacity growth in the past year, changes in distillation capacities (atmospheric plus vacuum) were calculated for three major refining regions. The year-to-year comparison indicates: for the US, an increase of 293,000 b/d, or 1.3%; for the European Economic Community (E.E.C.), an increase of 431,000 b/d, or 2.6%; and for Asia/Pacific, excluding China, an increase of 122,000 b/d, or 1.1%. In addition to the compiled data the paper describes the survey layout, regional changes, conversion units, hydroprocessing, company size, oxygenates, and construction.

  20. Tripling the capacity of wireless communications using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    channels of electric-®eld polarization for wireless communication. In order to make our statements more................................................................. Tripling the capacity of wireless .............................................................................................................................................. Wireless communications are a fundamental part of modern information infrastructure. But wireless bandwidth

  1. Capacities of linear quantum optical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd, Seth

    A wide variety of communication channels employ the quantized electromagnetic field to convey information. Their communication capacity crucially depends on losses associated to spatial characteristics of the channel such ...

  2. National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Art

    National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project Mapping Onsite Treatment Needs Onsite Treatment Needs, Pollution Risks, and Management Options Using GIS Submitted by the University. Wastewater Planning Handbook: Mapping Onsite Treatment Needs, Pollution Risks, and Management Options Using

  3. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis

  4. Scaling the Web Load Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Load Testing of Web Sites D evelopers typically measure a Web appli- cation on a Web site's IT infrastructure are a function of the site's expect- ed traffic. Ideally, you want, you shouldn't upgrade your Web servers if customers experience most delays in the database server

  5. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  6. Distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, E.

    1999-09-02

    Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.

  7. Modern Wireless Network Design Based on Constrained Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    The capacity in this channel is: ­ where Eb is the energy per (information) bit. This capacity is achievedModern Wireless Network Design Based on Constrained Capacity April 20, 2005 Matthew Valenti Wireless Network Design Based on Constrained Capacity 2/37 Overview Key observations: ­ Capacity

  8. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  9. A Bio-Inspired Multi-Agent System Framework for Real-Time Load Management in All-Electric Ship Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Xianyong

    2012-07-16

    the impact of pulse loads on the power quality of all-electric ship power systems. Further, the switch status or power set-point of loads in DC zones can be optimally determined to dynamically balance the generation and load while satisfying the operational...

  10. Storage capacity and retrieval time of small-world neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Odagaki, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    To understand the influence of structure on the function of neural networks, we study the storage capacity and the retrieval time of Hopfield-type neural networks for four network structures: regular, small world, random networks generated by the Watts-Strogatz (WS) model, and the same network as the neural network of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using computer simulations, we find that (1) as the randomness of network is increased, its storage capacity is enhanced; (2) the retrieval time of WS networks does not depend on the network structure, but the retrieval time of C. elegans's neural network is longer than that of WS networks; (3) the storage capacity of the C. elegans network is smaller than that of networks generated by the WS model, though the neural network of C. elegans is considered to be a small-world network.

  11. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  12. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    capacity since 1992 within selected countries that are members of  International Energy Agency Photovoltaic photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP).    More than 90% of the installed PV capacity 

  13. Compensating Customer-Generators: A taxonomy describing methods of compensating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    , investment in grid-connected generation capacity is growing at a faster rate than off-grid applications (IEA-generators for electricity supplied to the grid Larry Hughes1 Energy Research Group Electrical and Computer Engineering-generators that supply electricity to the grid. Although many practices exist for providing such compensation, confusion

  14. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  15. Broadcast Capacity in Multihop Wireless Networks Alireza Keshavarz-Haddad Vinay Ribeiro Rudolf Riedi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riedi, Rudolf H.

    Broadcast Capacity in Multihop Wireless Networks Alireza Keshavarz-Haddad Vinay Ribeiro Rudolf of multihop wireless networks which we define as the maximum rate at which broadcast packets can be generated of source nodes or the dimension of the network. 1. INTRODUCTION In wireless networks, broadcast plays

  16. Network Capacity Allocation in Service Overlay Ngok Lam1, Zbigniew Dziong2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through a single path. Instead of maximizing the net income generated from the network, both of the papers] investigated the capacity allocation problem of the SON network in order to maximize the net income gained (SON)s with state-dependent connection routing based on revenue maximization. We formulate

  17. Capacity-constrained Design of Resilient Multi-tier Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Sridhar

    of the recursion, WIND successively generates a sub-graph (Composite Unit (CU)) of the topology by deriving it outCapacity-constrained Design of Resilient Multi-tier Wireless Mesh Networks Raghuraman R of automated design of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN). The general scenario we envision is that of constructing

  18. A Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for a Nozzle Header of a Once-Through Steam Generator Designed for an Integral Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, YongWan; Kim, Dong Ok; Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Jong In; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 105, YuSong, Taejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Thermo-mechanical behavior of the nozzle header of a steam generator developed for an integral reactor was investigated using experimental and finite element methods. The nozzle feedwater header suffers from severe thermal transient loadings during the operation of the nuclear reactor. The nozzle header is exposed to the low temperature inlet feedwater and the high temperature outlet superheated steam. The other side of the nozzle header is in contacts with the high temperature primary coolant. This temperature gradient results in high thermal stresses in the nozzle header structure. The thermal transient loading has been simulated in the test loop. The thermo-hydraulic parameters of the primary and the secondary system were controlled according to the operation mode programmed in the computer. Strain gauges and thermocouples attached at the highly stressed region monitored the thermo-mechanical behavior of the nozzle header. In parallel to the experimental study, the transient behavior of the nozzle header was simulated utilizing a commercial finite element code. The fluid temperature and the pressure obtained from the test loop were used for the input of the finite element analysis. As a result of this investigation, the thermo-mechanical load carrying capacity of the developed steam generator nozzle header was proved numerically and experimentally. (authors)

  19. Next Generation Radioisotope Generators | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generators Next Generation Radioisotope Generators Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) - The ASRG is currently being developed as a high-efficiency RPS technology...

  20. Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  1. Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures...

  2. Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures...

  3. Ukraine-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ukraine-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) Jump to: navigation, search Name Ukraine-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

  4. Mexico-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

  5. Study Finds 54 Gigawatts of Offshore Wind Capacity Technically...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Study Finds 54 Gigawatts of Offshore Wind Capacity Technically Possible by 2030 Study Finds 54 Gigawatts of Offshore Wind Capacity Technically Possible by 2030 September 11, 2014 -...

  6. Modeling-Thermo-electrochemistry, Capacity Degradation and Mechanics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling-Thermo-electrochemistry, Capacity Degradation and Mechanics with SEI Layer Modeling-Thermo-electrochemistry, Capacity Degradation and Mechanics with SEI Layer 2011 DOE...

  7. DOE Receives Responses on the Implementation of Large-Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Large-Capacity Clothes Washer Waivers DOE Issues Enforcement Guidance on Large-Capacity Clothes Washer Waivers and the Waiver Process Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner...

  8. India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities...

  9. Bangladesh-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bangladesh-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) Jump to: navigation, search Name Bangladesh-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development...

  10. South Africa-Developing Climate Policy Capacity within the South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Africa-Developing Climate Policy Capacity within the South African Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) (Redirected from GIZ-Developing Climate Policy Capacity within...

  11. Indonesia-ECN Capacity building for energy policy formulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-ECN Capacity building for energy policy formulation and implementation of sustainable energy projects Jump to: navigation, search Name CASINDO: Capacity development and...

  12. Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

  13. HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Presentation for...

  14. CLEAN-Capacity Building and Training for Low Emissions Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (LEDS): Capacity Building and Training to explore activity design, lessons learned, future capacity building plans, major ongoing needs and opportunities for enhanced...

  15. Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forecast of 4) Calculate Hourly Load Allocation Factor s for each day for 2019 For use in RA analysis as a function ofthe load for electricity in the region as a function of cyclical, weather and economic variables

  16. Residential Load Management Program and Pilot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haverlah, D.; Riordon, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1986 LCRA embarked on residential load management to control peak summer loads. At that time, LCRA was considered a summer peaking utility, and residential air conditioning and water heating systems were selected for control. The program...

  17. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  18. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    -level crosswind loading on a square cross-section building. Reinhold et al.4 instrumented a building model

  19. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  1. Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load Vsevolod V. Panteleenko and Vincent W. Freeh A modern web-hosting site is designed to handle load that is sometimes an order of magnitude greater than and performance study of the web booster architecture, which reduces web server load during peak periods. A web

  2. An Analysis of Dual Zone Loading for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, William Christopher; Yim, Man-Sung

    2007-07-01

    The bumps current fuel assembly designs can achieve exceeds the fuel assembly burnups the current fleet of shipping casks can ship. One method of handling this situation which has been proposed is regionalized loading. This concept involves administratively separating the fuel basket of a shipping cask into two or more regions and loading fuel with different burnup, cooling times and enrichments into these regions. To evaluate how regionalized loading patterns might affect shipping spent nuclear fuel in comparison to uniform loading, a test case study was performed using fuel assemblies discharged from an actual nuclear plant and a shipping cask licensed by the NRC. Using the same fuel assemblies and shipping cask, results were obtained assuming a uniform loading pattern and compared to the results obtained assuming a dual zone loading pattern. Source terms for the analysis were generated using SAS2 and the dose levels were calculated using MCNPS. The analysis showed that the dual zone loading reduced the amount of time required to ship the given quantity of fuel by roughly thirty percent compared to the uniform loading. The average dose rate to the transportation workers and the public due to the implementation of dual zone loading increased. Implications of these increases are discussed. (authors)

  3. Evidence for large hydrogen storage capacity in single-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulated by electroplating Pd onto a Pd substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipson, A. G. [Department of Nuclear Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyakhov, B. F.; Saunin, E. I.; Tsivadze, A. Yu. [A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    We report a study of hydrogen storage in an alternative material, representing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulated by thin Pd layers onto a Pd substrate. A synergetic effect resulting in combination of the Pd and the SWCNTs properties with regards to hydrogen has been achieved. Adding SWCNTs increases the H{sub 2} capacity of the Pd-SWCNT composite by up to 25% relative to Pd metal alone under electrochemical loading. This results in a storage capacity of 8-12 wt %. with regard to the added SWCNTs.

  4. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01

    settle with ERCOT for energy and capacity. Retail Electricfor participation in energy and capacity markets. Technicalloads participating in energy and capacity markets, it does

  5. Abstract--In this paper, we present a new approach for very short term electricity load demand forecasting. In particular,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koprinska, Irena

    . Electricity market operators and participants use load forecasting for many reasons such as to make unit of the national electricity market, as its market operator NEMMCO must issue every 5 minutes the production this information as the basis for any re-bids of the capacity they wish to bring to the market. In this paper, we

  6. Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thulasidasan, Sunil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that spatial scattering can often obviate the need for dynamic load balancing.

  7. Abstract--Power efficiency during heavy-and light-loading conditions in wireless portable applications is critical for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    and quiescent current flow during light loading conditions and (2) an adaptive PA bias-current generator1 Abstract-- Power efficiency during heavy- and light-loading conditions in wireless portable efficiency is improved with a 0.5-µm CMOS dynamically adaptive, dual-mode buck- boost power supply and bias

  8. Abstract--We present new approaches for 5-minute ahead electricity load forecasting. They were evaluated on data from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koprinska, Irena

    .e. the cheapest generator is allocated first, the second cheapest next and so on until the electricity demandAbstract--We present new approaches for 5-minute ahead electricity load forecasting. They were evaluated on data from the Australian electricity market operator for 2006-2008. After examining the load

  9. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  10. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  11. Analysis and Synthesis of Load Forecasting Data for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steckler, N.; Florita, A.; Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-11-01

    As renewable energy constitutes greater portions of the generation fleet, the importance of modeling uncertainty as part of integration studies also increases. In pursuit of optimal system operations, it is important to capture not only the definitive behavior of power plants, but also the risks associated with systemwide interactions. This research examines the dependence of load forecast errors on external predictor variables such as temperature, day type, and time of day. The analysis was utilized to create statistically relevant instances of sequential load forecasts with only a time series of historic, measured load available. The creation of such load forecasts relies on Bayesian techniques for informing and updating the model, thus providing a basis for networked and adaptive load forecast models in future operational applications.

  12. CSEM WP 124 Capacity Markets for Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    CSEM WP 124 Capacity Markets for Electricity Anna Creti, LEEERNA, University of Toulouse for Electricity Anna Creti LEEERNA, University of Toulouse Natalia Fabra Universidad Carlos III de Madrid February 2004 Abstract The creation of electricity markets has raised the fundamental question as to whether

  13. STORAGE CAPACITY ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS FOR HIERARCHICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavrakakis, Ioannis

    STORAGE CAPACITY ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS FOR HIERARCHICAL CONTENT DISTRIBUTION Nikolaos Laoutaris of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece {laoutaris,vassilis,istavrak}@di.uoa.gr Abstract The addition of storage storage budget to the nodes of a hierarchical con- tent distribution system is formulated; optimal

  14. Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary GIS Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary GIS Capacity Binder Index Background 2 Hardware, Software Report, configuration notes American Samoa Spatial Data Infrastructure Maps GIS Data CDs Operating System) #12;Compiled by Allison Graves, Nuna Technologies 2002. 2 Background A GIS presence was established

  15. FURTHER EXPERIMENTS IN FISHWAY CAPACITY, 1957

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the fishway . Experiments in 1956 to measure the capacity of a pool-and-overf all- type fish- way were to accommodate the runs effec- tively. Appreciable savings in construction \\J Research financed by the U.S. Army of providing design criteria for more economical and more efficient fish-passage facili- ties at Corps projects

  16. Emergent Biosynthetic Capacity in Simple Microbial Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    Emergent Biosynthetic Capacity in Simple Microbial Communities Hsuan-Chao Chiu1 , Roie Levy1 and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic

  17. tti.tamu.edu Increasing Capacity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Readers to Measure Wait Times at the U.S.-Mexico Border Computer Simulations Explore "What If" Disaster Wait Times at the U.S.-Mexico Border 8 Safety-Belt Use at All-Time High in Texas 10 Increasing Capacity. Today -- with the Internet cross-pollinating cultures between countries at the speed of light

  18. Optimal Prices for Finite Capacity Queueing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziya, Serhan

    Optimal Prices for Finite Capacity Queueing Systems Serhan Ziya Department of Statistics prove a lower bound on the optimal price for a fairly large class of blocking systems with general arrival and service processes, determine optimal price expressions for M/M/1/m and M/GI/s/s systems

  19. Electricity market module: Electricity capacity planning submodule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe modifications to the Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule (ECP) for the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. It describes revisions to enhance the representation of planned maintenance, incorporate technological improvements in operating efficiencies, revise the algorithm for determining international firm power imports, and include risk premiums for new plant construction.

  20. Computing Wireless Capacity Magnus M. Halldorsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halldórsson, Magnús M.

    Computing Wireless Capacity Magn´us M. Halld´orsson Roger Wattenhofer September 27, 2010 Abstract In this paper we address two common questions in wireless communication from an algorithmic perspective, assuming a geometric path loss model: First, how long does it take to satisfy an arbitrary set of wireless

  1. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    May 27-30, 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR12048 May 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FORfor increases in the building cooling load resulting from

  2. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  3. Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi; Nuzzo, Pierluigi; Iandola, Forrest; Kamgarpour, Maryam; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto; Tomlin, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Poweris to develop an optimal load management system based on thescheme where a high-level load management system receives as

  4. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Development Commission. Load Management in California. Staffon the Challenge of Load Management, Conservation Paper No.for Electric Utility Load Management. New York, New York:

  5. On Asymptotic Outage Capacity Distribution of Correlated MIMO Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyka, Sergey

    On Asymptotic Outage Capacity Distribution of Correlated MIMO Channels Georgy Levin* and Sergey condition for the asymptotic normality of MIMO channel outage capacity is considered. Some physical aspects, asymptotic capacity, correlation. I. INTRODUCTION Outage capacity is one of the major characteristics

  6. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  7. Performance of the OVP/UVP and OFP/UFP method with voltage and frequency dependent loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirtley, James L., Jr.

    In previous literature, constant RLC loads were assumed to impose, on the islanding detection method, the hardest detectable case. For this reason, distributed-generation (DG) islanding studies are usually analyzed and ...

  8. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  9. Designing and Testing Contols to Mitigate Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.D.; Stol, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads of wind turbines. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we show the design and simulation testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control design methods.

  10. A Dynamic Programming Approach to Estimate the Capacity Value of Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We present a method to estimate the capacity value of storage. Our method uses a dynamic program to model the effect of power system outages on the operation and state of charge of storage in subsequent periods. We combine the optimized dispatch from the dynamic program with estimated system loss of load probabilities to compute a probability distribution for the state of charge of storage in each period. This probability distribution can be used as a forced outage rate for storage in standard reliability-based capacity value estimation methods. Our proposed method has the advantage over existing approximations that it explicitly captures the effect of system shortage events on the state of charge of storage in subsequent periods. We also use a numerical case study, based on five utility systems in the U.S., to demonstrate our technique and compare it to existing approximation methods.

  11. Static internal pressure capacity of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julyk, L.J.

    1994-07-19

    Underground single-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, generate gaseous mixtures that could be ignited, challenging the structural integrity of the tanks. The structural capacity of the single-shell tanks to internal pressure is estimated through nonlinear finite-element structural analyses of the reinforced concrete tank. To determine their internal pressure capacity, designs for both the million-gallon and the half-million-gallon tank are evaluated on the basis of gross structural instability.

  12. STATUS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN KERALA AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    STATUS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN KERALA AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS Dr. R. Ajayakumar the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Kerala beyond the assimilative of capacity of our environment and management capacity of the existing waste management systems. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity

  13. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  14. Capacity maximization in data-oriented mobile networks, through optimal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupechoux, Marceau

    impact on stations loads. Not taken into account in static (spectral efficiency-based) models. Finding

  15. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  16. Design and Performance Aspects of Steam Generators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1994-01-01

    generators are "standard" or "off-the-shelf items", that there exists a model number for a given steam capacity and one has to live with whatever performance is offered by the boiler vendor. Unfortunately, boiler suppliers also encourage specifying of steam...

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Load Management for Electricity End Users 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The planning, design and implementation of load management is complex and expensive. The results of a load management program are subject to numerous uncertainties related to load characteristics, power cost savings, load management costs...

  18. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammer, J.H.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.

  19. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  20. Entanglement area law from specific heat capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Marcus Cramer

    2015-08-20

    We study the scaling of entanglement in low-energy states of quantum many-body models on lattices of arbitrary dimensions. We allow for unbounded Hamiltonians such that systems with bosonic degrees of freedom are included. We show that if at low enough temperatures the specific heat capacity of the model decays exponentially with inverse temperature, the entanglement in every low-energy state satisfies an area law (with a logarithmic correction). This behaviour of the heat capacity is typically observed in gapped systems. Assuming merely that the low-temperature specific heat decays polynomially with temperature, we find a subvolume scaling of entanglement. Our results give experimentally verifiable conditions for area laws, show that they are a generic property of low-energy states of matter, and, to the best of our knowledge, constitute the first proof of an area law for unbounded Hamiltonians beyond those that are integrable.

  1. Florida products pipeline set to double capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-13

    Directional drilling has begun this fall for a $68.5 million, approximately 110,000 b/d expansion of Central Florida Pipeline Co.`s refined products line from Tampa to Orlando. The drilling started in August and is scheduled to conclude this month, crossing under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk, and Osceola counties. The current 6 and 10-in. system provides more than 90% of the petroleum products used in Central Florida, according to Central Florida Pipeline. Its additional capacity will meet the growing region`s demand for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The new pipeline, along with the existing 10-in. system, will increase total annual capacity from 30 million bbl (82,192 b/d) to approximately 70 million bbl (191,781 b/d). The older 6-in. line will be shutdown when the new line is operating fully. The steps of pipeline installation are described.

  2. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  3. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

    1998-06-30

    A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

  4. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Load Participation...

  5. Planned Geothermal Capacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | OpenBethlehemPlainsboro Center,Planned Geothermal Capacity

  6. Photon generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  7. Cluster generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donchev, Todor I. (Urbana, IL); Petrov, Ivan G. (Champaign, IL)

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  8. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from field measurements available to calculate feeder PV production based in installed Capacity per feeder (Example: capture clear day vs cloudy day): PV gen. on circuit...

  9. Electric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Jr., John S. (Pleasanton, CA); Wilson, James R. (Livermore, CA); McDonald, Jr., Charles A. (Danville, CA)

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  10. EEI/DOE Transmission Capacity Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    electricity delivered to consumers; limits the ability of generators to exercise market power; and provides flexibility to protect against uncertainties about future fuel prices,...

  11. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    of a synchronous generator,” IEEE Transactions on Powercomponents, such as synchronous generators, are well components, such as synchronous generators, are well

  12. NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG OCTOBER 1999 #12;DISCLAIMER Government or any agency thereof. #12;GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG by General Atomics IR&D Funds GA PROJECT 4437 OCTOBER 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK

  13. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  14. Real power regulation for the utility power grid via responsive loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J [Knoxville, TN; Kirby, Brendan J [Knoxville, TN; Kisner, Roger A

    2009-05-19

    A system for dynamically managing an electrical power system that determines measures of performance and control criteria for the electric power system, collects at least one automatic generation control (AGC) input parameter to at least one AGC module and at least one automatic load control (ALC) input parameter to at least one ALC module, calculates AGC control signals and loads as resources (LAR) control signals in response to said measures of performance and control criteria, propagates AGC control signals to power generating units in response to control logic in AGC modules, and propagates LAR control signals to at least one LAR in response to control logic in ALC modules.

  15. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  16. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    generating unit loading and commitment (e.g. , dispatchingas Conventional unit scheduling, commitment and dispatchconventional unit scheduling, commitment and dispatch will

  17. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    load shedding is greater than the amount of generation that was lost, frequency will quickly rise and exceed the scheduled value.

  18. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  19. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in Switzerland (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Decentralized customerlevel under frequency...

  20. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan

    2011-10-25

    Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.

  1. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  2. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  3. Iodine Loading of NO Aged Silver Exchanged Mordenite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, K. K. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Jubin, J. T. [ORNL; Walker, Jr., J. F. [ORNL

    2014-09-30

    In an off-gas treatment system for used nuclear fuel processing, a solid sorbent will typically be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water vapor, gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed sorbents. Silver exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine its iodine sorption capacity after long term exposure to increasingly more complex chemical environments. Studies previously conducted at ORNL investigated the effects of aging reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag{sup 0}Z) in dry air, moist air, and NO2. This study investigated the effects of extended exposure to nitric oxide (NO) gas on the iodine capture performance of Ag{sup 0}Z. A deep bed of Ag{sup 0}Z was aged in a 1% nitric oxide (NO) air stream, and portions of the bed were removed at pre-determined intervals. After being removed from the NO stream, each sample was loaded with iodine in a thin bed configuration. These samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) to quantify the iodine content in the sample. Samples were removed at one week and one month. A 78% decrease in sample capacity was seen after one week of exposure, with no further decrease observed after 1 month of aging. The observed loss in capacity is larger in magnitude than previous studies exposing Ag{sup 0}Z to dry air, moist air, or NO2 gas. The aging study was terminated after one month and repeated; this successfully demonstrated the reproducibility of the results.

  4. EVALUATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DWPF HIGHER CAPACITY CANISTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Estochen, E.; Jordan, J.; Kesterson, M.; Mckeel, C.

    2014-08-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is considering the option to increase canister glass capacity by reducing the wall thickness of the current production canister. This design has been designated as the DWPF Higher Capacity Canister (HCC). A significant decrease in the number of canisters processed during the life of the facility would be achieved if the HCC were implemented leading to a reduced overall reduction in life cycle costs. Prior to implementation of the change, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct an evaluation of the potential impacts. The specific areas of interest included loading and deformation of the canister during the filling process. Additionally, the effect of the reduced wall thickness on corrosion and material compatibility needed to be addressed. Finally the integrity of the canister during decontamination and other handling steps needed to be determined. The initial request regarding canister fabrication was later addressed in an alternate study. A preliminary review of canister requirements and previous testing was conducted prior to determining the testing approach. Thermal and stress models were developed to predict the forces on the canister during the pouring and cooling process. The thermal model shows the HCC increasing and decreasing in temperature at a slightly faster rate than the original. The HCC is shown to have a 3°F ?T between the internal and outer surfaces versus a 5°F ?T for the original design. The stress model indicates strain values ranging from 1.9% to 2.9% for the standard canister and 2.5% to 3.1% for the HCC. These values are dependent on the glass level relative to the thickness transition between the top head and the canister wall. This information, along with field readings, was used to set up environmental test conditions for corrosion studies. Small 304-L canisters were filled with glass and subjected to accelerated environmental testing for 3 months. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was indicated on either the canisters or U-bend coupons. Calculations and finite element modeling were used to determine forces over a range of handling conditions along with possible forces during decontamination. While expected reductions in some physical characteristics were found in the HCC, none were found to be significant when compared to the required values necessary to perform its intended function. Based on this study and a review of successful testing of thinner canisters at West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the mechanical properties obtained with the thinner wall do not significantly undermine the ability of the canister to perform its intended function.

  5. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  6. How Accurate are the Gaussian and Gamma Approximations to the Outage Capacity of MIMO Channels ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Řien, Geir E.

    How Accurate are the Gaussian and Gamma Approximations to the Outage Capacity of MIMO Channels MIMO capacity complementary cumulative distribution functions, or equivalently, the outage capacity distribution function (CDF) (also known as the outage capacity), or equivalently, the capacity complementary

  7. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  8. Modeling Capacity Reservation in High-Tech Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    by rapid innovation and volatile demands. Capacity reservation provides a risk sharing mechanism, manufacturers are confronted with capital intensive facilities and highly skilled labor, operating under long. Physical expansion of manufacturing capacity involves enormous risk. This involves building new facil

  9. Healthcare Facility Location and Capacity Configuration under Stochastic Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Xue

    2014-12-18

    This dissertation addresses two topics. The first topic is strategic dynamic supply chain reconfiguration (DSCR) problem, in which the proposed capacity configuration network is employed in the second topic: healthcare facility location and capacity...

  10. Storage and capacity rights markets in the natural gas industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paz-Galindo, Luis A.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation presents a different approach at looking at market power in capacity rights markets that goes beyond the functional aspects of capacity rights markets as access to transportation services. In particular, ...

  11. Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. esp13thackeray.pdf More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and...

  12. DECENTRALIZING SEMICONDUCTOR CAPACITY PLANNING VIA INTERNAL MARKET COORDINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    and S. DAVID WU Manufacturing Logistics Institute, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems semiconductor manufacturer: marketing managers reserve capacity from manufacturing based on product demands, while attempting to maximize profit; manufacturing managers allocate capacity to competing marketing

  13. Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautzenhiser, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

  14. National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States by 2010, March 2001 National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States...

  15. Property:Cooling Capacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)EnergyFloorAreaOfficesCollaborators Jump to:Capacity Jump to:

  16. Africa - CCS capacity building | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendoMassachusetts: EnergyRenewablesAfrica - CCS capacity

  17. U.S. Refinery Utilization and Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: AprilCubicProduction Capacity ofCrudeStocks

  18. Wear-based aspherics generator based on a novel elliptical rotator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wear-based aspherics generator based on a novel elliptical rotator Oliver W. Fa¨hnle TNO Institute-copying method, it is possible to generate different types of surfaces with the same machining tool. Load for the generation of on- and off-axis surfaces with conic sections as generators (``conic surfaces''). We present

  19. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  20. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genčve, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  1. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  2. Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners John-frequency load pull tuners. Harmonic impedance control at the virtual drain is accomplished through the use the dramatic impact of varying 2nd harmonic termination. A 3rd harmonic termination is added to satisfy

  3. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  4. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  5. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  6. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    for microgrids to use small-scale distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications via.maribu@ensmp.fr 1 #12;Investment and Upgrade under Uncertainty in Distributed Generation 2 Keywords: Combined heat heat exchangers (HXs) to meet local energy loads. Although the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower

  7. Managing High-Tech Capacity Expansion Via Reservation Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    1 Managing High-Tech Capacity Expansion Via Reservation Contracts Murat Erkoc S. David Wuń, Bethlehem, PA 18015 merkoc@miami.edu david.wu@lehigh.eduń We study capacity reservation contracts in high-tech lead time. We conclude the paper by summarizing insights useful for high-tech capacity management. 1

  8. On The Outage Capacity Distribution of Correlated Keyhole MIMO Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyka, Sergey

    On The Outage Capacity Distribution of Correlated Keyhole MIMO Channels G. Levin and S. Loyka for the instantaneous SNR and outage capacity distributions of a spatially correlated keyhole MIMO channel are given diversity channel with a single Tx (Rx) and multiple Rx (Tx) antennas. The outage capacity at low outage

  9. Multi-Keyhole MIMO Channels: Asymptotic Analysis of Outage Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyka, Sergey

    Multi-Keyhole MIMO Channels: Asymptotic Analysis of Outage Capacity George Levin and Sergey Loyka single-keyhole channels. The outage capacity distribution of both full-rank and rank-deficient multi channel, outage capacity, correlation. I. INTRODUCTION Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) channels have

  10. Does Beamforming achieve Outage Capacity with Direction Feedback?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jafar, Syed A.

    Does Beamforming achieve Outage Capacity with Direction Feedback? Sudhir Srinivasa and Syed Ali: syed@ece.uci.edu, sudhirs@uci.edu Email: sriram@ece.utexas.edu Abstract We explore the outage capacity of outage capacity for a quantized channel direction feedback system. The technique is used to establish

  11. Transmission capacity of CDMA ad hoc networks Steven Weber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    Transmission capacity of CDMA ad hoc networks Steven Weber Dept. of ECE Drexel University and tolerate co-located simultaneous transmissions. We develop analytic results on the transmission capacity of a CDMA ad hoc network. Transmission capacity is defined as the maximum permissible density

  12. Energy and Capacity Polar and essentially-polar sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoshnevisan, Davar

    Energy and Capacity Polar and essentially-polar sets Choose and fix a Borel set G R, and define #12;86 13. Energy and Capacity (Why?) In particular, set G := {} to see that a singleton := 0. Definition 2. (µ ) is called the mutual -energy between µ and , and Cap(G) the -capacity of G

  13. Energy-Efficient Capacity Optimization in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Energy-Efficient Capacity Optimization in Wireless Networks Lu Liu, Xianghui Cao, Yu Cheng, Lili Du capacity in the most energy-efficient manner over a general large-scale wireless network, say, a multi for computing the resource allocation that leads to optimal network capacity with minimal energy consumption

  14. Online Multicasting for Network Capacity Maximization in Energy-Constrained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    Online Multicasting for Network Capacity Maximization in Energy-Constrained Ad Hoc Networks Weifa of network capacity, network lifetime, and transmission energy consumption for each multicast request, the network capacity is proportional to the network lifetime if the transmission energy consumption for each

  15. Capacity of a Gaussian MAC with Energy Harvesting Transmit Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Vinod

    Capacity of a Gaussian MAC with Energy Harvesting Transmit Nodes R Rajesh CABS, DRDO Bangalore buffer to store the harvested energy. First, we find the capacity region of a GMAC powered by transmit. Keywords: Energy harvesting, Gaussian multiple access chan- nel, Finite Buffer, Shannon capacity. I

  16. Energy-Efficient Adaptive MIMO Systems Leveraging Dynamic Spare Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    Energy-Efficient Adaptive MIMO Systems Leveraging Dynamic Spare Capacity Hongseok Kim, Chan, energy conservation, spare capacity I. INTRODUCTION Wireless cellular systems such as WiMAX are evolving capacity, it is achieved in most cases at the expense of much higher energy consumption resulting

  17. Improved Capacity Bounds for the Binary Energy Harvesting Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    Improved Capacity Bounds for the Binary Energy Harvesting Channel Kaya Tutuncuoglu1 , Omur Ozel2 the encoder has unit energy storage capacity. We first show that an encoding scheme based on block indexing/channel use. The capacity of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) energy harvesting channel was studied in [2

  18. Maximising renewable hosting capacity in electricity networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Wei

    2015-06-29

    The electricity network is undergoing significant changes in the transition to a low carbon system. The growth of renewable distributed generation (DG) creates a number of technical and economic challenges in the electricity ...

  19. A Methodology to Analyze the Impact of 30-Minute Wind Scheduling on Load-Following Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kujala, Ben

    2014-12-24

    This paper proposes a new and systematic approach to investigating the impact of wind transfer between balancing authorities (BAs) with half-hour scheduling on load following requirements, which was traditionally scheduled on an hourly basis. The analysis is conducted for a few BAs in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. that are described as source BAs (sending renewables) and sink BAs (receiving renewables). The main hypothesis is that if the source BA could schedule interchange for wind on a half-hourly basis, it would make the schedule follow its net load more closely. The scheduling change in the source BA is matched by adding the corresponding component to the net load in the sink BA. The load-following requirements are calculated as: (a) by the difference between the net load and modified schedule in the source BA, and (b) the difference between modified net load and unchanged hourly schedule in the sink BA. Results are presented as hourly upward and downward load following requirements in the source and sink BA, and compared with the results obtained with all generators scheduled on an hourly basis. Thus, the proposed method can effectively help utilities better understand the impact of 30-minute scheduling and make better business decisions.

  20. Combined Effects of Gravity, Bending Moment, Bearing Clearance, and Input Torque on Wind Turbine Planetary Gear Load Sharing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; LaCava, W.

    2012-09-01

    This computational work investigates planetary gear load sharing of three-mount suspension wind turbine gearboxes. A three dimensional multibody dynamic model is established, including gravity, bending moments, fluctuating mesh stiffness, nonlinear tooth contact, and bearing clearance. A flexible main shaft, planetary carrier, housing, and gear shafts are modeled using reduced degrees-of-freedom through modal compensation. This drivetrain model is validated against the experimental data of Gearbox Reliability Collaborative for gearbox internal loads. Planet load sharing is a combined effect of gravity, bending moment, bearing clearance, and input torque. Influences of each of these parameters and their combined effects on the resulting planet load sharing are investigated. Bending moments and gravity induce fundamental excitations in the rotating carrier frame, which can increase gearbox internal loads and disturb load sharing. Clearance in carrier bearings reduces the bearing load carrying capacity and thus the bending moment from the rotor can be transmitted into gear meshes. With bearing clearance, the bending moment can cause tooth micropitting and can induce planet bearing fatigue, leading to reduced gearbox life. Planet bearings are susceptible to skidding at low input torque.