A three phase load flow algorithm for Shipboard Power Systems
Medina-Calder?on, M?onica M
2003-01-01
-Seidel and/or Newton Raphson techniques, were primarily developed for transmission system analysis. Distribution load flow analysis must incorporate its unique characteristics such as unbalanced loads, distributed loads, radial network structure, and one...
ANUDlSiTM-40 Load Flow Analysis: Base Cases, Data, Diagrams, and Results
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministrationTechnicalTechnicalScience.govWSRC-MS-g8-00318ANUDlSiTM-40 Load Flow
Peterson, T.K.
1995-02-15
This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).
Detailed End Use Load Modeling for Distribution System Analysis
Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.
2010-04-09
The field of distribution system analysis has made significant advances in the past ten years. It is now standard practice when performing a power flow simulation to use an algorithm that is capable of unbalanced per-phase analysis. Recent work has also focused on examining the need for time-series simulations instead of examining a single time period, i.e., peak loading. One area that still requires a significant amount of work is the proper modeling of end use loads. Currently it is common practice to use a simple load model consisting of a combination of constant power, constant impedance, and constant current elements. While this simple form of end use load modeling is sufficient for a single point in time, the exact model values are difficult to determine and it is inadequate for some time-series simulations. This paper will examine how to improve simple time invariant load models as well as develop multi-state time variant models.
Load flow studies in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse
Kruse, V.J.; Rackliffe, G.B. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Advanced Systems Technology Div.); Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1990-04-01
Seconds after a high-altitude nuclear event, the earth's surface experiences a very low-frequency, quasi-DC magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic field (MHD-EMP). MHD-EMP fields impress quasi-DC currents on transmission and sub-transmission lines. These current magnitudes can exceed several times the transformer exciting current levels. Transformers and shunt reactors experience severe half-cycle saturation resulting in harmonics and increased VAR demand. This paper reviews the calculation of the quasi-dc currents, discusses the calculation of the increased var demand, and evaluates the effect of a simulated MHD-EMP event on a power system with stability and load flow analyses.
Miniaturized flow injection analysis system
Folta, J.A.
1997-07-01
A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.
Miniaturized flow injection analysis system
Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)
1997-01-01
A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.
Experimental Study on Impact Load on a Dam Due to Debris Flow1
Experimental Study on Impact Load on a Dam Due to Debris Flow1 lwao Miyoshi2 ABSTRACT When a dam such destruction, it is important to perform basic research about the impact load on a dam due to debris flow. Thus on the dam. The experiment was performed with glass beads of 5mm in diameter as bulk solid, in an open
RESEARCH ARTICLE An experimental study of flow fields and wind loads on gable-roof
Hu, Hui
RESEARCH ARTICLE An experimental study of flow fields and wind loads on gable-roof building models the resultant wind loads acting on low-rise, gable-roof buildings induced by violent microburst-like winds State University. Two gable-roof building models with the same base plan and mean roof height
Aalborg Universitet Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations
Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
that the electrical distance between the generators and the load centers is controlled. The shunt- connected FACTS-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance bus, equivalent SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate when
Mathematical Model Analysis for Hg Flow
McDonald, Kirk
Mathematical Model Analysis for Hg Flow Yan Zhan SUNYSB April 20th, 2010 #12;Outline · Introduction Mechanism of Jet Breakup & Atomization Dynamic Problems in Hg Target Flow · Mathematical Model for Hg Flow Parameters Incompressible Flow (No MHD) Incompressible Flow (MHD) Proton Beam Energy Conversion
Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis
Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.
2011-11-01
Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.
Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation Conditions-sur-Loing, France. Working on fluid mechanics aspects of nuclear valves since 2004. Zachary Leutwyler zleutwyler and numerical investigation of flow- induced forces and torque acting on linear and quarter turn valves. hal
Nutrient load analysis of Lago de Yojoa, Honduras
Trate, Tia M. (Tia Marie)
2006-01-01
Lake Yojoa, Honduras is an important natural resource to the people of Honduras. The lake's water quality has been a controversial subject. This thesis describes a nutrient load analysis performed to gain a better understanding ...
Data Flow Analysis Frameworks for Concurrent Programs
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Data Flow Analysis Frameworks for Concurrent Programs 1 Matthew B. Dwyer Department of Computer Science University of Massachusetts, Amherst Abstract Data flow analysis is a well studied family of static program analyses. A rich theoretical basis for data flow analysis has been developed. Central
Adhesion clusters under shared linear loading: a stochastic analysis
T. Erdmann; U. S. Schwarz
2004-03-22
We study the cooperative rupture of multiple adhesion bonds under shared linear loading. Simulations of the appropriate Master equation are compared with numerical integration of a rate equation for the mean number of bonds and its scaling analysis. In general, force-accelerated rupture is rather abrupt. For small clusters and slow loading, large fluctuations occur regarding the timepoint of final rupture, but not the typical shape of the rupture trajectory. For vanishing rebinding, our numerical results confirm three scaling regimes predicted before for cluster lifetime as a function of loading rate. For finite rebinding, the intermediate loading regime becomes irrelevant, and a sequence of two new scaling laws can be identified in the slow loading regime.
D0 Silicon Upgrade: Lower Cleanroom Roof Quick Load Analysis
Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab
1995-11-17
This engineering note documents calculations done to determine the margin of safety for the lower clean room roof. The analysis was done to give me a feeling of what the loads, stresses and capacity of the roof is prior to installation and installation work to be done for the helium refrigerator upgrade. The result of this quick look showed that the calculated loads produce stress values and loads at about half the allowables. Based on this result, I do not think that special precautions above personal judgement are required for the installation work.
Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation
Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than
2012-06-01
Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps
Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint
Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.
2010-12-01
The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.
Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow
Marchese, Francis
Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow
Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis
Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW
2010-09-30
Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.
Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis
Oren, Shmuel S.
Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis Anthony compares to price responsive demand in terms capacity gains and energy market revenues for renewable to renewable generation. I. INTRODUCTION Renewable power is emerging as a mainstream source of energy supply
Squeeze flow of potato starch gel: effect of loading history on visco-elastic properties
Moutushi Dutta Choudhury; Shantanu Das; Sujata Tarafdar
2015-03-25
In this work gelatinized potato starch is shown to retain the memory of past loading history. It exhibits a visco-elastic response which does not depend solely on instantaneous conditions. A simple squeeze flow experiment is performed, where loading is done in two steps with a time lag $\\tau \\sim$ seconds between the steps. The effect on the strain, of varying $\\tau$ is reproduced by a three element visco-elastic solid model. Non-linearity is introduced through a generalized calculus approach by incorporating a non-integer order time derivative in the viscosity equation. A strain hardening proportional to the time lag between the two loading steps is also incorporated. This model reproduces the three salient features observed in the experiment, namely - the memory effect, slight initial oscillations in the strain as well as the long-time solid-like response. Dynamic visco-elasticity of the sample is also reported.
Measurement Of The Fluid Flow Load On A Globe Valve Stem Under Various Cavitation Conditions
Ferrari, Jerome
2009-01-01
The evaluation of fluid forces on the stem is important for wear prediction of valve and actuator guidance parts. While estimating the axial load is straight forward, estimating and/or measuring the side load is more difficult, especially for globe valves. Therefore, measurements are carried out on an ad hoc, scale 1, model of a 2" globe valve. The body is replicated in Plexiglas to enable flow visualization and the original stem is heavily instrumented to allow force measurements in every direction. The flow loop facility used for this experiment is designed to allow fine-tuning of the cavitation intensity. The experiment is run for a set of cavitation conditions, flow rates and disc positions. The results show that the transverse force (perpendicular to the stem) can reach the order of the axial force; thus it should not be ignored. We also observed that it depends very weakly on the cavitation levels. Videos made with a high-speed camera allow an interesting understanding of the fluid flow and the cavitati...
Steady state load models for power system analysis
Cresswell, Charles
2009-01-01
The last full review of load models used for power system studies occurred in the 1980s. Since then, new types of loads have been introduced and system load mix has changed considerably. The examples of newly introduced ...
Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification
Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano
2013-01-01
Energy performance of LEED® for new construction buildings,The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification Gwen FuertesGreen Building Council for LEED certification. The study
Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units with
Chaudhary, Sanjay
Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units power system. Being able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded mode, a microgrid manages and controls distributed energy resources, energy storage systems and loads, most of them are power electronic
Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for droop controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids with virtual
Vasquez, Juan Carlos
Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for droop controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids with virtual impedance. In Proceedings of the IEEE Power & Energy Interlinking converter PV WT IBS DC microgrid DC microgrid AC microgrid AC Load Figure 1. Structure
Loading and Regeneration Analysis of a Diesel Particulate Filter with a Radio Frequency-Based Sensor
Sappok, Alex; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E
2010-01-01
Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF soot levels and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based soot emission measurement instrument (TEOM). Comparison with pressure drop measurements show the RF technique is unaffected by exhaust flow variations and exhibits a high degree of sensitivity to DPF soot loading and good dynamic response. Additional computational and experimental work further illustrates the spatial resolution of the RF measurements. Based on the experimental results, the RF technique shows significant promise for improving DPF control enabling optimization of the combined engine-aftertreatment system for improved fuel economy and extended DPF service life.
Infrastructure Analysis Tools: A Focus on Cash Flow Analysis (Presentation)
Melaina, M.; Penev, M.
2012-09-01
NREL has developed and maintains a variety of infrastructure analysis models for the U.S. Department of Energy. Business case analysis has recently been added to this tool set. This presentation focuses on cash flow analysis. Cash flows depend upon infrastructure costs, optimized spatially and temporally, and assumptions about financing and revenue. NREL has incorporated detailed metrics on financing and incentives into the models. Next steps in modeling include continuing to collect feedback on regional/local infrastructure development activities and 'roadmap' dynamics, and incorporating consumer preference assumptions on infrastructure to provide direct feedback between vehicles and station rollout.
Flow-Through vs Flow-Over: Analysis of Transport and Binding in Nanohole Array Plasmonic
Brolo, Alexandre G.
Flow-Through vs Flow-Over: Analysis of Transport and Binding in Nanohole Array Plasmonic Biosensors of flow-through nanohole sensing, as compared to the established flow-over format, through scaling and analytical response. The additional benefit offered by flow- through operation is, however, a complex
Dynamic Transfer Capability Analysis with Wind Farms and Dynamic Loads
Pota, Himanshu Roy
. An investigation on the effect of dynamics loads, wind farms and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices capability unnecessarily limits the power transfers and is a costly and inefficient use of a network with increasing loads, the need to transfer power over long transmission lines increases. Deregulation
Distributional Analysis for Model Predictive Deferrable Load Control
Low, Steven H.
for demand response. There are two major categories of demand response, direct load control (DLC) and price-based demand response. See [1] for a discussion of the contrasts between these approaches. In this paper we focus on direct load control with the goal of using demand response to reduce variations
Static Information Flow Analysis for Java Department of Computer Science
Bystroff, Chris
Static Information Flow Analysis for Java Yin Liu Department of Computer Science Rensselaer their usage in software practice. This paper proposes run-time information flow models, and new static in software practice. We propose a new static information flow analysis towards this goal. This analysis
Scenario Analysis of Pedestrian Flow in Public Amir Sohrab Sahaleh
Bierlaire, Michel
Scenario Analysis of Pedestrian Flow in Public Spaces Amir Sohrab Sahaleh Michel Bierlaire Bilal Farooq Antonin Danalet Flurin Silvan Hänseler STRC 2012 May 2012 #12;Scenario Analysis of Pedestrian Flow in Public Spaces May 2012 Scenario Analysis of Pedestrian Flow in Public Spaces Amir Sohrab Sahaleh
Geometric nonlinear analysis of microbeam under electrostatic loading
Murgude, Nikhil C.
2001-01-01
This study investigates the behavior of a microbeam subjected to electrostatic loading. Two devices, namely, a tungsten microtweezer and a clamped-clamped beam which is part of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), are used as the vehicles...
A study of grout flow pattern analysis
Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)
2013-01-10
A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.
Micromechanical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction Under Cyclic Loading
Bhandari, Anil
2010-05-28
OF PAPER 85 3.7 CALIBRATION OF GEOTEXTILE AND GEOGRID 87 CHAPTER FOUR 91 4 TRAPDOOR EXPERIMENT AND DEM SIMULATION 91 4.1 EQUIPMENT DESIGN AND TEST PROCEDURE 91 4.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 94 4.2.1 Unreinforced embankments 94 4.2.2 Reinforced embankments... CHAPTER SIX 160 6 BEHAVIOR OF GEOSYNTHETIC-REINFORCED BASES 160 6.1 GEOTEXTILE-REINFORCED BASE 160 6.1.1 Numerical sample preparation 162 6.1.2 Moving wheel load 164 6.1.3 Contact forces due to moving wheel load 165 6.1.4 Rut depths due to moving...
Recurrent flow analysis in spatiotemporally chaotic 2-dimensional Kolmogorov flow
Dan Lucas; Rich Kerswell
2015-04-01
Motivated by recent success in the dynamical systems approach to transitional flow, we study the efficiency and effectiveness of extracting simple invariant sets (recurrent flows) directly from chaotic/turbulent flows and the potential of these sets for providing predictions of certain statistics of the flow. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow (the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a sinusoidal body force) is studied both over a square [0, 2{\\pi}]2 torus and a rectangular torus extended in the forcing direction. In the former case, an order of magnitude more recurrent flows are found than previously (Chandler & Kerswell 2013) and shown to give improved predictions for the dissipation and energy pdfs of the chaos via periodic orbit theory. Over the extended torus at low forcing amplitudes, some extracted states mimick the statistics of the spatially-localised chaos present surprisingly well recalling the striking finding of Kawahara & Kida (2001) in low-Reynolds-number plane Couette flow. At higher forcing amplitudes, however, success is limited highlighting the increased dimensionality of the chaos and the need for larger data sets. Algorithmic developments to improve the extraction procedure are discussed.
PIERSON, R.M.
2003-09-02
This document provides an analysis of anticipated radiation dose rates and heat loads for immobilized high level waste (IHW) canisters
Applying Multi-Physics Requirements and Loads in FEM Analysis and Testing – The JET KL11 Endoscope Design Verification Process
Electrical transient stability and underfrequency load shedding analysis for a large pump station
Shilling, S.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
1995-12-31
Electrical transients from faults, loss of generation, and load swings can disrupt pump station operations. Isolated stations with no utility tie and those with weak utility ties are especially at risk. Relative to this problem, the following four main issues are addressed: (1) Analyze the methods that use high-speed underfrequency load shedding to maintain system stability and preserve station operations. (2) Analyze combustion gas turbine generator and diesel generator transient responses, as they pertain to the Electrical Engineer. (3) Discuss system component modeling and the use of low voltage circuit switching devices to shed loads. (4) Compare two computer analysis program outputs for underfrequency load shedding responses.
Electrical transient stability and underfrequency load shedding analysis for a large pump station
Shilling, S.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
1997-01-01
Electrical transients from faults, loss of generation, and load swings can disrupt pump station operations. Isolated stations with no utility tie, and those with weak utility ties, are especially at risk. Relative to this problem, the following four main issues are addressed: (1) analyze the methods that use high-speed underfrequency load shedding to maintain system stability and preserve station operations; (2) analyze combustion gas turbine generator and diesel generator transient responses, as they pertain to the electrical engineer; (3) discuss system component modeling and the use of low voltage circuit switching devices to shed loads; (4) compare two computer analysis program outputs for underfrequency load shedding responses.
Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles
Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila
2009-06-28
This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.
An Analysis of Dual Zone Loading for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel
Allen, William Christopher; Yim, Man-Sung
2007-07-01
The bumps current fuel assembly designs can achieve exceeds the fuel assembly burnups the current fleet of shipping casks can ship. One method of handling this situation which has been proposed is regionalized loading. This concept involves administratively separating the fuel basket of a shipping cask into two or more regions and loading fuel with different burnup, cooling times and enrichments into these regions. To evaluate how regionalized loading patterns might affect shipping spent nuclear fuel in comparison to uniform loading, a test case study was performed using fuel assemblies discharged from an actual nuclear plant and a shipping cask licensed by the NRC. Using the same fuel assemblies and shipping cask, results were obtained assuming a uniform loading pattern and compared to the results obtained assuming a dual zone loading pattern. Source terms for the analysis were generated using SAS2 and the dose levels were calculated using MCNPS. The analysis showed that the dual zone loading reduced the amount of time required to ship the given quantity of fuel by roughly thirty percent compared to the uniform loading. The average dose rate to the transportation workers and the public due to the implementation of dual zone loading increased. Implications of these increases are discussed. (authors)
Experimental damage-gas flow correlations for cyclically loaded reinforced concrete walls
Soppe, Travis E.
2009-01-01
will be on cracked concrete permeability and flow rates.Concrete Permeability..Concrete Permeability
Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation: Preprint
Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.
2007-06-01
This paper presents the use of fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tools to perform a loads analysis of a 5-MW offshore wind turbine supported by a barge with moorings, one of many promising floating platform concepts.
Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis
Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.
2014-09-01
This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.
Loads Analysis of Several Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Concepts
Robertson, A. N.; Jonkman, J. M.
2011-10-01
This paper presents a comprehensive dynamic-response analysis of six offshore floating wind turbine concepts.
Dispersed Fluid Flow in Fractured Reservoirs- an Analysis of...
Dispersed Fluid Flow in Fractured Reservoirs- an Analysis of Tracer-Determined Residence Time Distributions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...
THIN-FILM FLOWS WITH WALL SLIP: AN ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF HIGHER ORDER GLACIER FLOW MODELS
Fournier, John J.F.
THIN-FILM FLOWS WITH WALL SLIP: AN ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF HIGHER ORDER GLACIER FLOW MODELS, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK) [Received 6 January 2009. Revise 6 November 2009] Summary Free-surface thin film of the flow. Conversely, membrane or `free film' models are appropriate in situations where there is rapid
Transaction Based Power Flow Analysis For Transmission Utilization Allocation
electricity market at the ex ante phase; (ii) MW generations are decided by bilateral contracts and other contributions of individual generators to loads and flows upon the so-called proportional sharing principle the electric power industry moves into an era of supply competition and consumer choice, the power system
Analysis and Synthesis of Load Forecasting Data for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint
Steckler, N.; Florita, A.; Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.
2013-11-01
As renewable energy constitutes greater portions of the generation fleet, the importance of modeling uncertainty as part of integration studies also increases. In pursuit of optimal system operations, it is important to capture not only the definitive behavior of power plants, but also the risks associated with systemwide interactions. This research examines the dependence of load forecast errors on external predictor variables such as temperature, day type, and time of day. The analysis was utilized to create statistically relevant instances of sequential load forecasts with only a time series of historic, measured load available. The creation of such load forecasts relies on Bayesian techniques for informing and updating the model, thus providing a basis for networked and adaptive load forecast models in future operational applications.
Arbind, Archana
2012-10-19
OF CONVENTIONAL AND MICROSTRUCTURE DEPENDENT FUNCTIONALLY GRADED BEAMS UNDER THERMO-MECHANICAL LOADS A Thesis by ARCHANA ARBIND Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2012 Major Subject: Civil Engineering NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF CONVENTIONAL AND MICROSTRUCTURE DEPENDENT FUNCTIONALLY GRADED BEAMS UNDER THERMO-MECHANICAL LOADS A Thesis by ARCHANA ARBIND Submitted to the O ce of Graduate...
CFD analysis of laminar oscillating flows
Booten, C. W. Charles W.); Konecni, S.; Smith, B. L.; Martin, R. A.
2001-01-01
This paper describes a numerical simulations of oscillating flow in a constricted duct and compares the results with experimental and theoretical data. The numerical simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX4.2. The numerical model simulates an experimental oscillating flow facility that was designed to test the properties and characteristics of oscillating flow in tapered ducts, also known as jet pumps. Jet pumps are useful devices in thermoacoustic machinery because they produce a secondary pressure that can counteract an unwanted effect called streaming, and significantly enhance engine efficiency. The simulations revealed that CFX could accurately model velocity, shear stress and pressure variations in laminar oscillating flow. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and theoretical predictions with varying success. The least accurate numerical results were obtained when laminar flow approached transition to turbulent flow.
Gradual Variation Analysis for Groundwater Flow
Chen, Li
2010-01-01
Groundwater flow in Washington DC greatly influences the surface water quality in urban areas. The current methods of flow estimation, based on Darcy's Law and the groundwater flow equation, can be described by the diffusion equation (the transient flow) and the Laplace equation (the steady-state flow). The Laplace equation is a simplification of the diffusion equation under the condition that the aquifer has a recharging boundary. The practical way of calculation is to use numerical methods to solve these equations. The most popular system is called MODFLOW, which was developed by USGS. MODFLOW is based on the finite-difference method in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. MODFLOW can be viewed as a "quasi 3D" simulation since it only deals with the vertical average (no z-direction derivative). Flow calculations between the 2D horizontal layers use the concept of leakage. In this project, we have established a mathematical model based on gradually varied functions for groundwater data volume reconstruction. T...
Rotationally Augmented Flow Structures and Time Varying Loads on Turbine Blades: Preprint
Schreck, S. J.
2007-01-01
To better understand wind turbine flow physics, time dependent blade surface pressure data were acquired from the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment.
Vecchio, Frank J.
Abstract ii NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES SUBJECTED nonlinear finite element transient thermal analysis is implemented into program VecTor2©, a nonlinear's response to thermal loads, this research develops and implements a 2D nonlinear finite element transient
Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint
Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.
2014-02-01
Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.
Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield
Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon
2014-01-29
Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.
Analysis of a typical Midwestern structure subjected to seismic loads
Hart, Jason Frazier
2013-02-22
The extent of damage and casualties in Midwest cities such as St. Louis during an earthquake caused by the New Madrid fault system will be due in part to the performance of buildings. Dynamic nonlinear analysis of a reinforced concrete building...
Multiphase Flow Analysis in Hydra-TH
Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nourgaliev, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory
2012-06-20
This talk presents an overview of the multiphase flow efforts with Hydra-TH. The presentation begins with a definition of the requirements and design principles for multiphase flow relevant to CASL-centric problems. A brief survey of existing codes and their solution algorithms is presented before turning the model formulation selected for Hydra-TH. The issues of hyperbolicity and wellposedness are outlined, and a three candidate solution algorithms are discussed. The development status of Hydra-TH for multiphase flow is then presented with a brief summary and discussion of future directions for this work.
Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz
2010-09-15
A detailed experimental investigation of the effects of exit blade geometry on the part-load performance of low-head, axial flow propeller turbines is presented. Even as these turbines find important applications in small-scale energy generation using micro-hydro, the relationship between the layout of blade profile, geometry and turbine performance continues to be poorly characterized. The experimental results presented here help understand the relationship between exit tip angle, discharge through the turbine, shaft power, and efficiency. The modification was implemented on two different propeller runners and it was found that the power and efficiency gains from decreasing the exit tip angle could be explained by a theoretical model presented here based on classical theory of turbomachines. In particular, the focus is on the behaviour of internal parameters like the runner loss coefficient, relative flow angle at exit, mean axial flow velocity and net tangential flow velocity. The study concluded that the effects of exit tip modification were significant. The introspective discussion on the theoretical model's limitation and test facility suggests wider and continued experimentation pertaining to the internal parameters like inlet vortex profile and exit swirl profile. It also recommends thorough validation of the model and its improvement so that it can be made capable for accurate characterization of blade geometric effects. (author)
Amaral, José Nelson
University of Alberta Expression Data Flow Graph: Precise Flow-Sensitive Pointer Analysis for C Thiessen Fall 2011 Edmonton, Alberta Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other
POWER FLOW ANALYSIS OF ELECTROSTRICTIVE ACTUATORS DRIVEN BYSWITCHMODE AMPLIFIERS
Lindner, Douglas K.
of that energy. We adopt this view in this paper. The analysis in this paper is motivated by the smart skin being Consider the flow of energy through this smart skin. Electrical energy is supplied to the smart skin from energy into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy then flows from the smart skin into the surrounding
REAL TIME FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT FLOWS
Interrante, Victoria
great unsolved problem in classical physics, and all efforts to develop models to predict turbulent techniques, terabyte scale data sets are being generated, and hence stor- age as well as analysis include flow over aircraft, spacecraft, and other transport vehicles, flow inside of engines and power
FULLYDISCRETE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY
Ewing, Richard E.
FULLYDISCRETE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY Zhangxin Chen element method for a nonlinear differential system for describing an airwater system in groundwater experiments using the present approach for modeling groundwater flow in porous media are reported. Key words
Fair Internet traffic integration: network flow models and analysis
Kelly, Frank
Fair Internet traffic integration: network flow models and analysis Peter Key, Laurent Massoulié the integration of two types of Internet traffic, elastic file transfers and streaming traffic. Previous studies have concentrated on just one type of traffic, such as the flow level models of Internet congestion
Air flow characteristics of dry and liquid loaded packed and fluidized systems
Millsap, George Wayne
1958-01-01
flowing fluid, the pressure drop across the bed is equivalent to the weight of solids per unit area contained in the bed and corrected for buoyancy oi the supporting fluid is given by: 15 DP g = (V/A) (1 -() (~ -P)g Noting that the voids fraction, g... with the countercurrent flow conditions utilising the 0. 0743 and 0. 1101-inch diameter particles indicate two difierent trends in observed pressure drop data. Results, therefore, are presented as a plot of [EP g~ /h&) ( p - p) g] vs 0, the gas mass velocity...
Coupled Analysis of the Motion and Mooring Loads of a Spar "CONSTITUTION"
Li, Chengxi
2012-10-19
Loading Platform (ALP). In recent years, Kim et al. (2005) used the coupled dynamic analysis program for the global motion simulation of a turret-moored, tanker based FPSO designed for 6000-ft water depth. Chen et al. (2006) compared the numerical...
Modeling and Analysis of Load and Time Dependent Software Rejuvenation Policies
Telek, Miklós
divided into design, coding and test ing phase. Traditionally, software quality improve mentModeling and Analysis of Load and Time Dependent Software Rejuvenation Policies S. Garg 1 , A running clientserver type software systems by many clients, such software ``ages'' with time
Beaumont, Christopher
1 Salt tectonics driven by differential sediment loading: Stability analysis and finite element of the basin. We use 2-D finite element modelling to investigate systems in which a linear viscous salt layer is used to investigate the subsequent finite deformation. As the systems evolve, overburden extension
Criticality Safety Analysis Of As-loaded Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks
Banerjee, Kaushik; Scaglione, John M
2015-01-01
The final safety analysis report (FSAR) or the safety analysis report (SAR) for a particular spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cask system documents models and calculations used to demonstrate that a system meets the regulatory requirements under all normal, off-normal, and accident conditions of spent fuel storage, and normal and accident conditions of transportation. FSAR/SAR calculations and approved content specifications are intended to be bounding in nature to certify cask systems for a variety of fuel characteristics with simplified SNF loading requirements. Therefore, in general, loaded cask systems possess excess and uncredited criticality margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and the as-loaded calculations). This uncredited margin could be quantified by employing more detailed cask-specific evaluations that credit the actual as-loaded cask inventory, and taking into account full (actinide and fission product) burnup credit. This uncredited criticality margin could be potentially used to offset (1) uncertainties in the safety basis that needs to account for the effects of system aging during extended dry storage prior to transportation, and (2) increases in SNF system reactivity over a repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the system undergoes degradation and internal geometry changes. This paper summarizes an assessment of cask-specific, as-loaded criticality margins for SNF stored at eight reactor sites (215 loaded casks were analyzed) under fully flooded conditions to assess the margins available during transportation after extended storage. It is observed that the calculated keff margin varies from 0.05 to almost 0.3 keff for the eight selected reactor sites, demonstrating that significant uncredited safety margins are present. In addition, this paper evaluates the sufficiency of this excess margin in applications involving direct disposal of currently loaded SNF casks.
are derived from the analysis of intra-day (hourly) load records from local substations of the Belgian high by a multi-equation system with autocorrelated resid- uals. Satisfactory results are obtained for a large analysis of the electric load is cur- rently a key research area [1, 2] with important impli- cations
Model Development and Loads Analysis of a Wind Turbine on a Floating Offshore Tension Leg Platform
Matha, D.; Fischer, T.; Kuhn, M.; Jonkman, J.
2010-02-01
This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. Models in this code are of greater fidelity than most of the models that have been used to analyze floating turbines in the past--which have neglected important hydrodynamic and mooring system effects. The report provides a description of the development process of a TLP model, which is a modified version of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology design derived from a parametric linear frequency-domain optimization process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the International Electrotechnical Commission offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. Response statistics, extreme event tables, fatigue lifetimes, and selected time histories of design-driving extreme events are analyzed and presented. Loads for the wind turbine on the TLP are compared to those of an equivalent land-based turbine in terms of load ratios. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.
Gradient Flow Analysis on MILC HISQ Ensembles
A. Bazavov; C. Bernard; N. Brown; C. DeTar; J. Foley; Steven Gottlieb; U. M. Heller; J. E. Hetrick; J. Komijani; J. Laiho; L. Levkova; M. Oktay; R. L. Sugar; D. Toussaint; R. S. Van de Water; R. Zhou
2014-11-14
We report on a preliminary scale determination with gradient-flow techniques on the $N_f = 2 + 1 + 1$ HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration. The ensembles include four lattice spacings, ranging from 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and both physical and unphysical values of the quark masses. The scales $\\sqrt{t_0}/a$ and $w_0/a$ are computed using Symanzik flow and the cloverleaf definition of $\\langle E \\rangle$ on each ensemble. Then both scales and the meson masses $aM_\\pi$ and $aM_K$ are adjusted for mistunings in the charm mass. Using a combination of continuum chiral perturbation theory and a Taylor series ansatz in the lattice spacing, the results are simultaneously extrapolated to the continuum and interpolated to physical quark masses. Our preliminary results are $\\sqrt{t_0} = 0.1422(7)$fm and $w_0 = 0.1732(10)$fm. We also find the continuum mass-dependence of $w_0$.
Analysis of the velocity field of granular hopper flow
F. G. R. Magalhães; A. P. F. Atman; J. G. Moreira; H. J. Herrmann
2015-07-22
We report the analysis of radial characteristics of the flow of granular material through a conical hopper. The discharge is simulated for various orifice sizes and hopper opening angles. Velocity profiles are measured along two radial lines from the hopper cone vertex: along the main axis of the cone and along its wall. An approximate power law dependence on the distance from the orifice is observed for both profiles, although differences between them can be noted. In order to quantify these differences, we propose a Local Mass Flow index that is a promising tool in the direction of a more reliable classification of the flow regimes in hoppers.
Simulation-Length Requirements in the Loads Analysis of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines: Preprint
Haid, L.; Stewart, G.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Lackner, M.; Matha, D.
2013-06-01
The goal of this paper is to examine the appropriate length of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) simulation - a fundamental question that needs to be answered to develop design requirements. To examine this issue, a loads analysis of an example FOWT was performed in FAST with varying simulation lengths. The offshore wind system used was the OC3-Hywind spar buoy, which was developed for use in the International Energy Agency Code Comparison Collaborative Project and supports NREL's offshore 5-megawatt baseline turbine. Realistic metocean data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and repeated periodic wind files were used to excite the structure. The results of the analysis clearly show that loads do not increase for longer simulations. In regards to fatigue, a sensitivity analysis shows that the procedure used for counting half cycles is more important than the simulation length itself. Based on these results, neither the simulation length nor the periodic wind files affect response statistics and loads for FOWTs (at least for the spar studied here); a result in contrast to the offshore oil and gas industry, where running simulations of at least 3 hours in length is common practice.
Numerical study of oscillatory flow and heat transfer in a loaded thermoacoustic stack
Worlikar, A.S.; Knio, O.M.
1999-01-01
A thermoacoustic refrigerator may be idealized as consisting of a straight resonance tube housing a stack of parallel plates and heat exchangers, and an acoustic source. Among the advantages of thermoacoustic refrigerators are the simplicity of their design and the fact that they naturally avoid the need for harmful refrigerants such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The operation of these devices is based on exploiting the well-known thermoacoustic effect to induce a temperature difference across the stack and to transport heat from one end of the plate to the other. Heat exchangers are then used to transfer energy from the thermoacoustic refrigerator to hot and cold reservoirs. A two-dimensional, low-Mach-number computational model is used to analyze the unsteady flow and temperature fields in the neighborhood of an idealized stack/heat exchanger configuration. The model relies on a vorticity-based formulation of the mass, momentum, and energy equations in the low-Mach-number, short-stack limit. The stack and heat exchangers are assumed to consist of flat plates of equal thickness. The heat exchanger plates are assumed isothermal and in perfect thermal contact with the stack plates. The simulations are used to study the effect of heat exchanger size and operating conditions on the heat transfer and stack performance. Computed results show that optimum stack performance is achieved when the length of the heat exchanger is nearly equal to the peak-to-peak particle displacement. Numerical estimates of the mean enthalpy flux within the channel are in good agreement with the predictions of linear theory. However, the results reveal that a portion of the heat exchangers is ineffective due to reverse heat transfer. Details of the energy flux density around the heat exchangers are visualized, and implications regarding heat exchanger design and model extension are discussed.
Flow Imaging Using MRI: Quantification and Analysis
Jiraraksopakun, Yuttapong
2010-07-14
) orthogonal one-dimensional displacement from all tag detected points [51]. Most of these motion analyses has been developed extensively to visualize or to assess cardiac motion. In analysis of heart motion, the myocardial contours at left ventricle (LV... and to automatically track both in-plane and through-plane displacements in three dimensions from a single image plane using a modified SF-CSPAMM [88]. Based on thin slice thickness and phase invariance conditions, the method (zHARP) can directly track the three-dimensional...
Analysis of anisotropic flow with Lee-Yang zeroes
R. S. Bhalerao; N. Borghini; J. -Y. Ollitrault
2003-10-03
We present a new method to extract anisotropic flow in heavy ion collisions from the genuine correlation among a large number of particles. Anisotropic flow is obtained from the zeroes in the complex plane of a generating function of azimuthal correlations, in close analogy with the theory of phase transitions by Lee and Yang. Flow is first estimated globally, i.e., averaged over the phase space covered by the detector, and then differentially, as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity for identified particles. The corresponding estimates are less biased by nonflow correlations than with any other method. The practical implementation of the method is rather straightforward. Furthermore, it automatically takes into account most corrections due to azimuthal anisotropies in the detector acceptance. The main limitation of the method is statistical errors, which can be significantly larger than with the ``standard'' method of flow analysis if the flow and/or the event multiplicities are too small. In practice, we expect this to be the most accurate method to analyze directed and elliptic flow in fixed-target heavy-ion collisions between 100 MeV and 10 GeV per nucleon (at the Darmstadt SIS synchrotron and the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron), and elliptic flow at ultrarelativistic energies (at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider at CERN).
Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales
Coughlin, Katie; Eto, J.H.
2010-12-20
In this study we develop and apply new methods of data analysis for high resolution wind power and system load time series, to improve our understanding of how to characterize highly variable wind power output and the correlations between wind power and load. These methods are applied to wind and load data from the ERCOT region, and wind power output from the PJM and NYISO areas. We use a wavelet transform to apply mathematically well-defined operations of smoothing and differencing to the time series data. This approach produces a set of time series of the changes in wind power and load (or ?deltas?), over a range of times scales from a few seconds to approximately one hour. A number of statistical measures of these time series are calculated. We present sample distributions, and devise a method for fitting the empirical distribution shape in the tails. We also evaluate the degree of serial correlation, and linear correlation between wind and load. Our examination of the data shows clearly that the deltas do not follow a Gaussian shape; the distribution is exponential near the center and appears to follow a power law for larger fluctuations. Gaussian distributions are frequently used in modeling studies. These are likely to over-estimate the probability of small to moderate deviations. This in turn may lead to an over-estimation of the additional reserve requirement (hence the cost) for high penetration of wind. The Gaussian assumption provides no meaningful information about the real likelihood of large fluctuations. The possibility of a power law distribution is interesting because it suggests that the distribution shape for of wind power fluctuations may become independent of system size for large enough systems.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Ion Flow Measurements and Plasma Current Analysis
Heidbrink, William W.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE Ion Flow Measurements and Plasma Current Analysis in the Irvine OF THE DISSERTATION xvii 1 Introduction 1 2 Field Reversed Configurations 4 2.1 FRC Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.3 FRC Instabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.4 FRC Formation
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS
McDonald, Kirk
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS SHIELDING MATERIAL: 60% W + 40% He vs SHIELDING Nicholas Souchlas, PBL (10/18/2011) 1 #12;IDS120h with shielding vessels. # Different cases ENERGY CUTOFF >SHIELDING: 60% W + 40% He , 80% W + 20% He, 88% W + 12% He ( WITH W VESSELS) >4 MW proton
Power flow analysis for amplifier design and energy harvesting
Lindner, Douglas K.
. In order to improve the efficiency of an active isolation system we analyze different feedback control energy on a active vibration isolation system it is important to understand the influence of the existingPower flow analysis for amplifier design and energy harvesting Nikola Vujica, Donald J. Leoa
The Analysis of a Coating Flow with Evaporation
The Analysis of a Coating Flow with Evaporation Jurgen Socolowsky Abstract. This work is concerned with a plane steady-state coating ow problem including evaporation e ects. The motion is governed by a free-Stokes equations. Key Words. Coating ow, evaporation, free boundary problems, Navier- Stokes equations, Stefan
THE ANALYSIS OF COATING FLOWS NEAR THE CONTACT LINE
THE ANALYSIS OF COATING FLOWS NEAR THE CONTACT LINE AVNER FRIEDMAN* and JUAN J.L. VELAZQUEZ** 0. Introduction. The term \\coating ows" refers to any viscous ow which is used to coat surfaces. Such ows are used for coating photographic lms, magnetic tapes, optical devices and, of course, for painting surfaces. Various
Wu, T
2008-04-30
Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) specified in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 part 71 (10CFR71). Testing is often limited by cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing by using simplified analytical methods. This paper presents a numerical technique for evaluating the dynamic responses of large fuel casks subjected to sequential HAC loading. A nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed for a Hanford Unirradiated Fuel Package (HUFP) [1] to evaluate the cumulative damage after the hypothetical accident Conditions of a 30-foot lateral drop followed by a 40-inch lateral puncture as specified in 10CFR71. The structural integrity of the containment vessel is justified based on the analytical results in comparison with the stress criteria, specified in the ASME Code, Section III, Appendix F [2], for Level D service loads. The analyzed cumulative damages caused by the sequential loading of a 30-foot lateral drop and a 40-inch lateral puncture are compared with the package test data. The analytical results are in good agreement with the test results.
A Monte Carlo Analysis of Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Process Load Cell Data
Garner, James R; Whitaker, J Michael
2013-01-01
As uranium enrichment plants increase in number, capacity, and types of separative technology deployed (e.g., gas centrifuge, laser, etc.), more automated safeguards measures are needed to enable the IAEA to maintain safeguards effectiveness in a fiscally constrained environment. Monitoring load cell data can significantly increase the IAEA s ability to efficiently achieve the fundamental safeguards objective of confirming operations as declared (i.e., no undeclared activities), but care must be taken to fully protect the operator s proprietary and classified information related to operations. Staff at ORNL, LANL, JRC/ISPRA, and University of Glasgow are investigating monitoring the process load cells at feed and withdrawal (F/W) stations to improve international safeguards at enrichment plants. A key question that must be resolved is what is the necessary frequency of recording data from the process F/W stations? Several studies have analyzed data collected at a fixed frequency. This paper contributes to load cell process monitoring research by presenting an analysis of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the expected errors caused by low frequency sampling and its impact on material balance calculations.
Reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode load using Markov Chain Model
Nikabdullah, N.; Singh, S. S. K.; Alebrahim, R.; Azizi, M. A.; K, Elwaleed A.; Noorani, M. S. M.
2014-06-19
The aim of this paper is to present the reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode loading by using a simple two state Markov Chain Model for an automotive crankshaft. The reliability analysis and prediction for any automotive component or structure is important for analyzing and measuring the failure to increase the design life, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of failures and safety risk. The mechanical failures of the crankshaft are due of high bending and torsion stress concentration from high cycle and low rotating bending and torsional stress. The Markov Chain was used to model the two states based on the probability of failure due to bending and torsion stress. In most investigations it revealed that bending stress is much serve than torsional stress, therefore the probability criteria for the bending state would be higher compared to the torsion state. A statistical comparison between the developed Markov Chain Model and field data was done to observe the percentage of error. The reliability analysis and prediction was derived and illustrated from the Markov Chain Model were shown in the Weibull probability and cumulative distribution function, hazard rate and reliability curve and the bathtub curve. It can be concluded that Markov Chain Model has the ability to generate near similar data with minimal percentage of error and for a practical application; the proposed model provides a good accuracy in determining the reliability for the crankshaft under mixed mode loading.
Analysis of DESY-Flash LLRF Measurements for the ILC Heavy Beam Loading Test
Cancelo, Gustavo; Chase, Brian; Davidsaver, Michael; /Fermilab; Carwardine, J.; /Argonne; Simrock, Stefan; Ayvazyan, Valeri; Grecki, Mariusz; /DESY; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; /KEK, Tsukuba
2009-06-01
In September 2008 the DESY-FLASH accelerator was run with up to 550, 3 nano-coulomb bunches at 5 Hz repetition rate. This test is part of a longer-term study aimed at validating ILC parameters by operation as close as possible to ILC beam currents and RF gradients. The present paper reports on the analysis that has been done in order to understand the RF control system performance during this test. Actual klystron power requirements and beam stability are evaluated with heavy beam loading conditions. Results include suggested improvements for upcoming tests in 2009.
Wu, Y.-S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.
2006-01-01
Studies Using the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone Model,Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to Thermal LoadLarge Block Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Water Resources
Aalborg Universitet Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed
Vasquez, Juan Carlos
Aalborg Universitet Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed., & Guerrero, J. M. (2014). Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed.aau.dk on: juli 04, 2015 #12;Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed
Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids
Vasquez, Juan Carlos
Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids Li, Chendan). Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids. In Proceedings of the 11th.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids Chendan Li
Cross-flow versus counter-current flow packed-bed scrubbers: a mathematical analysis
Fthenakis, V.M.
1996-02-01
Little is known about the mass transfer properties of packing media exposed to a crossflow of gas and liquid, whereas there is abundant information related to counter-current scrubbers. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of mass transfer and hydrodynamics in cross- flow packed bed scrubbers and compares those with information available for counter current towers, so that the first can be evaluated and/or designed based on data derived for the second. Mathematical models of mass transfer in cross-flow and counter- current packed bed scrubbers are presented. From those, one can predict the removal effectiveness of a crossflow scrubber from the number of transfer units (NTU) calculated for a similar counterflow operation; alternatively, when the removal effectiveness in counterflow is known, one can predict the corresponding NTU in crossflow.
C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood
2008-08-01
The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 6.0 and Version 7.0. In general, the data transfer procedures for version 6 and 7 are the same, but where deviations exist, the differences are noted. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.
C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood
2006-07-01
The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 6.0 and Version 7.0. In general, the data transfer procedures for version 6 and 7 are the same, but where deviations exist, the differences are noted. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.
Spectral Content and Spatial Scales in Unsteady Rotationally Augmented Flow Fields: Preprint
Schreck, S. J.
2007-08-01
This paper describes wind turbine flow fields that effect load predictions for design and analysis and the active aerodynamic control methodologies being considered for wind turbine applications.
Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model
A. Hassan; J. Chapman
2008-11-01
Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of groundwater withdrawal activities in the area. The conceptual and numerical models were developed based upon regional hydrogeologic investigations conducted in the 1960s, site characterization investigations (including ten wells and various geophysical and geologic studies) at Shoal itself prior to and immediately after the test, and two site characterization campaigns in the 1990s for environmental restoration purposes (including eight wells and a year-long tracer test). The new wells are denoted MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3, and are located to the northnortheast of the nuclear test. The groundwater model was generally lacking data in the north-northeastern area; only HC-1 and the abandoned PM-2 wells existed in this area. The wells provide data on fracture orientation and frequency, water levels, hydraulic conductivity, and water chemistry for comparison with the groundwater model. A total of 12 real-number validation targets were available for the validation analysis, including five values of hydraulic head, three hydraulic conductivity measurements, three hydraulic gradient values, and one angle value for the lateral gradient in radians. In addition, the fracture dip and orientation data provide comparisons to the distributions used in the model and radiochemistry is available for comparison to model output. Goodness-of-fit analysis indicates that some of the model realizations correspond well with the newly acquired conductivity, head, and gradient data, while others do not. Other tests indicated that additional model realizations may be needed to test if the model input distributions need refinement to improve model performance. This approach (generating additional realizations) was not followed because it was realized that there was a temporal component to the data disconnect: the new head measurements are on the high side of the model distributions, but the heads at the original calibration locations themselves have also increased over time. This indicates that the steady-state assumption of the groundwater model is in error. To test the robustness of the model d
Popov, Branko N.
Capacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads full ion battery-super capacitor hybrid system is preferred over a lithium ion battery for higher rates ion battery ($100 W/kg). Also, since the inter- nal resistance of the super capacitor is smaller than
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Analysis of Loads and Wind Energy Potential for Remote Power Stations in Alaska Mia Devine@avec.org ABSTRACT This report addresses the potential of utilizing wind energy in remote communities of Alaska generators, including the potential for fuel spills and the emission of greenhouse gases and particulates
Statistical Analysis of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings
Coughlin, Katie
2012-01-01
M. Potter, The Demand Response Baseline, v.1.75, EnerNOC OPSand Techniques for Demand Response, Lawrence BerkeleyS. Kilicotte, Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts:
Waltrich, Paulo
2012-10-19
. Thank to my friends from office 602 for their camaraderie and support. vii I also would like to thank the sponsors (namely Petrobras, RWE and Shell) of the Joint Industry Project on “Liquid Loading in the Operation of Gas Fields: Mechanisms...
Wu, Y.-S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.
2006-01-01
and Heat Flow Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Some Tectonic andLarge Block Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Water Resourcesthe Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Journal of
1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.
Not Available
1992-01-01
This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.
EECS 598 Special Topic Analysis of Electric Power Distribution Systems and Loads
Cafarella, Michael J.
and Loads Mondays and Wednesdays, 9:00am-10:30am, EECS Building 3427 Fall 2014; however, with increased amounts of distributed generation (photovoltaics, small-scale wind), distributed storage, and controllable loads, it has become more and more
A Novel Power Flow Method for Long Term Frequency Stability Analysis
Yan, Wenjin
2013-05-06
This thesis presents a novel approach for a power system to find a practical power flow solution when all the generators in the system have hit their real power output limits, such as some generator units shutting down or load outages. The approach...
Expanded Analysis of Hot Isostatic Pressed Iodine-Loaded Silver-Exchanged Mordenite
Jubin, R. T. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Patton, K. K. [ORNL
2014-09-30
Reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z) is being evaluated as a potential material to control the release of radioactive iodine that is released during the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel into the plant off-gas streams. The purpose of this study was to determine if hot pressing could directly convert this iodine loaded sorbent into a waste form suitable for long-term disposition. The minimal pretreatment required for production of pressed pellets makes hot pressing a technically and economically desirable process. Initial scoping studies utilized hot uniaxial pressing (HUPing) to prepare samples of non-iodine-loaded reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z). The resulting samples were very fragile due to the low pressure (~ 28 MPa) used. It was recommended that hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), performed at higher temperatures and pressures, be investigated. HIPing was carried out in two phases, with a third and final phase currently underway. Phase I evaluated the effects of pressure and temperature conditions on the manufacture of a pressed sample. The base material was an engineered form of silver zeolite. Six samples of Ag0Z and two samples of I-Ag0Z were pressed. It was found that HIPing produced a pressed pellet of high density. Analysis of each pressed pellet by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrophotometry (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that under the conditions used for pressing, the majority of the material transforms into an amorphous structure. The only crystalline phase observed in the pressed Ag0Z material was SiO2. For the samples loaded with iodine (I-Ag0Z) iodine was present as AgI clusters at low temperatures, and transformed into AgIO4 at high temperatures. Surface mapping and EDS demonstrate segregation between silver iodide phases and silicon dioxide phases. Based on the results of the Phase I study, an expanded test matrix was developed to examine the effects of multiple source materials, compositional variations, and an expanded temperature range. Each sample was analyzed with the approach used in Phase I. In all cases, there is nothing in the SEM or XRD analyses that indicates creation of any AgI-containing silicon phase, with the samples being found to be largely amorphous. Phase III of this study has been initiated and is the final phase of scoping tests. It will expand upon the test matrix completed in Phase II and will examine the durability of the pressed pellets through product consistency testing (PCT) studies. Transformation of the component material into a well-characterized iodine-containing mineral phase would be desirable. This would limit the additional experimental testing and modeling required to determine the long-term stability of the pressed pellet, as much of that information has already been learned for several common iodine-containing minerals. However, this is not an absolute requirement, especially if pellets produced by hot isostatic pressing can be demonstrated through initial PCT studies to retain iodine well despite their amorphous composition.
High throughput analysis of samples in flowing liquid
Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Goodwin, Peter M. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Orden, Alan Van (Fort Collins, CO); Keller, Richard A. (White Rock, NM)
2001-01-01
Apparatus and method enable imaging multiple fluorescent sample particles in a single flow channel. A flow channel defines a flow direction for samples in a flow stream and has a viewing plane perpendicular to the flow direction. A laser beam is formed as a ribbon having a width effective to cover the viewing plane. Imaging optics are arranged to view the viewing plane to form an image of the fluorescent sample particles in the flow stream, and a camera records the image formed by the imaging optics.
STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR BUOYANCY-OPPOSED FLOWS IN POLOIDAL DUCTS OF THE DCLL BLANKET
Abdou, Mohamed
STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR BUOYANCY-OPPOSED FLOWS IN POLOIDAL DUCTS OF THE DCLL BLANKET N. Vetcha, S, the most of heat deposition and tritium breeding occur in the poloidal ducts facing the plasma (front ducts flows in the long poloidal ducts are comparable with or can even dominate over forced flows, thus
Stochastic Formulation for Uncertainty Analysis of Two-Phase Flow in
Zhang, Dongxiao
Stochastic Formulation for Uncertainty Analysis of Two-Phase Flow in Heterogeneous Reservoirs in flow performance predictions due to uncertainty in the reservoir description. We solve moment equations. Accurate modeling of the physics that govern complex multi- phase reservoir flows requires a detailed
Analysis of Thermal Dispersion in an Array of Parallel Plates with Fully-Developed Laminar Flow
Fleck, Norman A.
basic heat transfer problems are addressed, each for steady fully-developed laminar fluid flow: (a1 Analysis of Thermal Dispersion in an Array of Parallel Plates with Fully-Developed Laminar Flow dispersion, parallel plate array, fully-developed laminar flow, Peclet number #12;2 Notation a molecular
Flow rate analysis of a surface tension driven passive micropump{{ Erwin Berthiera
Beebe, David J.
, causing fluid flow. The behavior of the input drop occurs in two characteristic phases. An analytical value of Re = rU0L0/g # 1, meaning that the flow is very laminar, allowing the use of the Washburn lawFlow rate analysis of a surface tension driven passive micropump{{ Erwin Berthiera and David J
Iterative Security Risk Analysis for Network Flows Based on Provenance and Interdependency
New South Wales, University of
Iterative Security Risk Analysis for Network Flows Based on Provenance and Interdependency Mohsen high risk network flows and hosts in a high throughput network is a challenging task of network malicious and high risk network activities within a huge number of monitored network flows. To address
ANUDlSiTM-40 Load Flow Analysis: Base Cases, Data, Diagrams,...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
To simplify data collection requirements and illustrate key concepts, a representative power system in the United States - the Commonwealth Edison Company (ComEd) in northern...
Analysis of Bolt and Rivet Structural Fasteners Subjected to Dynamic and Quasi-Static Shear Loadings
Rabalais, Christopher Paul
2015-05-07
Non-pretensioned bolted, pretensioned bolted, and riveted lap-spliced specimens were tested to observe how the fasteners’ shear strengths were affected by (1) loading type, (2) fastener type, (3) number of shear planes, ...
Zhou, Minjian
1993-01-01
Fracture mechanics approach has been used to analyze the behavior of fatigue resistance of welded details existing in highway steel bridges under variable amplitude long life loading which means most of the stress ranges will be below constant...
Lavaei, Javad
!shifting!role!into!full!play.! ! In!my!project,!starting!from!the!development!status!and!trends!of!electric!vehicles,! analyze!developing!countries'!electric!charging!load!calculation!methods!under!the!charging!mode,!and! calculate!and!analyze!developing!countries'!future!electric!vehicle!charging!load.! ! Also,!in!my!project!the!reliability!and!energy!efficiency!of!power!system,!to! build!the!electric!cars!charging!model,!to!develop!appropriate!charging!strategies! for!users!and!to
Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST
Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)
2014-01-29
EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.
Data Analysis for ARRA-funded GSHIP Demos
data loggers for 2 months - Well water supply temperature - Heat pump energy and output - Heat pump load side flow rate - Well pump current Progress and Accomplishments Analysis of...
S. A. Voloshin
2002-11-20
Recent experimental results on directed and elliptic flow, theoretical developments, and new techniques for anisotropic flow analysis are reviewed.
A MultiPhase Power Flow Model for Grid Analysis A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos
A MultiPhase Power Flow Model for µµµµGrid Analysis A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos School of Electrical power system with distributed energy sources forming a microgrid (µGrid). The µGrid is a radial multiphase power flow analysis method that provides exact solution to the operation of the µGrid under steady
Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint
Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.
2014-08-01
Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.
Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Rice, Mark J.
2012-12-27
Contingency analysis studies are necessary to assess the impact of possible power system component failures. The results of the contingency analysis are used to ensure the grid reliability, and in power market operation for the feasibility test of market solutions. Currently, these studies are performed in real time based on the current operating conditions of the grid with a set of pre-selected contingency list, which might result in overlooking some critical contingencies caused by variable system status. To have a complete picture of a power grid, more contingencies need to be studied to improve grid reliability. High-performance computing techniques hold the promise of being able to perform the analysis for more contingency cases within a much shorter time frame. This paper evaluates the performance of counter-based dynamic load balancing schemes for a massive contingency analysis program on 10,000+ cores. One million N-2 contingency analysis cases with a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model have been used to demonstrate the performance. The speedup of 3964 with 4096 cores and 7877 with 10240 cores are obtained. This paper reports the performance of the load balancing scheme with a single counter and two counters, describes disk I/O issues, and discusses other potential techniques for further improving the performance.
Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control
Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y.
2006-07-01
The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)
Watt, J. B.; Haberl, J. S.
1994-01-01
or generate a totalized signal that can be recorded by data acquisition system. The accuracy of totalized flow and energy measurements is directly effected by the quality of thermal and flow measurement devices. In a closed-loop system a thermal energy meter... possible solution is to use a frequency to voltage converter between the magnetic paddlewheel flow meter and thermal energy meter to transform the sine wave to a square wave much like the signal generated by the non-magnetic-type meter (Doeblin 1990...
Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.
Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger
2013-01-01
Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating potential PV impacts.
Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve
Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.
2013-04-28
A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.
Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching
Chan, Vincent W. S.
In this paper, we employ a cost model embodying major sources of capital expenditure (CapEx) to compare the throughput-cost tradeoff offered by optical flow switching to that of more traditional optical network architectures.
Analysis of two- and three-dimensional flow separation
Grunberg, Olivier, 1978-
2004-01-01
Prandtl (1904) showed that streamlines in a steady flow past a two-dimensional streamlined body separate from the boundary where the skin friction (or wall shear) vanishes and admits a negative gradient. Although commonly ...
“Batch” Kinetics in Flow: Online IR Analysis and Continuous Control
Moore, Jason S.
Currently, kinetic data is either collected under steady-state conditions in flow or by generating time-series data in batch. Batch experiments are generally considered to be more suitable for the generation of kinetic ...
Numerical analysis of vapor flow in a micro heat pipe
Liu, Xiaoqin
1996-01-01
The vapor flow in a flat plate micro heat pipe with both uniform and linear heat flux boundary conditions has been numerically analyzed. For both types of boundary conditions, the Navier-Stokes equations with steady incompressible two...
Not Available
2014-09-01
This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.
Analysis of the behavior of 5 axially loaded single piles in sand at Hunter's Point
Kon, Chee Min
1989-01-01
penetrometer tests with point, friction and fone pressure measurements, preboring and selfboring pressuremeter tests, shear wave volocity tests, dilatometer test, and step blade test. The location of selected soundings available prior to driving and load... I I I H BI C2 14 S EI C D E P PM SP M e 8 po D Qo STEP BLADE TESTS SPT TEST BORINGS CONE PENETROMETER TESTS DILATOMETER IESTS EXTENSOMETER PIEZOMETER PREBORING PRESSUREMETER TESTS SELFBORING PRESSUREMETER TESTS REACTION H...
Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff
Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C.; Springer, E.P.
1992-05-01
The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.
Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff
Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. ); Springer, E.P. )
1992-01-01
The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.
Spletzer, B.L.
1998-12-15
A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.
Abdou, Mohamed
STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR THE HARTMANN FLOW WITH INTERFACIAL SLIP VETCHA Naveen , SMOLENTSEV Sergey of the Hartmann flow by modifying the Orr-Sommerfeld problem to account for the slip effect. A MATLAB code based compared to the thickness of the Hartmann layer. 1. Introduction Interfacial slip has recently been
Camassa, Roberto
Analysis of passive scalar advection in parallel shear flows: Sorting of modes at intermediate time; published online 4 November 2010 The time evolution of a passive scalar advected by parallel shear flows. INTRODUCTION The advection-diffusion of a passive scalar is a pivotal problem in mathematical physics
Information-Flow Analysis of Android Applications in DroidSafe
Rinard, Martin
Information-Flow Analysis of Android Applications in DroidSafe Michael I. Gordon, Deokhwan Kim analysis tool that reports potential leaks of sensitive information in Android applications. DroidSafe combines a comprehensive, accurate, and precise model of the Android runtime with static analysis design
MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL
2009-01-15
This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs). The bases of the analytical work presented herein are two ANSYS{reg_sign} finite element models that were developed to represent a bounding-case tank. The TaLA model includes the effects of temperature on material properties, creep, concrete cracking, and various waste and annulus pressure-loading conditions. The seismic model considers the interaction of the tanks with the surrounding soil including a range of soil properties, and the effects of the waste contents during a seismic event. The structural evaluations completed with the representative tank models do not reveal any structural deficiencies with the integrity of the DSTs. The analyses represent 60 years of use, which extends well beyond the current date. In addition, the temperature loads imposed on the model are significantly more severe than any service to date or proposed for the future. Bounding material properties were also selected to provide the most severe combinations. While the focus of the analyses was a bounding-case tank, it was necessary during various evaluations to conduct tank-specific analyses. The primary tank buckling evaluation was carried out on a tank-specific basis because of the sensitivity to waste height, specific gravity, tank wall thickness, and primary tank vapor space vacuum limit. For this analysis, the occurrence of maximum tank vacuum was classified as a service level C, emergency load condition. The only area of potential concern in the analysis was with the buckling evaluation of the AP tank, which showed the current limit on demand of l2-inch water gauge vacuum to exceed the allowable of 10.4 inches. This determination was based on analysis at the design waste temperature of 350 F and the full 60-year corrosion allowance on the tank wall of 0.060 inch. However, analysis at a more realistic temperature of 250 F or corrosion allowance of 0.025 inch results in an acceptable demand/capacity ratio according to the ASME code criteria. Thus, buckling of the primary tank is judged to be unlikely for the current lack of corrosion in the tanks, and the expectation that the maximum waste temperature will not exceed 210 F. The reinforced concrete structure was evaluated as specified by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) code requirements for nuclear safety-related structures (ACI-349). The demand was demonstrated to be lower than the capacity at all locations. Revision 1 is being issued to document changes to the anchor bolt evaluation. RPP-RPT-32237 Rev. 1, Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project-Increased Liquid Level Analysis for 241AP Tank Farms, described changes to the anchor bolt modeling and evaluation which were implemented in response to the independent reviewer's comments. Similar changes have been made in the bounding tank analysis and are documented in RPP-RPT-28968 Rev. 1. The conclusions of the previous releases of this report remain unchanged.
Analysis of operating data related to power and flow distribution in a PWR
Herbin, Henry Christophe
1974-01-01
The analysis of the effects of the uncertainties associated with temperature and power measurements in the Connecticut Yankee Reactor leads to the evaluation of the uncertainty associated with the effective flow factor. ...
IN SITU STRESS, FRACTURE AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS-EAST FLANK OF...
IN SITU STRESS, FRACTURE AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS-EAST FLANK OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...
Well-test analysis of multi-phase flow from two layers communicating through the wellbore
Iakovlev, Serguei
1999-01-01
Conventional buildup analysis techniques are based on analytical solutions to the diffusivity equation that are subject to well-known assumptions. During actual well tests multi-phase flow in several layers with different ...
Performance Analysis of an Annular Diffuser Under the Influence of a Gas Turbine Stage Exit Flow
Blanco, Rafael Rodriguez
2013-12-31
In this investigation the performance of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser subject to the outlet flow conditions of a turbine stage is evaluated. Towards that goal, a fully three-dimensional computational analysis has been performed where several...
Lagrangian analysis of fluid transport in empirical vortex ring flows Shawn C. Shadden
Marsden, Jerrold
Lagrangian analysis of fluid transport in empirical vortex ring flows Shawn C. Shadden Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 John O. Dabiri Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories and Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125
Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.
2014-10-01
Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).
Finite element analysis of conjugate heat transfer in axisymmetric pipe flows
Fithen, Robert Miller
1987-01-01
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER IN AXISYMMETRIC PIPE FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT MILLER FITHEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MA STER... OF S CI EN CE August 1987 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER IN AXISYMMETRIC PIPE FLOWS A Thesis by ROBERT MILLER FITHEN Approved ss to style and content by: N. K. Anand (Chairman of Committee...
Two-phase stratified flow regime transition analysis for low gravity conditions
Miller, Kathryn M.
1990-01-01
TWO-PHASE STRATIFIED FLOW REGIME TRANSITION ANALYSIS FOR LOW GRAVITY CONDITIONS A Thesis by KATHRYN M. MILLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering TWO-PHASE STRATIFIED FLOW REGIME TRANSITION ANALYSIS FOR LOW GRAVITY CONDITIONS A Thesis KATHRYN M. MILLER Approved as to style and content by: Frederick R. Best (Chair...
Thermal analysis and air flow modelling of electrical machines
Chong, Yew Chuan
2015-06-29
Thermal analysis is an important topic that can affect the electrical machine performance, reliability, lifetime and efficiency. In order to predict the electrical machine thermal performance accurately, thermal analysis ...
Analysis of Flow in Pilot Operated Safety and Relief Valve of Nuclear Reactor Coolant System
Kwon, Soon-Bum; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, In-Goo; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Hho-Jung
2004-07-01
When the POSRV equipped in a nuclear power plant opens in instant by a failure in coolant system of PWR, a moving shock wave generates, and propagates downstream of the valve, inducing a complicated unsteadiness. The moving shock wave may exert severe load to the structure. In this connection, a method of gradual opening of the valve is used to reduce the load acting on the wall at the downstream of the POSRV. In the present study, experiments and calculations are performed to investigate the detail unsteady flow at the various pipe units and the effect of valve opening time on the flow downstream of the valve. In calculation by using of air as working fluid, 2-dimensional, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by finite volume method. It was found that when the incident shock wave passes through the pipe unit, it may experience diffraction, reflection and interaction with a vortex. Furthermore, the geometry of the pipe unit affects the reflection type of shock wave and changes the load acting on the wall of pipe unit. It was also turned out that the maximum force acting on the wall of the pipe unit becomes in order of T-junction, 108 deg. elbow and branch in magnitude, respectively. And, the results obtained that show that the rapid pressure rise due to the moving shock wave by instant POSRV valve opening is attenuated by employing the gradual opening. (authors)
Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model
P. Tucci
2001-12-20
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.
Analysis of Developing Gas/liquid Two-Phase Flows
Elena A. Tselishcheva; Michael Z. Podowski; Steven P. Antal; Donna Post Guillen; Matthias Beyer; Dirk Lucas
2010-06-01
The goal of this work is to develop a mechanistically based CFD model that can be used to simulate process equipment operating in the churn-turbulent regime. The simulations were performed using a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics code, NPHASE–CMFD [Antal et al,2000]. A complete four-field model, including the continuous liquid field and three dispersed gas fields representing bubbles of different sizes, was first carefully tested for numerical convergence and accuracy, and then used to reproduce the experimental results from the TOPFLOW test facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Safety Research [Prasser et al,2007]. Good progress has been made in simulating the churn-turbulent flows and comparison the NPHASE-CMFD simulations with TOPFLOW experimental data. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate capability to predict the evolution of adiabatic churn-turbulent gas/liquid flows. The proposed modelling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for dispersed bubble fields [Tselishcheva et al, 2009]. Along with closure laws based on interaction between bubbles and continuous liquid, the effect of height on air density has been included in the model. The figure below presents the developing flow results of the study, namely total void fraction at different axial locations along the TOPFLOW facility test section. The complete model description, as well as results of simulations and validation will be presented in the full paper.
2007-01-0258 Dynamic Load and Stress Analysis of a Crankshaft
Fatemi, Ali
with a complex geometry in the engine, which converts the reciprocating displacement of the piston to a rotary simulation was conducted on a crankshaft from a single cylinder four stroke engine. Finite element analysis were taken from the engine specification chart. The dynamic analysis was done analytically
Zare, Richard N.
Flow Injection Analysis in a Microfluidic Format Andrew M. Leach, Aaron R. Wheeler, and Richard N should be addressed email: zare@stanford.edu #12;2 ABSTRACT A microfluidic flow injection analysis system the operation of a standard six-port, two-way valve used in conventional liquid chromatography and flow
A Flow-Channel Analysis for the Mars Hopper
W. Spencer Cooley
2013-02-01
The Mars Hopper is an exploratory vehicle designed to fly on Mars using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere as a rocket propellant. The propellent gasses are thermally heated while traversing a radioisotope ther- mal rocket (RTR) engine’s core. This core is comprised of a radioisotope surrounded by a heat capacitive material interspersed with tubes for the propellant to travel through. These tubes, or flow channels, can be manu- factured in various cross-sectional shapes such as a special four-point star or the traditional circle. Analytical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) anal- yses were performed using flow channels with either a circle or a star cross- sectional shape. The nominal total inlet pressure was specified at 2,805,000 Pa; and the outlet pressure was set to 2,785,000 Pa. The CO2 inlet tem- perature was 300 K; and the channel wall was 1200 K. The steady-state CFD simulations computed the smooth-walled star shape’s outlet temper- ature to be 959 K on the finest mesh. The smooth-walled circle’s outlet temperature was 902 K. A circle with a surface roughness specification at 0.01 mm gave 946 K and at 0.1 mm yielded 989 K. The The effects of a slightly varied inlet pressure were also examined. The analytical calculations were based on the mass flow rates computed in the CFD simulations and provided significantly higher outlet temperature results while displaying the same comparison trends. Research relating to the flow channel heat transfer studies was also done. Mathematical methods to geometrically match the cross-sectional areas of the circle and star, along with a square and equilateral triangle, were derived. A Wolfram Mathematica 8 module was programmed to analyze CFD results using Richardson Extrapolation and calculate the grid convergence index (GCI). A Mathematica notebook, also composed, computes and graphs the bulk mean temperature along a flow channel’s length while the user dynam- ically provides the input variables, allowing their effects on the temperature to be more easily observed.
Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; Jae, Moosung; Park, Goon -Cherl
2015-04-16
The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connectingmore »the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.« less
Abdou, Mohamed
2007-01-01
Fusion Engineering and Design 82 (2007) 22172225 Integrated thermo-fluid analysis towards helium Engineering and Design 82 (2007) 22172225 This calls in for an extensive analysis of the various proposed flow path design for an ITER solid breeder blanket module A. Yinga,, M. Narulaa, R. Hunta, M. Abdoua, Y
Computational Analysis of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding of AA5059 Aluminum Alloys
Grujicic, Mica
Computational Analysis of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding of AA5059 Aluminum Alloys M welding (FSW) process are investigated computationally. Within the numerical model of the FSW process component. The employed coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian computational analysis of the welding process
Analysis of incipient fault signatures in inductive loads energized by a common voltage bus
Bade, Rajesh Kumar
2006-04-12
Recent research has demonstrated the use of electrical signature analysis (ESA), that is, the use of induction motor currents and voltages, for early detection of motor faults in the form of embedded algorithms. In the event of multiple motors...
RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE
2010-10-22
This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics that were explored in the SST preliminary modeling. The reviews determined the level of detail necessary to perform the analyses of the SSTs. To guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort, preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. Conclusions were derived from case studies on one of the tank types when no additional runs of similar cases on other types of tanks were found necessary to derive those conclusions. The document reviews provided relatively complete temperature histories for Type IV tanks. The temperature history data for Type I, II, and III tanks was almost nonexistent for years prior to 1975. Document reviews indicate that there might be additional useful data in the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) records in Seattle, WA, and these records need to be reviewed to extract data that might have been disregarded during previous reviews. Thermal stress analyses were conducted using different temperature distribution scenarios on Type IV tanks. Such studies could not be carried out for other tank types due to lack of temperature history data. The results from Type IV tank analyses indicate that factors such as temperature distribution in the tank waste and rate of rise in waste temperature have a significant impact on the thermal stresses in the tank structures. Overall, the conclusion that can drawn from the thermal stress analyses is that these studies should be carried out for all tank types during the detailed analysis phase with temperature values that are reasonably close to the typical temperature histories of the respective tank types. If and/or when additional waste temperature data
Chad Pope; Larry L. Taylor; Soon Sam Kim
2007-02-01
This document represents a summary version of the criticality analysis done to support loading SNF in a Type 1a basket/standard canister combination. Specifically, this engineering design file (EDF) captures the information pertinent to the intact condition of four fuel types with different fissile loads and their calculated reactivities. These fuels are then degraded into various configurations inside a canister without the presence of significant moderation. The important aspect of this study is the portrayal of the fuel degradation and its effect on the reactivity of a single canister given the supposition there will be continued moderation exclusion from the canister. Subsequent analyses also investigate the most reactive ‘dry’ canister in a nine canister array inside a hypothetical transport cask, both dry and partial to complete flooding inside the transport cask. The analyses also includes a comparison of the most reactive configuration to other benchmarked fuels using a software package called TSUNAMI, which is part of the SCALE 5.0 suite of software.
Practical application of large eddy simulation to film cooling flow analysis on gas turbine airfoils
Takata, T.; Takeishi, K.; Kawata, Y.; Tsuge, A.
1999-07-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) using body-fitted coordinates is applied to solve film cooling flow on turbine blades. The turbulent model was tuned using the experimental flow field and adiabatic film cooling effectiveness measurements for a single row of holes on a flat plate surface. The results show the interaction between the main stream boundary layer and injected film cooling air generates kidney and horseshoe shaped vortices. Comparison of the temperature distribution between experimental results and present analysis has been conducted. The non-dimensional temperature distribution at x/d = 1 is dome style and quantitatively agrees with experimental results. LES was also applied to solve film cooling on a turbine airfoil. If LES was applied to solve whole flow field domain large CPU time would make the solution impractical. LES, using body-fitted coordinates, is applied to solve the non-isotropic film cooling flow near the turbine blade. The cascade flow domain, with a pitch equal to one film cooling hole spacing, is solved using {kappa}-{epsilon} model. By using such a hybrid numerical method, CPU time is reduced and numerical accuracy is insured. The analytical results show the interaction between the flow blowing through film cooling holes and mainstream on the suction and pressure surfaces of the turbine airfoil. They also show the fundamental structure of the film cooling air flow is governed by arch internal secondary flow and horseshoe vortices which have a similar structure to film cooling air flow blowing through a cooling hole on a flat plate. In the flow field, the effect of turbulent structure on curvature (relaminarization) and flow pattern, involving the interaction between main flow and the cooling jet, are clearly shown. Film cooling effectiveness on the blade surface is predicted from the results of the thermal field calculation and is compared with the test result.
Group Analysis An Electrophysiological Information Flow Toolbox for EEGLAB
Makeig, Scott
electrode channels suffers from a high risk of Type I errors from volume conduction and non-brain artifacts). Preprocessing Pre-processing is the first step in the SIFT analysis pipeline. SIFT 0.1a is currently restricted
Second law analysis of water flow through smooth microtubes under adiabatic conditions
Parlak, Nezaket; Guer, Mesut; Ari, Vedat; Kuecuek, Hasan; Engin, Tahsin [The University of Sakarya, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)
2011-01-15
In the study, a second law analysis for a steady-laminar flow of water in adiabatic microtubes has been conducted. Smooth microtubes with the diameters between 50 and 150 {mu}m made of fused silica were used in the experiments. Considerable temperature rises due to viscous dissipation and relatively high pressure losses of flow were observed in experiments. To identify irreversibility of flow, rate of entropy generation from the experiments have been determined in the laminar flow range of Re = 20-2200. The second law of thermodynamics was applied to predict the entropy generation. The results of model taken from the literature, proposed to predict the temperature rise caused by viscous heating, correspond well with the experimental data. The second law analysis results showed that the flow characteristics in the smooth microtubes distinguish substantially from the conventional theory for flow in the larger tubes with respect to viscous heating/dissipation (temperature rise of flow) total entropy generation rate and lost work. (author)
Dynamic analysis of floating quay and container ship for container loading and offloading operation
Kumar, Brajesh
2006-04-12
Carrier in side-by-side mooring to a LNG FPSO. The conclusion of this analysis says that hydrodynamic cross coupling should not be ignored when interacting bodies are in close to each other. Buchner et al. (2004) studied the hydrodynamic interaction...
Lim, Sung Ho
2009-05-15
analysis and sensitivity study of a tanker- based FPSO. Buchner et al. (2001) studied the interaction between a LNG Carrier and a LNG FPSO in side by side mooring. The conclusion of this research is that hydrodynamic cross coupling can not be neglected...
Symmetry group analysis of an ideal plastic flow
Vincent Lamothe
2011-02-11
In this paper, we study the Lie point symmetry group of a system describing an ideal plastic plane flow in two dimensions in order to find analytical solutions. The infinitesimal generators that span the Lie algebra for this system are obtained. We completely classify the subalgebras of up to codimension two in conjugacy classes under the action of the symmetry group. Based on invariant forms, we use Ansatzes to compute symmetry reductions in such a way that the obtained solutions cover simultaneously many invariant and partially invariant solutions. We calculate solutions of the algebraic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric and elliptic type. Some solutions depending on one or two arbitrary functions of one variable have also been found. In some cases, the shape of a potentially feasible extrusion die corresponding to the solution is deduced. These tools could be used to thin, curve, undulate or shape a ring in an ideal plastic material.
Victoria, University of
A Detailed Analysis of Guard-Heated Wall Shear Stress Sensors for Turbulent Flows by Seyed Ali Ale A Detailed Analysis of Guard-Heated Wall Shear Stress Sensors for Turbulent Flows by Seyed Ali Ale Etrati-dimensional analysis of the performance of multi-element guard-heated hot-film wall shear stress microsensors
Theoretical Analysis of Gate Level Information Flow Tracking
Sherwood, Tim
. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of GLIFT. It formalizes the problem, provides fundamental contributions of this paper are: 1) Defining and proving fundamental properties of GLIFT: We precisely define , Mohit Tiwari , Timothy Sherwood , and Ryan Kastner Computer Science and Engineering, University
Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model
K. Rehfeldt
2004-10-08
This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for groundwater management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model and provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral groundwater flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment (TSPA).
Stability analysis of the Witten black hole (cigar soliton) under world-sheet RG flow
Carolyn Lambert; Vardarajan Suneeta
2012-09-01
We analyze the stability of the Euclidean Witten black hole (the cigar soliton in mathematics literature) under first-order RG (Ricci) flow of the world-sheet sigma model. This analysis is from the target space point of view. We find that the Witten black hole has no unstable normalizable perturbative modes in a linearized mode analysis in which we consider circularly symmetric perturbations. Finally, we discuss a result from mathematics that implies the existence of a non-normalizable mode of the Witten black hole under which the geometry flows to the sausage solution studied by Fateev, Onofri and Zamolodchikov.
McCready, Mark J.
Version: 6/16/98 Keywords: wavy surface flow, finite element, longwave analysis, weakly and drag are found, from finite element calculations, to increase as amplitude to approximately the third wavelength problem is solved numerically with a finite element formulation providing qualitative trends
Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel
Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou
2013-02-01
Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations
Matha, D.
2010-02-01
This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. The report also provides a description of the development process of the TLP model. The model has been verified via comparisons to frequency-domain calculations. Important differences have been identified between the frequency-domain and time-domain simulations, and have generated implications for the conceptual design process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the IEC 61400-3 offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. This report compares the loads for the wind turbine on the TLP to those of an equivalent land-based turbine. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.
Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 549553 Numerical analysis of MHD flow and heat transfer in a
Abdou, Mohamed
2006-01-01
Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 549553 Numerical analysis of MHD flow and heat transfer January 2006 Abstract MHD flow and heat transfer have been analyzed for a front poloidal channel blanket; Magnetohydrodynamics; Heat transfer 1. Introduction Using flow channel inserts (FCIs) made
Study of vaneless diffuser rotating stall based on two-dimensional inviscid flow analysis
Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Yoshiki [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Yasumasa [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Ohta, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-03-01
Rotating stalls in vaneless diffusers are studied from the viewpoint that they are basically two-dimensional inviscid flow instability under the boundary conditions of vanishing velocity disturbance at the diffuser inlet and of vanishing pressure disturbance at the diffuser outlet. The linear analysis in the present report shows that the critical flow angle and the propagation velocity are functions of only the diffuser radius ratio. It is shown that the present analysis can reproduce most of the general characteristics observed in experiments: critical flow angle, propagation velocity, velocity, and pressure disturbance fields. It is shown that the vanishing velocity disturbance at the diffuser inlet is caused by the nature of impellers as a resistance and an inertial resistance, which is generally strong enough to suppress the velocity disturbance at the diffuser inlet. This explains the general experimental observations that vaneless diffuser rotating stalls are not largely affected by the impeller.
UNDERSTANDING FLOW OF ENERGY IN BUILDINGS USING MODAL ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY
John Gardner; Kevin Heglund; Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg; Craig Rieger
2013-07-01
It is widely understood that energy storage is the key to integrating variable generators into the grid. It has been proposed that the thermal mass of buildings could be used as a distributed energy storage solution and several researchers are making headway in this problem. However, the inability to easily determine the magnitude of the building’s effective thermal mass, and how the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system exchanges thermal energy with it, is a significant challenge to designing systems which utilize this storage mechanism. In this paper we adapt modal analysis methods used in mechanical structures to identify the primary modes of energy transfer among thermal masses in a building. The paper describes the technique using data from an idealized building model. The approach is successfully applied to actual temperature data from a commercial building in downtown Boise, Idaho.
Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun
2010-12-01
In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads served power-system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. The rationale is that appliance loads can be curtailed for about ten minutes or less in response to a grid contingency without any diminution in the quality of service to the consumer. We then estimate the wholesale grid operating-cost savings based on historical wholesale-market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States. The savings derived from the smart grid capabilities of an appliance are then compared to the savings derived from a five percent increase in traditional operational machine efficiencies, referred to as cost in this report, to determine whether the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as or higher than the operational machine efficiency credit (cost).
Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils
Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils Christopher J. Dimitriou@mit.edu Abstract Waxes are a commonly encountered precipitate that can result in gelation of crude oils behavior similar to waxy crude oils encountered in production scenarios. To study the consequences
Continuous Flow Analysis of Total Organic Carbon in Polar Ice Cores
Stocker, Thomas
Continuous Flow Analysis of Total Organic Carbon in Polar Ice Cores U R S F E D E R E R , * , , P, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, and British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom Received May 6, 2008. Revised manuscript
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS CONTINUED
McDonald, Kirk
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS CONTINUED SHIELDING MATERIAL: 60% W with shielding vessels. # Different cases of shielding material. # N = 100,000 AND N = 500,000 events simulations CUTOFF >SHIELDING: 60% W + 40% He , 80% W + 20% He, 88% W + 12% He ( WITH W VESSELS) >4 MW proton beam
Evolution of Near-surface Flows Inferred from High-resolution Ring-diagram Analysis
Bogart, Richard S; Baldner,; Basu, Sarbani
2015-01-01
Ring-diagram analysis of acoustic waves observed at the photosphere can provide a relatively robust determination of the sub-surface flows at a particular time under a particular region. The depth of penetration of the waves is related to the size of the region, hence the depth extent of the measured flows is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. Most ring-diagram analysis has focused on regions of extent ~15{\\deg} (180 Mm) or more in order to provide reasonable mode sets for inversions. HMI data analysis also provides a set of ring fit parameters on a scale three times smaller. These provide flow estimates for the outer 1% (7 Mm) of the Sun only, with very limited depth resolution, but with spatial resolution adequate to map structures potentially associated with the belts and regions of magnetic activity. There are a number of systematic effects affecting the determination of flows from local helioseismic analysis of regions over different parts of the observable disk, not all well understood. I...
Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event
Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University
Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event ESTELLE. More- over, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response
Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor Chris H. Rycroft,1
Bazant, Martin Z.
Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor Chris H. Rycroft,1 Gary S. Grest,2 James February 2006; published 24 August 2006 Pebble-bed nuclear reactor technology, which is currently being States, the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor MPBR 4,8 is a candidate for the next generation nuclear plant
Le Roy, Robert J.
Electro-osmotic flow control for living cell analysis in microfluidic PDMS chips Tomasz Glawdel April 2008 Received in revised form 20 June 2008 Available online 10 July 2008 Keywords: Electro-osmotic lines each of which consists of an integrated elec- tro-osmotic pump, a cell culture chamber
The structural sensitivity of open shear flows calculated with a local stability analysis
Juniper, Matthew P.; Pier, Benoit
2014-01-01
calculated with 2D or 3D global stability analyses, which can be very computationally expensive. For weakly non-parallel flows the direct global mode can also be calculated with a local stability analysis, which is orders of magnitude cheaper...
Numerical Analysis of a Mixed Finite Element Method for a FlowTransport Problem
Chou, So-Hsiang
a waste disposal problem in which high level radioactive waste is buried in a salt dome, the salt dissolves to create a brine, radioactive elements decay to generate heat, and radionuclides are transportedNumerical Analysis of a Mixed Finite Element Method for a FlowTransport Problem S. H. CHOU AND Q
Analysis of Pt/C electrode performance in a flowing-electrolyte alkaline fuel cell
Kenis, Paul J. A.
Analysis of Pt/C electrode performance in a flowing- electrolyte alkaline fuel cell Fikile R cell Electrode characterization X-ray micro-computed tomography Microfluidic fuel cell Carbonates a b a microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell as an analytical platform. Both anodes and cathodes were investigated
Animation and Visualization of Spot Prices via Quadratized Power Flow Analysis
Animation and Visualization of Spot Prices via Quadratized Power Flow Analysis A. P. Sakis@attbi.com Abstract This paper presents a new model for efficient calculation of spot prices and animation and visualization of spot price evolution as the system operating point is changing. The computational method
Paper No. 9.06 1 NEWMARKIAN ANALYSIS OF LIQUEFIED FLOW IN CENTRIFUGE MODEL
Haigh, Stuart
Paper No. 9.06 1 NEWMARKIAN ANALYSIS OF LIQUEFIED FLOW IN CENTRIFUGE MODEL EARTHQUAKES S.K. Haigh S-pressure history either predicted using a suitable constitutive model, or measured during a centrifuge or shaking displacements using this procedure and displacements measured in centrifuge model tests with the same pore
AIAA Paper 2006-0102 Analysis of Jet Effects on Co-Flow Jet Airfoil
Zha, Gecheng
engine inlet j jet injection Freestream Greek Letters: Turbulent Dissipation Rate Ratio of SpecificAIAA Paper 2006-0102 Analysis of Jet Effects on Co-Flow Jet Airfoil Performance with Integrated Propulsion System Ge-Cheng Zha and Wei Gao Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Miami
Kratochvíl, Lukas
analysis of the Czech alien flora Naturalizované rostliny mají mensí genom nez neinvadující druhy than their non-invading relatives: a flow cytometric analysis of the Czech alien flora. Preslia 82 in 93 alien species naturalized in the Czech Republic, belonging to 32 families, by using flow cytometry
EE 441.3 (3L) Power System Analysis
Saskatchewan, University of
analysis using digital computer Module II: Load Flow Studies The static load flow equations Classification, classification of system buses, Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson methods, 3- Power system stability; modeling of the synchronous machine during transients; swing equation; equal area criterion; digital computer solution
A loaded thermoacoustic engine
Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.
1995-11-01
Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.
Othman, M. N. K. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; and others
2014-12-04
This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.
Ray, M. C.
A novel shortfiber composite in which the microscopic advanced fiber reinforcements are coated with radially aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is analyzed in this study. A shear-lag model is developed to analyze the load ...
Teague, Aarin Elizabeth
2009-06-02
. Locations of contributing non-point and point sources in the watershed were defined using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). By distributing livestock, wildlife, wastewater treatment plants, septic systems, and pet sources, the bacterial load...
Koether, Ethan (Ethan M.)
2014-01-01
This thesis analyzes three diseparate methods of virtual voltage sense in order to achieve voltage regulation at the end of load line cables without the need for two sense cables. This thesis also explores the implementation ...
Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F. C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P. C.; Da Cunha, Neto, J. A. B.
1996-01-01
. The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials. and the influence of solar radiation...
Stochastic analysis of the time evolution of Laminar-Turbulent bands of plane Couette flow
Rolland, Joran
2015-01-01
This article is concerned with the time evolution of the oblique laminar-turbulent bands of transitional plane Couette flow under the influence of turbulent noise. Our study is focused on the amplitude of modulation of turbulence. In order to guide the numerical study of the flow, we first perform an analytical and numerical analysis of a Stochastic Ginzburg-Landau equation for a complex order parameter. The modulus of this order parameter models the amplitude of modulation of turbulence. Firstly, we compute the autocorrelation function of said modulus once the band is established. Secondly, we perform a calculation of average and fluctuations around the exponential growth of the order parameter. This type of analysis is similar to the Stochastic Structural Stability Theory. We then perform numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations in order to confront these predictions with the actual behaviour of the bands. Computation of the autocorrelation function of the modulation of turbulence shows quantita...
ANALYSIS OF TWO-PHASE FLOW MODELS WITH TWO MOMENTUM EQUATIONS.
KROSHILIN,A.E.KROSHILIN,V.E.KOHUT,P.
2004-03-15
An analysis of the standard system of differential equations describing multi-speed flows of multi-phase media is performed. It is proved that the Cauchy problem, as posed in most best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes, results in unstable solutions and potentially unreliable description of many physical phenomena. A system of equations, free from instability effects, is developed allowing more rigorous numerical modeling.
A comparison of an analytical and two electric analogy methods of hydraulic flow analysis
Hoffman, Joe Douglas
1959-01-01
~ THE LINEAR RESISTANCE EIKCTRIC ANAIOGY METHOD . . . . . . 57 IX ~ THE NON-LINEAR RESISTANCE ELECTRIC ANALOGY METHOD, . 75 Xo DISCUSSION OF RESULTS XIo CONCLUSIONS APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY 95 101 104 109 I, INTRODUCTION Although networks of hydraulic... pipelines are used throughout the world, the analysis of their steady state performance is a difficult and time consuming process . The work involved in ana- lysing a network of pipelines to determine flow rates and energy losses throughout the network...
A parallel and matrix free framework for global stability analysis of compressible flows
Henze, O; Sesterhenn, J
2015-01-01
An numerical iterative framework for global modal stability analysis of compressible flows using a parallel environment is presented. The framework uses a matrix-free implementation to allow computations of large scale problems. Various methods are tested with regard to convergence acceleration of the framework. The methods consist of a spectral Cayley transformation used to select desired Eigenvalues from a large spectrum, an improved linear solver and a parallel block-Jacobi preconditioning scheme.
Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts
Jimack, Peter
Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts R. Tencheva , T. Goughb , O.G, LS2 9JT, UK. b School of Engineering, Design & Technology, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP.g.harlen@leeds.ac.uk (O.G. Harlen), p.k.jimack@leeds.ac.uk (P.K. Jimack), h.klein@leeds.ac.uk (D.H. Klein), m
2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
2006-03-01
The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;
Measuring the CO2 flux at the air/water interface in lakes using flow injection analysis
Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo
measurements. The use of flow analysis for the determination of dissolved carbon dioxide by membrane separation a hydrophobic membrane into a flow of deionized water, generating a gradient of conductivity proportional the processes related to the carbon cycle within the aquatic environment. The direction of CO2 gas exchange
Analysis of instability inception in high-speed multistage axial-flow compressors
Hendricks, G.J.; Sabnis, J.S.; Feulner, M.R.
1997-10-01
A nonlinear, two-dimensional, compressible dynamic model has been developed to study rotating stall/surge inception and development in high-speed, multistage, axial flow compressors. The flow dynamics are represented by the unsteady Euler equations, solved in each interblade row gap and inlet and exit ducts as two-dimensional domains, and in each blade passage as a one-dimensional domain. The resulting equations are solved on a computational grid. The boundary conditions between domains are represented by ideal turning coupled with empirical loss and deviation correlations. Results are presented comparing model simulations to instability inception data of an eleven stage, high-pressure-ratio compressor operating at both part and full power, and the results analyzed in the context of a linear modal analysis.
Chertkov, M; Turtisyn, K; Chernyak, V; Lebedev, V
2011-01-01
We consider a model of a distribution feeder connecting multiple loads to the sub-station. Voltage is controlled directly at the head of the line (sub-station), however, voltage anywhere further down the line is subject to fluctuations, caused by irregularities of real and reactive distributed power consumption/generation. The lack of a direct control of voltage along the line may result in the voltage instability, also called voltage collapse - phenomenon well known and documented in the power engineering literature. Motivated by emerging photo-voltaic technology, which brings a new source of renewable generation but also contributes significant increase in power flow fluctuations, we reexamine the phenomenon of voltage stability and collapse. In the limit where the number of consumers is large and spatial variations in power flows are smooth functions of position along the feeder, we derive a set of the power flow Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE), verify phenomenon of voltage collapse, and study the ef...
McGrail, B.P.; Trent, D.S.; Terrones, G.; Hudson, J.D.; Michener, T.E.
1993-10-01
Safety of single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes is of concern. Ferrocyanide in the presence of an oxidizer such as NaNO{sub 3} or NaNO{sub 2} is explosively combustible when concentrated and heated. Evaluating the processes that could affect the fuel content of waste and distribution of the tank heat load is important. Highly alkaline liquid wastes were transferred in and out of the tanks over several years. Since Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} is much more soluble in alkaline media, the ferrocyanide could be dispersed from the tank more easily. If Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} or CsNaNiFe(CN){sub 6} are also soluble in alkaline media, solubilization and transport of {sup 137}Cs could also occur. Transporting this heat generating radionuclide to a localized area in the tanks is a potential mechanism for generating a ``hot spot.`` Fluid convection could potentially speed the transport process considerably over aqueous diffusion alone. A stability analysis was performed for a dense fluid layer overlying a porous medium saturated by a less dense fluid with the finding that the configuration is unconditionally unstable and independent of the properties of the porous medium or the magnitude of the fluid density difference. A parametric modeling study of the buoyancy-driven flow due to a thermal gradient was combusted to establish the relationship between the waste physical and thermal properties and natural convection heat transfer. The effects of diffusion and fluid convection on the redistribution of the {sup 137}Cs were evaluated with a 2-D coupled heat and mass transport model. The maximum predicted temperature rise associated with the formation of zones was only 5{degrees}C and thus is of no concern in terms of generating a localized ``hot spot.``
Schutte, B.; Pijpers, G.F.P.; Lenders, M.H.J.H.; Ramaekers, F.C.S. [Univ. of Limburg (Netherlands)
1995-10-01
The analysis of the cell cycle distributions by univariate flow cytometric DNA measurement has been widely applied in the clinic to determine kinetic parameters of human malignancies. A common problem with measurements of cell cycle phase distributions in tumor biopsy material is the presence of nonmalignant diploid cells. Furthermore, such a static measurement might not be accurate enough to describe the dynamic process of cell proliferation. For this purpose alternative methods have been developed to include BrdUrd incorporation or the presence of intrinsic proliferation associated markers such as PCNA or Ki67-Ag into the analysis. However, the presence of nonmalignant diploid cells will influence also these bivariate analyses, especially in case of DNA-diploidy of the tumor cells. Here we present a three parameter flow cytometric assay based on the simultaneous detection of cytokeratin, DNA and a proliferation associated marker, such as BrdUrd, PCNA or Ki67-Ag. Based on the presence of cytokeratin, epithelial cells can be selected for a detailed cell cycle analysis. This method can be applied to frozen tissue, which makes this assay useful for multicentre clinical studies. 25 refs., 8 figs.
Kaatz, Kelly Jay
1993-01-01
. (August 1993) Kelly Jay Kaatz, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Wesley P. James The performance and reliability of four of the more popular methods for one- dimensional flow analysis of bridges were investigated. These four... methods were the HEC-2 Normal Bridge Method, HEC-2 Special Bridge Method, WSPRO, and Modified Bradley Method. The study was based on models of 13 flood events at nine different bridge sites in the southeastern United States. The sites were located...
Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis
Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Huang, L.; Sun, D.
2006-01-01
, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-8-4 Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis1 Chenghu Zhang Ronghua Wu Guitao Li Xin Li Lei Huang Dexing Sun Doctor Master...) By the numeric calculation and the simplification, the power function form, can be obtained, which is used in the engineering easily. It is 0.30 0.0235 w d? = (2) The result of (2) is slight bigger than that of (1), but the errors are within 3...
Uncertainty Analysis Framework - Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Flow and Transport Model
Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Rogers, Phillip M.
2001-11-09
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) embarked on a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of the predictions being made with a site-wide groundwater flow and transport model at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. In FY 2000, the focus of the initiative was on the characterization of major uncertainties in the current conceptual model that would affect model predictions. The long-term goals of the initiative are the development and implementation of an uncertainty estimation methodology in future assessments and analyses using the site-wide model. This report focuses on the development and implementation of an uncertainty analysis framework.
Baijal, Anant; Jayabarathi, T
2011-01-01
This paper illustrates successful implementation of three evolutionary algorithms, namely- Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) and Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) algorithms to economic load dispatch problem (ELD). Power output of each generating unit and optimum fuel cost obtained using all three algorithms have been compared. The results obtained show that ABC and BFO algorithms converge to optimal fuel cost with reduced computational time when compared to PSO for the two example problems considered.
Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy
forecast of 4) Calculate Hourly Load Allocation Factor s for each day for 2019 For use in RA analysis as a function ofthe load for electricity in the region as a function of cyclical, weather and economic variables
Legal strategies for protecting instream flows in Texas: an analysis of stakeholder preferences
Binion, Michael Shane
1996-01-01
's legal framework for implementing instream flows; an equitable and fair process; and the quantification of flows necessary for instream protection. Respondents also generally fell into three categories of satisfaction with current instream flow practices...
Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning.
Taylor, K.C.; Burke, R.A.; Schramm, L.L. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
1995-11-01
An automated method for the determination of acrylamide polymers by flow injection analysis (FIA) has been developed and optimized for routine use. The method has been extensively tested for interferences common in oilfield brines. Potential interferences were examined from Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, Zr{sup 3+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, sample coloration, and commonly used surfactants. The analysis is specific for amides, and the sensitivity to concentration of amide groups in the polymer was shown to be constant as the degree of polymer hydrolysis was varied. The range of the method is 0.1 to 100 mg/L. Sample throughput is 30 samples/h with triplicate analysis. Relative standard deviations of 0.2% are readily obtained from standard solutions and 0.5% from complex samples (at 50 mg/L). The method is applicable to the determination of aqueous, acrylamide-based polymers in process streams, surface waters and oilfield brines.
Automatic analysis of flow cytometric DNA histograms from irradiated mouse male germ cells
Lampariello, F.; Mauro, F.; Uccelli, R.; Spano, M.
1989-01-01
An automatic procedure for recovering the DNA content distribution of mouse irradiated testis cells from flow cytometric histograms is presented. First, a suitable mathematical model is developed, to represent the pattern of DNA content and fluorescence distribution in the sample. Then a parameter estimation procedure, based on the maximum likelihood approach, is constructed by means of an optimization technique. This procedure has been applied to a set of DNA histograms relative to different doses of 0.4-MeV neutrons and to different time intervals after irradiation. In each case, a good agreement between the measured histograms and the corresponding fits has been obtained. The results indicate that the proposed method for the quantitative analysis of germ cell DNA histograms can be usefully applied to the study of the cytotoxic and mutagenic action of agents of toxicological interest such as ionizing radiations.18 references.
Spectrophotometric determination of uranium(VI) with chlorophosphonazo-mN by flow injection analysis
Sun, Jun Ying; Chen, Xing Guo; Hu, Zhi De
1994-07-01
A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric flow injection analysis (FIA) method with chlorophosphonazo-mN has been developed for the determination of uranium(VI) in standard ore samples. Most interfereing ions are effectively eliminated by the masking reagent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). In the U(VI)-chlorophosphonazo-mN system, the maximum absorption wavelength is at 680 nm and Beer`s law is obeyed in the range of 1 to 15 {mu}g {mu}l{sup -1}. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve is. 0.9998, the sampling frequency is 60{sup -1}, and detection limit for uranium(VI) is 0.5 {mu}g mul{sup -1}.
Niu, Miao-Ren; Yan, Zhuo-Yong; Guo, Qing-Hua; Liang, Qin-Feng; Wang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Zun-Hong
2007-01-01
On a laboratory-scale testing platform of impinging entrained-flow gasifier with four opposed burners, the flame images for diesel combustion and gasification process were measured with a single charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was employed to investigate the multifractal nature of the flame images. Sound power-law scaling in the annealed average of detrended fluctuations was unveiled when the order $q>0$ and the multifractal feature of flame images were confirmed. Further analyses identified two multifractal parameters, the minimum and maximum singularity $\\alpha_{\\min}$ and $\\alpha_{\\max}$, serving as characteristic parameters of the multifractal flames. These two characteristic multifractal parameters vary with respect to different experimental conditions.
Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Esaki, Tetsuro
2009-01-01
Geometry of the rock joint is a governing factor for joint mechanical and hydraulic behavior. A new method of evaluating aperture distribution based on measurement of joint surfaces and three dimensional characteristics of each surface is developed. Artificial joint of granite surfaces are measured,processed, analyzed and three dimensional approaches are carried out for surface characterization. Parameters such as asperity's heights, slope angles, and aspects distribution at micro scale,local concentration of elements and their spatial localization at local scale are determined by Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes of aperture distribution at different normal stresses and various shear displacements are visualized and interpreted. Increasing normal load causes negative changes in aperture frequency distribution which indicates high joint matching. However, increasing shear displacement causes a rapid increase in the aperture and positive changes in the aperture frequency distribution which could be ...
ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM
Krieg, B.
2010-01-01
Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'
Spane, Frank A.
2013-04-29
Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects
Fluid Flow and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Wing Anti-Icing System
is controlled through regulating the hot flow passing a wing anti-icing valve by an automatic control system
Huang, Xun
Stability analysis and design of time-domain acoustic impedance boundary conditions for lined duct in a lined duct with uniform mean flow, which has important practical interest for noise emission by aero boundary conditions act as closed-loop feedbacks to an overall duct acoustic system. It turns out
Two-Phase Void Drift Phenomena in a 2 x 3 Rod Bundle: Flow Redistribution Data and Their Analysis
Sadatomi, Michio; Kawahara, Akimaro; Kuno, Tsukasa; Kano, Keiko [Kumamoto University (Japan)
2005-10-15
To improve a void drift model used in a subchannel analysis, new experimental data are obtained for air-water two-phase flows in a vertical 2 x 3 rod channel consisting of six subchannels simulating a square array boiling water reactor fuel rod bundle. The data include the axial redistributions of flow rates of both phases and void fraction in the respective subchannels. By fitting the above data with the Lahey and Moody void settling model, we have determined a void diffusion coefficient in their model. It is found that the void diffusion coefficient for slug, churn, and annular flows could be well correlated in terms of a turbulent Peclet number developed in our previous study. Furthermore, a subchannel analysis code based on a two-fluid model proposed in our previous study is examined against the present data. In the code, the void settling model is incorporated with usual conservation equations of mass and momentum. From the examination, it is found that the subchannel analysis code can predict well the data on subchannel flow and void fraction for the 2 x 3 rod channel if appropriate correlations are adopted to evaluate wall and interfacial friction forces needed in the two-fluid model.
1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.
Not Available
1992-01-01
This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.
A Database and Meta-Analysis of Ecological Responses to Flow in the South Atlantic Region
McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Davis, Dr, Mary [Southeastern Aquatic Resources Partnership; Kauffman, John [John Kauffman LLC.
2013-01-01
Generalized and quantitative relationships between flow and ecology are pivotal to developing environmental flow standards based on socially acceptable ecological conditions. Informing management at regional scales requires compiling sufficient hydrologic and ecological sources of information, identifying information gaps, and creating a framework for hypothesis development and testing. We compiled studies of empirical and theoretical relationships between flow and ecology in the South Atlantic region (SAR) of the United States to evaluate their utility for the development of environmental flow standards. Using database searches, internet searches, and agency contacts, we gathered 186 sources of information that provided a qualitative or quantitative relationship between flow and ecology within states encompassing the SAR. A total of 109 of the 186 sources had sufficient information to support quantitative analyses. Ecological responses to natural changes in flow magnitude, frequency, and duration were highly variable regardless of the direction and magnitude of changes in flow. In contrast, the majority of ecological responses to anthropogenic-induced flow alterations were negative. Fish consistently showed negative responses to anthropogenic flow alterations whereas other ecological groups showed somewhat variable responses (e.g. macroinvertebrates and riparian vegetation) and even positive responses (e.g. algae). Fish and organic matter had sufficient sample sizes to stratify natural flow-ecology relationships by specific flow categories (e.g. high flow, baseflows) or by region (e.g. coastal plain, uplands). After stratifying relationships, we found that significant correlations existed between changes in natural flow and ecological responses. In addition, a regression tree explained 57% of the variation in fish responses to anthropogenic and natural changes in flow. Because of some ambiguity in interpreting the directionality in ecological responses, we utilized ecological gains or losses, where each represents a benefit or reduction to ecosystem services, respectively. Variables explained 49% of the variation in ecological gains and losses for all ecological groups combined. Altogether, our results suggested that the source of flow change and the ecological group of interest played primary roles in determining the direction and magnitude of ecological responses. Furthermore, our results suggest that developing broadly generalized relationships between ecology and changes in flow at a regional scale is unlikely unless relationships are placed within meaningful contexts, such as environmental flow components or by geomorphic setting.
Real-Time Forcast Model Analysis of Daily Average Building Load for a Thermal Storage System Control
Song, L.; Joo, I. S.; Guwana, S.
2009-01-01
methods for real-time forecasting of building electrical demand, ASHRAE Transaction vol.97(1):710-721 D.C. Montgomery, C. L. Jennings, M. Kulahci. 2007. Introduction to time series analysis and forecasting, ISBN 978-0-471-65397-4. L Ljung, T. S...?derstr?m, 1987, Theory and application of recursive identification, ISBN 978-0-262-12095-1 ESL-IC-09-11-03 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 ...
Purged window apparatus. [On-line spectroscopic analysis of gas flow systems
Ballard, E.O.
1982-04-05
A purged window apparatus is described which utilizes tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube thereby preventing backstreaming of flowing gases under investigation in a chamber to which a plurality of similar purged apparatus is attached with the consequent result that spectroscopic analyses can be undertaken for lengthy periods without the necessity of interrupting the flow for cleaning or replacing the windows due to contamination.
A flood-based information flow analysis and network minimization method for gene regulatory networks
Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Mozhayskiy, Vadim; Tagkopoulos, Ilias
2013-01-01
as: Pavlogiannis et al. : A flood-based information flowRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access A flood-based information flowlevels. Keywords: Network flood, Network flux, Information
Three-dimensional analysis of variably-saturated flow and solute ...
2003-07-16
1989). Recent field studies have shown ..... any water and thus reduce the area available for matrix flow across the fracture. We use ...... enhanced oil recovery.
A stochastic analysis of steady state two-phase flow in heterogeneous media
Lu, Zhiming
and soil pore size distribution. A stochastic numerical model for steady state water-oil flow in a random these expansions of Y(x), b(x) and dependent pressures, the steady state water-oil flow equations and corresponding size distribution b(x) are assumed to be Gaussian random functions with a separable exponential
AIAA-2001-0044 Extreme Load Estimation for Wind Turbines
AIAA-2001-0044 Extreme Load Estimation for Wind Turbines: Issues and Opportunities for Improved design load estimation procedures for wind turbines often do not accurately treat the statistical nature of loads. Current practice for wind turbine load analysis is reviewed. The authors
1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1993-12-01
The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.
Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils
Dimitriou, Christopher J.
Waxes are a commonly encountered precipitate that can result in the gelation of crude oils and cessation of flow in pipelines. In this work, we develop a model wax–oil system that exhibits rheological behavior similar to ...
Smerdon, Ernest T.; Blair, Allie W.
1985-01-01
varying nonlinear infiltration. Each partitioned section also contained an electronic water depth sensor. All 15 water depth sensors are connected to a real time data acquisition system which relays depth of flow information to the computer simulating...
Statistical Analysis of Microgravity Two-Phase Slug Flow via the Drift Flux Model
Larsen, Benjamin A
2014-05-01
of microgravity two-phase flow data difficult. Multiple researchers have postulated the microgravity drift flux model parameters to predict void fraction, however, these methods were initially developed with no consideration given to a microgravity environment...
Effects of non-Darcy flow on pressure buildup analysis of hydraulically fractured gas reservoirs
Alvarez Vera, Cesar
2001-01-01
Conventional well-testing techniques are commonly used to evaluate pressure transient tests of hydraulically fractured wells to estimate values such as formation permeability, fracture length, and fracture conductivity. When non-Darcy flow occurs...
Analysis of multiphase fluid flows via high speed and synthetic aperture three dimensional imaging
Scharfman, Barry Ethan
2012-01-01
Spray flows are a difficult problem within the realm of fluid mechanics because of the complicated interfacial physics involved. Complete models of sprays having even the simplest geometries continue to elude researchers ...
Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Multiscale Preferential Flow - 8/05-8/10 - Final Report
Ralph Showalter; Malgorzata Peszynska
2012-07-03
The research agenda of this project are: (1) Modeling of preferential transport from mesoscale to macroscale; (2) Modeling of fast flow in narrow fractures in porous media; (3) Pseudo-parabolic Models of Dynamic Capillary Pressure; (4) Adaptive computational upscaling of flow with inertia from porescale to mesoscale; (5) Adaptive modeling of nonlinear coupled systems; and (6) Adaptive modeling and a-posteriori estimators for coupled systems with heterogeneous data.
ACFAC: a cash flow analysis code for estimating product price from an industrial operation
Delene, J.G.
1980-04-01
A computer code is presented which uses a discountted cash flow methodology to obtain an average product price for an industtrial process. The general discounted cash flow method is discussed. Special code options include multiple treatments of interest during construction and other preoperational costs, investment tax credits, and different methods for tax depreciation of capital assets. Two options for allocating the cost of plant decommissioning are available. The FORTRAN code listing and the computer output for a sample problem are included.
Structural assessment of accident loads
Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford
1996-05-28
Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.
Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids
Chertkov, Michael; Pfitzner, Rene; Turitsyn, Konstantin
2010-12-01
We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.
A Lagrangian analysis of advection-diffusion equation for a three dimensional chaotic flow
Tang, X.Z. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Boozer, A.H. [Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
1999-06-01
The advection-diffusion equation is studied via a global Lagrangian coordinate transformation. The metric tensor of the Lagrangian coordinates couples the dynamical system theory rigorously into the solution of this class of partial differential equations. If the flow has chaotic streamlines, the diffusion will dominate the solution at a critical time, which scales logarithmically with the diffusivity. The subsequent rapid diffusive relaxation is completed on the order of a few Lyapunov times, and it becomes more anisotropic the smaller the diffusivity. The local Lyapunov time of the flow is the inverse of the finite time Lyapunov exponent. A finite time Lyapunov exponent can be expressed in terms of two convergence functions which are responsible for the spatio-temporal complexity of both the advective and diffusive transports. This complexity gives a new class of diffusion barrier in the chaotic region and a fractal-like behavior in both space and time. In an integrable flow with shear, there also exist fast and slow diffusion. But unlike that in a chaotic flow, a large gradient of the scalar field across the KAM surfaces can be maintained since the fast diffusion in an integrable flow is strictly confined within the KAM surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Khater, A.H.; Moawad, S.M.; Callebaut, D.K. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Departement Natuurkunde, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen - UA, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)
2005-01-01
The equilibrium and Lyapunov stability properties for two-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas with incompressible and homogeneous (i.e., constant density) flows are investigated. In the unperturbed steady state, both the velocity and magnetic field are nonzero and have three components in a Cartesian coordinate system with translational symmetry (i.e., one ignorable spatial coordinate). It is proved that (a) the solutions of the ideal MHD steady state equations with incompressible and homogeneous flows in the plane are also valid for equilibria with the axial velocity component being a free flux function and the axial magnetic field component being a constant (b) the conditions of linearized Lyapunov stability for these MHD flows in the planar case (in which the fields have only two components) are also valid for symmetric equilibria that have a nonplanar velocity field component as well as a nonplanar magnetic field component. On using the method of convexity estimates, nonlinear stability conditions are established.
Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.
1990-05-01
In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data.
Sundar, Sita; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India)
2012-05-15
In the interaction of intense lasers with matter/plasma, energetic electrons having relativistic energies get created. These energetic electrons can often have sheared flow profiles as they propagate through the plasma medium. In an earlier study [Phys. Plasmas 17, 022101 (2010)], it was shown that a relativistic sheared electron flow modifies the growth rate and threshold condition of the conventional Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. A perturbative analytic treatment for the case of weakly relativistic regime has been provided here. It provides good agreement with the numerical results obtained earlier.
LaRocca, Sarah; Hassel, Henrik; Guikema, Seth
2013-01-01
Critical infrastructure systems must be both robust and resilient in order to ensure the functioning of society. To improve the performance of such systems, we often use risk and vulnerability analysis to find and address system weaknesses. A critical component of such analyses is the ability to accurately determine the negative consequences of various types of failures in the system. Numerous mathematical and simulation models exist which can be used to this end. However, there are relatively few studies comparing the implications of using different modeling approaches in the context of comprehensive risk analysis of critical infrastructures. Thus in this paper, we suggest a classification of these models, which span from simple topologically-oriented models to advanced physical flow-based models. Here, we focus on electric power systems and present a study aimed at understanding the tradeoffs between simplicity and fidelity in models used in the context of risk analysis. Specifically, the purpose of this pa...
Jagielski, Philip
2011-08-08
., 1990. [6] D. D. Gajski, D. A. Padua, D. J. Kuck, and R. H. Kuhn, ?A second opinion on data flow machines and languages,? in Computer, 1982. [7] Charles L. Seitz, ?The cosmic cube,? in Communications of the ACM, 1985. [8] Mark S. Papamarcos and Janak...
Dynamic Pressure Improvements to Closed-Circuit Wind Tunnels with Flow Quality Analysis
Herring, Alexander
2015-03-31
Experiment Station Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) was limited through available power to a dynamic pressure of 120 psf. The addition of a higher power motor, construction of a new, smaller test section, diffuser liners to prevent flow separation, and increased...
Tartakovsky, Daniel M.
soils Zhiming Lu and Shlomo P. Neuman Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona 26 April 2002. [1] We consider steady state unsaturated flow in bounded, randomly heterogeneous soils that the solution may remain asymptotic for values of sY 2 as large as 2. INDEX TERMS: 1866 Hydrology: Soil moisture
An analysis of flow-simulation scales and seismic response P. L. Stoffa*
Bangerth, Wolfgang
-gas reservoir during production. Numerical experiments show that saturation fronts can be effectively tracked that saturations are the key factor for tracking changes during production for an oil-gas reservoir. The reservoir, the question which scales flow simulations need to resolve to accurately capture reservoir changes during
RESEARCH PAPER Simulation-based analysis of flow due to traveling-plane-wave
Yanikoglu, Berrin
: 28 March 2007 Ó Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract One of the propulsion mechanisms of micro- organisms flows with mechanical micropumps remains somewhat a challenge. Propulsion mechanisms of microorganisms be placed in a channel and actuated for pumping of the fluid by means of introducing a series of traveling
Wavelet analysis study of microbubble drag reduction in a boundary channel flow
Zhen, Ling
2006-04-12
components in streamwise-near-wall normal plane of a turbulent channel flow at Reynolds number of 5128 based on the half height of the channel were measured. The influence of the presence of microbubbles in the boundary layer was assessed and compared...
A Network Analysis of Food Flows within the United States of Xiaowen Lin,
Konar, Megan
insight into trade network scaling and proxy free trade and equitable network architectures. 1 to the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution), thereby proxying a free trade setting. Studying the network under free trade situations. Third, flows of food within the USA serve as a null model for trade equity
Determination of Nitrogen by Flow Injection Analysis in Environmental and Wastewaters
Straw, K.A.
1999-03-01
In summary, three generations of Lachat FIA systems have been used in the laboratory over a period of 13 yrs, running, in addition to the 4 N methods, Cr{sup +6}, SiO{sub 2}, Fluoride by ISE. Overall flow injection systems have been versatile and reliable and a good choice in the lab for analyzing a wide variety of samples quickly.
Konsevick, W. J., Jr.
1982-01-01
categories: Thermal Energy Storage, Communication and Load Control, Interconnection and Operation of Power Systems, and Selective Load Promotions. The endeavors of the utility industry and Ohio Edison Company in three of the four categories are described...
A flood-based information flow analysis and network minimization method for gene regulatory networks
Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Mozhayskiy, Vadim; Tagkopoulos, Ilias
2013-01-01
networks for functional analysis [13], shortest path algorithms for biological interaction paths [14,15], application of Petri-
Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)
1999-01-01
A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast
Modeling tidal flow in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, using a depth averaged
Modeling tidal flow in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, using a depth averaged flooding, University of New Hampshire, USA. 2 Numerical Methods Lab., Dartmouth College, USA. 3 Ocean Process Analysis Lab., University of New Hampshire, USA. Abstract Current, sea level and bed load transport
Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H. )
1990-08-15
We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis.
Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Aurélia Esteve; Kurt D. Hamman; Dana A. Knoll; Ryosuke Park; William Taitano
2009-01-01
This report illustrates a comparative study to analyze the physical differences between numerical simulations obtained with both the conservation and incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for natural convection flows in simple geometries. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the incompressible flow assumption (which is based upon constant density advection, divergence-free flow, and the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation) differs from the conservation form (which only assumes that the fluid is a continuum) when solving flows driven by gravity acting upon density variations resulting from local temperature gradients. Driving this study is the common use of the incompressible flow assumption in fluid flow simulations for nuclear power applications in natural convection flows subjected to a high heat flux (large temperature differences). A series of simulations were conducted on two-dimensional, differentially-heated rectangular geometries and modeled with both hydrodynamic formulations. From these simulations, the selected characterization parameters of maximum Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, and normalized pressure reduction were calculated. Comparisons of these parameters were made with available benchmark solutions for air with the ideal gas assumption at both low and high heat fluxes. Additionally, we generated body force, velocity, and divergence of velocity distributions to provide a basis for further analysis. The simulations and analysis were then extended to include helium at the Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) normal operating conditions. Our results show that the consequences of incorporating the incompressible flow assumption in high heat flux situations may lead to unrepresentative results. The results question the use of the incompressible flow assumption for simulating fluid flow in an operating nuclear reactor, where large temperature variations are present. The results show that the use of the incompressible flow assumption with the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation should be restricted to flows where the density change of a fluid particle along a pathline is negligible.
Radiation load to the SNAP CCD
N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov
2003-08-14
Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.
Amini, Noushin
2012-02-14
applying two different experimental methods. The first study involves the investigation of turbulent impinging jets through a staggered array of rods with or without crossflow. Such flows are crucial in various engineering disciplines. This experiment... ................................................................................................... 47 II.3.1. Time-Averaged Velocity Fields ................................................ 48 II.3.1.1. Single Impinging Jet in the Corner of Mid-Plane ...... 48 II.3.1.2. Single Impinging Jet in the Middle of the Measurement Plane...
Amir M. Rahmani; Yang Shao; Mehlam Jupiterwala; Carlos E. Colosqui
2015-04-13
Plane Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder that is arbitrarily confined (i.e., symmetrically or asymmetrically confined) in a slit channel is studied via hydrodynamic lubrication theory and molecular dynamics simulations, considering cases where the cylinder remains static or undergoes thermal motion. Lubrication theory predictions for the drag force and volumetric flow rate are in close agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of flows having molecularly thin lubrication gaps, despite the presence of significant structural forces induced by the crystalline structure of the modeled solid. While the maximum drag force is observed in symmetric confinement, i.e., when the cylinder is equidistant from both channel walls, the drag decays significantly as the cylinder moves away from the channel centerline and approaches a wall. Hence, significant reductions in the mean drag force on the cylinder and hydraulic resistance of the channel can be observed when thermal motion induces random off-center displacements. Analytical expressions and numerical results in this work provide useful insights into the hydrodynamics of colloidal solids and macromolecules in confinement.
Analysis of Granular Flow in a Pebble-Bed Nuclear Reactor
Chris H. Rycroft; Gary S. Grest; James W. Landry; Martin Z. Bazant
2006-02-16
Pebble-bed nuclear reactor technology, which is currently being revived around the world, raises fundamental questions about dense granular flow in silos. A typical reactor core is composed of graphite fuel pebbles, which drain very slowly in a continuous refueling process. Pebble flow is poorly understood and not easily accessible to experiments, and yet it has a major impact on reactor physics. To address this problem, we perform full-scale, discrete-element simulations in realistic geometries, with up to 440,000 frictional, viscoelastic 6cm-diameter spheres draining in a cylindrical vessel of diameter 3.5m and height 10m with bottom funnels angled at 30 degrees or 60 degrees. We also simulate a bidisperse core with a dynamic central column of smaller graphite moderator pebbles and show that little mixing occurs down to a 1:2 diameter ratio. We analyze the mean velocity, diffusion and mixing, local ordering and porosity (from Voronoi volumes), the residence-time distribution, and the effects of wall friction and discuss implications for reactor design and the basic physics of granular flow.
Linear analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows
Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: ktakahashi@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku 169-8555 (Japan)
2014-10-20
We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the linear growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The linearized equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion flow whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M {sub ?} progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they flow down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.
Cirpka, Olaf Arie
allows the coupling of a laminar single-phase free flow and a two-phase porous-medium flow under non be necessary Coupling Situation coupling exists for laminar free flow (Mostaf et al. 2011) boundary layer DuMux in use for Darcy flow and laminar Stokes flow no RANS solver in DuMux or DUNE PDELab Open
In situ stress, fracture, and fluid flow analysis in Well 38C...
wellbore image data, natural fracture characterization, and wellbore failure analysis. A hydraulic fracturing stress test at 3,703 feet TVD was used to constrain a normal faulting...
IN SITU STRESS, FRACTURE, AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS IN WELL 38C...
wellbore image data, natural fracture characterization, and wellbore failure analysis. A hydraulic fracturing stress test at 3,703 feet TVD was used to constrain a normal faulting...
Analysis of Breathing Air Flow Patterns in Thermal Imaging Department of Computer Science
biometric. I. INTRODUCTION Many respiratory diseases like sleep apnea syndrome and bronchial asthma of pathophysiolog- ical causes, pattern analysis reveals that individual breathing patterns are not random [3
Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.
1999-08-01
Cruciform beam fracture mechanics specimensl have been developed in the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far- field, out-of-plane biaxird bending stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear biaxial stresses resulting from pressurized-thernxd-shock or pressure-temperature loading of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shtdlow, surface flaws. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. Two and three- parameter Weibull models have been calibrated using a new scheme (developed at the University of Illinois) that maps toughness data from test specimens with distinctly different levels of crack-tip constraint to a small scale yielding (SSY) Weibull stress space. These models, using the new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the OW integral definition, have been shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxiaI effect in cruciform specimens, thereby providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
for optimal dispatching of power flows in a microgrid with storage. The investigated approach is based Scheduling and Sensitivity Analysis for Sizing a Microgrid with Storage. (2014) In: 11th International ANALYSIS FOR SIZING A MICROGRID WITH STORAGE R. Rigo-Mariani1 , B. Sareni1 , X. Roboam1 1. Université de
De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C.
1994-12-31
This paper describes and analyzes an industrial cogeneration plant driven by a gas fueled reciprocating engine installed in a textile factory. It presents the results of experimental testing conducted under full and part-load operating conditions, as well as first-law energy considerations. The experimental tests conducted on the cogeneration unit proved the validity of the plant design and also enabled evaluation of part-load performance, which is the most common operating mode in cogeneration plants in the small-size industries which typical of central Italy.
EIS-0163: 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – Walla Walla District prepared this statement to analyze four general alternatives to modify the flow of water in the lower Columbia-Snake River in order to help anadromous fish migrate past eight multipurpose Federal dams. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bonneville Power Administration served as a cooperating agency due to its key role in direct operation of the integrated and coordinated Columbia-Snake River System, and adopted this statement on February 10, 1992.
Flow induced vibration of a cantilever column jet: a spectral analysis
Shilling, Roy Bryant
1978-01-01
at where y = lateral displacement of the pipe, g = acceleration due to gravity, E*= viscoelastic modulus of elasticity Figure l A Cantilever Pipe Conveying a Fluid Flow 10 M( ? +U ? ) y6x a a /? qS6x F6x (c~ +~) 6x at t qS6x F6x aI') ~ T+ ? 6... MODEL MODEL Ii'fSTRUf&ENTAT I ON . TEST PIPE DIMiEI'ISIOiVLESS CRITICAL VELOCITY AffD FREQUENCY AS A FLiNCTION OF p DRIVING MECHANIS14 . RIGIDIFIER INSTRUMEflTATION SYSTEM NATLfRAL FREQUENCIES CANTILEVER RESPONSE DYNAMICS FORCED VIBPATION...
Bifurcation analysis of surge and rotating stall in axial flow compressors
Abed, E.H. ); Houpt, P.K. . Corporate Research and Development Center); Hosny, W.M. . Engine Operability Div.)
1993-10-01
The surge and rotating stall post-instability behaviors of axial flow compressors are investigated from a bifurcation-theoretic perspective, using a model and system data presented by Greitzer (1976a). For this model, a sequence of local and global bifurcations of the nonlinear system dynamics is uncovered. This includes a global bifurcation of a pair of large-amplitude periodic solutions. Resulting from this bifurcation are a stable oscillation (surge) and an unstable oscillation (antisurge). The latter oscillation is found to have a deciding significance regarding the particular post-instability behavior experienced by the compressor. These results are used to reconstruct Greitzer's (1976b) findings regarding the manner in which post-instability behavior depends on system parameters. Although the model does not directly reflect non axisymmetric dynamics, use of a steady-state compressor characteristic approximating the measured characteristic of Greitzer (1976a) is found to result in conclusions that compare well with observation. Thus, the paper gives a convenient and simple explanation of the boundary between surge and rotating stall behaviors, without the use of more intricate models and analyses including non axisymmetric flow dynamics.
Design, build and test of an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine with fatigue analysis
Ketcham, Jerod W
2010-01-01
OpenProp is an open source propeller and turbine design and analysis code that has been in development since 2007 by MIT graduate students under the supervision of Professor Richard Kimball. In order to test the performance ...
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Schilling, Oleg; Mueschke, Nicholas J.
2010-10-18
Data from a 1152X760X1280 direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a transitional Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer modeled after a small Atwood number water channel experiment is used to comprehensively investigate the structure of mean and turbulent transport and mixing. The simulation had physical parameters and initial conditions approximating those in the experiment. The budgets of the mean vertical momentum, heavy-fluid mass fraction, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, heavy-fluid mass fraction variance, and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance dissipation rate equations are constructed using Reynolds averaging applied to the DNS data. The relative importance of mean and turbulent production, turbulent dissipationmore »and destruction, and turbulent transport are investigated as a function of Reynolds number and across the mixing layer to provide insight into the flow dynamics not presently available from experiments. The analysis of the budgets supports the assumption for small Atwood number, Rayleigh/Taylor driven flows that the principal transport mechanisms are buoyancy production, turbulent production, turbulent dissipation, and turbulent diffusion (shear and mean field production are negligible). As the Reynolds number increases, the turbulent production in the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation becomes the dominant production term, while the buoyancy production plateaus. Distinctions between momentum and scalar transport are also noted, where the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate both grow in time and are peaked near the center plane of the mixing layer, while the heavy-fluid mass fraction variance and its dissipation rate initially grow and then begin to decrease as mixing progresses and reduces density fluctuations. All terms in the transport equations generally grow or decay, with no qualitative change in their profile, except for the pressure flux contribution to the total turbulent kinetic energy flux, which changes sign early in time (a countergradient effect). The production-to-dissipation ratios corresponding to the turbulent kinetic energy and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance are large and vary strongly at small evolution times, decrease with time, and nearly asymptote as the flow enters a self-similar regime. The late-time turbulent kinetic energy production-to-dissipation ratio is larger than observed in shear-driven turbulent flows. The order of magnitude estimates of the terms in the transport equations are shown to be consistent with the DNS at late-time, and also confirms both the dominant terms and their evolutionary behavior. These results are useful for identifying the dynamically important terms requiring closure, and assessing the accuracy of the predictions of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and large-eddy simulation models of turbulent transport and mixing in transitional Rayleigh-Taylor instability-generated flow.« less
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Schilling, Oleg [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mueschke, Nicholas J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
2010-01-01
Data from a 1152X760X1280 direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a transitional Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer modeled after a small Atwood number water channel experiment is used to comprehensively investigate the structure of mean and turbulent transport and mixing. The simulation had physical parameters and initial conditions approximating those in the experiment. The budgets of the mean vertical momentum, heavy-fluid mass fraction, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, heavy-fluid mass fraction variance, and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance dissipation rate equations are constructed using Reynolds averaging applied to the DNS data. The relative importance of mean and turbulent production, turbulent dissipation and destruction, and turbulent transport are investigated as a function of Reynolds number and across the mixing layer to provide insight into the flow dynamics not presently available from experiments. The analysis of the budgets supports the assumption for small Atwood number, Rayleigh/Taylor driven flows that the principal transport mechanisms are buoyancy production, turbulent production, turbulent dissipation, and turbulent diffusion (shear and mean field production are negligible). As the Reynolds number increases, the turbulent production in the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation becomes the dominant production term, while the buoyancy production plateaus. Distinctions between momentum and scalar transport are also noted, where the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate both grow in time and are peaked near the center plane of the mixing layer, while the heavy-fluid mass fraction variance and its dissipation rate initially grow and then begin to decrease as mixing progresses and reduces density fluctuations. All terms in the transport equations generally grow or decay, with no qualitative change in their profile, except for the pressure flux contribution to the total turbulent kinetic energy flux, which changes sign early in time (a countergradient effect). The production-to-dissipation ratios corresponding to the turbulent kinetic energy and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance are large and vary strongly at small evolution times, decrease with time, and nearly asymptote as the flow enters a self-similar regime. The late-time turbulent kinetic energy production-to-dissipation ratio is larger than observed in shear-driven turbulent flows. The order of magnitude estimates of the terms in the transport equations are shown to be consistent with the DNS at late-time, and also confirms both the dominant terms and their evolutionary behavior. These results are useful for identifying the dynamically important terms requiring closure, and assessing the accuracy of the predictions of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and large-eddy simulation models of turbulent transport and mixing in transitional Rayleigh-Taylor instability-generated flow.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Schilling, Oleg; Mueschke, Nicholas J.
2010-10-18
Data from a 1152X760X1280 direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a transitional Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer modeled after a small Atwood number water channel experiment is used to comprehensively investigate the structure of mean and turbulent transport and mixing. The simulation had physical parameters and initial conditions approximating those in the experiment. The budgets of the mean vertical momentum, heavy-fluid mass fraction, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, heavy-fluid mass fraction variance, and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance dissipation rate equations are constructed using Reynolds averaging applied to the DNS data. The relative importance of mean and turbulent production, turbulent dissipationmore »and destruction, and turbulent transport are investigated as a function of Reynolds number and across the mixing layer to provide insight into the flow dynamics not presently available from experiments. The analysis of the budgets supports the assumption for small Atwood number, Rayleigh/Taylor driven flows that the principal transport mechanisms are buoyancy production, turbulent production, turbulent dissipation, and turbulent diffusion (shear and mean field production are negligible). As the Reynolds number increases, the turbulent production in the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation becomes the dominant production term, while the buoyancy production plateaus. Distinctions between momentum and scalar transport are also noted, where the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate both grow in time and are peaked near the center plane of the mixing layer, while the heavy-fluid mass fraction variance and its dissipation rate initially grow and then begin to decrease as mixing progresses and reduces density fluctuations. All terms in the transport equations generally grow or decay, with no qualitative change in their profile, except for the pressure flux contribution to the total turbulent kinetic energy flux, which changes sign early in time (a countergradient effect). The production-to-dissipation ratios corresponding to the turbulent kinetic energy and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance are large and vary strongly at small evolution times, decrease with time, and nearly asymptote as the flow enters a self-similar regime. The late-time turbulent kinetic energy production-to-dissipation ratio is larger than observed in shear-driven turbulent flows. The order of magnitude estimates of the terms in the transport equations are shown to be consistent with the DNS at late-time, and also confirms both the dominant terms and their evolutionary behavior. Thus, these results are useful for identifying the dynamically important terms requiring closure, and assessing the accuracy of the predictions of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and large-eddy simulation models of turbulent transport and mixing in transitional Rayleigh-Taylor instability-generated flow.« less
Loftus, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Lee, N.; McGuire, M.F.; Wenzel, A.H.; Valkovic, M.M.
1982-09-01
This report presents data and limited analysis from the 21-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Separate Effects and Systems Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The tests consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. Steam cooling and hydraulic characteristics tests were also conducted. These tests were utilized to determine effects of various flow blockage configurations (shapes and distributions) on reflooding behavior, to aid in development/assessment of computational models in predicting reflooding behavior of flow blockage configurations, and to screen flow blockage configurations for future 163-rod flow blockage bundle tests.
High temperature flow-through device for rapid solubilization and analysis
West, Jason A. A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hukari, Kyle W. (San Ramon, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)
2009-09-22
Devices and methods for thermally lysing of biological material, for example vegetative bacterial cells and bacterial spores, are provided. Hot solution methods for solubilizing bacterial spores are described. Systems for direct analysis are disclosed including thermal lysers coupled to sample preparation stations. Integrated systems capable of performing sample lysis, labeling and protein fingerprint analysis of biological material, for example, vegetative bacterial cells, bacterial spores and viruses are provided.
Load regulating expansion fixture
Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.
1998-12-15
A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...
Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.
1999-05-04
A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.
Load regulating expansion fixture
Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)
1998-01-01
A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.
Ancillary-service details: regulation, load following, and generator response
Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.
1996-09-01
The purpose of this report is to examine empirically these intrahour and interhour load changes and the responses of a utility`s generating resources to those load changes. We analyze data, primarily from one control area, to see how it maintains ACE close to zero in an effort to meet the A1 and A2 criteria. Overall, we estimate that load following costs US electric utilities over one billion dollars a year. We first test alternative ways to identify trends over multihour periods using both regression analysis and rolling averages. Then, we consider several metrics for intrahour load following. Next we examine characteristics of load following for different time-averaging periods and compare the dynamics of loads and load following generation across these time periods. Finally, we consider the contribution of each load to the total load following requirements of the control area.
NUCLEAR REACTORS; PIPES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; SUPPORTS; DYNAMIC LOADS...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Limit analysis of pipe clamps Flanders, H.E. Jr. 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; PIPES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; SUPPORTS; DYNAMIC LOADS; HEAT TRANSFER; HYDRAULICS; REACTOR SAFETY;...
Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Su, Grace W.
2005-02-24
This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. (2002) of analysis of the hydrogeology, In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) results, aquifer response, and changes in the trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County. Fuels and solvents were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) during airport fire suppression training between 1962 and 1985. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer. In the late 1980's, soil excavation and bioremediation were successful in remediating soil contamination at the site. Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. Some conclusions from the prior study have been modified based on these new analyses, and these are pointed out clearly in this report.
Not Available
1981-06-01
This report documents the procedures and results of a study sponsored jointly by the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy. The study was conducted to provide, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)-level production/consumption data for energy materials for 1985 and 1990 in support of an analysis of transportation requirements for export coal. Base data for energy forecasts at the regional level were obtained from the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. The forecasts selected for this study are described in DOE/EIA's 1980 Annual Report to Congress, and are: 1985 Series, B, medium oil import price ($37.00/barrel); and 1990 Series B, medium oil import price ($41.00/barrel). Each forecast period is extensively described by approximately forty-three statistical tables prepared by EIA and made available to TERA for this study. This report provides sufficient information to enable the transportation analyst to appreciate the procedures employed by TERA to produce the BEA-level energy production/consumption data. The report presents the results of the procedures, abstracts of data tabulations, and various assumptions used for the preparation of the BEA-level data. The end-product of this effort was the BEA to BEA energy commodity flow data by more which serve as direct input to DOT's transportation network model being used for a detailed analysis of export coal transportation.
High Flash-point Fluid Flow System Aerosol Flammability Study and Combustion Mechanism Analysis
Huang, Szu-Ying
2013-12-02
regions of three main, widely-used commercial heat transfer fluids: Paratherm NF (P-NF); Dowtherm-600 (D-600); and Plate Heat Exchange Fluid (PHE), were analyzed by electro-spray generation with laser diffraction particle analysis method. The aerosol...
Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Thermal Analysis of the PediaFlow Pediatric Ventricular
Paden, Brad
bearing components. Another main objective is to identify "hot spots" within the pump and ensure transfer equations with thermal finite element analysis (FEA). The models assume three main sources of waste heat gen- eration: copper motor windings, active magnetic thrust bearing windings, and eddy
Oya, A; Hiraoka, N; Fujimoto, M; Fukagawa, R
2015-01-01
The Saigon River, which flows through the center of Ho Chi Minh City, is of critical importance for the development of the city as forms as the main water supply and drainage channel for the city. In recent years, riverbank erosion and failures have become more frequent along the Saigon River, causing flooding and damage to infrastructures near the river. A field investigation and numerical study has been undertaken by our research group to identify factors affecting the riverbank failure. In this paper, field investigation results obtained from multiple investigation points on the Saigon River are presented, followed by a comprehensive coupled finite element analysis of riverbank stability when subjected to river water level fluctuations. The river water level fluctuation has been identified as one of the main factors affecting the riverbank failure, i.e. removal of the balancing hydraulic forces acting on the riverbank during water drawdown.
A general formula for non-cohesive bed load sediment transport Benoi^t Camenen), Magnus Larson
US Army Corps of Engineers
A general formula for non-cohesive bed load sediment transport Benoi^t Camenen), Magnus Larson 2004; accepted 29 October 2004 Abstract A bed load transport formula for non-cohesive sediment, based, oscillatory flows, and combined steady and oscillatory flows. The bed load formula introduced in this study
Monte, F. de; Galli, G.; Marcotullio, F.
1996-12-31
A closed form-expression for the effectiveness of the heat exchangers and regenerator of a Stirling cycle machine is given. This result may be used in a simple way in order to evaluate their effect on the machine performance. The proposed method, indeed, allows the actual cycle gas temperatures in the heater and cooler to be obtained readily, once the geometry of the heater, cooler and regenerator is known and some quantities characterizing the engine dynamics (strokes, frequency and phase angle of the moving elements) and its heat-exchange processes (inlet temperatures of the heating and cooling fluids, and their volumetric flow rates) are measured. Thus, an immediate indication about the effectiveness of the heat exchangers and regenerator as well as about the machine thermal efficiency may be obtained. The availability of a closed-form expression for the heater, regenerator and cooler effectiveness is useful especially for those engines, like the free-piston Stirling engines, whose design requires the application of analytically based optimization criteria.
Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.
2010-12-15
We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.
Flutter analysis of a cascade of staggered blades in subsonic flow
Kronenberger, Louis
1977-01-01
. DEDICATION To Lynda, Michelle, and Kellie. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS DEDICATION TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES NOMENCLATURE INTRODUCTION AERODYNAMIC THEORY General Boundary Conditions Numerical Procedure... Variation on Aerodynamic Deri vati ves 26 2 Effect of Blade Segment Variation on Aerodynamic Derivatives 28 3 Summary of Two Degree of Freedom Flutter Analysis 46 LIST OF FIGURES Fi gure Cascade of Airfoi1s Blade Coordinates Two Degree of Freedom...
Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.
2011-10-01
This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of incoming wind speeds that could be provided by LIDAR. Non-causal series expansion and Preview Control methods reduce blade root loads but increase tower bending in simulation results. The optimized FIR filter reduces loads overall, keeps pitch rates low, and maintains rotor speed regulation and power capture, while using imperfect wind measurements provided by the spinning continuous-wave LIDAR model.
The analysis of fully-developed secondary flow in a uniformly heated, horizontal annulus
Holder, Thomas Nelson
1972-01-01
Future D evelopment s 35 BIBLIOGRAPHY A PPENDICES VIT A Pag e 38 42 93 L IS T OF' tc I(I U Ik ES I, Di scscl. iz; tinrr Xr'crrren& lature Pag e z6 ? . Intcsiacc Analysis Pssarnete as 53 INTRO'3IIC TION Rema rha on thc Im cori ance of thc... defined, after Milne-Thompson [ 6 ] as (I7) where W is the velocity vector. Following the i'ornjulation presented above to the point of eliminating pj. . es. ure, this sjujly then introduces thc j. ransforrnation g where P is thc st roan& i...
Analysis of postulated unscrammed loss of flow in SAFR using SSC
Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J. )
1988-01-01
Brookhaven National Laboratory is providing technical assistance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in reviewing two advanced liquid-metal reactor (LMR) designs in order to address the licensability of these innovative concepts. The designs, PRISM and SAFR are being proposed by General Electric Company and Rockwell International (RI), respectively. Brookhaven National Laboratory has utilized the super system code (SSC) to independently evaluate the LMR reactor system response during several postulated unscrammed events. This paper describes the SAFR reactor responses to a beyond-design base event where forced cooling is lost. A similar transient analysis has already been reported for PRISM.
Ford, Ian
The laminar flow tube reactor as a quantitative tool for nucleation studies: Experimental results, United Kingdom Received 24 March 2000; accepted 2 June 2000 A laminar flow tube reactor was designed
Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Quantitative analysis of the soot loading and soot distribution for Cordierite type DPFs are studied under controlled conditions.
Grapenthin, Ronni
for subsidence with a load will, e.g. result in values for verti- cal displacement at each grid point). Hence, short wavelength features of complex loads such as lava flows are lost in recorded deformationSURFACE LOADING AFFECTS INTERNAL PRESSURE SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS DERIVED FROM VOLCANO DEFORMATION
Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads. [PWR; BWR
Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.
1983-01-01
For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads.
Mailhes, Corinne
dispatching of power flows in a microgrid with storage. The investigated approach is based on the use Scheduling and Sensitivity Analysis for Sizing a Microgrid with Storage. (2014) In: 11th International FOR SIZING A MICROGRID WITH STORAGE R. Rigo-Mariani1 , B. Sareni1 , X. Roboam1 1. Université de Toulouse
Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit
ANALYSIS OF OIL TRAPPING IN POROUS MEDIA FLOW M. BERTSCH \\Lambda , R. DAL PASSO \\Lambda , AND C, considerably reduce the recovery factor of an oil reservoir. For instance, it is difficult to remove oil from parts of the reservoir with small scale heterogeneities. Sometimes, the oil may even remain trapped; see
Grujicic, Mica
2005-01-01
Materials Science and Engineering B 117 (2005) 5361 Finite element analysis-based design A finite element method-based procedure is developed for the design of molecularly functionalized nano of a fluid-flow control nano-valve. The results obtained suggest that the finite element-based procedure
Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program
Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning
2007-11-30
This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.
Ris-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines
Risø-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines Gunner Chr. Larsen, Knut Ronold, Hans E-R-1111(EN) 2 Abstract An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution
PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING
Garrett, A.
2012-01-03
The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.
," J. of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 118, November, 1996, pp. 204 Energy Technology Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87107 ABSTRACT The fatigue analysis
Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads
Kirby, B.J.
2003-04-08
Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.
Firenze, Università degli Studi di
modeled by data flow networks. The model is validated indirectly as it is transformed to Petri nets is done automatically. The correspondence between data flow networks and Petri nets is a natural idea [6 networks and then the class of the corre- sponding Petri nets. [5] introduces a transformation from DFN
Wang, Huhu 1985-
2012-12-13
effect. The bypass flow occurs when the coolant flow into gaps between fuel blocks. These gaps are formed as a result of carbon expansion and shrinkage induced by radiations and manufacturing and installation errors. Hot spots may appear in the core...
Active load control techniques for wind turbines.
van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.
2008-07-01
This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.
Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.
Measuring alignment of loading fixture
Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)
1989-01-01
An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.
Schneider, K.
1985-01-01
Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...
Research on the Effect of a Planting Roof on the Thermal Load of a Business Building
Zhang, W.; Wu, J.; Wei, Y.; Gao, X.
2006-01-01
was analyzed and the thermal load within each room was calculated Comparative analysis of thermal loads of these two rooms was done. Reduction of thermal load by the planting roof is clearly shown from our research work. A theoretical analysis of the effect...
Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation
Chassin, David P.
2013-01-01
Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.
the river bed are isotropic. The stratigraphy of both ancient (e.g., Nemec and Steel, 1984) and modern (e-flow deposits. In: Koster, E.H. and Steel, R.J. (Eds), Sedimentology of gravels and conglomerates. Memoir
Haghshenas, Arash
2013-04-24
The worst scenario of drilling operation is blowout which is uncontrolled flow of formation fluid into the wellbore. Blowouts result in environmental damage with potential risk of injuries and fatalities. Although not all blowouts result in disaster...
Sahoo, Dipankar
2008-10-10
Improved basic understanding, predictability, and controllability of vortex-dominated and unsteady aerodynamic flows are important in enhancement of the performance of next generation helicopters. The primary objective of this research project...
Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads
Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib
2013-01-01
Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.
Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.
2006-01-01
, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...
Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae
Morlino, G; Vorster, M J
2015-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar. A fraction of interstellar neutrals penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of both non-relativistic and relativistic flow, and focusing on scales much larger than the stand-off distance, we find that a relatively small density of neutrals, as low as $n_{\\rm ISM}=10^{-4}\\,\\text{cm}^{-3}$, is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in H$\\alpha$ and X-rays.
Urquiza, Eugenio
2009-01-01
better reflects flow maldistribution phenomena that wouldnumber. Therefore, flow maldistribution will create areasthat is where flow maldistribution is most likely to occur
Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing
Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)
2002-01-01
A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.
Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?
Males, R.; Hassig, N.
1981-01-01
larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...
Rahatgaonkar, P. S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., R-2, Ent. Block, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai - 400 094 (India)
2012-07-01
Prediction of groundwater movement and contaminant transport in soil is an important problem in many branches of science and engineering. This includes groundwater hydrology, environmental engineering, soil science, agricultural engineering and also nuclear engineering. Specifically, in nuclear engineering it is applicable in the design of spent fuel storage pools and waste management sites in the nuclear power plants. Ground water modeling involves the simulation of flow and contaminant transport by groundwater flow. In the context of contaminated soil and groundwater system, numerical simulations are typically used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standard. A one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics code GFLOW had been developed based on the Finite Difference Method for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport through saturated and unsaturated soil. The code is validated with the analytical model and the benchmarking cases available in the literature. (authors)
Rankine cycle load limiting through use of a recuperator bypass
Ernst, Timothy C.
2011-08-16
A system for converting heat from an engine into work includes a boiler coupled to a heat source for transferring heat to a working fluid, a turbine that transforms the heat into work, a condenser that transforms the working fluid into liquid, a recuperator with one flow path that routes working fluid from the turbine to the condenser, and another flow path that routes liquid working fluid from the condenser to the boiler, the recuperator being configured to transfer heat to the liquid working fluid, and a bypass valve in parallel with the second flow path. The bypass valve is movable between a closed position, permitting flow through the second flow path and an opened position, under high engine load conditions, bypassing the second flow path.
Load frequency control of interconnected power systems with system constraints
Choudhury, Md Ershadul H
1993-01-01
So far, researches in load frequency controls ( LFC) are involved in analysis of dynamic responses under normal conditions of the - interconnected power systems. In This research considers some system constraints (for example, one area fails...
Analysis of Refrigerant Flow and Deformation for a Flexible Short-Tube using a Finite Element Model
O'Neal, D.L.; Bassiouny, R.
2004-01-01
to an increase in the ambien perature above the system design point, a rigi rt-tube can sometimes provide a high enough flow e to flood the compressor with saturated refrigerant the other hand, when the condenser pressur . 1. Schematic of the flexible short...Pa were studied. Four upstream and downstream pressures were applied and the upstream subcooling was held at a constant value of 16.7 ?C. Mass flow rates from the numerical model were compared to available published experimental results. The study showed...
Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change
Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Kalendra, Eric
2015-07-28
Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.
Radiative Flow in a Luminous Disk
Jun Fukue
2006-01-07
Radiatively-driven flow in a luminous disk is examined in the subrelativistic regime of $(v/c)^1$, taking account of radiation transfer. The flow is assumed to be vertical, and the gravity and gas pressure are ignored. When internal heating is dropped, for a given optical depth and radiation pressure at the flow base (disk ``inside''), where the flow speed is zero, the flow is analytically solved under the appropriate boundary condition at the flow top (disk ``surface''), where the optical depth is zero. The loaded mass and terminal speed of the flow are both determined by the initial conditions; the mass-loss rate increases as the initial radiation pressure increases, while the flow terminal speed increases as the initial radiation pressure and the loaded mass decrease. In particular, when heating is ignored, the radiative flux $F$ is constant, and the radiation pressure $P_0$ at the flow base with optical depth $\\tau_0$ is bound in the range of $2/3 flow terminal speed becomes zero, while, in the limit of $cP_0/F = 2/3$, the loaded mass becomes zero and the terminal speed approaches $(3/8)c$, which is the terminal speed above the luminous flat disk under an approximation of the order of $(v/c)^1$. We also examine the case where heating exists, and find that the flow properties are qualitatively similar to the case without heating.
Multidimensional spectral load balancing
Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.
1993-01-01
We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.
Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)
1989-01-01
An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.
Williams, D.M.
1988-01-21
An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.
GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading
Stepney, Susan
GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading Susan Stepney GEC One of the tools being developed as part of ParSiFal is GRAIL. It represents an occam program flow of control, not communication channels): Susan Stepney. "GRAIL: Graphical Representation
Cirpka, Olaf Arie
methods Mathematical modelling CO2 storage Enhanced oil recovery Groundwater contamination Multi-phase multi-component flow processes are fundamental to engineering applications in hydrocarbon and geothermal The transport of dissolved chemical components (e.g., CO2, NaCl, CH4) in different fluid phases (e.g., water
Global Sensitivity Analysis for the Short-term Prediction of System Variables
Tesfatsion, Leigh
. These system variables include unit dispatch levels, line flows, and line congestion. Short-term predictions1 Global Sensitivity Analysis for the Short-term Prediction of System Variables Qun Zhou, Student--Short-term prediction of system variables with re- spect to load levels is highly important for market operations
The effect of local scheduling in load balancing designs Ho-Lin Chen
Low, Steven H.
that proba- bilistically routes arrivals to queues so that the mean response time (a.k.a. sojourn time, flow with rate i and the load at queue i is i := i/Âµi a.k.a
Sudip K. Mazumder; Chuck McKintyre; Dan Herbison; Doug Nelson; Comas Haynes; Michael von Spakovsky; Joseph Hartvigsen; S. Elangovan
2003-11-03
Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry. However, this is not true for the thermal, mechanical, and chemical balance-of-plant subsystem (BOPS), where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy diminishes the reliability and performance of the electrode with increasing demand of load. Because these unwanted phenomena are not well understood, the manufacturers of SOFC use conservative schemes (such as, delayed load-following to compensate for slow BOPS response or expensive inductor filtering) to control stack responses to load variations. This limits the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications from a cost standpoint. Thus, a need exists for the synthesis of component- and system-level models of SOFC power-conditioning systems and the development of methodologies for investigating the system-interaction issues (which reduce the lifetime and efficiency of a SOFC) and optimizing the responses of each subsystem, leading to optimal designs of power-conditioning electronics and optimal control strategies, which mitigate the electrical-feedback effects. Equally important are ''multiresolution'' finite-element modeling and simulation studies, which can predict the impact of changes in system-level variables (e.g., current ripple and load-transients) on the local current densities, voltages, and temperature (these parameters are very difficult or cumbersome, if not impossible to obtain) within a SOFC cell. Towards that end, for phase I of this project, sponsored by the U.S. DOE (NETL), we investigate the interactions among fuel cell, power-conditioning system, and application loads and their effects on SOFC reliability (durability) and performance. A number of methodologies have been used in Phase I to develop the steady-state and transient nonlinear models of the SOFC stack subsystem (SOFCSS), the power-electronics subsystem (PES), and the BOPS. Such an approach leads to robust and comprehensive electrical, electrochemical, thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, and geometric models of the SOFSS, PES and application loads, and BOPS. A comprehensive methodology to resolve interactions among SOFCSS, PES and application loads and to investigate the impacts of the fast- and slow-scale dynamics of the power-conditioning system (PCS) on the SOFCSS has been developed by this team. Parametric studies on SOFCSS have been performed and the effects of current ripple and load transients on SOFC material properties are investigated. These results are used to gain insights into the long-term performance and reliability of the SOFCSS. Based on this analysis, a novel, efficient, and reliable PES for SOFC has been developed. Impacts of SOFC PCS control techniques on the transient responses, flow parameters, and current densities have also been studied and a novel nonlinear hybrid controller for single/parallel DC-DC converter has been developed.
Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K
2014-01-01
We study accretion flow dynamics of Galactic transient black hole candidate (BHC) H 1743-322 during its 2010 outburst by analyzing spectral data using Two Component (Keplerian and sub-Keplerian) Advective Flow (TCAF) solution, after its inclusion in XSPEC as a local model. We compare our TCAF solution fitted results with combined disk black body and power-law model fitted results and find a similar smooth variation of thermal (Keplerian or disk black body) and non-thermal (power-law or sub-Keplerian) fluxes/rates in two types of model fits. For a spectral analysis, 2.5-25 keV spectral data from RXTE PCA instrument are used. From the TCAF solution fit, accretion flow parameters, such as Keplerian rate, sub-Keplerian rate, location of centrifugal pressure supported shock and strength of the shock are extracted, thus providing a deeper understanding of accretion process and properties of accretion disks around BHC H 1743-322 during its X-ray outburst. Based on the halo to disk accretion rate ratio (ARR), shock p...
Dynamic load balancing of applications
Wheat, S.R.
1997-05-13
An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.
Dynamic load balancing of applications
Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)
1997-01-01
An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.
Electrical and Production Load Factors
Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.
2009-01-01
factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors for each shift... The purpose of this paper is to analyze operating hours of small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in the United States and develop ranges of load factors for use as diagnostic tools for effective energy management. Load factor is defined...
Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)
1998-09-01
A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.
Yu. N. Bratkov
2010-04-03
Flow analysis of big basins is given. Internal structure of flows is considered. Correlations between flows are calculated. For example, Mare Orientale is a moving basin. Orientale and Imbrium continental basins are introduced and are considered. Olbers ray crater is a result of precise interaction of the two basins. Flows of the Tycho type are studied. Two Antarctidae, an Indian Ocean, and an America are demonstrated.
Kim, J.
2014-01-01
way Coupled Fluid Flow and Geomechanics in Hydrate Deposits.for Coupled Flow and Geomechanics. Soc. Pet. Eng. J. 16(2):for coupled flow and geomechanics: Drained and undrained
Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components
I. Cuesta
2004-09-01
This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.
Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material
Pelka, Piotr
2009-08-15
This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)
R. Alvargonzalez; L. S. Soto
2008-03-07
The energy flow of zero-point radiation is very great, but difficult to put to use. However, the observations made by Sparnaay in 1958 and by Lamoureux in 1997 reveal the possibility of making use of a very small fraction of that immense amount. This possibility is big enough for such a minute fraction to have significant importance, but such a possibility requires miniaturisation to a degree which may be unattainable. It is worth trying to achieve it, since it would open the way to interstellar travel.
Load-Balancing Multipath Switching System with Flow Slice
Chao, Jonathan
multistage switches in Cisco CRS-1 [1]. Other examples include the Vitesse switch chip family [3 to distribute incoming traffic A(t) across its k internal switching paths fÀlgðl 2 ½1; kÞ to meet at least three, minimize average packet delay, and maximize throughput. This requirement is formalized as Equalize È Al jðt
Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip K
2013-01-01
We study the spectral properties of the Galactic transient black hole candidate (BHC) GX 339-4 during its 2010-11 outburst with Two Component (Keplerian and sub-Keplerian) Advective Flow (TCAF) model after its inclusion in XSPEC as a local model. We also compare our TCAF model fitted results with combined disk black body (DBB) and power-law (PL) model fitted spectral results and find similar types of smooth variation in thermal (Keplerian or disk black body) as well as non-thermal (power-law or sub-Keplerian) fluxes. For spectral fit, we use 2.5-25 keV spectral data of PCA instrument onboard RXTE satellite. From the TCAF model fit, accretion flow parameters, such as the Keplerian (disk) rate, sub-Keplerian (halo) rate, location of the shock and strength of the shock are extracted. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of the mass accretion processes and properties of the accretion disk around the BHC during the outburst phases. Based on the comparison of the halo to disk accretion rate ratio (ARR) ...
Loftus, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Lee, N.; McGuire, M.F.; Wenzel, A.H.; Valkovic, M.M.
1982-09-01
This report presents data and limited analysis from the 21-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Separate Effects and Systems Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The tests consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. Steam cooling and hydraulic characteristics tests were also conducted. These tests were utilized to determine effects of various flow blockage configurations (shapes and distributions) on reflooding behavior, to aid in development/assessment of computational models in predicting reflooding behavior of flow blockage configurations, and to screen flow blockage configurations for future 163-rod flow blockage bundle tests.
LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg
Feinberg, Eugene A.
, regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS
Load Management - A Better Way
Easley, J. F.
1982-01-01
of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows...
Wind Turbine Blade Flow Fields and Prospects for Active Aerodynamic Control: Preprint
Schreck, S.; Robinson, M.
2007-08-01
This paper describes wind turbine flow fields that can cause adverse aerodynamic loading and can impact active aerodynamic control methodologies currently contemplated for wind turbine applications.
Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011
Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.
2012-08-01
As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.
Comparison of Second-Order Loads on a Semisubmersible Floating Wind Turbine: Preprint
Gueydon, S.; Duarte, T.; Jonkman, J.; Bayati, I.; Sarmento, A.
2014-03-01
As offshore wind projects move to deeper waters, floating platforms become the most feasible solution for supporting the turbines. The oil and gas industry has gained experience with floating platforms that can be applied to offshore wind projects. This paper focuses on the analysis of second-order wave loading on semisubmersible platforms. Semisubmersibles, which are being chosen for different floating offshore wind concepts, are particularly prone to slow-drift motions. The slack catenary moorings usually result in large natural periods for surge and sway motions (more than 100 s), which are in the range of the second-order difference-frequency excitation force. Modeling these complex structures requires coupled design codes. Codes have been developed that include turbine aerodynamics, hydrodynamic forces on the platform, restoring forces from the mooring lines, flexibility of the turbine, and the influence of the turbine control system. In this paper two different codes are employed: FAST, which was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and aNySIM, which was developed by the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands. The hydrodynamic loads are based on potential-flow theory, up to the second order. Hydrodynamic coefficients for wave excitation, radiation, and hydrostatic forces are obtained with two different panel codes, WAMIT (developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and DIFFRAC (developed by MARIN). The semisubmersible platform, developed for the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation project is used as a reference platform. Irregular waves are used to compare the behavior of this platform under slow-drift excitation loads. The results from this paper highlight the effects of these loads on semisubmersible-type platforms, which represent a promising solution for the commercial development of the offshore deepwater wind resource.
Coupled fluid flow and geomechanical deformation modeling Susan E. Minkoff a,*, C. Mike Stoneb,1
Peszynska, Malgorzata
Coupled fluid flow and geomechanical deformation modeling Susan E. Minkoff a,*, C. Mike Stoneb,1 reservoir properties. Pore pressures from flow are used as loads for the geomechanics code
Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium
Limpaitoon, Tanachai
2012-01-01
network in the DC OPF model without transmission losses. Oila lossless DC load flow model where transmission flows arethe transmission network, we employ a direct current (DC)
Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load
Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K
2009-01-01
As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.
Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems
Huayamave, Victor; Divo, Eduardo; Ceballos, Andres; Barriento, Carolina; Stephen, Barkaszi; Hubert, Seigneur
2014-03-21
The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals of reducing the total installed cost of solar energy systems by 75%. The largest percentage of the total installed cost of solar energy system is associated with balance of system cost, with up to 40% going to “soft” costs; which include customer acquisition, financing, contracting, permitting, interconnection, inspection, installation, performance, operations, and maintenance. The calculator that is being developed will provide wind loads in real-time for any solar system designs and suggest the proper installation configuration and hardware; and therefore, it is anticipated to reduce system design, installation and permitting costs.
Brandstetter, E.R.; Littlefield, D.C.; Villegas, M.
1996-03-01
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated by the University of California under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Livermore site, approximately 50 miles southeast of San Francisco, occupies 819 acres. So far, there have been three phases in an assessment and rehabilitation of the LLNL sanitary sewer system. A 1989 study that used data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows. A Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, from October of 1991 to March of 1996, in which the system was assessed and rehabilitated. The third study is the post-rehabilitation assessment study that is reported in this document. In this report, the sanitary sewer system is described, and the goals and results of the 1989 study and the SSR project are summarized. The goals of the post-rehabilitation study are given and the analytical procedures and simulation model are described. Results, conclusions, and recommendations for further work or study are given. Field operations are summarized in Appendix A. References are provided in Appendix B.
Cho, KT; Albertus, P; Battaglia, V; Kojic, A; Srinivasan, V; Weber, AZ
2013-10-07
For storage of grid-scale electrical energy, redox-flow batteries (RFBs) are considered promising technologies. This paper explores the influence of electrolyte composition and ion transport on cell performance by using an integrated approach of experiments and cost modeling. In particular, the impact of the area-specific resistance on system capability is elucidated for the hydrogen/bromine RFB. The experimental data demonstrate very good performance with 1.46 W cm(-2) peak power and 4 A cm(-2) limiting current density at ambient conditions for an optimal cell design and reactant concentrations. The data and cost model results show that higher concentrations of RFB reactants do not necessarily result in lower capital cost as there is a tradeoff between cell performance and storage (tank) requirements. In addition, the discharge time and overall efficiency demonstrate nonlinear effects on system cost, with a 3 to 4 hour minimum discharge time showing a key transition to a plateau in terms of cost for typical RFB systems. The presented results are applicable to many different RFB chemistries and technologies and highlight the importance of ohmic effects and associated area-specific resistance on RFB viability.
Microchannel cross load array with dense parallel input
Swierkowski, Stefan P.
2004-04-06
An architecture or layout for microchannel arrays using T or Cross (+) loading for electrophoresis or other injection and separation chemistry that are performed in microfluidic configurations. This architecture enables a very dense layout of arrays of functionally identical shaped channels and it also solves the problem of simultaneously enabling efficient parallel shapes and biasing of the input wells, waste wells, and bias wells at the input end of the separation columns. One T load architecture uses circular holes with common rows, but not columns, which allows the flow paths for each channel to be identical in shape, using multiple mirror image pieces. Another T load architecture enables the access hole array to be formed on a biaxial, collinear grid suitable for EDM micromachining (square holes), with common rows and columns.
Electrical and Production Load Factors
Sen, Tapajyoti
2010-07-14
Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...
Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.
Building load control and optimization
Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-
2004-01-01
Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...
Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures
Hainfeld, J.F.
1997-11-25
Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.
Demand Response: Load Management Programs
Simon, J.
2012-01-01
Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...
Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA)
2011-01-18
A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.
Upadhyaya, Belle; Hines, J. Wesley; Damiano, Brian; Mehta, Chaitanya; Collins, Price; Lish, Matthew; Cady, Brian; Lollar, Victor; de Wet, Dane; Bayram, Duygu
2015-12-15
The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on plant parameters and the pump electrical signatures. Additionally, the reactor simulation is being used to generate normal operation data and data with instrumentation faults and process anomalies. A frequency controller was interfaced with the motor power supply in order to vary the electrical supply frequency. The experimental flow control loop was used to generate operational data under varying motor performance characteristics. Coolant leakage events were simulated by varying the bypass loop flow rate. The accuracy of motor power calculation was improved by incorporating the power factor, computed from motor current and voltage in each phase of the induction motor.- A variety of experimental runs were made for steady-state and transient pump operating conditions. Process, vibration, and electrical signatures were measured using a submersible pump with variable supply frequency. High correlation was seen between motor current and pump discharge pressure signal; similar high correlation was exhibited between pump motor power and flow rate. Wide-band analysis indicated high coherence (in the frequency domain) between motor current and vibration signals. - Wide-band operational data from a PWR were acquired from AMS Corporation and used to develop time-series models, and to estimate signal spectrum and sensor time constant. All the data were from different pressure transmitters in the system, including primary and secondary loops. These signals were pre-processed using the wavelet transform for filtering both low-frequency and high-frequency bands. This technique of signal pre-processing provides minimum distortion of the data, and results in a more optimal estimation of time constants of plant sensors using time-series modeling techniques.
Yu. N. Bratkov
2008-11-19
In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.
Liles, D.R.
1982-01-01
Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced.
Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings
Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei
2014-02-12
In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.
Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.
Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho
2010-01-01
De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor
Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...
Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...
Self-aligning biaxial load frame
Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.
1994-01-18
An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.
TRAC-PF1/MOD-1 analysis of Loss-Of-Flow Test L9-4
Meier, J.
1985-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and for many thermal-hydraulic experimental facilities. As part of our independent assessment of code version TRAC-PF1/MOD1, we analyzed Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) L9-4 and compared the test data to the calculated results. This was an anticipated-transient-without-scram test in which the pumps were tripped, the steam generator main feedwater discontinued, and the main steam-outlet valve closed. This data comparison is the first extensive test of TRAC's reactor-kinetics models. The comparisons show that TRAC can calculate the power generation within a nuclear reactor if the program is supplied with adequate reactor-kinetics input specifications. The data comparisons also indicate that TRAC calculated the thermal-hydraulic parameters within LOFT well with only minor discrepancies. A number of models within TRAC-PF1/MOD1 were verified for the first time. They include the reactor-kinetics models, the trip-activated time-step controls, and the LOFT pump-coastdown calculations. In general, the final input description is adequate to analyze the experiment. The calculations indicate the importance and difficulty of obtaining accurate and applicable reactor-kinetics input data. They also indicate the need to include the effects of xenon-poisoning buildup in the analysis.
A remote image analysis terminal
Daigle, Lucien Don
1976-01-01
A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D VITA 140 142 157 157 162 163 164 170 179 190 234 Vrzt I, I S'I' III' I: I OIIRI:. 8 The Remote Image Analysis Terminal System Block Diagram The Digital Interface The Analog Interface Digitizer...- flow Chart Loading and Transmission of Position Coordinates Page 59 61 63 65 66 II-22 II-23 Keyboard Block Diagram Generation and Transmission cE a Hex Digit 69 70 II- 24 I I-25 Opcode Table 73 Partial Block Diagram...
Hartmann, Andreas; Clauser, Christoph
2008-01-01
Development of geothermal energy and basin-scale simulations of fluid and heat flow both suffer from uncertain physical rock properties at depth. Therefore, building better prognostic models are required. We analysed hydraulic and thermal properties of the major rock types in the Molasse Basin in Southern Germany. On about 400 samples thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and sonic velocity were measured. Here, we propose a three-step procedure with increasing complexity for analysis of the data set: First, univariate descriptive statistics provides a general understanding of the data structure, possibly still with large uncertainty. Examples show that the remaining uncertainty can be as high as 0.8 W/(m K) or as low as 0.1 W/(m K). This depends on the possibility to subdivide the geologic units into data sets that are also petrophysically similar. Then, based on all measurements, cross-plot and quick-look methods are used to gain more insight into petrophysical relationships and to refine the analysis. Be...
Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems
Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.
2013-09-01
In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.
{Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing
Burke, William Jerome
2010-01-01
modeling and control of load management. Further, withoutA profit-based load management using linear programming”.with applica- tions to load management assessment and load
Staying FIT: Efficient Load Shedding Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing
. Bottlenecks slow down processing and network transmission, and cause delayed outputs. Load management has been. Common load management techniques include adaptive load distribution, admis- sion control, and load
Ituzaro, Fred Agyekum
2012-07-16
Smart radial distribution grids will include advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and significant distributed generators (DGs) connected close to loads. DGs in these radial distribution systems (RDS) introduce bidirectional power flows (BPFs...
Bose, Rana
2007-09-17
Low-pressure, low-producing natural gas wells commonly encounter liquid loading during production. Because of the decline in the reservoir pressure and the flow capacity, wells can fall below terminal velocity. Identifying and predicting the onset...
Optimal Power Flow Based Demand Response Offer Price Optimization
Lavaei, Javad
Optimal Power Flow Based Demand Response Offer Price Optimization Zhen Qiu 1 Introduction-time energy balance. Demand response programs are offered by the utility companies to reduce the load response cost in exchange for load reduction. A considerable amount of papers have discussed the demand
Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.
and quiescent current flow during light loading conditions and (2) an adaptive PA bias-current generator1 Abstract-- Power efficiency during heavy- and light-loading conditions in wireless portable efficiency is improved with a 0.5-µm CMOS dynamically adaptive, dual-mode buck- boost power supply and bias
Modeling shrouded stator cavity flows in axial-flow compressors
Wellborn, S.R.; Tolchinsky, I.; Okiishi, T.H.
2000-01-01
Experiments and computational analyses were completed to understand the nature of shrouded stator cavity flows. From this understanding, a one-dimensional model of the flow through shrouded stator cavities was developed. This model estimates the leakage mass flow, temperature rise, and angular momentum increase through the cavity, given geometry parameters and the flow conditions at the interface between the cavity and primary flow path. This cavity model consists of two components, one that estimates the flow characteristics through the labyrinth seals and the other that predicts the transfer of momentum due to windage. A description of the one-dimensional model is given. The incorporation and use of the one-dimensional model in a multistage compressor primary flow analysis tool is described. The combination of this model and the primary flow solver was used to reliably simulate the significant impact on performance of the increase of hub seal leakage in a twelve-stage axial-flow compressor. Observed higher temperatures of the hub region fluid, different stage matching, and lower overall efficiencies and core flow than expected could be correctly linked to increased hub seal clearance with this new technique. The importance of including these leakage flows in compressor simulations is shown.
Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Boucherie, Richard J.
Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol T.R. Meerburg , R.J. Boucherie , M.J.A.L. van objective is to guarantee safety, efficiency, and protection of the environment, that includes noise load contributes to the noise load at these points. If the cumulative load in an aviation year at an enforce- ment
Raffray, A. René
2014-01-01
analysis for cooling the ITER Blanket System, Fusion Eng. Des. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elsevier.com/locate/fusengdes Optimized mass flow rate distribution analysis for cooling the ITER Blanket System Germán Pérez , Raphaël: ITER Blanket System Mass flow rate Critical heat flux a b s t r a c t This paper presents the rationale
The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)
2009-12-15
An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.
Mechanical design of flow batteries
Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)
2013-01-01
The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...
Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.
2013-01-01
Load forecasting in the day-ahead timescale is a critical aspect of power system operations that is used in the unit commitment process. It is also an important factor in renewable energy integration studies, where the combination of load and wind or solar forecasting techniques create the net load uncertainty that must be managed by the economic dispatch process or with suitable reserves. An understanding of that load forecasting errors that may be expected in this process can lead to better decisions about the amount of reserves necessary to compensate errors. In this work, we performed a statistical analysis of the day-ahead (and two-day-ahead) load forecasting errors observed in two independent system operators for a one-year period. Comparisons were made with the normal distribution commonly assumed in power system operation simulations used for renewable power integration studies. Further analysis identified time periods when the load is more likely to be under- or overforecast.
Wray, Craig
2010-01-01
Type of Analysis CrossFlow; ! - Heat ExchangerType of Analysis CrossFlow; ! - Heat Exchanger ConfigurationType of Analysis CrossFlow; ! - Heat Exchanger Configuration
Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration
@compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis
Menascé, Daniel A.
Scaling the Web Load Testing of Web Sites D evelopers typically measure a Web appli- cation on a Web site's IT infrastructure are a function of the site's expect- ed traffic. Ideally, you want, you shouldn't upgrade your Web servers if customers experience most delays in the database server
Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Toumpis, Stavros
Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Stavros Toumpis Electrical balancing in wireless networks with a single class of traffic, focusing our attention on an important example, i.e., Wireless Sensor Networks. The analysis is based on the Wireless Minimum Cost Problem
Mass loading estimates of the Eyjafjll ash plume using principle
Graaf, Martin de
Mass loading estimates of the Eyjafjöll ash plume using principle component analysis applied;Tropospheric aerosol kernels #12;Volcanic ash refractive index El Chicón ash: 1.53 (PaNerson et Eyjafjöll volcanic ash mass concentrations were low over NL PCA and multi-wavelength data may help to find
Urquiza, Eugenio
2009-01-01
for Compact Plate-Type Heat Exchangers. ” American Institutethese conditions, plate-type heat exchangers with small flowHeatric plate-type compact heat exchanger showing multiple
Analysis and Design of Power Acceptability Curves
Analysis and Design of Power Acceptability Curves for Industrial Loads Masters Thesis and Final Analysis and Design of Power Acceptability Curves for Industrial Loads Thesis and Final Report John Kyei
SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading
K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott
2011-03-01
The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.
Reliability assessment of Indian Point Unit 3 containment structure under combined loads
Hwang, H.; Shinozuka, M.; Kawakami, J.; Reich, M.
1984-01-01
In the current design criteria, the load combinations specified for design of concrete containment structures are in the deterministic format. However, by applying the probability-based reliability analysis method developed by BNL to the concrete containment structures designed according to the criteria, it is possible to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria. For this purpose, the reliability analysis is applied to the Indian Point Unit No. 3 containment. The details of the containment structure such as the geometries and the rebar arrangements, etc., are taken from the working drawings and the Final Safety Analysis Report. Three kinds of loads are considered in the reliability analysis. They are, dead load, accidental pressure due to a large LOCA, and earthquake ground acceleration. This paper presents the reliability analysis results of the Indian Point Unit 3 containment subjected to all combinations of loads.
A Comparison of Wind Turbine Load Statistics for Inflow Turbulence Fields based on Conventional
Manuel, Lance
A Comparison of Wind Turbine Load Statistics for Inflow Turbulence Fields based on Conventional for a utility-scale 5MW wind turbine. Load statistics, spectra, and time-frequency analysis representations utility-scale wind turbines. The present study takes on this question by making use of conventional
Load-Balanced Routing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
Boutaba, Raouf
Load-Balanced Routing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks Fatma Bouabdallah, Nizar. In this paper, we investigate the potential energy conservation achieved by balancing the traffic throughout, load balancing, performance analysis. I. INTRODUCTION In order to minimize the energy consumption
Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnection
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.
Residential Load Management Program and Pilot
Haverlah, D.; Riordon, K.
1994-01-01
In 1986 LCRA embarked on residential load management to control peak summer loads. At that time, LCRA was considered a summer peaking utility, and residential air conditioning and water heating systems were selected for control. The program...
Van den Engh, G.
1995-11-07
A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.
Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A
2014-12-23
A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.
Wind induced torsional loads on structures
Kareem, Ahsan
-level crosswind loading on a square cross-section building. Reinhold et al.4 instrumented a building model
Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project
Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.
2011-08-01
This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.
Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads
Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.
for the same data. Two methods are described for forecasting daily peak loads up to one week ahead through, including generator unit commitment, hydro-thermal coordination, short-term maintenance, fuel allocation forecasting accuracies. STLF forecasting covers the daily peak load, total daily energy, and daily load curve
Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications
Kriikku, E.
1998-11-25
This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.
Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load
Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load Vsevolod V. Panteleenko and Vincent W. Freeh A modern web-hosting site is designed to handle load that is sometimes an order of magnitude greater than and performance study of the web booster architecture, which reduces web server load during peak periods. A web
Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.
Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)
2007-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.
Turbulence loads on the Howden 26-m-diameter wind turbine
Madsen, P.H.; Hock, S.M.; Hausfeld, T.E.
1987-11-01
Conducted in Palm Springs, California, a joint effort between SERI and James Howden and Company involved a comprehensive test program on the 330-kW Howden wind turbine with a three-bladed, fixed-hub rotor 26 m in diameter. Part of the measurement analysis is to quantify the turbulence loads during the steady-state production modes of operation. Assuming wind turbulence to be the cause of the random loads, the turbulence loads in terms of blade root-bending moments have been determined empirically by isolating the random or nonperiodic part of the load signals using azimuthal averaging. Standard deviations as functions of wind speed, as well as power spectra of the loads, are presented. The measured turbulence loads are compared to a recently developed model for turbulence loading of wind turbines. The model works in the frequency domain and uses the standard engineering representation of turbulence in terms of a coherence function and a wind-power spectrum at a fixed point in space. The turbulence load model accounts for the dominant mode of vibration for the load in question and is intended to be simple enough to be used for a preliminary load estimate for practical design purposes.
Costes, Sylvain Vincent
1994-01-01
This study concerns with the development of a simple three-dimensional technique to determine the velocity of fluid by tracing the motion of seeded particles in a flow in three-dimensions. A correction for light refraction ...
Yang, Daegil
2013-07-15
A growing demand for more detailed modeling of subsurface physics as ever more challenging reservoirs - often unconventional, with significant geomechanical particularities - become production targets has moti-vated research in coupled flow...
Crawford, H.J.; Lindstrom, P.J.
1983-10-01
This paper describes a housekeeping, sorting, and plotting package that operates on word lists generated by a series of user subroutines called ANALYSERS. The LULU program provides a new approach to real-time data analysis for experiments at the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory BEVALAC. ANALYSERS are grouped together for loading and calling in a subroutine called LUUNA. Gives a detailed description of the data flow through LULU. Points out that LULA enables the formation of 100 scatter plots and 100 histograms simultaneously. Presents a diagram which shows the arrays that are used. From the RAW data array (input array) through the analyser output array, VALS, and through the plot arrays, SCAT, to the final array that is displayed as a graph, XY.
Reservoir-Wellbore Coupled Simulation of Liquid Loaded Gas Well Performance
Riza, Muhammad Feldy
2013-11-12
.................................................................................... 15 2.3 Heat Transfer Model ............................................................................ 21 2.4 Critical Loading Velocity Model Development ................................... 23 CHAPTER III MODEL IMPLEMENTATION AND DATA... Velocity Models Comparison .................................................. 35 3.4 Model Validation .................................................................................. 40 CHAPTER IV SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS...
Formulation of Prediction Algorithms for Management of Commercial and Industrial Energy Loads
Forrester, R. J.; Wepfer, W. J.
1984-01-01
to adjust control strategies to minimize overall energy costs. This paper describes the formulation of statistically-based energy load prediction algorithms. For many such applications multiple linear regression analysis is appropriate. Examination...
An Energy-Based Approach to Power System Analysis
Caliskan, Sina Yamac
2015-01-01
loads, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 1,equation, Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 3, No. 3,In contemporary power systems, energy flows from the
High loading uranium fuel plate
Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)
1990-01-01
Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.
Automated fuel pin loading system
Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)
1985-01-01
An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.
INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS
Sullivan, Paul W.
2013-01-01
May 27-30, 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR12048 May 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FORfor increases in the building cooling load resulting from
Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS
Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie
2002-01-01
of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS
Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution
Maasoumy, Mehdi; Nuzzo, Pierluigi; Iandola, Forrest; Kamgarpour, Maryam; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto; Tomlin, Claire
2014-01-01
Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Poweris to develop an optimal load management system based on thescheme where a high-level load management system receives as
ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM
Krieg, B.
2010-01-01
Development Commission. Load Management in California. Staffon the Challenge of Load Management, Conservation Paper No.for Electric Utility Load Management. New York, New York:
Urquiza, Eugenio
2009-01-01
Transient Thermal, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Analysis of a2009 Transient Thermal, Hydraulic, and Mechanical AnalysisAbstract Transient Thermal, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Stress
Vacuum-assisted cell loading enables shear-free mammalian microfluidic Martin Kolnik,a
Hasty, Jeff
Vacuum-assisted cell loading enables shear-free mammalian microfluidic culture{ Martin Kolnik,a Lev that are extremely isolated from potentially damaging flow effects. We utilize a transient on-chip vacuum to remove by generating a localized temporary on-chip vacuum in channels directly adjacent to the trapping regions
Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads
Li, Nanxi 1986-
2012-12-05
studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low...
Miller, Richard S.
of natural and practical applications; including, liquid fueled combustion, solid propellant combustion or liquid droplets smaller than the smallest length scale of the corresponding single-phase gas flowEffects of nonreacting solid particle and liquid droplet loading on an exothermic reacting mixing
Spherical Representation and Polyhedron Routing for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Edinburgh, University of
-Andreev-Thurston Theorem for any 3-connected planar graphs. In our paper we use discrete Ricci flow to develop, to prevent some nodes running out of battery immaturely. In terms of routing, we hope that the selected routes are `load balanced' such that the node residual battery levels are as uniform as possible
Evans, MDD; Lyons, Richard K.
2006-01-01
Understanding Order Flow October 2005 Martin D. D. Evans 1Rate Fundamentals and Order Flow, typescript, Georgetown2005), Customer Order Flow and Exchange Rate Movements: Is
Low reflectance radio frequency load
Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M
2014-04-01
A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.
Preliminary Evaluation of Load Management for Electricity End Users
Collier, S. E.
1984-01-01
The planning, design and implementation of load management is complex and expensive. The results of a load management program are subject to numerous uncertainties related to load characteristics, power cost savings, load management costs...
Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.
BARYON LOADING OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS MEDIATED BY NEUTRONS
Toma, K.; Takahara, F.
2012-08-01
Plasmas of geometrically thick, black hole (BH) accretion flows in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are generally collisionless for protons, and involve magnetic field turbulence. Under such conditions a fraction of protons can be accelerated stochastically and create relativistic neutrons via nuclear collisions. These neutrons can freely escape from the accretion flow and decay into protons in the dilute polar region above the rotating BH to form relativistic jets. We calculate geometric efficiencies of the neutron energy and mass injections into the polar region, and show that this process can deposit luminosity as high as L{sub j}{approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M-dot c{sup 2} and mass loading M-dot{sub j}{approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M-dot for the case of the BH mass M {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate. The terminal Lorentz factors of the jets are {Gamma} {approx} 3, and they may explain the AGN jets having low luminosities. For higher luminosity jets, which can be produced by additional energy inputs such as Poynting flux, the neutron decay still can be a dominant mass loading process, leading to, e.g., {Gamma} {approx} 50 for L{sub j,tot}{approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M-dot c{sup 2}.
High voltage load resistor array
Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)
2005-01-18
A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.
Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
& Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Load Participation...
1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1994-12-01
The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.
are used to estimate the external forces created by animal propulsion, the energetic costs of feeding laminar jet. Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Math 4: 321-329. In our study, the flow fields was in the fluid upstream of the tethered copepod, whereas the location of maximum velocity was in the fluid
NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS
California at Los Angeles, University of
GAA23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG OCTOBER 1999 #12;DISCLAIMER Government or any agency thereof. #12;GAA23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG by General Atomics IR&D Funds GA PROJECT 4437 OCTOBER 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK
Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories
Mathew, Paul A.
2007-09-12
This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.
Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow
Orosa, John
2014-03-11
An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.
History of Load Participation in ERCOT
Patterson, Mark
2011-10-25
Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.
Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...
Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in Switzerland (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Decentralized customerlevel under frequency...
Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report
Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan
2011-10-25
Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.
Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.
FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH
Lesieutre, Bernard
2013-01-01
of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in
2013 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)
2013-10-01
The 2013 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (2013 White Book) is BPA's latest projection of the Pacific Northwest regional retail loads, contract obligations, contract purchases, and resource capabilities. The 2013 White Book is a snapshot of conditions as of October 1, 2013, documenting the loads and resources for the Federal system and region for the 10-year study period OY 2014 through 2023. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). Starting with the 2012 White Book, BPA changed the annual production schedule for future White Books. BPA is scheduled to publish a complete White Book, which includes a Federal System Needs Assessment analysis, every other year (even years). In the odd-numbered years, BPA will publish a biennial summary update (Supplement) that only contains major changes to the Federal System and Regional System analyses that have occurred since the last White Book. http://www.bpa.gov/power/pgp/whitebook/2013/index.shtml.
Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect
Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie
2013-11-01
Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.
Pipelines and laterally loaded piles in elastoplastic medium
Rajani, B. . Inst. for Research in Construction)
1993-09-01
The uplift behavior of a shallow pipeline embedded in an elastoplastic medium is examined. An analytical solution for a beam on elastoplastic foundation is developed and a characteristic nondimensional load-displacement and stress-displacement relationship are presented. An approximate three-dimensional (3D) solution is proposed that accounts for embedment and breakaway condition behind the pipeline making use of the load-displacement curves developed for rigid anchors by Rowe and Davis in 1982. A comparison of these results with those obtained by 3D finite-element analysis indicates that the simplified solution of a beam on elastoplastic foundation is a practical alternative for analyzing the uplift behavior of shallow pipelines. The approximate solution is also used to compare the behavior of a laterally loaded pile for which no separation or separation between the surrounding soil and the back of the pile is permitted as the load is monotonically increased. The results are presented in the form of nondimensional charts that permit hand calculations and rapid verification of structural design of the pipeline and piles.
Experimental study of the effects of wakes on separation in low pressure turbine flow
O?ztu?rk, Burak
2003-01-01
the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPTblade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented...
Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings
Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti
2015-09-01
Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.
Apparatus for loading a band saw blade
Reeves, S.R.
1990-03-20
A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.
Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting
Genève, Université de
Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time
Apparatus for loading a band saw blade
Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)
1990-01-01
A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.
Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners
Popovic, Zoya
Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners John-frequency load pull tuners. Harmonic impedance control at the virtual drain is accomplished through the use the dramatic impact of varying 2nd harmonic termination. A 3rd harmonic termination is added to satisfy
Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads
Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.
2012-05-01
This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.
Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is
McCalley, James D.
1 Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is allocated to generators in a power system. In these notes, we derive the proximity effect, the inertial, constant impedance loads, and the network reduced to generator internal nodes. This expression was: { }00
Diakov, V.; Short, W.; Gilchrist, B.
2012-06-01
Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the Western U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. Without energy storage and assuming unlimited energy flows between regions, wind and PV can meet up to 80% of loads in Western U.S. while less than 10% of the generated power is curtailed. Limiting hourly energy flows by the aggregated transmission line carrying capacities decreases the fraction of the load that can be met with wind and PV generation to approximately 70%.
DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS
X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao
2011-09-01
In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.
Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads
Milan Batista
2013-03-27
The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.
1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1993-12-01
The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.
TCP Flow Controls Matthew Roughan
Roughan, Matthew
connections Much is known about the qualitative performance of the Internet the Internet works! Little is known about the quantitative performance of the TCP flow controls mostly by simulation, few analytic Paxson, "Measurements and Analysis of End-to-End Internet Dynamics" PhD Thesis Van Jacobson, "Congestion
Notes 10. A thermohydrodynamic bulk-flow model for fluid film bearings
San Andres, Luis
2009-01-01
The complete set of bulk-flow equations for the analysis of turbulent flow fluid film bearings. Importance of thermal effects in process fluid applications. A CFD method for solution of the bulk-flow equations....
An Investigation of the Stresses in Uniformly Loaded Continuous Deep Beams
Shubinski, Robert Parker
1960-01-01
Page Continuous Beam with Uniform Load T-2 T-3 T-4 Bending Stresses: a X Ve r tie al Stre s s as: a y Shearing Stresses: T 18 19 20 E-1 Forces Involved in Shear Difference Analysis of Photoelastic Data 24 E 2 Machining Models of Epon... procedures and published in 1951 by Chow, Conway, and Iviorgan . A similar solution was published by Chow, Conway, and 2 3 Winter . They presented stress distribution curves for simple span deep beams subject to loads much like Dischinger's loads. 1...
Solyndra Facts vs. Fiction: Cash Flow Modeling
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Questions have been raised about a quote selectively pulled from an Aug. 20, 2009 email to make it look like Solyndra would run out of cash by Sept. 2011. To be clear, the analysis addressed in that email did not refer to Solyndra’s corporate cash flow, but rather the cash flow for a subsidiary of Solyndra – the “Fab 2 Project Company.
A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns
Gibson, Lloyd Lee; Bartram, Brian Douglas; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Lang, John Michael; Morris, John Scott
2015-09-01
A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures.The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.
Design considerations for inverters in fluid flow control
Guggari, Mallappa Ishwarappa
1989-01-01
. 18 power circuit of current source inverter 3. 19 Output waveforms of current source inverter 5. 1 Response of fluid flow control system to a ramp reference input . 5. 2 Load torque and acceleration torque characteristics with centrifugal pump.... The process industry specifications for flow control have also become stringent, demanding an alternative to throttle valve control system, which is plagued with problems like poor dynamic response, dead- band, etc. In the literature, most of the attention...
Enciso, Juan; Santistevan, Dean; Hla, Aung K.
2007-10-01
Propeller flow meters are commonly used to measure water flow rate. They can also be used to estimate irrigation water use. This publication explains how to select, install, read and maintain propeller flow meters....
Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2011-01-01
Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...
Yoder, Graydon L.
1980-01-01
Dispersed flow consists of small liquid droplets entrained in a flowing vapor. This flow regime can occur in cryogenic equipment, in steam generators, and during nuclear reactor loss of coolant accidents. A theoretical ...
Lisburne Formation fracture characterization and flow modeling
Karpov, Alexandre Valerievich
2001-01-01
Evaluation of fractured reservoirs for fluid flow and optimal well placement is often very complicated. In general, fractures enhance permeability and increase access to matrix surface, but their random aspects create difficulties for analysis...
UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC
Perez, Richard R.
was initially devised to function with user-sited PV installations to maximize demand reduction. An efficient load reduction (middle). By shedding load in response to PV output and load requirements the SLC load control (DLC) enhancement. The aggregate of direct load controlled customers constitute a reliable
Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites
Anderson, Benjamin J
2014-10-07
The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.
FLOW-THROUGH POROUS ELECTRODES
Trainham, III, James Arthur
2011-01-01
configurations for flow redox battery applications: (i) theporous electrodes A flow-redox battery using flow-by poroustrue in battery applications, Flow..through porous
Multiphase flow calculation software
Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)
2003-04-15
Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.
Modeling of Breaching Due to Overtopping Flow and Waves Based on Coupled Flow and Sediment Transport
He, Zhiguo; Zhao, Liang; Wu, Ganfeng; Pähtz, Thomas
2015-01-01
Breaching of earthen or sandy dams/dunes by overtopping flow and waves is a complicated process with strong, unsteady flow, high sediment transport, and rapid bed changes in which the interactions between flow and morphology should not be ignored. This study presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) coupled flow and sediment transport model to investigate the flow and breaching processes with and without waves. Bed change and variable flow density are included in the flow continuity and momentum equations to consider the impacts of sediment transport. The model adopts the non-equilibrium approach for total-load sediment transport and specifies different repose angles to handle non-cohesive embankment slope avalanching. The equations are solved using an explicit finite volume method on a rectangular grid with the improved Godunov-type central upwind scheme and the nonnegative reconstruction of the water depth method to handle mixed-regime flows near the breach. The model has been tested against two sets o...
Static timing analysis in VLSI design
Zhou, Shuo
2006-01-01
II.B Static Timing AnalysisStatic Timing Analysis in the Design Flow FalseChip Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.C Static Timing
Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification
Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano
2013-01-01
that low-energy or net zero energy goals can be met. LEEDtheir low-energy and net zero energy goals. Conclusion This
Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification
Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano
2013-01-01
energy cost, and must remain unchanged in the design-case model unless an optional exceptional calculation
Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow
Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki
2014-12-15
We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.
Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen
Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.
1997-02-04
A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.
Flow Distances on Open Flow Networks
Guo, Liangzhu; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang
2015-01-01
Open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks, are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. Flow distances (first-passage or total) between any given two nodes $i$ and $j$ are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from $i$ to $j$ under some conditions. They apparently deviate from the conventional random walk distance on a closed directed graph because they consider the openness of the flow network. Flow distances are explicitly expressed by underlying Markov matrix of a flow system in this paper. With this novel theoretical conception, we can visualize open flow networks, calculating centrality of each node, and clustering nodes into groups. We apply fl...
Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence Impacts on Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading: Preprint
Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Moriarty, P.; Jonkman, J.; Michalakes, J.
2011-12-01
Large-eddy simulations of atmospheric boundary layers under various stability and surface roughness conditions are performed to investigate the turbulence impact on wind turbines. In particular, the aeroelastic responses of the turbines are studied to characterize the fatigue loading of the turbulence present in the boundary layer and in the wake of the turbines. Two utility-scale 5 MW turbines that are separated by seven rotor diameters are placed in a 3 km by 3 km by 1 km domain. They are subjected to atmospheric turbulent boundary layer flow and data is collected on the structural response of the turbine components. The surface roughness was found to increase the fatigue loads while the atmospheric instability had a small influence. Furthermore, the downstream turbines yielded higher fatigue loads indicating that the turbulent wakes generated from the upstream turbines have significant impact.
Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research
Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri
2012-03-31
The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.
FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH
Lesieutre, Bernard
2013-01-01
model. 3.0 PV System Modeling Issues When modeling the PV systems in the electric power electric grid. 4.0 Load Composition Data Tool 4.1. Introduction A power system model
Impact of load type on microgrid stability
Monnin, Jared P
2012-01-01
Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...
Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
DETERMINING ELECTRIC MOTOR LOAD AND EFFICIENCY Most likely your operation's motors account for a large part of your monthly electric bill. Far too often motors are mismatched-or...