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1

Trends in electric utility load duration curves  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and analysis of annual and quarterly load duration curves for each of the 10 Federal regions. The report describes analyses performed to test for changes in load duration curve shapes over time. These analyses are intended to aid the electric utility analyses and modeling activities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) by expanding the understanding of current and expected load duration curve shapes. 7 figs., 13 tabs.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Conditional model of peak and minimum loads and the load duration curve for electricity  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a model that extends the traditional model of electricity demand to account for intra-period load variation, the kind of variation that is important for evaluating marginal-cost-reflecting price structures. The time-of-day rate is one such price structure. The traditional model of electricity demand explains inter-period demand variation. It says nothing about load variation. The report explains how a model that integrates with previous studies of electricity demand might be formulated. It specifies two concrete models within this framework and estimates them for a number of different utility companies. The model's within-sample-period performance in predicting peak loads is presented for one version of the model extension along with estimations for other variations. In addition a number of plots of actual load distributions, a summation of load variation information, against the actual load distributions, are presented and used to evaluate the performance of specific models.

Trimble, J.L.; Stallings, D.E.; Thomas, B.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

Milligan, M R

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

A Probabilistic Graphical Approach to Computing Electricity Price Duration Curves under Price and Quantity Competition.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electricity price duration curve (EPDC) represents the probability distribution function of the electricity price considered as a random variable. The price uncertainty comes both from the demand side and the supply side, since the load varies continuously, ...

Pascal Michaillat; Shmuel Oren

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Load transfer coupling regression curve fitting for distribution load forecasting  

SciTech Connect

The planning of distribution facilities requires forecasts of future substation and feeder loads. Extrapolation based on a curve fit to past annual peak loads is currently the most popular manner of accomplishing this forecast. Curve fitting suffers badly from data shifts caused by switching as loads are routinely moved from one substation to another during the course of utility operations. This switching contaminates the data, reducing forecast accuracy. A new regression application reduces error due to these transfers by over an order of magnitude. A key to the usefulness of this method is that the amount of the transfer, and its direction (whether it was to or from a substation), is not a required input. The new technique, aspects of computer implementation of it, and a series of tests showing its advantage over normal multiple regression methods are given.

Willis, H.L.; Powell, R.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on up to stabilisation of the clusters. Finally, the load profiles are predicted by covariance analysis of electricity customer uses. This load curve is only available for customers with automated meter readingClassification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet Abstract The load curve, which gives

Cuesta, Juan Antonio

7

A Probabilistic Graphical Approach to Computing Electricity Price Duration Curves under Price and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Probabilistic Graphical Approach to Computing Electricity Price Duration Curves under Price,oren}@ieor.berkeley.edu Abstract-- The electricity price duration curve (EPDC) repre- sents the probability distribution function of the electricity price considered as a random variable. The price uncertainty comes both from the demand side

Oren, Shmuel S.

8

Forecasting distribution system loads using curve shape clustering  

SciTech Connect

Trending using curve fitting to past small area load growth is an economical but not highly accurate method of forecasting loads for distribution planning. A new trending method uses clustering of historical load at the small area level as the forecast algorithm. This new method has significant performance advantages over normal curve fit methods and can be implemented in 16 bit integer arithmetic on most computers. The method and test results are discussed in detail.

Willis, H.L.; Northcote-Green, J.E.D.; Schauer, A.E.; Vismor, T.D.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Residential equipment part load curves for use in DOE-2  

SciTech Connect

DOE-2 (DOE2 90) includes several correlation curves that predict the energy use of systems underpart load conditions. DOE-2 simulates systems on an hour-by-hour basis, so the correlations are intended to predict part load energy use (and efficiency) as a function of the part load ratio (PLR) for each hour, where PLR = Hourly Load/Available Capacity. Generally residential and small commercial HVAC equipment meets the load at off-design conditions by cycling on and off. Therefore, the part load correlations must predict the degradation due to this on and off operation over an hourly interval.

Henderson, Hugh; Huang, Y.J.; Parker, D.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A stochastic index flow model of flow duration curves Attilio Castellarin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004; published 10 March 2004. [1] Annual flow duration curves (AFDCs) are used increasingly because for the median AFDC, they enable one to assign return periods to individual AFDCs, and they offer opportunities for developing a generalized stochastic model of daily streamflow. Previous stochastic models of FDCs and AFDCs

Vogel, Richard M.

11

21-PWR WASTE PACKAGE WITH ABSORBER PLATES LOADING CURVE EVALUATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 21 PWR waste package with absorber plates design as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an example of the application of the methodology presented in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 45 GWd/MTU. Higher burnups were not necessary because 45 GWd/MTU was high enough for the loading curve determination. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing PWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2004) because it concerns engineered barriers that are included in the ''Q-List'' (BSC 2004k, Appendix A) as items important to safety and waste isolation.

J.M. Scaglione

2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

12

Determination of the R-curve from the strength-indentation load relation  

SciTech Connect

Strength as a function of indentation load has been measured to evaluate toughness versus crack size curves (i.e., R-curves) of ceramics. In the past, this evaluation is achieved by generating a family of global stress intensity versus crack size curves (i.e., K-curves) at each indentation load and its corresponding strength, and then fitting an envelope of tangency points to these curves. This envelope yields the R-curve. A methodology is proposed in the present study to define the point in the K-curve at which the R-curve intersects. This methodology complements the conventional ``tangency condition`` approach in determining the R-curve from the experimental strength-indentation load relation.

Hsueh, C.H.; Becher, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Division

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

High-power I-V curve tracer employing a capacitive load  

SciTech Connect

A portable, photovoltaic voltage versus current curve tracer is discussed. The curve tracer employs a capacitive load to provide automatic sweeping of the array voltage. The unit is capable of measuring arrays up to 10 kW, but is similar and lighter than a conventional 2.5-kW dissipative load.

Warner, T.H.; Cox, C.H. III

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Regional load curve models: specification and estimation of the DRI Model. Final report. [Forecasts of electric loads in 32 US regions  

SciTech Connect

The DRI Model of hourly load curves is developed in this report. The model is capable of producing long-term forecasts for 32 US regions. These regions were created by aggregating hourly system load data from 146 electric utilities. These utilities supply approximately 95% of all electricity consumed in the continental US. The model forecasts electricity demands for each hour of the year for each of the 32 regions. Model output includes forecasts of peak demands, megawatt hour demands, load factors, and load duration curves. The DRI Model is estimated in two stages. In the first stage, for each region and month, hourly electricity demands are parameterized into load components representing the effects of lifestyles and weather on regional loads through a time-series model. In the second stage, the variation in these parameterized load components across months and regions is modeled econometrically in terms of energy prices, income levels, appliance saturation rates, and other variables. The second-stage models are essentially models of electricity demand which are estimated using estimated first-stage parameters as dependent variables, instead of observed demands. Regional price and income demand elasticities are implied by the second-stage models. Moreover, since the dependent variables refer to particular hours of the day, these estimated elasticities are hour-specific. (Since prices did not vary over the day in years when hourly load data were available, hour-to-hour, cross-price elasticities were not estimated.) Integrated system hourly load forecasts are obtained combining the influences of individual customer classes. Finally, approximate customer class hourly load shapes can be produced for each region, though these series may be useful only in research endeavors since they lack the precision available through survey methods.

Platt, H.D.; Einhorn, M.A.; Ignelzi, P.C.; Poirier, D.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Regional load-curve models: scenario and forecast using the DRI model. Final report. [Forecasts of electric power loads in 32 US regions  

SciTech Connect

Regional load curve models were constructed for 32 regions that have been created by aggregating hourly load data from 146 electric utilities. These utilities supply approximately 95% of the electricity consumed in the continental US. The 32 models forecast electricity demands by hour, 8784 regional load forecasts per year. Because projections are made for each hour in the year, contemporaneous forecasts are available for peak demands, megawatt hour demands, load factors, load duration curves, and typical load shapes. The forecast scenario is described and documented in this volume and the forecast resulting from the use of this scenario is presented. The highlights of this forecast are two observations: (1) peak demands will once again become winter phenomena. By the year 2000, 18 of the 32 regions peak in a winter month as compared with the 8 winter peaking regions in 1977. In the heating season, the model is responsive to the number of heating degree-hours, the penetration rate of electric heating equipment, and the rate at which this space conditioning equipment is utilized, which itself is functionally dependent on the level of real electricity prices and real incomes. Thus, as the penetration rate of electric heating equipment increases, winter season demands grow more rapidly than demands in other seasons and peaks begin to appear in winter months; and (2) load factors begin to increase in the forecast, reversing the trend which began in the early 1960s. Nationally, load factors do not leap upwards, instead they increase gradually from .609 in 1977 to .629 in the year 2000. The improvement is more consequential in some regions, with load factors increasing, at times, by .10 or more. In some regions, load factors continue to decline.

Platt, H.D.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Load-curve responsiveness to weather and the cost-effectiveness of conservation  

SciTech Connect

A cost-benefit analysis of home-weatherization projects using average incremental power costs instead of peak or off-peak costs shows that some programs are no longer cost-effective. Weatherization improves the energy efficiency of houses and reduces demand on the utility, but a study of how monthly load curves at a Pacific Northwest utility responded to weather over a 12-month period indicates that abnormal weather shifts the entire load curve. 1 figure. (DCK)

Hellman, M.M.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Usage of CLPU curve to deal with the cold load pickup problem  

SciTech Connect

Restoration of load after an extended power outage, whether planned or unplanned, raises various practical concerns. Previous studies have shown the cold load condition lasts between 2 and 60 minutes, or longer, depending on the duration of the outage, type of load, and the local weather. The theory presented in this paper is applicable to all microprocessor based overcurrent protective devices used at the distribution level. The example used in the paper is to provide a possible method to handle cold load pickup problems at line reclosers installed on the distribution system. The new approach is to control the pickup of the phase element of the recloser as a function of time. The pickup of the recloser starts at a present value after an extended outage and slowly decreases and returns to the normal pickup in a predetermined manner. The relationship of the pickup level and time could be determined by considering the maximum cold load current and its gradual decay with time.

Mirza, O.H. [Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity end-uses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity and the way electrical devices are used will evolve significantly. The energy consumption is likely of electrical devices; · integration of decentralized energy production and stocking (PV modules with battery

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Assessment of Reactivity Margins and Loading Curves for PWR Burnup Credit Cask Designs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents studies to assess reactivity margins and loading curves for pressurized water reactor (PWR) burnup-credit criticality safety evaluations. The studies are based on a generic high-density 32-assembly cask and systematically vary individual calculational (depletion and criticality) assumptions to demonstrate the impact on the predicted effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, and burnup-credit loading curves. The purpose of this report is to provide a greater understanding of the importance of input parameter variations and quantify the impact of calculational assumptions on the outcome of a burnup-credit evaluation. This study should provide guidance to regulators and industry on the technical areas where improved information will most enhance the estimation of accurate subcritical margins. Based on these studies, areas where future work may provide the most benefit are identified. The report also includes an evaluation of the degree of burnup credit needed for high-density casks to transport the current spent nuclear fuel inventory. By comparing PWR discharge data to actinide-only based loading curves and determining the number of assemblies that meet the loading criteria, this evaluation finds that additional negative reactivity (through either increased credit for fuel burnup or cask design/utilization modifications) is necessary to accommodate the majority of current spent fuel assemblies in high-capacity casks. Assemblies that are not acceptable for loading in the prototypic high-capacity cask may be stored or transported by other means (e.g., lower capacity casks that utilize flux traps and/or increased fixed poison concentrations or high-capacity casks with design/utilization modifications).

Wagner, J.C.

2002-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

20

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. X, NO. X, XXXXXX 2013 1 Load Curve Data Cleansing and Imputation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. X, NO. X, XXXXXX 2013 1 Load Curve Data Cleansing Abstract--The smart grid vision is to build an intelligent power network with an unprecedented level- ponents pursuit, smart grid. I. INTRODUCTION The US power grid has been recognized as the most important

Giannakis, Georgios

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The dynamic character curve adjusting model of electric load based on data mining theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are a number of dirty data in the load database produced by SCADA system. Consequently, the data must be adjusted carefully and reasonably before being used for electric load forecasting or power system analysis. This paper proposes a dynamic and ...

Xiaoxing Zhang; Haijun Ren; Yuming Liu; Qiyun Cheng; Caixin Sun

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Regional load-curve models. Volume 5. Data base. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In preparing to build the models detailed in the first four volumes of the EA-1672 reports, a substantial data gathering, clean-up, and organizing effort was conducted. This volume describes that process and documents the data banks sent to EPRI. Three types of data concepts were needed to explore hourly load forecasting: hourly load, hourly weather and related socioeconomic data concepts. These materials were gathered for the project. EPRI has 32 data tapes that include hourly load and weather data for 32 regions for the period 1962 to 1977. Two other data banks, EPRIDATAA and EPRIDATAM, contain annual and monthly data respectively, gathered for use in this project. Hourly load forecasts out to the year 2000 have also been received by EPRI. DRI's forecasts are contained in the data bank FORECASTBANK. QUERI's forecasts are also available. These data series may prove useful to other researchers exploring related topics.

Platt, H.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Regional load-curve models: QUERI's model long-run forecasts and sensitivity analysis. Volume 4. Final report. [Hourly demand in 32 US regions  

SciTech Connect

This report presents detailed forecasts of the hourly demand for electricity in 32 regions of the US through the year 2000. The forecasts are generated by a load curve model estimated by QUERI and described in Volume II of this report. Two primary sets of input assumptions for this model are utilized: one based on DRI's macro, regional and sectoral models is called the Baseline Scenario while the other, which is a projection of historical trends, is the Extrapolation Scenario. Under both assumptions, the growth rates of electricity are forecast to slow from historical levels. Load factors are generally projected to continue to decline; most regions are forecast to remain Summer peaking but this is rather sensitive to the choice of scenario. By considering other scenarios which are small perturbations of the Baseline assumptions, elasticities of average, peak and hourly loads are calculated. Different weather assumptions are also examined for the sensitivity of the load shapes to changes in the weather.

Engle, R.F.; Granger, C.W.J.; Ramanathan, R.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Sequential Monte Carlo simulation for composite power system reliability analysis with time varying loads  

SciTech Connect

The paper illustrates the development and utilization of an annual chronological load curve for each load bus in a composite generation and transmission system and a sequential Monte Carlo simulation approach for composite system reliability assessment. Antithetic variates as a variance reduction technique has been applied to the simulation model to increase the efficiency of the simulation. An approximate method using a load duration curve of the system load and an enumeration process have been applied to the developed load model and the results are compared in this paper.

Sankarakrishnan, A.; Billinton, R. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Power Systems Research Group

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

How and why distribution loads vary  

SciTech Connect

Because the maximum-use rates of gas customers having differing appliance combinations do not coincide, a distribution system's peak-hour flow rate depends on the relative proportions of the load contributed by the appliances of all the different types of residential, commercial, and industrial customers. The maximum load on Central Hudson's distribution system coincides with the maximum hourly gas flow rate for all residential space-heating purposes; however, Central Hudson analyzes the peak-hour load of its commercial and industrial customers individually. The gas-system sendout presented as a sendout-duration curve is a convenient way to show how these various loads determine gas requirements and to compare the economics of alternative supply methods. The sendout-duration curve consists of long-term weather data plotted against time intervals of 1-365 days. If the threshold temperature and the heating load per degree-day are known, the curve allows the calculation of both normal and design annual peakshaving quantities.

Haber, D.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Deployment of CCS Technologies across the Load Curve for a Competitive Electricity Market as a Function of CO2 Emissions Permit Prices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consistent with other published studies, the modelling presented here reveals that baseload power plants are the first aspects of the electricity sector to decarbonize and are essentially decarbonized once CO2 permit prices exceed a certain threshold ($90/ton CO2 in this study). The decarbonization of baseload electricity is met by significant expansions of nuclear power and renewable energy generation technologies as well as the application of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies applied to both coal and natural gas fired power plants. Relatively little attention has been paid thus far to whether intermediate and peaking units would respond the same way to a climate policy given the very different operational and economic context that these kinds of electricity generation units operate under. In this paper, the authors discuss key aspects of the load segmentation methodology used to imbed a varying electricity demand within the GCAM (a state-of-the-art Integrated Assessment Model) energy and economic modelling framework and present key results on the role CCS technologies could play in decarbonizng subpeak and peak generation (encompassing only the top 10% of the load) and under what conditions. To do this, the authors have modelled two hypothetical climate policies that require 50% and 80% reductions in US emissions from business as usual by the middle of this century. Intermediate electricity generation is virtually decarbonized once carbon prices exceed approximately $150/tonCO2. When CO2 permit prices exceed $160/tonCO2, natural gas power plants with CCS have roughly the same marketshare as conventional gas plants in serving subpeak loads. The penetration of CCS into peak load (upper 6% here) is minimal under the scenarios modeled here suggesting that CO2 emissions from this aspect of the U.S. electricity sector would persist well into the future even with stringent CO2 emission control policies in place.

Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

27

An efficient load model for analyzing demand side management impacts  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of implementing Demand Side Management (DSM) in power systems is to change the utility's load shape--i.e. changes in the time pattern and magnitude of utility's load. Changing the load shape as a result of demand side activities could change the peak load, base load and/or energy demand. Those three variables have to be explicitly modeled into the load curve for properly representing the effects of demand side management. The impact of DSM will be manifested as higher or lower reliability levels. This paper presents an efficient technique to model the system load such that the impact of demand side management on the power system can be easily and accurately evaluated. The proposed technique to model the load duration curve will facilitate the representation of DSM impacts on loss-of-load probability, energy not served and energy consumption. This will provide an analytical method to study the impact of DSM on capacity requirements. So far iterative methods have been applied to study these impacts. The proposed analytical method results in a faster solution with higher accuracy. It takes only 18 seconds on an 80486 PC to solve each case study involving different peak and base loads, and energy use.

Rahman, S.; Rinaldy (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Heat storage duration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

Balcomb, J.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Load Express  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

graphical interface makes Load Express a powerful engineering tool with a very short learning curve. The "rookie" or experienced user can quickly and accurately perform load...

30

Analysis of industrial load management  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Load Management, ILM, has increased the possibilities of changing load profiles and raising load factors. This paper reports on load profile measurements and feasible load management applications that could be implemented in industry e.g. bivalent systems for heating of premises and processes, load priority systems, energy storage and rescheduling processes or parts of processes due to differential electricity rates. Industrial load variations on hourly, daily and seasonal basis are treated as well as the impact by load management on load curves e g peak clipping, valley filling and increased off-peak electricity usage.

Bjork, C.O.; Karlsson, B.G.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

ALPHA ATTENUATION DUE TO DUST LOADING  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies had been done in order to show the attenuation of alpha particles in filter media. These studies provided an accurate correction for this attenuation, but there had not yet been a study with sufficient results to properly correct for attenuation due to dust loading on the filters. At the Savannah River Site, filter samples are corrected for attenuation due to dust loading at 20%. Depending on the facility the filter comes from and the duration of the sampling period, the proper correction factor may vary. The objective of this study was to determine self-absorption curves for each of three counting instruments. Prior work indicated significant decreases in alpha count rate (as much as 38%) due to dust loading, especially on filters from facilities where sampling takes place over long intervals. The alpha count rate decreased because of a decrease in the energy of the alpha. The study performed resulted in a set of alpha absorption curves for each of three detectors. This study also took into account the affects of the geometry differences in the different counting equipment used.

Dailey, A; Dennis Hadlock, D

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

32

Photovoltaic I-V curve measurement techniques  

SciTech Connect

Performance evaluation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays under actual field conditions provides important feedback to the module design process. One of the principal methods for assessing an array's performance is to plot its current, I, versus voltage, V, curve. Following a brief review of techniques for measuring the I-V curve, a new, capacitive-based approach is presented. It uses a rapid sweep of the I-V curve that substantially reduces the average power transfer between array and load, and in turn, substantially reduces the size and weight of the curve tracer. Both theoretical and practical aspects of the approach are presented for a 10-kW unit. Performance is verified by comparison with I-V curves obtained by using a conventional load. The agreement is found to be excellent. Approximately an order of magnitude reduction in size, weight and power consumption over conventional units was realized with the experimental I-V curve tracer.

Cox, C.H.; Warner, T.H.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Long duration ash probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Curves and The Photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of the number of photons leads to a new way of characterizing curves and to a novel integral invariant over curves.

L. Stodolsky

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

35

Digital Jordan curve theorems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Efim Khalimskys digital Jordan curve theorem states that the complement of a Jordan curve in the digital plane equipped with the Khalimsky topology has exactly two connectivity components. We present a new, short proof of this theorem using induction on the Euclidean length of the curve. We also prove that the theorem holds with another topology on the digital plane but then only for a restricted class of Jordan curves. 1

Christer O. Kiselman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Application of the key curve and multi-specimen techniques to dynamic J-R Curve testing of alloy steel  

SciTech Connect

J-integral R-Curve tests were performed on three point bend specimens of a 3-Ni steel at three loading rates - quasi-static, intermediate (25mm/s) and a drop tower rate (2.54m/s). The key curve and multi-specimen procedures were employed for the higher rate tests and this investigation is focused primarily on details of the test method development. The multi-specimen and key curve techniques were found to yield upper shelf J-R Curves which were in substantial agreement at the elevated loading rates. Numerical smoothing techniques required to apply a key curve method appear to separate the oscillatory high frequency component from the load-displacement record. For the 3-Ni steel tested for this investigation both J/sub Ic/ and T were found to be elevated with increasing loading rate.

Joyce, J.A.; Hackett, E.M.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

Spletzer, B.L.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES FOR  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES FOR 6061-T6 ALUMINUM* G . T . Yahr Engineering Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8051 ABSTRACT A request has been made to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee that 6061-T6 aluminum be approved for use in the construction of Class 1 welded nuclear vessels so it can be used for the pressure vessel of the Advanced Neutron Source research reactor. Fatigue design curves with and without mean stress effects have been proposed. A knock-down factor of two is applied to the design curve for evaluation of welds. The basis of the curves is explained. The fatigue design curves are compared to fatigue data from base metal and weldments. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Galilean Classification of Curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we classify space-time curves up to Galilean group of transformations with Cartan's method of equivalence. As an aim, we elicit invariats from action of special Galilean group on space-time curves, that are, in fact, conservation laws in physics. We also state a necessary and sufficient condition for equivalent Galilean motions.

Mehdi Nadjafikhah; Ali Mahdipour Shirayeh

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

42

Application of the key curve method to determining J-R curves for A533B steel  

SciTech Connect

The experimental development is described of a key curve for compact specimens of A533B steel and the use of this experimental key curve to generate the J-Resistance curve directly from the load displacement records without obtaining crack length estimates from unloading compliance, ultrasonics, electric potential or other techniques. Two complete key curve functions were developed, the first using subsized fatique precracked specimens, the second using subsized but machine notched specimens. In each case eight 1/2 T compact specimens with crack lengths from a/W = 0.5 to 0.9 were used to generate a series of digital load displacement records which were assembled in a computer file as the key curve for geometrically similar compact specimens. This key curve can be thought of as defining the locus of load displacement records expected for geometrically similar compact specimens of this material for similar loading conditions if no crack extension were to take place. Deviations between the key curve function and the load displacement record for a particular specimen can then be attributed to crack extension and a calculation for the amount of crack extension can be made. The key curve also allows corrections to be made to J values to account for effects of this crack extension.

Joyce, J.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Gaussian Curve Summations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gaussian Curve Summations Gaussian Curve Summations Name: Jay Status: educator Grade: 9-12 Location: MA Country: USA Date: April 2011 Question: I have noticed that when similar Gaussian curves are placed next to each other with 50% overlap between the curves, the summed curves give a constant value equal to the curve peak. Is there a name for this phenomenon, and is it useful in science? Replies: You have to be careful that what appears to be a real mathematical result is analytically true and not a consequence of the scale of the graphing. For example, let us look at two Gaussian curves, G1 = (1/2pi)^1/2 x exp(-1/2(x-1)^2) and G2 = (1/2pi)^1/2 x exp(-1/2(x+1)^2) and their weighted sum Gt(x)= 2 x G1 + 2 x G2. These are two Gaussian curves with mean values (+/-) 1 and standard deviation = 1. That is, they are equally "fat". If you graph Gt(x) between (+/-)0.5, G(t) appears to be a constant very close to unity. However, if you increase the values of 'x' to (+/-)2 you see that the values of Gt = (+/-)0.5. Certainly not a constant. It is a flaw in our scaling of Gt. Or put another way, we are pulling G1 and G2 apart, with no change in the standard deviation. You could make this trickier if you do not hold the standard deviation constant, but make the standard deviation proportional to the mean, so that the curves get "fatter" as you move G1 and G2 apart.

44

Crude oil supply curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-run cost curves shift over time as depletion counters increasing knowledge. Under competition, a rightward (leftward) shift indicates lower (higher) cost and greater (lesser) productivity. A simple coefficient captures ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments to power plants: Applications to commercial sector conservation programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Ashok K. Gadgil. 1989. Conservation Screening Curves forof Utility Experience with Conservation and Load ManagementSupport Document: Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer

Koomey, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The Frequency Distribution of Thunderstorm Durations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The frequency distributions of thunderstorm durations were analyzed for 30 years at 36 stations in the United States in order to develop an appropriate summarizing statistic for durations. The incomplete gamma function provides a close fit to the ...

P. J. Robinson; D. R. Easterling

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

032 Analysis of Load-Displacement Curve by Hertzian Indentation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

005 Calcium Phosphates for Drug Carrier: Adsorption and Release Kinetics of Drugs ... 058 Properties Optimization of Refractory Mineral Resources in China.

48

Load-shape development aids planning  

SciTech Connect

The concept that provides capable, load-shape development, is being adopted by several utilities and power pools. Public Service Electric and Gas Company has developed a computer simulation model that can predict a utility's load shape for up to a 30-year period. The objective of the PSE and G model, known as EICS (Electric Load-Curve Synthesis) is to provide a demand profile, to examine the impact of load mangement and other activities upon a system's load shape, and to apply appropriate forecast non-load-management and load-management impacts before finally examining the resulting revised load-shape. Other models dealing with load-shape are discussed. Specifically, the Systems Control Inc. model for EPRI (SCI/EPRI), useful in performing accurate simulations of various load-control strategies involving customer appliance control is mentioned.

Gellings, C.W.

1979-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

July 29, 2012 Prediction of flow duration curves in ungauged basins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for former AFDC recipients, shall be entitled to a $250 tax credit per participant. #12;RHODE ISLAND

Vogel, Richard M.

50

Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments to power plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a simplified methodology to compare supply and demand-side resources. The screening curve approach supplements with load shape information the data contained in a supply curve of conserved energy. In addition, a screening curve contains information on competing supply technologies, such as annualized capital costs, variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The information in the screening curve allows policymakers to promptly and conveniently compare the relevant parameters affecting supply and demand-side investment decisions. While many sophisticated computer models have evolved to account for the load shape impacts of energy efficiency investments, this sophistication has, by and large, not trickled down to spreadsheet-level or back-of-the-envelope analyses. This methodology allows a simple summary of load shape characteristics based on the output of the more complicated models. It offers many advantages, principal of which is clarity in analyzing supply and demand-side investment choices. This paper first describes how supply-side screening curves have been used in the past, and develops the conceptual tools needed to apply integrated supply/demand screening curves in the least-cost utility planning process. It then presents examples of supply and demand-side technologies and plots them on a representative screening curve. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Koomey, J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Gadgil, A.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Load Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

52

Transfinite partitions of Jordan curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The w-asymmetry induced by transfinite partitions makes it impossible for Jordan curves to have an infinite length.

Antonio Leon

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

53

LOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

Ohlinger, L.A.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Loads, capacity, and failure rate modeling  

SciTech Connect

Both failure rate and load capacity (stress-strength) interferenece methodologies are employed in the reliability analysis at nuclear facilities. Both of the above have been utilized in a heuristic failure rate model in terms of load capacity inference. Analytical solutions are used to demonstrate that infant mortality and random aging failures may be expressed implicity in terms of capacity variability, load variability, and capacity deterioration, and that mode interactions play a role in the formation of the bathtub curve for failure rates.

Lewis, E.E.; Chen, Hsin-Chieh

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Interruptible load control for Taiwan Power Company  

SciTech Connect

Load management is the planning and implementation of those utility activities designed to influence customer use of electricity in ways that will produce desired changes in the utility's load shape. Interruptible load program is an option of load management which provides incentive rate to customers to interrupt or reduce the power demand during the system peak period or emergency condition. Therefore, how to design a proper incentive rate is the most important issue in implementing this program. This paper describes three alternatives designed for the interruptible load program, one of which was activated by Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) and some preliminary results were obtained. The effect of the interruptible load to the system peak demand reduction and the change of daily load curve for large industrial customers were analyzed. This paper estimates the avoided cost and design more appropriate incentive rate structure for interruptible load program.

Chen, C.S.; Leu, J.T. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (TW))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

LOADED WAVEGUIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

1958-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

58

Load-shape modeling in southeastern utility systems  

SciTech Connect

Load models are tools which have a wide range of application in the electric-utility industry. Some uses include monitoring load-management policies and helping with on-line commitment problems. The output from a load model can be placed in a suitable software environment where daily load curves are computed and displayed. Also, load models can be extended to perform forecasting functions. A weather sensitive load model that takes into account both weekdays and weekends on an hourly basis has been developed and applied to load shape modeling and short term forecasting on three southeastern electric utilities. A software package associated with the load modeling theory was developed and tested. This load-modeling program computes the daily load curve in terms of identifiable components. The program uses historical hourly load data to compute coefficients related to load components including base, growth, seasonal and weather. These coefficients can be used in a mathematical model to compute an estimate of the daily load curve with load values for each hour of the day. The load-modeling procedure described employs a linear least squares method for computing coefficients in the mathematical model.

Lebby, G.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Alternative procedures for J-R curve determination  

SciTech Connect

This investigation evaluates alternative displacement techniques with the single-specimen compliance (SSC) procedure which do not require the commonly used load-line displacement measurements in a compact toughness (CT) specimen to determine the J-R curve. The two techniques studied are a double-clip-gage technique involving both crack-mouth displacement and load-line displacement at the edges of the specimen and a technique which requires only crack-mouth displacement. R-curves developed using these techniques are compared to R-curves developed with the normal load-line based deflections. In addition, results of a round-robin program using the SSC procedure are discussed in terms of validating the double-clip-gage technique. R-curves developed from crack-mouth displacements on the J-integral specimen from ASTM E 813 suggest that the standard ASTM E 399 specimen design can be used for both linear-elastic (e.g., K/sub Ic/) and elastic-plastic (e.g., R-curve toughness assessments.

Hiser, A.L.; Loss, F.J.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Bilipschitz Homogeneity and Jordan Curves.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??We analyze Jordan curves in the plane that are bilipschitz homogeneous with respect to Euclidean distance and/or inner diameter distance. We begin our analysis from (more)

Freeman, David M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

expert opinion and available data from the United States, Canada, the European Union, Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil, bottom-up energy efficiency supply curve models were...

62

Stabilizing control of parallel AC-DC power transmission systems by approximate switching curve  

SciTech Connect

A method to improve the transient stability of bulk power transmission system is presented. The method stabilizes the control of parallel ac-dc transmission systems using an approximate switching curve. The optimal switching curve is approximated by a power series and the resulting switching curve is determined independent of type and duration of faults that occur to the system. In addition, coefficients of the switching curve can be calculated on a off-line basis which allows use of simple on-line algebraic calculations in emergency conditions.

Ichiyanagi, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Kakehu, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Swept measurement of high power I-V curves  

SciTech Connect

Performance evaluation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays under a variety of conditions provides important information for the design and maintenance of PV systems. One of the principal methods for assessing an array's performance is to plot its current, I, versus voltage, V, curve. Following a brief review of techniques for measuring the I-V curve, a new capacitive-based approach is presented. It uses a rapid sweep of the I-V curve which substantially reduces the average power transfer between array and load, and in turn, substantially reduces the size and weight of the curve tracer. Both theoretical and practical aspects of the approach are presented for a 10-kW unit. Performance is verified by comparison with I-V curves obtained by using a conventional load. The agreement is found to be excellent. Approximately an order of magnitude reduction in size, weight and power consumption over conventional units was realized with the experimental I-V curve tracer.

Cox, C.H.; Warner, T.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Swept measurement of high-power I-V curves  

SciTech Connect

Performance evaluation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays under a variety of conditions provides important information for the design and maintenance of PV systems. One of the principal methods for assessing an arrays's performance is to plot its current, I, versus voltage, V, curve. Following a brief review of techniques for measuring the I-V curve, a new capacitive-based approach is presented. It uses a rapid sweep of the I-V curve which substantially reduces the average power transfer between array and load, and in turn, substantially reduces the size and weight of the curve tracer. Both theoretical and practical aspects of the approach are presented for a 10-kW unit. Performance is verified by comparison with I-V curves obtained by using a conventional load. The agreement is found to be excellent. Approximately an order of magnitude reduction in size, weight and power consumption over conventional units was realized with the experimental I-V curve tracer.

Cox, C.H. III; Warner, T.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Comparison of dynamometer power absorption characteristics and vehicle road load measurements  

SciTech Connect

The report presents vehicle road load force versus speed curves and Clayton dynamometer force versus speed curves. The vehicle road load force data were collected in the recent road load project, where the vehicle road load, as a function of speed, was determined for sixty-three light-duty vehicles. The dynamometer data were obtained from the six EPA certification dynamometers. This data is first used to generate an equation to represent an average emission dynamometer. The variations of the individual dynamometers about this average dynamometer curve are discussed. Subsequently, each vehicle curve is compared to this average dynamometer curve. Variations between different vehicles are discussed, and the possible intrinsic error caused by differences between the shape of the dynamometer force versus speed curve and the typical vehicle road load curve is investigated.

Thompson, G.D.; Torres, M.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Snap rounding of Bzier curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an extension of snap roundingfrom straight-line segments (see Guibas and Marimont, 1998)to Bzier curves of arbitrary degree, and thus the first method for geometric roundingof curvilinear arrangements.Our algorithm takes a set of intersecting ... Keywords: Bzier curves, arrangement, geometric rounding, intersection computation, robustness, snap rounding, splines

Arno Eigenwillig; Lutz Kettner; Nicola Wolpert

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A fuzzy logic based approach to direct load control  

SciTech Connect

Demand side management programs are strategies designed to alter the shape of the load curve. In order to successfully implement such a strategy, customer acceptance of the program is vital. It is thus desirable to design a model for direct load control which may accommodate customer preferences. This paper presents a methodology for optimizing both customer satisfaction and utility unit commitment savings, based on a fuzzy load model for the direct load control of appliances.

Bhattacharyya, K.; Crow, M.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

An analysis of the potential for shifting electric power demand within daily load requirement  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the potential for shifting the electric power demand within the daily load requirements for large industrial and commercial customers of the Philadelphia Electric Company. This shifting of electric power demand would tend to flatten the daily load curve of electricity demand, benefitting both the power industry and the consumer. Data on estimated summer load curves of large commercial and industrial customers are analyzed for load flattening potential. Cost savings to the customers are determined. (GRA)

Lamb, P.G.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

R-curve behavior in ferrite ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The unusual dependence of the fracture mode of ferrite ceramics on the stress intensity factor in the subcritical crack growth regime was used to create flaws with different concentrations of crack-interface bridges. Flaws with numerous bridges were produced by indenting under dry silicone oil, while flaws with essentially no bridges were produced by indenting under water. Plots of log failure stress as a function of log indenter load for the two types of flaws reflect the differences in bridging. Those with extensive bridging showed pronounced R-curve behavior. The curve for those initially devoid of bridges showed no plateau but did show deviations from a {minus}1/3 slope that correspond to those predicted by Bennison and Lawn for this type of flaw. The ferrite studies was 62.4 Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 26.6 MnO, 11.2nO, and .04 V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. 10 figs.

Beauchamp, E.K.; Monroe, S.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

A new classification pattern recognition methodology for power system typical load profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a new pattern recognition methodology is described for the classification of the daily chronological load curves of power systems, in order to estimate their respective representative daily load profiles, which can be mainly used for load ... Keywords: adaptive vector quantization, adequacy measures, clustering algorithms, fuzzy k-means, hierarchical clustering, k-means, load profiles, pattern recognition, self-organized maps

G. J. Tsekouras; F. D. Kanellos; V. T. Kontargyri; I. S. Karanasiou; A. D. Salis; N. E. Mastorakis

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experience curves for wind farms. Energy Policy 33, 133-150.curves for wind power. Energy Policy 30, 1181- Jakob, M. ,

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Periodic load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiprocessor load balancing aims to improve performance by moving jobs from highly loaded processors to more lightly loaded processors. Some schemes allow only migration of new jobs upon arrival, while other schemes allow migration of ... Keywords: heavy traffic diffusion approximations, load balancing, periodic load balancing, reflected Brownian motion, resource sharing, transient behavior

Gsli Hjlmtsson; Ward Whitt

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Supply Curves of Conserved Energy  

SciTech Connect

Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

Meier, Alan Kevin

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

G&T adds versatile load management system  

SciTech Connect

Wolverine`s load management system was designed in response to the need to reduce peak demand. The Energy Management System (EMS) prepares short term (seven day) load forecasts, based on a daily peak demand forecst, augmented by a similar day profile based on weather conditions. The software combines the similar day profile with the daily peak demand forecast to yield an hourly load forecast for an entire week. The software uses the accepted load forecast case in many application functions, including interchange scheduling, unit commitment, and transaction evaluation. In real time, the computer updates the accepted forecast hourly, based in actual changes in the weather and load. The load management program executes hourly. The program uses impact curves to calculate a load management strategy that reduces the load forecast below a desired load threshold.

Nickel, J.R.; Baker, E.D.; Holt, J.W.; Chan, M.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

R-curve and subcritical crack growth behavior at elevated temperatures in coarse grain alumina  

SciTech Connect

The effect of temperature and subcritical crack growth on the R-curve of a 99.5% purity coarse grained alumina was studied using chevron-notched, short-bar specimens. Constant loading rate tests were used to measure toughness as a function of crack length and static load tests were used to measure subcritical crack growth as a function of time. It was found that the intrinsic toughness decreased monotonically from 20 to 1200 C while the bridging contribution to the R-curve remained relatively constant over this temperature range. The constant load tests at 700, 1000 and 1200 C showed that substantial subcritical crack growth occurs under static loading. Using the subcritical crack growth parameters derived from these static load tests, the effect of loading rate on R-curve measurement was predicted and compared to experiment. The predicted decrease in the magnitude of the R-curve with a decrease in over five orders of magnitude in loading rate was relatively small compared to experimental scatter.

Webb, J.E.; Jakus, K.; Ritter, J.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Using Energy Information Systems (EIS): A Guidebook for the U.S. Postal Service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy management Load profiles Load duration curves 4.specified time period. Load Profiles Time series graphs ofelectricity demand. Load profiles for different time periods

Foster, Dale; Hough, Ben; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William; Goldman, Charles

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Selection of Frequency, Power, and Duration of Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...the duration of heating and the power density (kilowatts per square inch of surface exposed to the

79

Energy-Dependent $\\gamma$-Ray Burst Peak Durations and Blast-Wave Deceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temporal analyses of the prompt gamma-ray and X-ray light curves of gamma-ray bursts reveal a tendency for the burst pulse time scales to increase with decreasing energy. For an ensemble of BATSE bursts, Fenimore et al. (1995) show that the energy dependence of burst peak durations can be represented by dependence has led to the suggestion that this effect is due to radiative processes, most notably synchrotron cooling of the non-thermal particles which produce the radiation. Here we show that a similar power-law dependence occurs, under certain assumptions, in the context of the blast-wave model and is a consequence of the deceleration of the blast-wave. This effect will obtain whether or not synchrotron cooling is important, but different degrees of cooling will cause variations in the energy dependence of the peak durations.

Chiang, J

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments topower plants: Applications to commercial sector conservationprograms  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a simplified methodology to compare supply and demand-side resources. The screening curve approach supplements with load shape information the data contained in a supply curve of conserved energy. In addition, a screening curve contains information on competing supply technologies, such as annualized capital costs, variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The information in the screening curve allows policymakers to promptly and conveniently compare the relevant parameters affecting supply and demand-side investment decisions. While many sophisticated computer models have evolved to account for the load shape impacts of energy efficiency investments, this sophistication has, by and large, not trickled down to spreadsheet-level or 'back-of-the-envelope' analyses. Our methodology allows a simple summary of load shape characteristics based on the output of the more complicated models. It offers many advantages, principal of which is clarity in analyzing supply and demand-side investment choices. This paper first describes how supply-side screening curves have been used in the past, and develops the conceptual tools needed to apply integrated supply/demand screening curves in the least-cost utility planning process. It then presents examples of supply-side technologies and commercial sector demand-side management programs, and plots them on representative screening curves.

Koomey, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

TRANSFINITE PARTITIONS OF JORDAN CURVES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The ?-asymmetry induced by transfinite partitions makes it impossible for Jordan curves to have an infinite length. 1. ?-asymmetry As we known from the XVIII century, ?-partitions (as we call them nowadays) of finite line segments are only possible if the successive adjacent parts of the ?-partition are of a decreasing length. This inevitable restriction induces a huge asymmetry in the very partition. In fact, whatever be the length of the ?-partitioned line segment and whatever be the ?-partition, all its parts, except a finite number of them, will necessarily lie within an arbitrarily small final segment. For the sake of illustration, consider an ?-partition of a 10 30 light years length segment-the assumed diameter of the universe. Whatever be the ?-partition of this enormous line segment all its infinitely many parts, except a finite number of them, will inevitably lie within a final segment inconceivable less than, for instance, Planck length ( ? 10 ?33 cm). There is no way of performing a more equitable partition if the partition has to be ?-ordered. Thus, ?-partitions are ?-asymmetrical. For the same reason it is impossible to consider two proper points in the real line R separated by an infinite euclidean distance, in spite of the assumed infiniteness of the real line. The above simply unaesthetic consequences of ?-partitions become a little more controversial if the partitioned object is a closed line as a Jordan curve. The objective of the following short discussion is just to examine one of those consequences. Figure 1. A cosmic ?-asymmetry. The ?-order makes it impossible a more equitable distribution of the available space. 1 2 Transfinite partitions of Jordan Curves 2. Transfinite partitions of Jordan Curves Let f(x) be a real valued function whose graph is a Jordan Curve J in the euclidean plane R2. If a and b are any two Js points, we will write L(a, b) to denote the length of the Js arc b whose endpoints are a and b. That is to say: b ? L(a, b) = 1 + (f(x)?) 2dx (1)

Antonio Leon Sanchez; I. E. S. Francisco; Salinas Salamanca

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Regression Error Characteristic CurVes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves provide a powerful tool for visualizing and comparing classification results. Regression Error Characteristic (REC) curves generalize ROC curves to regression. REC curves plot the error tolerance on the xaxis versus the percentage of points predicted within the tolerance on the y-axis. The resulting curve estimates the cumulative distribution function of the error. The REC curve visually presents commonly-used statistics. The area-over-the-curve (AOC) is a biased estimate of the expected error. The R 2 value can be estimated using the ratio of the AOC for a given model to the AOC for the null model. Users can quickly assess the relative merits of many regression functions by examining the relative position of their REC curves. The shape of the curve reveals additional information that can be used to guide modeling. 1.

Jinbo Bi; Kristin P. Bennett

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Battery loading device  

SciTech Connect

A battery loading device for loading a power source battery, built in small appliances having a battery loading chamber for selectively loading a number of cylindrical unit batteries or a one body type battery having the same voltage as a number of cylindrical unit batteries, whereby the one body type battery and the battery loading chamber are shaped similarly and asymmetrically in order to prevent the one body type battery from being inserted in the wrong direction.

Phara, T.; Suzuki, M.

1984-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition:Thetotalloadprofileobtainedfrom loadindividualloadtypesif loadprofilesofindividualloadcompositionvalidation:Loadprofilesgeneratedbytheload

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Pressure vessel and piping codes. Technical basis for revised reference crack growth rate curves for pressure boundary steels in LWR environment  

SciTech Connect

Since the inception of the pressure vessel and piping codes the reference fatigue crack growth rate curves have been contained in Appendix A of Sect. XI. The curves have been designed to be applicable to carbon and low alloy pressure vessel steels exposed to either air or light water reactor coolant environments. Data obtained over the past several years have shown a different behavior of these steels in the light water reactor environment than that predicted by the present reference curve. A revised set of reference curves has been formulated, incorporating a new curve shape as well as a dependency of growth rate on R ratio (minimum load/maximum load). This work provides the background and justification for such a revision, details the methodology used to develop the revised curves, and includes an evalution of the adequacy and impact of the revised curves as compared with the single curve which they replace. 24 references.

Bamford, W.H.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Gamma-Ray Bursts' Fluence-Duration Correlation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an analysis indicating that there is a correlation between the fluences and the durations of gamma-ray bursts, and provide arguments that this reflects a correlation between the total emitted energies and the intrinsic durations. For the short (long) bursts the total emitted energies are roughly proportional to the first (second) power of the intrinsic duration. This difference in the energy-duration relationship is statistically significant, and may provide an interesting constraint on models aiming to explain the short and long gamma-ray bursts.

Istvan Horvath; Lajos G. Balazs; Peter Meszaros; Zsolt Bagoly; Attila Meszaros

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Discharge circuits and loads  

SciTech Connect

This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

Sarjeant, W.J.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Conductor assembly formed about a curved axis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductor assembly of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In the assembly a first layer, tubular in shape, is formed about an axis. The axis includes a curved portion along which a conductor may be positioned to define a first conductor path. The first layer also includes a curved portion having a shape that includes a curve extending along the curved portion of the axis. A first conductor is arranged about the curved portion of the first layer in a first helical configuration including a curved segment, helical in shape and formed about the curved portion of the axis. The configuration is capable of sustaining a magnetic field having multipole components oriented in directions transverse to the axis.

Meinke, Rainer (Melbourne, FL)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Certified Approximation of Parametric Space Curves with Cubic B-spline Curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Approximating complex curves with simple parametric curves is widely used in CAGD, CG, and CNC. This paper presents an algorithm to compute a certified approximation to a given parametric space curve with cubic B-spline curves. By certified, we mean that the approximation can approximate the given curve to any given precision and preserve the geometric features of the given curve such as the topology, singular points, etc. The approximated curve is divided into segments called quasi-cubic B\\'{e}zier curve segments which have properties similar to a cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve. And the approximate curve is naturally constructed as the associated cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve of the control tetrahedron of a quasi-cubic curve. A novel optimization method is proposed to select proper weights in the cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve to approximate the given curve. The error of the approximation is controlled by the size of its tetrahedron, which converges to zero by subdividing the curve segments. As an applic...

Shen, Liyong; Gao, Xiao-Shan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads.

Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Bayesian methods for estimating ROC curves.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a fundamental method for assessing imaging systems. However, clinical trials to estimate ROC curves can be costly as (more)

Zur, Richard Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

WECS - load controlled pitch - variable load conversion to heat. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Load control circuitry was developed such that excess energy from a windmill, that would normally go back to the utility, be absorbed in thermal storage to heat domestic hot water. Also, associated with this objective is the development of instrumentation to measure the power curve of the windmill as a function of windspeed. An Enertech 4KW windmill and related equipment was used to meet this objective.

Secord, N.

1983-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

94

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

95

Are Durations of Weak Gamma-Ray Bursts Reliable?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations in the GUSBAD Catalog of gamma-ray bursts suggest that the apparent duration of a burst decreases as its amplitude is decreased. We see no evidence for this effect in the BATSE catalog. We show that for a burst at the detection limit, the typical signal-to-noise ratio at the edges of the T90 duration is around 1.5, suggesting that T90 must be quite uncertain. The situation for T50 is less unfavorable. Simulations using the exact procedure to derive the durations in the BATSE catalog would be useful in quantifying the effect.

Maarten Schmidt

2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

96

Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve Agency/Company /Organization: Government of Indonesia Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Co-benefits assessment, Background analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.dnpi.go.id/report/DNPI-Media-Kit/reports/indonesia-ghg_abatement_c Country: Indonesia UN Region: South-Eastern Asia Coordinates: -0.789275°, 113.921327° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":-0.789275,"lon":113.921327,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

97

Chevron-notched toughness of materials with rising fracture resistance curves  

SciTech Connect

The effect of rising resistance curves on the fracture toughness determined from chevron-notched beam tests is estimated via a set of simple numerical calculations. It is shown that for materials with a rising resistance curve, the toughnesses determined by the peak load method and by the work of fracture method are both higher than the initiation toughness, and both depend on the sample size relative to the length over which the resistance curve increases. It is also found that the toughness based on the work of fracture is higher than that based on the peak load. Fracture toughness data obtained from tests of a nickel-alumina composite are discussed in light of the results of the numerical calculation.

Zehnder, A.T.; Hui, C.Y.; Rodeghiero, E.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Enforcement Guidance Supplement 98-01: Duration of Investigations Conducted  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duration of Investigations Duration of Investigations Conducted Pursuant to 10 CFR 820.21; Purpose of Transcript Requirements Set Forth in 10 CFR 820.10 (d) Enforcement Guidance Supplement 98-01: Duration of Investigations Conducted Pursuant to 10 CFR 820.21; Purpose of Transcript Requirements Set Forth in 10 CFR 820.10 (d) The DOE Enforcement Handbook (1087-95) provides the Office of Enforcement and lnvestigation with the opportunity to issue interim clarifying guidance occasionally with respect to the processes to be used in this office (see Section 1.3- Interim Enforcement Guidance). In particular, it is important to assist contractors and others on the relationships between the requirements of Part 820 and the Enforcement Policy, 10 CFR 820, Appendix A. Enforcement Guidance Supplement 98-01: Duration of Investigations Conducted

99

Threshold Relative Humidity Duration Forecasts for Plant Disease Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Duration of high relative humidity periods is an important component of many plant disease development models. Performance of forecasts of this quantity, based on the model output statistics 3-h temperature and dewpoint forecasts produced by the ...

Daniel S. Wilks; Karin W. Shen

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Adaptive mesh generation for curved domains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper considers the technologies needed to support the creation of adaptively constructed meshes for general curved three-dimensional domains and outlines one set of solutions for providing them. A brief review of an effective way to integrate mesh ... Keywords: adaptive meshes, anisotropic meshes, curved meshes

Mark S. Shephard; Joseph E. Flaherty; Kenneth E. Jansen; Xiangrong Li; Xiaojuan Luo; Nicolas Chevaugeon; Jean-Franois Remacle; Mark W. Beall; Robert M. O'Bara

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Mathematical modelling of brown seaweed drying curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simple solution on one-term exponential models is used in the analysis of raw data obtained from the drying experiment. The values of the parameters a, n and the constant k for the models are determined using a plot of curve drying models. Three different ... Keywords: brown seaweed, drying curves, mathematical models

Ahmad Fudholi; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Lim Chin Haw; Sohif Mat; Mohd Yusof Othman; Azami Zaharim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Active curve axis Gaussian mixture models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) have been broadly applied for the fitting of probability density function. However, due to the intrinsic linearity of GMM, usually many components are needed to appropriately fit the data distribution, when there are curve ... Keywords: AcaG, AcaGMM, Active curve axis, EM, Finite mixture models, GMM, Unsupervised learning

Baibo Zhang; Changshui Zhang; Xing Yi

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Bayesian curve estimation by model averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Bayesian approach is used to estimate a nonparametric regression model. The main features of the procedure are, first, the functional form of the curve is approximated by a mixture of local polynomials by Bayesian model averaging (BMA), second, the ... Keywords: BIC criterion, Bayesian model averaging, Local polynomial regression, Nonparametric curve fitting, Robustness

Daniel Pea; Dolores Redondas

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Structural load combinations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ or 1.0 x 10/sup -5/ during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Watershed Mercury Loading Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explains and illustrates a simplified stochastic framework, the Watershed Mercury Loading Framework, for organizing and framing site-specific knowledge and information on mercury loading to waterbodies. The framework permits explicit treatment of data uncertainties. This report will be useful to EPRI members, state and federal regulatory agencies, and watershed stakeholders concerned with mercury-related human and ecological health risk.

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

106

load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

107

Load-management decision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities require baseload, intermediate, and peaking plants to meet fluctuating customer demand. These can be supplemented with off-peak generation and storage and load management, which can take the form of direct utility control over interruptible and deferrable customers or customer incentives that require off-peak demand. Utilities should make a careful analysis of their load profile, their generation mix, their ability to shift loads, and customer attitudes before deciding on a load-management program that fits their individual needs. They should also be aware that load management is only a limited resource with a number of uncertainties. Research programs into customer relations, system reliability, communications devices, and special control switches and meters will help to relieve some of the uncertainties. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Gupta, P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION AS THE DOMINANT RADIATION MECHANISM IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the results of a set of numerical simulations of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets associated with massive, compact stellar progenitors. The simulations extend to large radii and allow us to locate the region in which the peak frequency of the advected radiation is set before the radiation is released at the photosphere. Light curves and spectra are calculated for different viewing angles as well as different progenitor structures and jet properties. We find that the radiation released at the photosphere of matter-dominated jets is able to reproduce the observed Amati and energy-Lorentz factor correlations. Our simulations also predict a correlation between the burst energy and the radiative efficiency of the prompt phase, consistent with observations.

Lazzati, Davide [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Morsony, Brian J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3321 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison WI 53706-1582 (United States); Margutti, Raffaella [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITC, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Begelman, Mitchell C. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

109

Improved load ratio method for predicting crack length  

SciTech Connect

The elastic compliance from unloading/reloading sequences in a load-displacement record estimates well crack length in elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests of compact tension [C(T)] and bending type specimens. The need for partial unloading of the specimen makes it difficult to run the test under static loading and impossible under either dynamic loading or very high temperatures. Furthermore, fracture toughness testing in which crack length is determined from elastic compliance requires high precision testing equipment and highly skilled technicians. As a result, such tests are confined usually to research laboratories and seldom used under production settings. To eliminate these problems, an improved load ratio method of predicting crack length is proposed that utilizes only the recorded load versus load-line displacement curve (or load versus crack-mouth-opening displacement curve) without unloading/reloading sequences. As a result, the instrumentation is much simpler than in the elastic compliance or potential drop methods. If only a monotonic load-displacement record is to be measured the fracture toughness test becomes almost as simple to perform as a tension test. The method described here improves in three ways the ``original load ratio method`` proposed by Hu et al. First, a blunting term is added to the crack length before maximum load. Second, a strain hardening correction is included after maximum load. And, third, the initial crack length and the physical (final) crack length measured at the end of the test serve to anchor the predicted crack lengths, forcing agreement between predicted and measured values. The method predicts crack extension with excellent accuracy in specimens fabricated from A302, A508, and A533B piping and pressure vessel steels, A588 and A572 structural steels, and HY-80 ship steel.

Chen, X.; Albrecht, P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Systems Research; Wright, W. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States). Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center; Joyce, J.A. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Energy-Dependent Gamma-Ray Burst Peak Durations and Blast-Wave Deceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temporal analyses of the prompt gamma-ray and X-ray light curves of gamma-ray bursts reveal a tendency for the burst pulse time scales to increase with decreasing energy. For an ensemble of BATSE bursts, Fenimore et al. (1995) show that the energy dependence of burst peak durations can be represented by $\\Delta t \\propto E^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma \\simeq 0.4$--0.45. This power-law dependence has led to the suggestion that this effect is due to radiative processes, most notably synchrotron cooling of the non-thermal particles which produce the radiation. Here we show that a similar power-law dependence occurs, under certain assumptions, in the context of the blast-wave model and is a consequence of the deceleration of the blast-wave. This effect will obtain whether or not synchrotron cooling is important, but different degrees of cooling will cause variations in the energy dependence of the peak durations.

James Chiang

1998-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

111

Investigation of learning and experience curves  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

113

Method for exciting inductive-resistive loads with high and controllable direct current  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for transmitting dc power to a load circuit by applying a dc voltage from a standard waveform synthesizer to duration modulate a bipolar rectangular wave generator. As the amplitude of the dc voltage increases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses increase, and as the amplitude of the dc voltage decreases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses decrease. Thus, the waveform synthesizer selectively changes the durations of the rectangular wave generator bipolar output pulses so as to produce a rectangular wave ac carrier that is duration modulated in accordance with and in direct proportion to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. Thereupon, by transferring the carrier to the load circuit through an amplifier and a rectifier, the load current also corresponds directly to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. To this end, the rectified wave at less than 100% duty factor, amounts to a doubled frequency direct voltage pulse train for applying a direct current to the load, while the current ripple is minimized by a high L/R in the load circuit. In one embodiment, a power transmitting power amplifier means having a dc power supply is matched to the load circuit through a transformer for current magnification without sacrificing load current duration capability, while negative voltage and current feedback are provided in order to insure good output fidelity.

Hill, Jr., Homer M. (Princeton Junction, NJ)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

115

OpenEI - load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

116

building load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

117

electric load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

118

commercial load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

119

residential load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

120

Composite Load Model Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: the model initializes properly, all the parameter settings are functioning, and the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Available Technologies: Curved Mandrel Design Enabling ...  

A Berkeley Lab team of engineers led by Shlomo Caspi has invented a technology to construct a curved superconducting magnet capable of bending an ion beam 90 in a ...

122

Analysis of exoplanetary transit light curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This Thesis considers the scenario in which an extra-solar planet (exoplanet) passes in front of its star relative to our observing perspective. In this event, the light curve measured for the host star features a systematic ...

Carter, Joshua Adam

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Energy flow analysis for curved beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an energy model for the medium- and high-frequency analysis of LoveKirchhoff curved beams. This model introduced by Nefske and Sung [Statistical Energy Analysis NCA 3

A. Le Bot; M. N. Ichchou; L. Jezequel

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Enforcement Guidance Supplement 98-01:Duration of Investigations Conducted  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enforcement Guidance Supplement 98-01:Duration of Investigations Enforcement Guidance Supplement 98-01:Duration of Investigations Conducted Pursuant to 10 CFR 820.21; Purpose of Transcript Requirements Set Forth in 10 CFR 820.10 (d) Enforcement Guidance Supplement 98-01:Duration of Investigations Conducted Pursuant to 10 CFR 820.21; Purpose of Transcript Requirements Set Forth in 10 CFR 820.10 (d) The DOE Enforcement Handbook (1087-95) provides the Office of Enforcement and Investigation with the opportunity to issue interim clarifying guidance occasionally with respect to the processes to be used in this office (see Section 1.3- Interim Enforcement Guidance). In particular, it is important to assist contractors and others on the relationships between the requirements of Part 820 and the Enforcement Policy, 10 CFR 820, Appendix

125

Are Durations of Weak Gamma-Ray Bursts Reliable?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations in the GUSBAD Catalog of gamma-ray bursts suggest that the apparent duration of a burst decreases as its amplitude is decreased. We see no evidence for this effect in the BATSE catalog. We show that for a burst at the detection limit, the typical signal-to-noise ratio at the edges of the T90 duration is around 1.5, suggesting that T90 must be quite uncertain. The situation for T50 is less unfavorable. Simulations using the exact procedure to derive the durations listed in the BATSE catalog would be useful in quantifying the effect. PACS 95.85.Pw gamma-ray. PACS 98.70.Rz gamma-ray bursts.

Maarten Schmidt

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Neutron cross sections: Book of curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Distribution substation load impacts of residential air conditioner load control  

SciTech Connect

An ongoing experiment to monitor the substation level load impacts of end-use load control is described. An overview of the data acquisition system, experimental procedures and analysis techniques are provided. Results of the 1983 and 1984 experiments demonstrate the value of aggregate load impact monitoring as a means of verifying load research results, calculating the diversity of end-use loads, and predicting the impacts of load management on the transmission and distribution systems.

Heffner, G.C.; Kaufman, D.A.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

Managing Constructibility Reviews to Reduce Highway Project Durations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- creases costs. Research confirms that schedule compression has led to increases in project cost CII 1989 in project cost provided certain tech- niques are applied during project development and especially dur- ing to have the highest potential to reduce project duration without increasing total project cost. Project

Ford, David N.

130

Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Low-cost load research for electric utilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) developed two pragmatic approaches to meet most load-research objectives at a substantially lower cost than would be incurred with traditional techniques. GVEA serves three customer classes, with most of its load in the Fairbanks area. GVEA's new approaches simulate load curves for individual customer classes to the degree necessary to meet most load-research objectives for the utility, including applications to cost-of-service analysis, rate design, demand-side management, and load forecasting. These approaches make class load-shape information available to utilities that cannot otherwise afford to develop such data. Although the two approaches were developed for a small utility, they are likely to work at least as well for medium and large utilities. The first approach simulates class curves by combining load data from system feeders with information on customer mix and energy usage. GVEA's supervisory control and data acquisition system gives hourly data on feeder loads, and its billing database provides the number of customers and kilowatt-hour usage by customer class on each feeder. The second approach enhances load-research results by redefining target parameters. Data from several like-hours are used to calculate substitutes for the parameters traditionally defined from single-hour data points. The precision of peak responsibility estimates, for example, can be improved if several of the highest hourly demands in a given time period are used rather than the single highest hourly demand. Arguably, use of several highest hourly demands can also improve the reliability of the allocation of responsibility.

Gray, D.A.; Butcher, M.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Long-term residential load forecasting. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study was to isolate and evaluate the importance of various factors, many of which are household characteristics and weather conditions, that determine the demand for electricity at different times of day. A second purpose was to investigate one of the factors in detail, namely, prices, which was feasible because half of the households in the sample were subjected to time-of-day pricing. Substantial differences between the load curves of the experimental and control groups were found. Households in the experimental group significantly decreased electricity usage when its price was high, the consumption being shifted partly into the early morning hours but more heavily into the evening. The importance of certain appliances in shifting the load curve is also clearly brought out. For example, households with a dishwasher or electric heating appeared to change the timing of use of these appliances under peak-load pricing. Other appliances were also important in determining the load curve for both groups. Swimming pool pumps and air conditioning, for instance, were important determinants in the summer, whereas in the winter, electric heating and dishwashers substantially increased consumption levels.

Granger, C.W.J.; Engle, R.F.; Ramanathan, R.; Andersen, A.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Load-carrying capacity of oils for rolling mills  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on an investigation of the loadcarrying capacity of the compounded oils Pp-6, Pp-17, and Pp-28 that have been developed for liquid-friction bearings (LFB) as compared to nonadditive oils. A PZhT-140-300 single-roll stand for the lubrication of a regular-production PZhT-180 bearing was used in the study. The load/sliding speed curves obtained from the test oil were compared with the theoretical curve for the load-carrying capacity of the LFB for nonadditive oil and the curve obtained for the oil base stock at the corresponding viscosity level. It is determined that the compounded oils examined are 15-25% better in terms of load-carrying capacity than the oil base stocks, and 20-25% better than the nonadditive oils. The results demonstrate that the introduction of additives increases the load-carrying capacity of oils for LFBs in rolling mills by 20-25%, depending on viscosity.

Grigor' eva, N.I.; Badyshtova, K.M.; Ivankina, E.B.; Kolobov, N.I.; Toloka, V.I.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Mass-Loaded Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A key process within astronomy is the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between diffuse plasmas in many types of astronomical sources (including planetary nebulae, wind-blown bubbles, supernova remnants, starburst superwinds, and the intracluster medium) and dense, embedded clouds or clumps. This transfer affects the large scale flows of the diffuse plasmas as well as the evolution of the clumps. I review our current understanding of mass-injection processes, and examine intermediate-scale structure and the global effect of mass-loading on a flow. I then discuss mass-loading in a variety of diffuse sources.

J. M. Pittard

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

135

A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.

Eslinger, Paul W.; Miley, Harry S.

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

136

Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper documents the approach used to update the U.S. geothermal supply curve. The analysis undertaken in this study estimates the supply of electricity generation potential from geothermal resources in the United States and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs associated with developing these geothermal resources. Supply curves were developed for four categories of geothermal resources: identified hydrothermal (6.4 GWe), undiscovered hydrothermal (30.0 GWe), near-hydrothermal field enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) (7.0 GWe) and deep EGS (15,900 GWe). Two cases were considered: a base case and a target case. Supply curves were generated for each of the four geothermal resource categories for both cases. For both cases, hydrothermal resources dominate the lower cost range of the combined geothermal supply curve. The supply curves indicate that the reservoir performance improvements assumed in the target case could significantly lower EGS costs and greatly increase EGS deployment over the base case.

Augustine, C.; Young, K. R.; Anderson, A.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit  

SciTech Connect

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

Treshow, M.

1960-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Multidimensional spectral load balancing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

Hendrickson, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leland, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

142

Buildings Stock Load Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on electricity demand control by applying some strategies in existing building to reduce it during the extreme climate period. The first part of this paper presents the objectives of the study: ? to restrict the startup polluting manufacturing units (power station), ? to limit the environmental impacts (greenhouse emission), ? to reduce the transport and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing models of tertiary buildings stocks (Schools, offices, Shops, hotels); ? Making simulations for different load shedding strategies to calculate potential peak power saving. The third part is dedicated to the description of the developed models: An assembly of the various blocks of the library of simbad and simulink permit to model building. Finally the last part prensents the study results: Graphs and tables to see the load shedding strategies impacts.

Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

OpenEI Community - load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

144

OpenEI Community - electric load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

145

OpenEI Community - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

146

OpenEI Community - residential load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

147

OpenEI Community - commercial load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

148

OpenEI Community - building load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

149

BOOK: Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, 2nd Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 9, 2007 ... The second edition of this publication contains more than 1400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition.The curves are...

150

Does the Environmental Kuznets Curve Describe How Individual Countries Behave?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Environmental Kuznets Curve Does Not Exist, AustralianDoes the Environmental Kuznets Curve Describe How Individualover time, even if it does not appear to do so immediately.

Deacon, Robert; Norman, Catherine S

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

What ROC curves cant do (and cost curves can  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. This paper shows that ROC curves, as a method of visualizing classifier performance, are inadequate for the needs of Artificial Intelligence researchers in several significant respects, and demonstrates that a different way of visualizing performance the cost curves introduced by Drummond and Holte at KDD2000 overcomes these deficiencies. 1

Chris Drummond; Robert C. Holte

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Moisture Retention Curves of Topopah Spring Tuff at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of unsaturated flow and transport in porous media is critical for understanding the movement of water and solute through the unsaturated zone. The suction potential of rock determines the imbibition of water and, therefore, the moisture retention in the matrix. That, in turn, affects the relative importance of matrix flow and fracture flow, and their interaction, because greater suction potential moves more water from fractures into the matrix and therefore retards fracture flow. The moisture content as a function of the suction potential is called a moisture retention curve or a characteristic curve. Moisture-retention data are important input for numerical models of water movement in unsaturated porous media. Also important are the effect of sample history on the moisture-retention curves and whether there is significant hysteresis between wetting and drying measurements. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) of the U.S. Department of Energy is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository horizon will be in the unsaturated zone of the Topopah Spring member (densely welded) of the Paintbrush Tuff unit at Yucca Mountain. This unit is highly fractured. Therefore, transport of water within the near field of the nuclear waste package in the repository is strongly influenced by the suction potential of the repository host rocks at elevated temperatures. In a high-level nuclear waste repository, the rock mass around the waste packages will become dry because of the thermal load of the waste but will then re-wet during the cool-down period as the thermal output of the waste packages declines. Much of this process will occur at temperatures above ambient temperature. The goal of our work is to determine the importance of temperature and the wetting-drying hysteresis on the measured moisture retention curves of the densely welded tuff. For Topopah Spring tuff the suction potential is assumed to be primary due to the matric potential.

Lin, W.; Roberts, J.; Carlberg, E.; Ruddle, D.; Pletcher, R.

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations  

SciTech Connect

The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. In this report, a new methodology to predict the uncertainty ranges for the required balancing capacity, ramping capability and ramp duration is presented. Uncertainties created by system load forecast errors, wind and solar forecast errors, generation forced outages are taken into account. The uncertainty ranges are evaluated for different confidence levels of having the actual generation requirements within the corresponding limits. The methodology helps to identify system balancing reserve requirement based on a desired system performance levels, identify system breaking points, where the generation system becomes unable to follow the generation requirement curve with the user-specified probability level, and determine the time remaining to these potential events. The approach includes three stages: statistical and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence intervals. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis incorporating all sources of uncertainty and parameters of a continuous (wind forecast and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and failures to start up) nature. Preliminary simulations using California Independent System Operator (California ISO) real life data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed approach. A tool developed based on the new methodology described in this report will be integrated with the California ISO systems. Contractual work is currently in place to integrate the tool with the AREVA EMS system.

Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high-energy, high-efficiency, long pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The apparatus has been demonstrated with rare gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

Sze, R.C.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense- ion beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. We are developing a 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 {mu}s duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator to address these applications.

Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M. [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States). Central Research and Development Dept.; Lovberg, R.H. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Greenly, J.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Duration Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a duration noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Viryd CS8 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with Clause 9.4 of the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind turbines - Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed. 2.0:2006-03. NREL researchers evaluated the turbine based on structural integrity and material degradation, quality of environmental protection, and dynamic behavior.

Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Compactness of the space of causal curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that the space of causal curves between compact subsets of a separable globally hyperbolic poset is itself compact in the Vietoris topology. Although this result implies the usual result in general relativity, its proof does not require the use of geometry or differentiable structure.

Keye Martin

2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

159

A curve design method with shape control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A curve design method has been proposed which, in addition to enjoying the good features of cubic splines, possesses interested shape design features too. Two families of shape parameters have been introduced in such a way that one family of parameters ... Keywords: Bernstein-Bzier, interpolation, shape control, spline, tension

M. Sarfraz; M. Balah

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Biomimetic soft lithography on curved nanostructured surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a nano-molding process using a nature-created master is demonstrated. The eye of night moth Agotis exclamationis having 100nm-scale structures on a curved surface is used as biomimetic master mold from which nanostructures are replicated ... Keywords: Antireflective, Biomimetic, Nanostructures, Replication, Soft lithography

V. Auzelyte; V. Flauraud; V. J. Cadarso; T. Kiefer; J. Brugger

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fractionalization of Interstitials in Curved Colloidal Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the out-of equilibrium behaviour of point defects in crystals, yields insights into the nature and fragility of the ordered state, as well as being of great practical importance. In some rare cases defects are spontaneously healed - a one-dimensional crystal formed by a line of identical charged particles, for example, can accommodate an interstitial (extra particle) by a re-adjusting all particle positions to even out the spacing. In sharp contrast, particles organized into a perfect hexagonal crystal in the plane cannot accommodate an interstitial by a simple re-adjustment of the particle spacing - the interstitial remains instead trapped between lattice sites and diffuses by hopping, leaving the crystal permanently defected. Here we report on the behavior of interstitials in colloidal crystals on curved surfaces. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three dimensional imaging, we insert a colloidal interstitial in a lattice of similar particles on flat and curved (positively and negatively) oil-glycerol interfaces and image the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective rearrangement that re-distributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. The self-healing process can be interpreted in terms of an out of equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of "particle fractionalization" on curved surface crystals.

William T. M. Irvine; Mark J. Bowick; Paul M. Chaikin

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

162

Updated Hubbert curves analyze world oil supply  

SciTech Connect

The question is not whether, but when, world crude oil production will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this event is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous Hubbert Curve that predicted the US (Lower 48 states, or US/48) 1970 oil production peak, there are strong indications that most of the world`s large exploration targets have now been found. Meanwhile, the earth`s population is exploding along with the oil needs of Asia`s developing nations. This article reviews Hubbert`s original analyses on oil discovery and production curves for the US/48 and projects his proven methodology onto global oil discoveries and production as of 1992. The world`s oil discovery curve peaked in 1962, and thence declined, as a Hubbert Curve predicts. However, global production was restricted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Otherwise, world production would have peaked in the mid-1990s. Two graphs show alternate versions of future global oil production.

Ivanhoe, L.F. [Novum Corp., Ojai, CA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A new aggregation method for determining composite load characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A new aggregation method for determining load characteristics for representation in computer simulations is proposed. In support of the new method, a mathematical derivation is presented. Also, results are compared with models obtained by using the EPRI/University of Texas at Arlington method and field tests. The application of the proposed method is simpler than existing methods in that it does not require field tests or the use of curve fitting techniques. The procedure should be of primary interest to transmission system planners involved in load flow and dynamic stability simulations of power systems.

Rideiro, J.R.; Lange, F.J.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

TWENTY-ONE NEW LIGHT CURVES OF OGLE-TR-56b: NEW SYSTEM PARAMETERS AND LIMITS ON TIMING VARIATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although OGLE-TR-56b was the second transiting exoplanet discovered, only one light curve, observed in 2006, has been published besides the discovery data. We present 21 light curves of 19 different transits observed between 2003 July and 2009 July with the Magellan Telescopes and Gemini South. The combined analysis of the new light curves confirms a slightly inflated planetary radius relative to model predictions, with R{sub p} = 1.378 {+-} 0.090 R{sub J} . However, the values found for the transit duration, semimajor axis, and inclination values differ significantly from the previous result, likely due to systematic errors. The new semimajor axis and inclination, a = 0.01942 {+-} 0.00015 AU and i = 73.{sup 0}72 {+-} 0.{sup 0}18, are smaller than previously reported, while the total duration, T{sub 14} = 7931 {+-} 38 s, is 18 minutes longer. The transit midtimes have errors from 23 s to several minutes, and no evidence is seen for transit midtime or duration variations. Similarly, no change is seen in the orbital period, implying a nominal stellar tidal decay factor of Q{sub *} = 10{sup 7}, with a 3{sigma} lower limit of 10{sup 5.7}.

Adams, E. R.; Holman, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lopez-Morales, M. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Osip, D. J. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Winn, J. N. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hoyer, S.; Rojo, P. [Astronomy Department, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Load Capacity of Bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the stress analysis in a plastic body $\\Omega$, we prove that there exists a maximal positive number $C$, the \\emph{load capacity ratio,} such that the body will not collapse under any external traction field $t$ bounded by $Y_{0}C$, where $Y_0$ is the elastic limit. The load capacity ratio depends only on the geometry of the body and is given by $$ \\frac{1}{C}=\\sup_{w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D} \\frac{\\int_{\\partial\\Omega}|w|dA} {\\int_{\\Omega}|\\epsilon(w)|dV}=\\left\\|\\gamma_D\\right\\|. $$ Here, $LD(\\Omega)_D$ is the space of isochoric vector fields $w$ for which the corresponding stretchings $\\epsilon(w)$ are assumed to be integrable and $\\gamma_D$ is the trace mapping assigning the boundary value $\\gamma_D(w)$ to any $w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D$.

Reuven Segev

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

An experimental evaluation of S-N curves and validity of miner's cumulative damage hypothesis for an ACSR conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory simulation of aeolian vibrations was used in determining the fatigue characteristics of an ACSR conductor subjected to constant and varied amplitude loadings. Using linear regression analyses, S-N curves for first through fifth strand breaks were fit to the data, and a pseudo endurance limit of 21.31 MPa (3.09 ksi) estimated. Subjecting the conductor to three different types of load sequences revealed that Miner's Cumulative Damage hypothesis is somewhat conservative, but can be assumed valid for design purposes. This information, in conjunction with the actual load histories, will allow electric utility companies to more accurately design transmission lines.

Brunair, R.M.; Ramey, G. (Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (US)); Duncan, R.R. III (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (US))

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

This is a working document prepared by the Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

requirements are estimated on an 11-time-segment load duration curve, ensuring that needs for both base-load and peak generation resources are represented.

169

Success stories will crack utility resistance to load management  

SciTech Connect

Advocates of load management see it as a solution to high fuel prices, better system load factors, and high utility earnings. Opposing views are investigated. It is conceded that both views have merit, but with proper attention to rate design, load management holds out hope for utility and customer alike. Westinghouse studies conclude that load management must be developed on a utility-specific basis. Many utilities are concerned that load management systems will reduce energy consumption and thus revenues. Experiences that utilities have had with radio and ripple control are briefly reviewed. Dr. Irwin Stelzer from the National Economic Research Associates says that, giving the customer the right price signal, the load curve will manipulate itself into the shape the customer wants. He advocates charging each customer precisely what it costs to deliver that customer's energy. It is seen that load management could improve the utility's income, possibly help defer the need for capital additions, and potentially help keep energy costs down. (MCW)

Owens, K.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Tilting train smooths out the curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a Swedish train that leans into curves and speed around them safely at more than 100 miles per hour and is being tested on a tortuous railroad corridor in the Northeast United States. If the test proves successful, the train--the X2000--could become a fixture in the country's rail system. The train has flexible steering that allows the wheels to hug the rail and permits it to drive around turns faster than most other trains, according to Amtrak. Further, all of the train, expect the locomotive, tilts as it winds its way around the curves. The tilting compensates for the centrifugal force on passengers at high speeds. The X2000 is one of several train systems under consideration by railroads in the United States to improve the rail system in the country. Among the others are Germany's Inter-City Express (ICE) and France's Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV), built by GEC Alshthom (Paris).

O'Connor, L.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Variable loading roller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

Williams, D.M.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

172

Quantum Mechanics and Closed Timelike Curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General relativity allows solutions exhibiting closed timelike curves. Time travel generates paradoxes and quantum mechanics generalizations were proposed to solve those paradoxes. The implications of self-consistent interactions on acausal region of space-time are investigated. If the correspondence principle is true, then all generalizations of quantum mechanics on acausal manifolds are not renormalizable. Therefore quantum mechanics can only be defined on global hyperbolic manifolds and all general relativity solutions exhibiting time travel are unphysical.

Florin Moldoveanu

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

173

Light Curves of Swift Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent observations from the Swift gamma-ray burst mission indicate that a fraction of gamma ray bursts are characterized by a canonical behaviour of the X-ray afterglows. We present an effective theory which allows us to account for X-ray light curves of both (short - long) gamma ray bursts and X-ray rich flashes. We propose that gamma ray bursts originate from massive magnetic powered pulsars.

Paolo Cea

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

174

LIGHT CURVES OF SWIFT GAMMA RAY BURSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent observations from the Swift gamma-ray burst mission indicate that a fraction of gamma ray bursts are characterized by a canonical behaviour of the X-ray afterglows. We present an effective theory which allows us to account for X-ray light curves of both (short- long) gamma ray bursts and X-ray rich flashes. We propose that gamma ray bursts originate from massive magnetic powered pulsars. Subject headings: gamma-rays: bursts 1.

Paolo Cea

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transition to the new generation power grid, or smart grid, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

178

Late Light Curves of Normally-Luminous Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological tools has reinforced the need to better understand these objects and their light curves. The light curves of Type Ia supernovae are powered by the nuclear decay of $^{56}Ni \\to ^{56}Co \\to ^{56}Fe$. The late time light curves can provide insight into the behavior of the decay products and their effect of the shape of the curves. We present the optical light curves of six "normal" Type Ia supernovae, obtained at late times with template image subtraction, and the fits of these light curves to supernova energy deposition models.

J. C. Lair; M. D. Leising; P. A. Milne; G. G. Williams

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

179

MTS Table Top Load frame  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MTS Table Top Load frame MTS Table Top Load frame The Non-destructive Evaluation group operates an MTS Table Top Load frame for ultimate strength and life cycle testing of various ceramic, ceramic-matrix (FGI), carbon, carbon fiber, cermet (CMC) and metal alloy engineering samples. The load frame is a servo-hydraulic type designed to function in a closed loop configuration under computer control. The system can perform non-cyclic, tension, compression and flexure testing and cyclic fatigue tests. The system is comprised of two parts: * The Load Frame and * The Control System. Load Frame The Load Frame (figure 1) is a cross-head assembly which includes a single moving grip, a stationary grip and LVDT position sensor. It can generate up to 25 kN (5.5 kip) of force in the sample under test and can

180

CAN STELLAR MIXING EXPLAIN THE LACK OF TYPE Ib SUPERNOVAE IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The discovery of supernovae associated with long-duration gamma-ray burst observations is primary evidence that the progenitors of these outbursts are massive stars. One of the principle mysteries in understanding these progenitors has been the fact that all of these gamma-ray-burst-associated supernovae are Type Ic supernovae with no evidence of helium in the stellar atmosphere. Many studies have focused on whether or not this helium is simply hidden from spectral analyses. In this Letter, we show results from recent stellar models using new convection algorithms based on our current understanding of stellar mixing. We demonstrate that enhanced convection may lead to severe depletion of stellar helium layers, suggesting that the helium is not observed simply because it is not in the star. We also present light curves and spectra of these compact helium-depleted stars compared to models with more conventional helium layers.

Frey, Lucille H. [HPC-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Young, Patrick A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85276 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Comparison of strength and load-based methods for testing wind turbine blades  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods of blade test loading and show how they are applied in an actual blade test. Strength and load-based methods were examined to determine the test load for an Atlantic Orient Corporation (AOC) 15/50 wind turbine blade for fatigue and static testing. Fatigue load-based analysis was performed using measured field test loads extrapolated for extreme rare events and scaled to thirty-year spectra. An accelerated constant amplitude fatigue test that gives equivalent damage at critical locations was developed using Miner`s Rule and the material S-N curves. Test load factors were applied to adjust the test loads for uncertainties, and differences between the test and operating environment. Similar analyses were carried, out for the strength-based fatigue test using the strength of the blade and the material properties to determine the load level and number of constant amplitude cycles to failure. Static tests were also developed using load and strength criteria. The resulting test loads were compared and contrasted. The analysis shows that, for the AOC 15/50 blade, the strength-based test loads are higher than any of the static load-based cases considered but were exceeded in the fatigue analysis for a severe hot/wet environment.

Musial, W.D.; Clark, M.E.; Egging, N. [and others

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Duration Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines. Five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of round one of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. Test results will provide manufacturers with reports that can be used to fulfill part of the requirements for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment included a grid-connected Ventera Energy Corporation VT10 wind turbine mounted on an 18.3-m (60-ft) self-supporting lattice tower manufactured by Rohn.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Duration Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Does Treatment Duration Affect Outcome After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The protraction of external beam radiotherapy (RT) time is detrimental in several disease sites. In prostate cancer, the overall treatment time can be considerable, as can the potential for treatment breaks. We evaluated the effect of elapsed treatment time on outcome after RT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 1989 and November 2004, 1,796 men with prostate cancer were treated with RT alone. The nontreatment day ratio (NTDR) was defined as the number of nontreatment days divided by the total elapsed days of RT. This ratio was used to account for the relationship between treatment duration and total RT dose. Men were stratified into low risk (n = 789), intermediate risk (n = 798), and high risk (n = 209) using a single-factor model. Results: The 10-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) rate was 68% for a NTDR <33% vs. 58% for NTDR {>=}33% (p = 0.02; BF was defined as a prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL). In the low-risk group, the 10-year FFBF rate was 82% for NTDR <33% vs. 57% for NTDR {>=}33% (p = 0.0019). The NTDR was independently predictive for FFBF (p = 0.03), in addition to T stage (p = 0.005) and initial prostate-specific antigen level (p < 0.0001) on multivariate analysis, including Gleason score and radiation dose. The NTDR was not a significant predictor of FFBF when examined in the intermediate-risk group, high-risk group, or all risk groups combined. Conclusions: A proportionally longer treatment duration was identified as an adverse factor in low-risk patients. Treatment breaks resulting in a NTDR of {>=}33% (e.g., four or more breaks during a 40-fraction treatment, 5 d/wk) should be avoided.

D'Ambrosio, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chen, David Y.T. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Exquisite Nova Light Curves from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present light curves of three classical novae (KT Eridani, V598 Puppis, V1280 Scorpii) and one recurrent nova (RS Ophiuchi) derived from data obtained by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis satellite. SMEI provides near complete sky-map coverage with precision visible-light photometry at 102-minute cadence. The light curves derived from these sky maps offer unprecedented temporal resolution around, and especially before, maximum light, a phase of the nova eruption normally not covered by ground-based observations. They allow us to explore fundamental parameters of individual objects including the epoch of the initial explosion, the reality and duration of any pre-maximum halt (found in all three fast novae in our sample), the presence of secondary maxima, speed of decline of the initial light curve, plus precise timing of the onset of dust formation (in V1280 Sco) leading to estimation of the bolometric luminosity, white dwarf mass and object distance. For KT Eri, Liverpool Telescop...

Hounsell, R; Hick, P P; Buffington, A; Jackson, B V; Clover, J M; Shafter, A W; Darnley, M J; Mawson, N R; Steele, I A; Evans, A; Eyres, S P S; O'Brien, T J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Model of medical supply demand and astronaut health for long-duration human space flight  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The medical care of space crews is the primary limiting factor in the achievement of long-duration space missions. (Nicogossian 2003) The goal of this thesis was to develop a model of long-duration human space flight ...

Assad, Albert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Influence of Rhythmic Grouping on Duration Perception: A Novel Auditory Illusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study investigated a potential auditory illusion in duration perception induced by rhythmic temporal contexts. Listeners with or without musical training performed a duration discrimination task for a silent period ...

Geiser, Eveline

188

Nonclassical hydrodynamic behavior of Sn plasma irradiated withalong duration CO2 laser pulse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with a long duration CO 2 laser pulse Y. Tao M.S. Tillackwith a long duration CO 2 laser pulse is much shorter thanmass and makes a CO 2 -laser-produced Sn plasma suitable as

Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Yuseph, S.; Burdt, R.; Najmabadi, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Measurement and Estimation of sunshine duration for Bangladesh | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measurement and Estimation of sunshine duration for Bangladesh Measurement and Estimation of sunshine duration for Bangladesh Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Sunshine duration recorders are widely used to estimate global radiation from sunshine duration data using Angstrom type correlations. The number of pyranometer stations that measure global radiation is inadequate in Bangladesh. 31 stations of Bangladesh Meteorological department records both sunshine duration and cloud cover data. A study of the data shows that 6 of the stations do not have satisfactory data for sunshine duration, while cloud cover data for all stations appear to be reasonably good. An attempt has therefore been taken to correlate cloud cover with sunshine duration to estimate sunshine hours for the 6 stations. In this paper two methods have been used to estimate sunshine duration from cloud cover.

190

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1/2, 2004 Experience curves for power plant emission controlcoal-fired electric power plants. In particular, we focus on2004) Experience curves for power plant emission control

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A; Taylor, Margaret R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Probabilistic lane estimation for autonomous driving using basis curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lane estimation for autonomous driving can be formulated as a curve estimation problem, where local sensor data provides partial and noisy observations of spatial curves forming lane boundaries. The number of lanes to ...

Huang, Albert S.

192

Discrete Variational Calculus for B-spline Approximated Curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study variational problems for curves approximated by B-spline curves. We show that, one can obtain discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, for the data describing the approximated curves. Our main application is to the curve completion problem in 2D and 3D. In this case, the aim is to find various aesthetically pleasing solutions as opposed to a solution of a physical problem. The Lagrangians of interest are invariant under the special Euclidean group action for which B-spline approximated curves are well suited. Smooth Lagrangians with special Euclidean symmetries involve curvature, torsion, and arc length. Expressions in these, in the original coordinates, are highly complex. We show that, by contrast, relatively simple discrete Lagrangians offer excellent results for the curve completion problem. The methods we develop for the discrete curve completion problem are general and can be used to solve other discrete variational problems for B-spline curves.

Zhao, Jun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Trajectory generationinhigh-speed,high-precisionmicromillingusing subdivision curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uni- form, rational, b-spline (NURBS) curves. It is criticalCNC tool path in terms of B-spline curves, Computer-AidedClark, Recursively generated b-spline surface on arbitrary

Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Sodemann, Angela; Hoover, Aaron; Mayor, J.Rhett; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Simulator evaluation of manually flown curved instrument approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pilot performance in flying horizontally curved instrument approaches was analyzed by having nine test subjects fly curved approaches in a fixed-base simulator. Approaches were flown without an autopilot and without a ...

Sager, Dennis Wayne

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

High speed curved position sensitive detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high speed curved position sensitive porportional counter detector for use in x-ray diffraction, the detection of 5-20 keV photons and the like. The detector employs a planar anode assembly of a plurality of parallel metallic wires. This anode assembly is supported between two cathode planes, with at least one of these cathode planes having a serpentine resistive path in the form of a meander having legs generally perpendicular to the anode wires. This meander is produced by special microelectronic fabrication techniques whereby the meander "wire" fans outwardly at the cathode ends to produce the curved aspect of the detector, and the legs of the meander are small in cross-section and very closely spaced whereby a spatial resolution of about 50 .mu.m can be achieved. All of the other performance characteristics are about as good or better than conventional position sensitive proportional counter type detectors. Count rates of up to 40,000 counts per second with 0.5 .mu.s shaping time constants are achieved.

Hendricks, Robert W. (Montgomery County, VA); Wilson, Jack W. (Knox County, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

onMetaData***duration@:*?`A7*width@*height  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

FLV** *?*. onMetaData***duration@:*?`A7*width@*height@~. videodatarate@_@ framerate@> videocodecid@*audiosamplerate ...

2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

197

Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After the change in the economics of generating electricity which took place in 1973, many utilities are examining options to hold down their costs. One fact which is clear is that the difference between peak and off peak generating costs is much larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces during peak periods are both examples of load control which lower the costs borne by the utility. The other option is the use of seasonal surcharges or time-of-day rates to induce customers to alter their usage patterns. Both these load management options focus on reducing utility costs overall without regard to the cost to the consumers affected by the load management options. The issue, then, is whether industrial customers can find opportunities to lower their costs under load management.

Males, R.; Hassig, N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Measurement of rising R-curve behavior in toughened silicon nitride by stable crack propagation in bending  

SciTech Connect

A simple procedure for measuring the R-curve properties of ceramics by a stable fracture test in three-point bending is described. As a typical case, data are displayed for a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} material toughened by the presence of acicular grains in situ grown during the sintering process. The fracture mechanics specimen was a single-edge double-notched beam (SEDNB), whose notch was sharpened to a radius of < 10 {micro}m in order to reduce the amount of elastic energy stored at its root prior to crack extension. Furthermore, a stabilizer, specially designed for the bending geometry, was used to control crack stability. During stable extension, the crack could be easily arrested at selected locations of the load-displacement curve, the load quickly released, and the stable crack extension directly measured by the die-penetration technique. The crack resistance, K{sub R}, of the material was calculated from the measured crack extent and the onset load value before unloading. This method enabled them to precisely monitor the critical load value at which the load-displacement curve deviated from linear behavior, as well as crack extensions from a few tens of micrometers to about 1 mm. As an application of this method, the fracture resistance of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} material with rising R-curve behavior was measured and found to increase from about 5.5 to 9.0 MPa {center_dot} m{sup 1/2} within a 0.8-mm extension.

Nishida, Toshihiko; Hanaki, Yoshikazu [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Materials; Nojima, Taketoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering; Pezzotti, G. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Efficient pairing computation on Elliptic curves in Hessian form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pairings in elliptic curve cryptography are functions which map a pair of elliptic curve points to a non-zero element of a finite field. In recent years, many useful cryptographic protocols based on pairings have been proposed. The fast implementations ... Keywords: Elliptic curve, Hessian form, tate paring

Haihua Gu; Dawu Gu; WenLu Xie

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production. In this paper we give the first theoretical basis for these curve fittings. It is well known that oil field

Stark, Dudley

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Severi problem for rational curves on del Pezzo surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let X be a smooth projective surface and choose a curve C on X. Let VC be the set of all irreducible divisors on X linearly equivalent to C whose normalization is a rational curve. The Severi problem for rational curves ...

Testa, Damiano

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Reconstruction of quasi developable surfaces from ribbon curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the acquisition and reconstruction of physical surfaces by mean of a ribbon device equipped with micro-sensors, providing geodesic curves running on the surface. The whole process involves the reconstruction of these 3D ribbon curves ... Keywords: Capture and reconstruction of surfaces, Coons filling methods, Developable and quasi developable surfaces, Geodesic curve, Hermite interpolation

Mathieu Huard; Nathalie Sprynski; Nicolas Szafran; Luc Biard

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Cost curves: An improved method for visualizing classifier performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces cost curves, a graphical technique for visualizing the performance (error rate or expected cost) of 2-class classifiers over the full range of possible class distributions and misclassification costs. Cost curves are shown to be ... Keywords: Classifiers, Machine learning, Performance evaluation, ROC curves

Chris Drummond; Robert C. Holte

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

Wheat, S.R.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

206

Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

High-Power Rf Load  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CP-6A2-47458 CP-6A2-47458 February 2010 Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve Chad Augustine and Katherine R. Young National Renewable Energy Laboratory Arlene Anderson U.S. Department of Energy Presented at Stanford Geothermal Workshop Stanford, California February 1, 2010 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (ASE), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and ASE retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

209

Semilinear Hyperbolic Equations in Curved Spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a survey of the author's recent work rather than a broad survey of the literature. The survey is concerned with the global in time solutions of the Cauchy problem for matter waves propagating in the curved spacetimes, which can be, in particular, modeled by cosmological models. We examine the global in time solutions of some class of semililear hyperbolic equations, such as the Klein-Gordon equation, which includes the Higgs boson equation in the Minkowski spacetime, de Sitter spacetime, and Einstein & de Sitter spacetime. The crucial tool for the obtaining those results is a new approach suggested by the author based on the integral transform with the kernel containing the hypergeometric function.\\\\ {\\bf Mathematics Subject Classification (2010):} Primary 35L71, 35L53; Secondary 81T20, 35C15.\\\\ {\\bf Keywords:} \\small {de Sitter spacetime; Klein-Gordon equation; Global solutions; Huygens' principle; Higuchi bound}

Karen Yagdjian

2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

210

Environmental management by the learning curve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a futuristic appreciation of waste management challenges and their solution by means of good management models. A literature review, administrative initiatives, research results, and experiences from practice are combined in this study to render an evolutionary picture of the change in paradigm relative to municipal solid waste possible to occur between 2000 and 2025. The principal stages of progress in the 25 years studied were: the correct characterization of municipal solid waste as a function of geographical location and recycling potential, the divided collection model and its corresponding learning curve, correct opportunity cost accounting tools, and the generally admitted and accepted changeover of municipal solid waste treatment from a technical to a management problem. It is reported that as a result of this progress, the municipal landfill is a species in extinction. Regional landfills with long life spans are the rule in 2025.

Fehr, M

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves Agency/Company /Organization: Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sector: Energy Focus Area: Conventional Energy, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Industry, Transportation, Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Dataset, Publications Website: www.nwcouncil.org/energy/grac/20090130_Supply%20Curves_NWPCC_FINAL.pdf Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves Screenshot References: Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves[1] Background "The ECL supply curve model includes data on potential emission reductions for approximately 60 separate technology options. It allows the examination of multiple scenarios involving the inclusion or exclusion of technology

212

Static identification of delinquent loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effective use of processor caches is crucial to the performance of applications. It has been shown that cache misses are not evenly distributed throughout a program. In applications running on RISC-style processors, a small number of delinquent load instructions are responsible for most of the cache misses. Identification of delinquent loads is the key to the success of many cache optimization and prefetching techniques. In this paper, we propose a method for identifying delinquent loads that can be implemented at compile time. Our experiments over eighteen benchmarks from the SPEC suite shows that our proposed scheme is stable across benchmarks, inputs, and cache structures, identifying an average of 10 % of the total number of loads in the benchmarks we tested that account for over 90 % of all data cache misses. As far as we know, this is the first time a technique for static delinquent load identification with such a level of precision and coverage has been reported. While comparable techniques can also identify load instructions that cover 90 % of all data cache misses, they do so by selecting over 50 % of all load instructions in the code, resulting in a high number of false positives. If basic block profiling is used in conjunction with our heuristic, then our results show that it is possible to pin down just 1.3 % of the load instructions that account for 82 % of all data cache misses. 1.

Vlad-mihai Panait; Amit Sasturkar

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's electricity price forecasting model, produces forecast of gas demand consistent with electric load. #12Gas demand Council's Market Price of Electricity Forecast Natural GasDemand Electric Load Aggregating Natural between the natural gas and electricity and new uses of natural gas emerge. T natural gas forecasts

Feinberg, Eugene A.

214

building load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

215

Wind load reduction for heliostats  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Integrating load management with supply-side operations - A case study  

SciTech Connect

The main topic of this paper analyses and discusses the operational integration of Load Management operations with co-generation, power-pool purchases/sells and other supply-side options, where the common denominator is the hourly short-run marginal cost. The second topic concerns the operational coordination problem between a generating utility and its retail distributors when both parties use load management. The thirds is the interactive impacts of interruptible sales and other demand-side programs on the distribution load curve. The discussion is based on the operational experiences at Skydkraft, the largest investor-owned utility in Sweden.

Edvinsson, M.J.; Nilsson, M.O.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Experimental and statistical requirements for developing a well-defined K/sub IR/ curve. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Further development of a statistically well-defined reference fracture toughness curve to verify and compliment the K/sub IR/ curve presently specified in Appendix G, Section III of the ASME Code was accomplished by performing critical experiments in small specimen fracture mechanics and improving techniques for statistical analysis of the data. Except for cleavage-initiated fracture, crack initiation was observed to occur prior to maximum load for all of the materials investigated. Initiation fracture toughness values (K/sub Jc/) based on R-curve heat-tinting studies were up to 50 percent less than the previously reported equivalent energy values (K*/sub d/). At upper shelf temperatures, the initiation fracture toughness (K/sub Jc/) generally increased with stress intensification rate. Both K/sub Jc/--Charpy V-notch and K/sub Ic/--specimen strength ratio correlations are promising methods for predicting thick-section behavior from small specimens. The previously developed tanh curve fitting procedure was improved to permit estimates of the variances and covariances of the regression coefficients to be computed. The distribution of the fracture toughness data was determined as a function of temperature. Instrumented precracked Charpy results were used to normalize the larger specimen fracture toughness data. The transformed large specimen fracture toughness data are used to generate statistically based lower-bound fracture toughness curves for either static or dynamic test results. A comparison of these lower bound curves with the K/sub IR/ curve shows that the K/sub IR/ curve is more conservative over most of its range. 143 figures, 26 tables.

Server, W.L.; Oldfield, W.; Wullaert, R.A.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

D-Branes in Curved Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis is a study of D-branes in string compactifications. In this context, D-branes are relevant as an important component of the nonperturbative spectrum, as an incisive probe of these backgrounds, and as a natural stringy tool for localizing gauge interactions. In the first part of the thesis, we discuss half-BPS D-branes in compactifications of type II string theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds. The results we describe for these objects are pertinent both in their role as stringy brane-worlds, and in their role as solitonic objects. In particular, we determine couplings of these branes to the moduli determining the closed-string geometry, both perturbatively and non-perturbatively in the worldsheet expansion. We provide a local model for transitions in moduli space where the BPS spectrum jumps, and discuss the extension of mirror symmetry between Calabi-Yau manifolds to the case when D-branes are present. The next section is an interlude which provides some applications of D-branes to other curved backgrounds of string theory. In particular, we discuss a surprising phenomenon in which fundamental strings moving through background Ramond-Ramond fields dissolve into large spherical D3-branes. This mechanism is used to explain a previously-mysterious fact discovered via the AdS-CFT correspondence. Next, we make a connection between type IIA string vacua of the type discussed in the first section and M-theory compactifications on manifolds of G{sub 2} holonomy. Finally we discuss constructions of string vacua which do not have large radius limits. In the final part of the thesis, we develop techniques for studying the worldsheets of open strings ending on the curved D-branes studied in the first section. More precisely, we formulate a large class of massive two-dimensional gauge theories coupled to boundary matter, which flow in the infrared to the relevant boundary conformal field theories. Along with many other applications, these techniques are used to describe world-volume theories of point-like D-probes of various Calabi-Yau threefolds.

McGreevy, John Austen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

219

Solar winds along curved magnetic field lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Both remote-sensing measurements using the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique and in situ measurements by the Ulysses spacecraft show a bimodal structure for the solar wind at solar minimum conditions. At present what makes the fast wind fast and the slow wind slow still remains to be answered. While a robust empirical correlation exists between the coronal expansion rate $f_c$ of the flow tubes and the speeds $v$ measured in situ, further data analysis suggests that $v$ depends on more than just $f_c$. We examine whether the non-radial shape of field lines, which naturally accompanies any non-radial expansion, could be an additional geometrical factor. We solved the transport equations incorporating the heating due to turbulent Alfv\\'en waves for an electron-proton solar wind along curved field lines given by an analytical magnetic field model, representative of a solar minimum corona. The field line shape is found to influence substantially the solar wind parameters, reducing the asymptotic speed ...

Li, Bo; Chen, Yao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES  

SciTech Connect

Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni [Department of Computer Science, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Protopapas, Pavlos [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51 51 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142234851 Varnish cache server load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: application/zip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data

222

Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load  

SciTech Connect

As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Laughner, T [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, K [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

224

Decline curve derivative analysis for homogeneous and composite reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, the rate decline and rate decline derivatives of a constant pressure well are presented for infinite, constant pressure outer boundary, and closed outer boundary homogeneous reservoirs. A rate derivative type curve is provided for these cases as well. The effects of the dimensionless reservoir exterior radius are discussed. Rate decline and rate decline derivatives of a constant pressure well in an infinite composite reservoir are also presented. For composite reservoirs, the effects of mobility ratios and discontinuity distance on both rate decline and rate decline derivatives are presented. Type curves for dimensionless wellbore flow rate derivatives for infinite composite reservoirs are provided. A new correlating group for the derivative type curve is provided, and is different than the correlating group for the rate type curve presented in the past. Finally, an analysis method that comprises type curve and derivative type curve matching to determine the dimensionless variables is proposed and demonstrated with a simulated example.

Demski, J.A.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves for the Non-Annex I region (NAMAC) Agency/Company /Organization: Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Resource assessment, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Website: www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2006/e06060.pdf References: GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves for the Non-Annex I region[1] GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves for the Non-Annex I region (NAMAC) (1999-present) ECN has developed a Marginal Abatement Cost curve containing detailed information on mitigation technologies and abatement costs in developing countries. * The MAC was first developed for the Dutch Ministry of Foreign

226

Impacts of time-of-day on average electricity prices and utility load factors  

SciTech Connect

A degree of rationalism is brought to the rate debate between marginalist time of day advocates and embedded cost traditionalists by an empirical analysis. Studies show that neither side can claim victory. The results show that blanket statements cannot be made concerning the impacts of TOD in demand and load factor, and that rates reduce only slightly. This paper summarizes the impacts of marginal cost TOD rates on peak demand, generation, load factor, and the average price of electricity. The methodology includes calculation of marginal cost, prediction of effect of TOD on load shapes by means of a Load Curve Forecasting model, and a production costing model. A matrix shows that impacts of TOD rates on individual utilities will depend on the specific utility customer mix, load shape, and generation mix.

Chamberlin, J.H.; Dickson, C.T.; Spann, R.M.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Advanced nonintrusive load monitoring system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a need for flexible, inexpensive metering technologies that can be deployed in many different monitoring scenarios. Individual loads may be expected to compute information about their power consumption. Utility ...

Wichakool, Warit, 1977-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

OpenEI - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

229

Permanent Load Shift Control Strategies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Permanent Load Shifting for HVAC and other storage assets as it relates to summer on-peak demand, how it can be dynamically and autonomously controlled, and its relationship...

230

Building load control and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for Assessing the Energy Efficiency Potential of Industrial Motor Systems Speaker(s): Ali Hasanbeigi Date: February 8,...

232

A local fitting algorithm for converting planar curves to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present a local fitting algorithm for converting smooth planar curves to B-splines. For a smooth planar curve a set of points together with their tangent vectors are first sampled from the curve such that the connected polygon approximates the curve with high accuracy and inflexions are detected by the sampled data efficiently. Then, a G 1 continuous Bzier spline curve is obtained by fitting the sampled data with shape preservation as well as within a prescribed accuracy. Finally, the Bzier spline is merged into a C 2 continuous B-spline curve by subdivision and control points adjustment. The merging is guaranteed to be within another error bound and with no more inflexions than the Bzier spline. In addition to shape preserving and error control, this conversion algorithm also benefits that the knots are selected automatically and adaptively according to local shape and error bound. A few experimental results are included to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the algorithm. Keywords: curve conversion; B-spline curve; cubic Bzier curve; knot selection; shape preserving 1.

unknown authors

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Synthesis of Space-Filling Curves Through Measure- Preserving ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by composing it with a space-filling curve (SFC), searches for a small group of candidates and ..... machine learning and maximum likelihood estimation.

234

Effect of Voltage Pulse Duration on Surface Properties of Micro Arc ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Durations of successive positive and negative voltage pulses in one cycle ... Electrodeposition of Ni-Al-Cr Bond Coat and Its High Temperature Behavior on...

235

Frequency and duration of low back pain in female hockey players compared to two other populations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??To compare the frequency and duration of low back pain (LBP) in the past 2 years in female hockey players , with two other groups (more)

Edwards, Fiona

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Direct observation of crack opening as a function of applied load in the interior of a notched tensile sample of Al-Li 2090  

SciTech Connect

Results of in situ high resolution X-ray computed tomography are reported for a notched tensile sample of Al-Li 2090 T841. The fatigue crack within the interior of the sample is imaged with 6 {micro}m voxels as a function of applied load, and the crack face morphology is found to be similar to that observed in compact tension samples of this alloy. The loads and approximate stress intensities at which the tomography data were obtained were 82, 50, 25 and 5 kg and 7.1, 4.3, 2.2 and 0.4 MPa{radical}m, respectively. Crack openings measured during unloading as a function of position show that physical closure at portions of the crack tip and at positions behind the crack tip precedes (during unloading) the bend in the sample`s load-displacement curve. The three-dimensional pattern of crack opening shows substantial mixed mode I-III contact on the faces of asperities behind the crack tip, even at the maximum load of the fatigue cycle. Mixed mode I-II contact is also observed at loads above the bend in the load-displacement curve. The fraction of voxels open remains nearly constant for the loads immediately above and below the nominal closure load, as determined from the load-displacement curve, of 41 kg; and this suggests that these mixed mode I-III surfaces begin to carry significant load at the point where the load-displacement curve starts to deflect, and is the source of the apparent stiffening of the sample at loads below the nominal closure load.

Guvenilir, A.; Breunig, T.M.; Stock, S.R. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Kinney, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Combining Droop Curve Concepts with Control Systems for Wind Turbine Active Power Control: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind energy is becoming a larger portion of the global energy portfolio and wind penetration has increased dramatically in certain regions of the world. This increasing wind penetration has driven the need for wind turbines to provide active power control (APC) services to the local utility grid, as wind turbines do not intrinsically provide frequency regulation services that are common with traditional generators. It is common for large scale wind turbines to be decoupled from the utility grid via power electronics, which allows the turbine to synthesize APC commands via control of the generator torque and blade pitch commands. Consequently, the APC services provided by a wind turbine can be more flexible than those provided by conventional generators. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of both static and dynamic droop curves to measure grid frequency and output delta power reference signals to a novel power set point tracking control system. The combined droop curve and power tracking controller is simulated and comparisons are made between simulations using various droop curve parameters and stochastic wind conditions. The tradeoffs involved with aggressive response to frequency events are analyzed. At the turbine level, simulations are performed to analyze induced structural loads. At the grid level, simulations test a wind plant's response to a dip in grid frequency.

Buckspan, A.; Aho, J.; Pao, L.; Fleming, P.; Jeong, Y.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Combining Droop Curve Concepts with Control Systems for Wind Turbine Active Power Control: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Wind energy is becoming a larger portion of the global energy portfolio and wind penetration has increased dramatically in certain regions of the world. This increasing wind penetration has driven the need for wind turbines to provide active power control (APC) services to the local utility grid, as wind turbines do not intrinsically provide frequency regulation services that are common with traditional generators. It is common for large scale wind turbines to be decoupled from the utility grid via power electronics, which allows the turbine to synthesize APC commands via control of the generator torque and blade pitch commands. Consequently, the APC services provided by a wind turbine can be more flexible than those provided by conventional generators. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of both static and dynamic droop curves to measure grid frequency and output delta power reference signals to a novel power set point tracking control system. The combined droop curve and power tracking controller is simulated and comparisons are made between simulations using various droop curve parameters and stochastic wind conditions. The tradeoffs involved with aggressive response to frequency events are analyzed. At the turbine level, simulations are performed to analyze induced structural loads. At the grid level, simulations test a wind plant's response to a dip in grid frequency.

Buckspan, A.; Aho, J.; Pao, L.; Fleming, P.; Jeong, Y.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

White Dwarf Light Curves: Constraining Convection and Mode Identification Using Non-sinusoidal Light Curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we show how the formalism of Wu & Goldreich developed for weakly nonlinear white dwarf pulsations can be extended to the fully nonlinear case. Due to the computational simplification this affords over the simulations of Brickhill (1992) and Ising & Koester (2001), we are able to obtain the first ever fits of observed light curves. These fits allow us to obtain not only mode identifications but also to constrain the average depth of the convection zone and its sensitivity to changes in effective temperature. We are thus able to probe the fundamental physics of convection in these objects.

M. H. Montgomery

2004-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

240

Radiobiology for eye plaque brachytherapy and evaluation of implant duration and radionuclide choice using an objective function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Clinical optimization of Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) eye plaque brachytherapy is currently limited to tumor coverage, consensus prescription dosage, and dose calculations to ocular structures. The biologically effective dose (BED) of temporary brachytherapy treatments is a function of both chosen radionuclide R and implant duration T. This study endeavored to evaluate BED delivered to the tumor volume and surrounding ocular structures as a function of plaque position P, prescription dose, R, and T. Methods: Plaque-heterogeneity-corrected dose distributions were generated with MCNP5 for the range of currently available COMS plaques loaded with sources using three available low-energy radionuclides. These physical dose distributions were imported into the PINNACLE{sup 3} treatment planning system using the TG-43 hybrid technique and used to generate dose volume histograms for a T = 7 day implant within a reference eye geometry including the ciliary body, cornea, eyelid, foveola, lacrimal gland, lens, optic disc, optic nerve, retina, and tumor at eight standard treatment positions. The equation of Dale and Jones was employed to create biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs), allowing for BED volumetric analysis of all ROIs. Isobiologically effective prescription doses were calculated for T = 5 days down to 0.01 days, with BEDVHs subsequently generated for all ROIs using correspondingly reduced prescription doses. Objective functions were created to evaluate the BEDVHs as a function of R and T. These objective functions are mathematically accessible and sufficiently general to be applied to temporary or permanent brachytherapy implants for a variety of disease sites. Results: Reducing T from 7 to 0.01 days for a 10 mm plaque produced an average BED benefit of 26%, 20%, and 17% for {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs, respectively, for all P; 16 and 22 mm plaque results were more position-dependent. {sup 103}Pd produced a 16%-35% BED benefit over {sup 125}I, whereas {sup 131}Cs produced a 3%-7% BED detriment, independent of P, T, and plaque size. Additionally, corresponding organ at risk physical doses were lowest using {sup 103}Pd in all circumstances. Conclusions: The results suggest that shorter implant durations may correlate with more favorable outcomes compared to 7 day implants when treating small or medium intraocular lesions. The data also indicate that implant duration may be safely reduced if the prescription physical dose is likewise diminished and that {sup 103}Pd offers a substantial radiobiological benefit over {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs irrespective of plaque position, implant duration, and tumor size.

Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Realizing load reduction functions by aperiodic switching of load groups  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the problem of scheduling ON/OFF switching of residential appliances under the control of a Load Management System (LMS). The scheduling process is intended to reduce the controlled appliances` power demand in accordance with a predefined load reduction profile. To solve this problem, a solution approach, based on the methodology of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), is introduced. This approach provides a flexible mathematical basis for studying different aspects of the scheduling problem. The conventional practices in this area are shown to be special cases of the PWM technique. By applying the PWM-based technique to the scheduling problem, important classes of scheduling errors are identified and analytical expressions describing them are derived. These expressions are shown to provide sufficient information to compensate for the errors. Detailed simulations of load groups` response to switching actions are use to support conclusions of this study.

Navid-Azarbaijani, N. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Banakar, M.H. [CAE Electronics Ltd., St. Laurent, Quebec (Canada)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSLFthatincorporatesmotor A?C,ZIP,andelectronicloadthefractionsmotorsA?C,ZIP,andelectronicloads. Usethatincorporatesmotor A?C,ZIP,and electronicload

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

load profile | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load profile Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 13:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load building...

244

Monthly Crustal Loading Corrections for Satellite Altimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite altimeter measurements of sea surface height include a small contribution from vertical motion of the seafloor caused by crustal loading. Loading by ocean tides is routinely allowed for in altimeter data processing. Here, loading by ...

R. D. Ray; S. B. Luthcke; T. van Dam

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Solving Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problems Using Weil Descent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide the first cryptographically interesting instance of the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem which resists all previously known attacks, but which can be solved with modest computer resources using the Weil descent attack methodology of Frey. We report on our implementation of index-calculus methods for hyperelliptic curves over characteristic two finite fields, and discuss the cryptographic implications of our results.

Michael Jacobson; Alfred Menezes; Andreas Stein

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Modelling light curves of binary systems: accounting for extended winds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest a simple synthesis model of an eclipsing binary system which includes one component with strong stellar wind. Numerical simulations show that the shape of the light curve (and in particularly the widths of the minima) strongly depends on wind parameters. Wind effects are crucial in modelling light curves of binaries including e.g., WR stars.

Antokhina, E A; Cherepashchuk, A M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Computing the Frchet distance between piecewise smooth curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the Frechet distance between two curves which are given as a sequence of m+n curved pieces. If these pieces are sufficiently well-behaved, we can compute the Frechet distance in O(mnlog(mn)) time. The decision version of the problem can be ... Keywords: Shape matching

Gnter Rote

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

THE ECONOMICS OF CONSERVED-ENERGY "SUPPLY" CURVES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PWP-028 THE ECONOMICS OF CONSERVED-ENERGY "SUPPLY" CURVES Steven Stoft April 1995 This paper "SUPPLY" CURVES Steven Stoft April 1995 #12;Table of Contents The Economics of Conserved-Energy "Supply is part of the working papers series of the Program on Workable Energy Regulation (POWER). POWER

California at Berkeley. University of

249

PARABOLIC GEODESICS AS PARALLEL CURVES IN PARABOLIC GEOMETRIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PARABOLIC GEODESICS AS PARALLEL CURVES IN PARABOLIC GEOMETRIES MARC HERZLICH Abstract. We give a simple characterization of the parabolic geodesics introduced by Cap, Slovák and Zádník for all parabolic then show that parabolic geodesics can be characterized as the following data: a curve on the manifold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Dynamic tracking of page miss ratio curve for memory management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Memory can be efficiently utilized if the dynamic memory demands of applications can be determined and analyzed at run-time. The page miss ratio curve(MRC), i.e. page miss rate vs. memory size curve, is a good performance-directed metric to serve this ... Keywords: memory management, power management, resource allocation

Pin Zhou; Vivek Pandey; Jagadeesan Sundaresan; Anand Raghuraman; Yuanyuan Zhou; Sanjeev Kumar

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Peak load management: Potential options  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Method of and apparatus for controlling loads on an electrical power supply  

SciTech Connect

To enable a consumer of electrical energy to effect control of total energy consumption by various individual appliances and loads, each individual load has a control unit, conveniently in a plug top, which responds to pulses broadcast on the power supply wiring in the form of short duration interruptions of the waveform. At each appliance a microprocessor unit counts the number of successive pulses in a predetermined time interval and operates an electronic switch if the received count reaches a predetermined number, which may be different for different loads thereby enabling selective control of the loads. Provision is made for automatic restoration of supply if the overall energy consumption falls. Provision can also be made for automatic resumption of supp

Peddie, R.A.; Fielden, J.S.

1984-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

253

Characterization of Engine Control Authority on HCCI Combustion as the High Load Limit is Approached  

SciTech Connect

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on characterizing the authority of the available engine controls as the high load limit of HCCI combustion is approached. The experimental work is performed on a boosted single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train to enable the negative valve overlap (NVO) breathing strategy. Valve lift and duration are held constant while phasing is varied in an effort to make the results as relevant as possible to production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) systems on multi-cylinder engines. Results presented include engine loads from 350 to 650 kPa IMEPnet and manifold pressure from 98 to 190 kPaa at 2000 rpm. It is found that in order to increase engine load to 650 kPa IMEPnet, it is necessary to increase manifold pressure and external EGR while reducing the NVO duration. Both NVO duration and fuel injection timing are effective means of controlling combustion phasing, with NVO duration being a coarse control and fuel injection timing being a fine control. NOX emissions are low throughout the study, with emissions below 0.1 g/kW-h at all boosted HCCI conditions, while good combustion efficiency is maintained (>96.5%). Net indicated thermal efficiency increases with load up to 600 kPa IMEPnet, where a peak efficiency of 41% is achieved. Results of independent parametric investigations are presented on the effect of external EGR, intake effect of manifold pressure, and the effect of NVO duration. It is found that increasing EGR at a constant manifold pressure and increasing manifold pressure at a constant EGR rate both have the effect of retarding combustion phasing. It is also found that combustion phasing becomes increasingly sensitive to NVO duration as engine load increases. Finally, comparisons are made between three commonly used noise metrics (AVL noise meter, ringing intensity (RI), and maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR)). It is found that compared to the AVL noise meter, RI significantly underestimates combustion noise under boosted conditions.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Search for Short Duration Bursts of TeV Gamma Rays with the Milagrito Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OG 2.3.07 Search for Short Duration Bursts of TeV Gamma Rays with the Milagrito Telescope Gus for short duration bursts of TeV photons. Such bursts may result from "traditional" gamma-ray bursts to gamma-ray bursts, the final stages of black hole evaporation) the most compelling reason may

California at Santa Cruz, University of

255

MILAGRO CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MILAGRO CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS A. A. Abdo,1 localizations of short, hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Swift and HETE satellites have led: bursts -- gamma rays: observations Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have long been classified by their durations

California at Santa Cruz, University of

256

A GM-Based Profitable Duration Prediction Model for Chinese Crude Oil Main Production District  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a grey model (GM) based profitable duration forecasting approach is proposed for Chinese crude oil main production district. In this methodology, the forecasting functions on electricity expenditure and crude oil sales revenue are first ... Keywords: GM, china, crude oil, forecasting, profitable duration

Jinlou Zhao; Yuzhen Han; Lixia Ke

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Seven thousand year duration for a geomagnetic excursion constrained Mads Faurschou Knudsen,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seven thousand year duration for a geomagnetic excursion constrained by 230 Thxs Mads Faurschou of geomagnetic excursions may provide important information about the geodynamo. It has proven difficult, however duration for a geomagnetic excursion constrained by 230 Thxs, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22302, doi:10

Niocaill, Conall Mac

258

Take It NP-Easy: Bounded Model Construction for Duration Calculus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the recent successes of bounded model-checking, we reconsider the problem of constructing models of discrete-time Duration Calculus formulae. While this problem is known to be nonelementary when arbitrary length models are considered [Han94], ... Keywords: bounded model construction, complexity, discrete-time duration calculus, model construction

Martin Frnzle

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

260

Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Method for loading resin beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

Notz, Karl J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rainey, Robert H. (Knoxville, TN); Greene, Charles W. (Knoxville, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

The influence of loading rate on crack bridging processes in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

Commercially available alumina of 94% nominal purity was used to examine the influence of loading rate on toughening mechanisms. For fine-grained alumina, the crack resistance, K{sub R}, was found to be independent of crack length and loading rate. Coarse-grained alumina exhibited strongly rising R-curves where the initial fracture toughness, K{sub 0}, was found to be independent of the loading rate. The net toughening, {Delta}K{sub ss} in coarse-grained alumina was found to decrease with increasing loading rate. Loading rate effects were independent of testing environment. A rate dependent coefficient of friction was incorporated into a crack bridging model to describe the effect of loading rate on toughness in this system. Predictions based on the bridging models, using the measured coefficients of friction for this material system, are in good agreement with the observed phenomenon.

Tandon, S.; Faber, K.T. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1998-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

263

PRB rail loadings shatter record  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Automatic Electric Load Identification in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract A microgrid is the power system of choice for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. It should be able to adapt to changing load situations without the need for specialists to change the configuration of the microgrid controller. This paper proposes a self-configuring microgrid management system that is able to adjust both generation and demand of the system, so that also in case of growing electricity demand the grid can still be operable by disconnecting unessential loads. A crucial task for the microgrid controller is to automatically identify the connected loads on the basis of their consumption behaviors. For this, a template-matching algorithm is proposed that is based on Dynamic Time Warping, which is primarily used in speech recognition. It has been found that for load profile analysis, simple signal features such as the number of rising edges or the aggregated energy consumption in a given time window is sufficient to describe the signal. In contrast to speech recognition, frequency domain analysis is not necessary.

Self-configuring Microgrids; Friederich Kupzog; Tehseen Zia; Adeel Abbas Zaidi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Automatic ID heat load generation in ANSYS code  

SciTech Connect

Detailed power density profiles are critical in the execution of a thermal analysis using a finite element (FE) code such as ANSYS. Unfortunately, as yet there is no easy way to directly input the precise power profiles into ANSYS. A straight-forward way to do this is to hand-calculate the power of each node or element and then type the data into the code. Every time a change is made to the FE model, the data must be recalculated and reentered. One way to solve this problem is to generate a set of discrete data, using another code such as PHOTON2, and curve-fit the data. Using curve-fitted formulae has several disadvantages. It is time consuming because of the need to run a second code for generation of the data, curve-fitting, and doing the data check, etc. Additionally, because there is no generality for different beamlines or different parameters, the above work must be repeated for each case. And, errors in the power profiles due to curve-fitting result in errors in the analysis. To solve the problem once and for all and with the capability to apply to any insertion device (ID), a program for ED power profile was written in ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This program is implemented as an ANSYS command with input parameters of peak magnetic field, deflection parameter, length of ID, and distance from the source. Once the command is issued, all the heat load will be automatically generated by the code.

Wang, Zhibi

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

QUEST1 VARIABILITY SURVEY. III. LIGHT CURVE CATALOG UPDATE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports an update to the QUEST1 (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team, Phase 1) Variability Survey (QVS) light curve catalog, which links QVS instrumental magnitude light curves to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) objects and photometry. In the time since the original QVS catalog release, the overlap between publicly available SDSS data and QVS data has increased by 8% in sky coverage and 16,728 in number of matched objects. The astrometric matching and the treatment of SDSS masks have been refined for the updated catalog. We report on these improvements and present multiple bandpass light curves, global variability information, and matched SDSS photometry for 214,941 QUEST1 objects.

Rengstorf, A. W.; Thompson, D. L. [Purdue University Calumet, Department of Chemistry and Physics, 2200 169th St., Hammond, IN 46323 (United States); Mufson, S. L.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Adams, B.; Baltay, C.; Gebhard, M. [Indiana University, 727 E. 3rd St., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Andrews, P.; Coppi, P.; Emmet, W. [Yale University, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C.; Bongiovanni, A.; Briceno, C.; Bruzual, G.; Prugna, F. Della; Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de AstronomIa, Apartado Postal 264, Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bailyn, C. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06250-8101 (United States); Ferrin, I.; Fuenmayor, F. [Universidad de Los Andes, Apartado Postal 26, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: adamwr@calumet.purdue.edu (and others)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

On-line load relief control  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of an investigation concerning the on-line prediction and enhancement of load relief. The effects of voltage fluctuation, system voltage profile control and generator voltage adjustment on load relief and load shedding operations during under-frequency transients are studied. The technique promoted in the paper may be used to reduce system spinning reserve or prospective load shedding.

Jovanovic, S.; Fox, B.; Thompson, J.G. (Queen' s Univ. of Belfast (United Kingdom))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Load Forecasting for Modern Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load forecasting is a fundamental activity for numerous organizations and activities within a utility, including planning, operations, and control. Transmission and Distribution (T&D) planning and design engineers use the load forecast to determine whether any changes and additions are needed to the electric system to satisfy the anticipated load. Other load forecast users include system operations, financial ...

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

269

Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load Forecast 2019 For use in Resource Adequacy Massoud Jourabchi #12;In today's presentation d l­ Load forecast methodology ­ Drivers of the forecast f i­ Treatment of conservation ­ Incorporating impact of weather ­ Forecast for 2019 #12;Regional Loads (MWA and MW)Regional Loads (MWA and MW

270

Evolving non-intrusive load monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) identifies used appliances in a total power load according to their individual load characteristics. In this paper we propose an evolutionary optimization algorithm to identify appliances, which are modeled as on/off ... Keywords: NILM, evolution, evolutionary algorithm, knapsack problem, non-intrusive load monitoring

Dominik Egarter; Anita Sobe; Wilfried Elmenreich

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Characterizing Household Plug Loads through Self-Administered Load Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Household miscellaneous loads, which include consumer electronics, are the fastest growing segment of household energy use in the United States. Although the relative energy intensity of applications such as heating and cooling is declining, the DOEAnnual Energy Outlook forecasts that the intensity of residential miscellaneous end uses will increase substantially by 2030. Studies by TIAX and Ecos Consulting reveal that miscellaneous devices8212smaller devices in terms of energy draw but growing in usage8...

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

272

Femtosecond X-Ray Free Electron Laser Pulse Duration Measurement from Spectral Correlation Function  

SciTech Connect

We present a novel method for measuring the duration of femtosecond x-ray pulses from self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron lasers by performing statistical analysis in the spectral domain. Analytical expressions of the spectral correlation function were derived in the linear regime to extract both the pulse duration and the spectrometer resolution. Numerical simulations confirmed that the method can be also used in the nonlinear regime. The method was demonstrated experimentally at the Linac Coherent Light Source by measuring pulse durations down to 13 fs FWHM.

Lutman, A. A

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

273

DOE Updated U.S. Geothermal: Supply Curve (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 DOE GEOTHERMAL SUPPLY CURVE UPDATE: Prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2009 DOE GEOTHERMAL SUPPLY CURVE UPDATE: Prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) eere.energy.gov The Parker Ranch installation in Hawaii Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) DOE Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve Chad Augustine National Renewable Energy Laboratory Strategic Energy Analysis Center Chad.Augustine@nrel.gov February 1, 2010 Chad Augustine (NREL) Katherine R. Young (NREL) Arlene Anderson (DOE-GTP) NREL/PR-6A2-47527 Pacific Gas & Electric/PIX 00059 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. 2 | 2009 DOE GEOTHERMAL SUPPLY CURVE UPDATE: Prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) eere.energy.gov

274

Development of an Equivalent Wind Plant Power-Curve: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Development of an equivalent wind plant power-curve becomes highly desirable and useful in predicting plant output for a given wind forecast. Such a development is described and summarized in this paper.

Wan, Y. H.; Ela, E.; Orwig, K.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Convex hulls of a curve in control theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A classification is obtained for typical singularities of the local transitivity sets of control systems on three-dimensional manifolds with nonconvex indicatrices that are closed smooth spatial curves. Bibliography: 8 titles.

Kurbatskii, Aleksei N [Moscow School of Economics of Lomonosov MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Solvability of small curves of genus 2 - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supporting data: files.zip (2.7Mb). Contains: AllCurves.m (22Mb): Contains all square free polynomials of degree 5 or 6 with integer coordinates between -3 and...

277

Smart Grid:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Capture & sequester from existing coal plants @ $50/ton Cost ... Load Duration Curve and Carbon Dispatch of a Typical Coal-Based Utility ...

2013-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

278

Phase light curves for extrasolar Jupiters and Saturns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We predict how a remote observer would see the brightness variations of giant planets similar to Jupiter and Saturn as they orbit their central stars. We model the geometry of Jupiter, Saturn and Saturn's rings for varying orbital and viewing parameters. Scattering properties for the planets and rings at wavelenghts 0.6-0.7 microns follow Pioneer and Voyager observations, namely, planets are forward scattering and rings are backward scattering. Images of the planet with or without rings are simulated and used to calculate the disk-averaged luminosity varying along the orbit, that is, a light curve is generated. We find that the different scattering properties of Jupiter and Saturn (without rings) make a substantial difference in the shape of their light curves. Saturn-size rings increase the apparent luminosity of the planet by a factor of 2-3 for a wide range of geometries. Rings produce asymmetric light curves that are distinct from the light curve of the planet without rings. If radial velocity data are available for the planet, the effect of the ring on the light curve can be distinguished from effects due to orbital eccentricity. Non-ringed planets on eccentric orbits produce light curves with maxima shifted relative to the position of the maximum planet's phase. Given radial velocity data, the amount of the shift restricts the planet's unknown orbital inclination and therefore its mass. Combination of radial velocity data and a light curve for a non-ringed planet on an eccentric orbit can also be used to constrain the surface scattering properties of the planet. To summarize our results for the detectability of exoplanets in reflected light, we present a chart of light curve amplitudes of non-ringed planets for different eccentricities, inclinations, and the viewing azimuthal angles of the observer.

Ulyana A. Dyudina; Penny D. Sackett; Daniel D. R. Bayliss; Sara Seager; Carolyn C. Porco; Henry B. Throop; Luke Dones

2004-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

279

Load Scheduling with Profile Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Within the past five years, many manufactures have added hardware performance counters to their microprocessors to generate profile data cheaply. We show how to use Compaq's DCPI tool to determine load latencies which are at a fine, instruction granularity and use them as fodder for improving instruction scheduling. We validate our heuristic for using DCPI latency data to classify loads as hits and misses against simulation numbers. We map our classification into the Multiflow compiler's intermediate representation, and use a locality sensitive Balanced scheduling algorithm. Our experiments illustrate that our algorithm improves run times by 1% on average, but up to 10% on a Compaq Alpha. 1 Introduction This paper explores how to use hardware performance counters to produce fine grain latency information to improve compiler scheduling. We use this information to hide latencies with any available instruction level parallelism (ILP). (ILP for an instruction is the number of o...

Gtz Lindenmaier; Kathryn S. McKinley; Olivier Temam

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

California load management research 1977: a first year report to the Federal Energy Administration on the FEA/California Electric Utilities Demonstration Project. Annual report for 1977  

SciTech Connect

The California Electric Utilities Demonstration Project (EUDP) seeks to identify cost effective ways to implement load management. The three-year, six-million-dollar project will involve 24 field experiments, four electric utilities, and 7000 residential, commercial and industrial utility customers. Each experiment tries to measure how the tested management measure reduces system peak demand and shifts kilowatt-hour use in both customer and system load curves. Results of three experiments are given. The four participating utilities (Southern California Edison, Pacific Gas and Electric, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, and San Diego Gas and Electric) are described. A load curve data catalog is discussed. An appendix to the report shows how to select load management equipment. Another discusses both United States and European load management experiences.

Hairston, R.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison of Pyranometric and Pyrheliometric Methods for the Determination of Sunshine Duration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two pyranometric methods for the determination of sunshine duration (SD) from global irradiance measurements are evaluated by means of summated sunshine seconds derived from pyrheliometric measurements in combination with the WMO threshold of 120 ...

Yvonne B. L. Hinssen; Wouter H. Knap

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Future Projections of Landfast Ice Thickness and Duration in the Canadian Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Projections of future landfast ice thickness and duration were generated for nine sites in the Canadian Arctic and one site on the Labrador coast with a simple downscaling technique that used a one-dimensional sea ice model driven by ...

J. A. Dumas; G. M. Flato; R. D. Brown

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A Practical Approach to Flux Measurements of Long Duration in the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The practical limitations imposed by the marine environment on the principal flux-measurement methods for experiments requiring more than a few days duration are examined. Reservations are presented as to the suitability of the bulk method as a ...

Theodore V. Blanc

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Variation in United States Cloudiness and Sunshine Duration between 1950 and the Drought Year of 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variations in United States cloudiness (percent of sky covered by clouds, as estimated subjectively by observers at 100 National Weather Service stations) and sunshine duration (percent of possible sunshine, as estimated objectively by ...

J. K. Angell

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING  

SciTech Connect

The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

Garrett, A.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

286

Electrical and Production Load Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector. The operating hours of small and medium sized manufacturing facilities are analyzed to identify the most common operating hour or shift work patterns. About 75% of manufacturing facilities fall into expected operating hour patterns with operating hours near 40, 80, 120 and 168 hours/week. Two types of load factors, electrical and production are computed for each shift classification within major industry categories in the U.S. The load factor based on monthly billing hours (ELF) increases with operating hours from about 0.4 for a nominal one shift operation, to about 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. On the other hand, the load factor based on production hours (PLF) shows an inverse trend, varying from about 1.4 for one shift operation to 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. When used as a diagnostic tool, if the PLF exceeds unity, then unnecessary energy consumption may be taking place. For plants operating at 40 hours per week, the ELF value was found to greater than the theoretical maximum, while the PLF value was greater than one, suggesting that these facilities may have significant energy usage outside production hours. The data for the PLF however, is more scattered for plants operating less than 80 hours per week, indicating that grouping PLF data based on operating hours may not be a reasonable approach to benchmarking energy use in industries. This analysis uses annual electricity consumption and demand along with operating hour data of manufacturing plants available in the U.S. Department of Energys Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database. The annual values are used because more desirable monthly data are not available. Monthly data are preferred as they capture the load profile of the facility more accurately. The data there come from Industrial Assessment Centers which employ university engineering students, faculty and staff to perform energy assessments for small to medium-sized manufacturing plants. The nation-wide IAC program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Sen, Tapajyoti

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Factors influencing the microwave pulse duration in a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we analyze the factors that affect the microwave pulse duration in a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO), including the diode voltage, the guiding magnetic field, the electron beam collector, the extraction cavity, and the gap between the electron beam and the slow wave structure (SWS). The results show that the microwave pulse duration increases with the diode voltage until breakdown occurs on the surface of the extraction cavity. The pulse duration at low guiding magnetic field is generally 5-10 ns smaller than that at high magnetic field due to the asymmetric electron emission and the larger energy spread of the electron beam. The electron beam collector can affect the microwave pulse duration significantly because of the anode plasma generated by bombardment of the electron beam on the collector surface. The introduction of the extraction cavity only slightly changes the pulse duration. The decrease of the gap between the electron beam and the SWS can increase the microwave pulse duration greatly.

Xiao Renzhen; Zhang Xiaowei; Zhang Ligang; Li Xiaoze; Zhang Lijun [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on High Power Microwave, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Refrigeration load calculation of a HTSC current lead under AC conditions  

SciTech Connect

A 5 kA{sub rms}/50kV HTSC hybrid AC current lead is developed within a BRITE/EURAM cooperation between Alcatel Alsthom, Hoechst and Siemens. For the optimization of the conductor geometry computer codes have been realized. For the evaluation of AC losses in the superconducting melt cast processed Bi-2212 part, the Bean model has not turned out to be practicable especially when the current exceeds the I{sub c}(T) curve. This is of course related to the low n-value (n {le} 10) of the superconducting transition curve in this material. A new calculation based on experimental E(J,B,T) curves allows the evaluation of AC losses in the temperature range of interest. These results are used for the calculation of the maximum stable length and the low temperature heat load which is more than three times smaller than in an all metal DC lead. Together with the 77 K heat load of the normal part of the AC lead, the overall 300 K refrigeration load is calculated.

Herrmann, P.F.; Cottevieille, C.; Leriche, A. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, Marcoussis (France); Elschner, S. [Hoechst AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress  

SciTech Connect

This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Nonlinear response of vessel walls due to short-time thermomechanical loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This study addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings fro the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on the dead load, yield stress assumptions, material response and internal pressurization. The analyses considered only short term failure (quasi static) modes, long term failure modes were not considered. Short term failure modes include plastic instabilities of the structure and failure due to exceeding the failure strain. Long term failure odes would be caused by creep rupture that leads to plastic instability of the structure. Due to the sort time durations analyzed, creep was not considered in the analyses presented.

Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A LOAD-BASED DEPTH-SENSING INDENTATION TECHNIQUE FOR ELASTICPLASTIC MATERIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTY EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

A load-based depth-sensing micro-indentation technique has been developed for material mechanical properties evaluation including elastic modulus, yield stress, strain hardening exponent and stress-strain curve. Based on a Hertzian contact mechanics approach, this load-based depthsensing micro-indentation technique does not require system compliance calibration or the use of high precision depth sensors. Furthermore a unique, material independent, indentation based load-depth algorithm has been developed accounting for both elastic and elastic-plastic deformation of the material beneath the indenter. This algorithm, found to be a function of material yield stress, strain hardening exponent and elastic modulus, is shown to be the basis for obtaining a stressstrain curve. Finite element analyses of multiple materials with various mechanical properties were employed to examine and develop the fundamental indention based relationships between these variables and the load/depth curve needed to extract the stress-strain diagram. In addition, experimental results obtained with this load-based micro-indentation technique were found to yield accurate material mechanical properties (elastic modulus, strain hardening, yield strength) at room and elevated temperatures (up to 1200C).

K. Lee; J. M. Tannenbaum; B. S.-J. Kang; M.A. Alvin

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

292

Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4-5 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective, accuracy and reliable tsunami early warning for Indonesia region.

Madlazim [Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics and Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

293

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Estimated Load Reductions for PJMs Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJMs Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Automated fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

High loading uranium fuel plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Loads on drillpipe during jarring operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jarring implies heavy loads on the drillstring. The highest load on the drillpipe before jarring is at the rig floor. This paper discusses loads on drillpipe before, under, and after jarring. The authors show that for most situations, the shock wave from the jar impact does not imply additional load on the drillpipe compared with static load. The theoretical results are confirmed by measurements of a jarring operation with stuck point at [approx] 1,200 m measured depth. Loads on the drillpipe can be a limited factor in jarring operations because fear of possible additional loads from jarring dynamics may restrict the trip force (overpull) on the jar. The main conclusion is that dynamic jar forces do not give additional loads on drillpipe. This information can be used to set an optimal trip force on the jar.

Aarrestad, T.V.; Kyllingstad, A.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Spinning reserve from hotel load response  

SciTech Connect

Even though preliminary tests were not conducted during times of highest system or hotel loading during the summer, they showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22 to 37 percent depending on the outdoor temperature and time of day. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator's command to shed load was issued and the load drop was very rapid. (author)

Kirby, Brendan; Kueck, John; Laughner, Theo; Morris, Keith

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Load Shape Library Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The downloadable report details EPRI's efforts to develop a framework of a load database and web-accessible repository of end-use and whole-premise data for application to energy efficiency assessments. The tool provides access to the best available end-use load data and whole-premise data by sector, region and building type. Improved end-use load research data will benefit load forecasters, system planners, energy efficiency program managers and rate design analysts by facilitating integration ...

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Effects of tensile loading on upper shelf fracture toughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constraint has been an important consideration in fracture mechanics from the earliest work that was done to develop the 1974 version of the ASTM Standard E399. O`Dowd and Shih (1991) have proposed that the difference in crack tip stress fields can be quantified in terms of a field quantity that they have call Q. The Q quantity is a function of J, the crack shape and size, the structural geometry, mode of loading and on the level of deformation and can only be calculated from a high resolution elastic-plastic computational analysis. A similar, simpler, but more controversial approach has been suggested by Betegon and Hancock (1991), who use the non-singular term of the elastic, crack singularity solution, called the T-Stress, as a measure of elastic-plastic crack tip constraint. The objective of this work is to develop some upper shelf, elastic-plastic experimental results to attempt to investigate the applicability of the Q and T stress parameters to the correlation of upper shelf initiation toughness and J resistance curves. The first objective was to obtain upper shelf J resistance curves, J{sub Ic}, and tearing resistance results for a range of applied constraint. The J-Q and J-T stress loci were developed and compared with the expectations of the O`Dowd and Shih and the Betegon and Hancock analyses. Constraint was varied by changing the crack length and also by changing the mode of loading from bending to predominantly tensile. The principle conclusions of this work are that J{sub Ic} does not appear to be dependent on T stress or Q while the material tearing resistance is dependent on T stress and Q, with the tearing modulus increasing as constraint decreases.

Joyce, J.A. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Link, R.E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

How to Measure a Camera's Response Curve from Scratch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes how the response curve of a video camera can be determined with the aid of a sheet of paper and two desk lamps only. The calibration process is based on the superposition law of incoherent light and does not make use of any calibrated measurement instrument. 1 Introduction Digitizing and processing of video images has steadily gained importance in recent years. Various applications profit from this technique, in particular industrial inspection, optical measuring, desktop publishing, and remote sensing. For applications which are sensitive to image quality an exact characterization of the properties of the data acquisition equipment is essential. Knowing the equipment's response curve is especially important because many applications either rely on a linear response curve or on a specific power law (fl-correction). Relying on the data sheets of the measurement equipment is only partially useful because 1. The data is often missing (e.g. for the digitizer). 2. The ...

Martin Bichsel; Krystyna W. Ohnesorge

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Discrete sliding-mode control of a PWM inverter for sinusoidal output waveform synthesis with optimal sliding curve  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a discrete sliding-mode control scheme with feedforward compensation for the closed-loop regulation of the pulse-width modulated (PWM) inverter used in an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The proposed feedforward controller can effectively improve the tracking performance of the PWM inverter. In designing the sliding-mode controller, the authors have taken load disturbance into consideration to enhance the robustness of the PWM inverter. Moreover, the upper bound of the load disturbance under which the sliding condition can be maintained has also been derived. The sliding curve of the sliding-mode controller is designed such that the behavior of the controlled PWM inverter is optimal subject to the selected cost function. Due to the coordinate transformation proposed in this paper, only the output voltage needs to be measured as feedback for the purpose of closed-loop regulation. Simulation and experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

Jung, S.L.; Tzou, Y.Y. [National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Control Engineering

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Load Management - A Better Way  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ohio Edison Company serves about 800,000 customers in Ohio and Pennsylvania, making it one of the 20 largest electric utilities in the nation. The 'cost of service' concept has been basic to rate design throughout the history of the company, and is evident today as the demand related charges have escalated in recent rate cases reflecting the higher costs of installing new generating facilities at today's high construction and financing costs. This paper will describe one of the many applications of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows existing plants to be more fully utilized, resulting in lower costs to customers who use their electric service wisely and possibly lower rate increases in the future than would have been required otherwise.

Easley, J. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Load Scheduling with Profile Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Within the past five years, many manufactureshave added hardware performance counters to their microprocessors to generate profile data cheaply.Translating aggregate data such as basic block execution frequencies from the executable to the com-piler intermediate representation is fairly straightforward. In this paper, we show how to use Com-paq's DCPI tool to determine load latencies which are at a fine, instruction granularity and then usethem to provide fodder for improving instruction scheduling. We validate our heuristic for usingDCPI latency data to classify loads as hits and misses against simulation numbers, demonstratingthat we can gather correct latencies cheaply at runtime. We map our classification into the Multiflowcompiler's intermediate representation, and use a locality sensitive Balanced scheduling algorithm. Ourexperiments illustrate that our algorithm has the potential to improve run times by up to 10 % on a Com-paq Alpha when compared to Balanced scheduling, but that a variety of pitfalls make consistent im-provements difficult to attain. 1 Introduction In this paper, we explore how to use hardware per-formance counters to produce fine grain latency information to improve compiler scheduling. We usethis information to hide latencies with any avail\\Lambda The authors

unknown authors

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Glossary of terms related to load management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part I of the Glossary of Terms related to Load Management has been prepared by the Terminology Task Force of the Load Management Subcommittee. The glossary contains many definitions of terms used by the electric utility industry concerning the subject of Load Management. The terms are listed in alphabetical order and cross-referenced where necessary.

Gellings, C.W.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Properly Evaluating load-following products  

SciTech Connect

The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Adaptive load sharing for network processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel scheme for processing packets in a router is presented that provides load sharing among multiple network processors distributed within the router. It is complemented by a feedback control mechanism designed to prevent processor overload. Incoming ... Keywords: computer networks, feedback control, load balancing, load sharing, packet processing, router architecture

Lukas Kencl; Jean-Yves Le Boudec

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Efficient real-time divisible load scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Providing QoS and performance guarantees to arbitrarily divisible loads has become a significant problem for many cluster-based research computing facilities. While progress is being made in scheduling arbitrarily divisible loads, current approaches ... Keywords: Arbitrarily divisible loads, Cluster computing, Real-time computing, Scheduling efficiency

Anwar Mamat; Ying Lu; Jitender Deogun; Steve Goddard

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Domestic load scheduling using genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach using a genetic algorithm to optimize the scheduling of domestic electric loads, according to technical and user-defined constraints and input signals, is presented and illustrative results are shown. The aim is minimizing the end-user's ... Keywords: automated energy management, domestic load scheduling, electric loads, genetic algorithms

Ana Soares; llvaro Gomes; Carlos Henggeler Antunes; Hugo Cardoso

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Neural-wavelet Methodology for Load Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intelligent demand-side management represents a future trend of power system regulation. A key issue in intelligent demand-side management is accurate prediction of load within a local area grid (LAG), which is defined as a set of customers with an appropriate ... Keywords: load forecasting, load identification, neural-wavelet

Rong Gao; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

DEVELOPING FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN STRONGLY CURVED DUCTS OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Curved RectangularInfluence of Curvature on Heat Transfer to IncompressibleT. , "Forced Convective Heat Transfer in a Curved Channel

Yee, G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The shape of heavy ion upset cross section curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach is developed to describe heavy ion single event upset cross section curves. It accounts for all significant mechanisms which cause the curve to deviate from ideal, step function-like behavior. The method is developed in terms of the charge deposited by an incident ion in a memory cell and is therefore free of ambiguities associated with the effective LET concept. It is suggested that this type of approach is an improvement over current methods used to characterize a memory response to accelerator tests. This has significant implications for predicting space upset rates.

Xapsos, M.A. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Radiation Effects Branch); Weatherford, T.R.; Shapiro, P. (SFA, Inc., Landover, MD (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Search for relationship between duration of the extended solar cycles and amplitude of sunspot cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Duration of the extended solar cycles is taken into the consideration. The beginning of cycles is counted from the moment of polarity reversal of large-scale magnetic field in high latitudes, occurring in the sunspot cycle n till the minimum of the cycle n+2. The connection between cycle duration and its amplitude is established. Duration of the "latent" period of evolution of extended cycle between reversals and a minimum of the current sunspot cycle is entered. It is shown, that the latent period of cycles evolution is connected with the next sunspot cycle amplitude and can be used for the prognosis of a level and time of a sunspot maximum. The 24-th activity cycle prognosis is done. Long-term behavior of extended cycle's lengths is considered.

Tlatov, A G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Search for relationship between duration of the extended solar cycles and amplitude of sunspot cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Duration of the extended solar cycles is taken into the consideration. The beginning of cycles is counted from the moment of polarity reversal of large-scale magnetic field in high latitudes, occurring in the sunspot cycle n till the minimum of the cycle n+2. The connection between cycle duration and its amplitude is established. Duration of the "latent" period of evolution of extended cycle between reversals and a minimum of the current sunspot cycle is entered. It is shown, that the latent period of cycles evolution is connected with the next sunspot cycle amplitude and can be used for the prognosis of a level and time of a sunspot maximum. The 24-th activity cycle prognosis is done. Long-term behavior of extended cycle's lengths is considered.

A. G. Tlatov

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

317

Low cutter load raise head  

SciTech Connect

A raise head having a multiplicity of cutters for enlarging a pilot hole into a larger diameter hole by disintegrating the earth formations that surround the pilot hole is provided that will require lower cutter loads to penetrate the formations being bored by directing the rock fracture planes toward the pilot hole forcing the rock to yield with less input energy. The cutters are positioned on the raise head to provide an earth formation contact profile with a major portion of said earth formation contact profile extending outward and upward from said pilot hole. The included angle between the major portion of the earth formation contact profile and the axis of the pilot hole is less than 90/sup 0/.

Saxman, W.C.

1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Kinesin's backsteps under mechanical load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinesins move processively toward the plus end of microtubules by hydrolyzing ATP for each step. From an enzymatic perspective, the mechanism of mechanical motion coupled to the nucleotide chemistry is often well explained using a single-loop cyclic reaction. However, several difficulties arise in interpreting kinesin's backstepping within this framework, especially when external forces oppose the motion of kinesin. We review evidence, such as an ATP-independent stall force and a slower cycle time for backsteps, that has emerged to challenge the idea that kinesin backstepping is due to ATP synthesis, i.e., the reverse cycle of kinesin's forward-stepping chemomechanics. Supplementing the conventional single-loop chemomechanics with routes for ATP-hydrolyzing backward steps and nucleotide-free steps, especially under load, gives a better physical interpretation of the experimental data on backsteps.

Changbong Hyeon; Stefan Klumpp; Jos N. Onuchic

2009-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

319

High payload six-axis load sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Analysis Methodology for Industrial Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology is provided for evaluating the impact of various demand-side management (DSM) options on industrial customers. The basic approach uses customer metered load profile data as a basis for the customer load shape. DSM technologies are represented as load shapes and are used as a basis for altering the customers existing measured load shape. The impact of load shape changes on the customer is evaluated in terms of a change in the electric bill by using a software analytical tool called LOADEXPERT. The software calculates the customer's bill for a particular rate structure and a given load shape. The output data from LOADEXPERT are used to calculate the rate of return on the DSM technology investment. Other uses of load profile data are provided.

Reddoch, T. W.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs minimized. Because of the difficulty in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly related. The decrease in motor speed from no load conditions, referred to as slip, can be determined with a non-contact, optical tachometer. Field measurements of motor slip were conducted at a textile plant to quantify motor load conditions. To verify the relationship between operating speed and load, measurements of motor power consumption on a representative number of motors were also conducted. The results of the motor survey, including number of motors, size, and load, are summarized in this paper along with an estimate of the savings from replacing oversized motors.

Brown, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Stochastic Analysis of Wind Turbine Power Curves Edgar Anahua  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

procedure (IEC 61400-12) for power performance charac- terization of a single wind turbines is shown by the standard IEC 61400-12 3 [12]. In this standard procedure the power curve of a single wind turbine of the blade pitch angle system of a wind turbine [9]. The phase averaged P(t,t ) function depends on the time

Peinke, Joachim

323

On Modeling and Forecasting Time Series of Smooth Curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/fertility rate curves (Hyndman and Ullah, 2007; Erbas et al., 2007). Other examples include electricity system the rates are unobservable; hence one needs to forecast future rate profiles based on historical call of telephone customer service centers, where forecasts of daily call arrival rate profiles are needed

Shen, Haipeng

324

Experience Curves and Solar PV Fred Heutte, Senior Policy Associate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the historical advantage fossil based electricity has had will reverse, with significant consequences for future Electricity Coordinating Council's transmission planning for the 10-year Common Case based plan, and even more of evidence suggests staying with the consensus experience curve estimate ­ a Learning Rate of 20% for solar

325

Real-time rendering of textures with feature curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard bilinear interpolation on normal maps results in visual artifacts along sharp features, which are common for surfaces with creases, wrinkles, and dents. In many cases, spatially varying features, like the normals near discontinuity curves, ... Keywords: Curvilinear feature rendering, GPU algorithms, distance function, normal mapping, resolution independence

Evgueni Parilov; Denis Zorin

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Offshore Wind Resource Global Wind Potential Supply Curves by...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Offshore Wind Resource Global Wind Potential Supply Curves by Country, Class, and Depth (quantities in GW)
2012-07-12T22:51:45Z 2012-07-13T20:49:20Z I am submitting data from...

327

Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the flask. Heaters are controlled by a model predictive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllerComplex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott of petroleomics, as asserted by Marshall and Rodgers, include quantitation of species, modeling, and informatics

328

The Foundation and Application of Horizontal Well Deliverability Type Curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a development technique to improve oil and gas deliverability, horizontal wells have recently become an important technical support to develop low permeability or extra-low permeability and unconventional oil and gas fields. Therefore, it is quite ... Keywords: Horizontal well, Impermeable and circular boundary reservoir, Stehfest numerical inversion, Blasingame decline curves, Single well dynamic reserves

Rong Wang; Yonggang Duan; Quantang Fang; Cao Tingkuan; Mingqiang Wei

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Analytic Definition of Curves and Surfaces by Parabolic Blending  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A procedure for interpolating between specified points of a curve or surface is described. The method guarantees slope continuity at all junctions. A surface panel divided into p x q contiguous patches is completely specified by the coordinates of (p+1) x (q+1) points. Each individual patch, however, depends parametrically on the coordinates of 16 points, allowing shape flexibility and global conformity.

A. W. Overhauser

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

330

Projecting diffusion along the normal bundle of a plane curve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to provide new formulas for the estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of an equation of Fick-Jacob's type obtained by projecting the two-dimensional diffusion equation along the normal direction of an arbitrary plane curve.

Carlos Valero Valdes; Rafael Herrera Guzman

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

331

Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Investigation of the effects of long-duration exposure on active optical system components (S0050)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of long duration space exposure on the relevant performance parameters of lasers, radiation detectors, and selected optical components, was determined. The results and implications of the measurements indicating real or suspected degradation mechanisms were evaluated and guidelines, based on these results, for selection and use of components for space electro-optical systems are established.

Blue, M.D.; Gallagher, J.J.; Shackelford, R.G.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Implementing enterprise resource planning systems: organizational performance and the duration of the implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the impact of the duration of ERP implementation on firm performance both during and after implementation. Organizations choose either an accelerated implementation approach or a traditional (longer) implementation approach. The former ... Keywords: Enterprise resource planning, Firm performance, IT implementation

Mark Anderson; Rajiv D. Banker; Nirup M. Menon; Jorge A. Romero

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: Effects of noise level and duration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: Effects of noise level and duration David Kastak psychophysical techniques were used to evaluate the residual effects of underwater noise on the hearing , amplified Realis- tic MPA-20 , and projected from one of two underwater transducers NUWC J-9 or Lubell

Reichmuth, Colleen

336

Role of the Indo-Pacific Interbasin Coupling in Predicting Asymmetric ENSO Transition and Duration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Warm and cold phases of El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) exhibit a significant asymmetry in their transition/duration such that El Nio tends to shift rapidly to La Nia after the mature phase, whereas La Nia tends to persist for up to 2 yr. ...

Masamichi Ohba; Masahiro Watanabe

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Duration distributions for different softness groups of gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes according to their durations. We investigate if the softness of bursts plays a role in the conventional classification of the objects. We employ the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) catalog and analyze the duration distributions of different groups of GRBs associated with distinct softness. Our analysis reveals that the conventional classification of GRBs with the duration of bursts is influenced by the softness of the objects. There exits a bimodality in the duration distribution of GRBs for each group of bursts and the time position of the dip in the bimodality histogram shifts with the softness parameter. Our findings suggest that the conventional classification scheme should be modified by separating the two well-known populations in different softness groups, which would be more reasonable than doing so with a single sample. According to the relation between the dip position and the softness parameter, we get an empirical function that can roughly set apart the short-hard and long-soft bursts: $SP = (0.100 \\pm 0.028) T_{90}^{-(0.85 \\pm 0.18)}$, where $SP$ is the softness parameter adopted in this paper.

Y. -P. Qin; A. C. Gupta; J. H. Fan; C. -Y. Su; R. -J. Lu

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

Nanocrystalline non-stoichiometric SBT: Effect of milling duration on structural and electrical characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, nanocrystalline specimens of non-stoichiometric Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric ceramics were synthesized by mechanical activation process using a high energy planetary ball mill. The powders were milled for different milling durations (5, 10, 20 h) keeping the milling speed fixed at 300 rpm. Microstructural characterizations have been performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Nanocrystallites with average grain size in the range of 30-50 nm are observed to be formed. Grain size is observed to decrease with increasing milling duration. Detailed dielectric study as a function of temperature has been carried out. It is observed that dielectric constant increases and dielectric loss decreases with increasing milling duration. The observed characteristics have been explained in terms of increased number of grain boundaries due to the reduction of granular size. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the present work nano crystalline non-stoichiometric SBT has been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The technique involved is mechanical activation (high energy ball milling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The milling duration has been optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 milled for 20 hours exhibit enhanced electrical characteristics.

Sugandha, E-mail: miglani.sugandha@gmail.com [Thin Film and Material Science Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Delhi-110042 (India); Jha, A.K., E-mail: Prof.akjha@gmail.com [Thin Film and Material Science Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Delhi-110042 (India); Department of Applied Sciences, Ambedkar Institute of Technology, GGSIPU, Geeta Colony, Delhi-110092 (India)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Solar Radiation Changes in the United States during the Twentieth Century: Evidence from Sunshine Duration Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in sunshine duration (SS) measured in the conterminous United States during the past century were used as a proxy to explore changes in shortwave forcing at the earths surface when and where accurate measurements of global irradiance (Eg)...

Gerald Stanhill; Shabtai Cohen

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Parametric System Curves: Correlations Between Fan Pressure Rise and Flow for Large Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to meet a varying space conditioning load. Thus, withoutexample, at a given space conditioning load, reducing supply

Sherman, Max

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Wind loading on solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

On Load Balancing in a Dense Wireless  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the load balancing problem in a dense wireless multihop network, where a typical path consists of large number of hops, i.e., the spatial scales of a typical distance between source and destination, and mean distance between the neighbouring nodes are strongly separated. In this limit, we present a general framework for analysing the traffic load resulting from a given set of paths and traffic demands. We formulate the load balancing problem as a minmax problem and give two lower bounds for the achievable minimal maximum traffic load. The framework is illustrated by an example of uniformly distributed traffic demands in a unit disk with a few families of paths given in advance. With these paths we are able to decrease the maximum traffic load by factor of 33 40% depending on the assumptions. The obtained traffic load level also comes quite near the tightest lower bound.

Multihop Network Esa; Esa Hyyti

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Profile Guided Load Marking for Memory Renaming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Memory operations remain a significant bottleneck in dynamically scheduled pipelined processors, due in part to the inability to statically determine the existence of memory address dependencies. Hardware memory renaming techniques have been proposed which predict which stores a load might be dependent upon. These prediction techniques can be used to speculatively forward a value from a predicted store dependency to a load through a value prediction table; however, these techniques require large and time-consuming hardware tables. In this paper we propose a software-guided approach for identifying dependencies between store and load instructions and the Load Marking (LM) architecture to communicate these dependencies to the hardware. Compiler analysis and profiles are used to find important store/load relationships, and these relationships are identified during execution via hints or an n-bit tag. For those loads that are not marked for renaming, we then use additional profiling inform...

Glenn Reinman; Brad Calder; Dean Tullsen; Gary Tyson; Todd Austin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Assessment of Industrial-Sector Load Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The load shapes of industrial-sector customers are becoming increasingly important for utility forecasting, marketing, and demand-side management planning and evaluation activities. This report analyzes load shapes for various industry segments and investigates the transfer of these load shapes across service territories. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Funders may download this report at http://my.primen.com/Applications/DE/Community/index.asp .

1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

345

1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Reservoir compaction loads on casings and liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure drawdown due to production from a reservoir causes compaction of the reservoir formation which induces axial and radial loads on the wellbore. Reservoir compaction loads increase during the production life of a well, and are greater for deviated wells. Presented here are casing and liner loads at initial and final pressure drawdowns for a particular reservoir and at well deviation angles of 0 to 45 degrees.

Wooley, G.R.; Prachner, W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

NORMAL LOAD BEARING BY SITE SPECIFIC CANISTER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this calculation is to perform a preliminary analysis of the Site Specific Canister/Basket, subject to static gravity loads that include the self weight of the Canister Shell, the Basket, the Spent Nuclear Fuel, the Shield Plug and the related hardware, so that the loads are approximately known for sizing purposes. Based on these loads the stress levels in various components of the Site Specific Canister/Basket are evaluated.

NA

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

348

Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

Mathew, Paul A.

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

349

Load relaxation studies of zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect

The results of the present work have shown (1) the load relaxation data of Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range of 200/sup 0/C to 385/sup 0/C can be represented by the phenomenological model based on Hart's plastic equation of state; (2) the room temperature load relaxation data reflect the effects of deformation twinning; (3) at higher temperatures the load relaxation data suggest the contribution of grain boundary sliding; and (4) the effects of strain aging can be identified based on the load relaxation data.

Huang, F.H.; Sabol, G.P.; McDonald, S.G.; Li, C.Y.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

OpenEI Community - load profile  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

/0 en Commercial and /0 en Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! http://en.openei.org/community/blog/commercial-and-residential-hourly-load-data-now-available-openei <span class=Load data" src="http://en.openei.org/community/files/load_data_figure_small.jpg" style="width:527px; height:285px" title="" />Image source: NREL 

Files: 
application/zip icon

351

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Laboratory Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VALR Lab. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction Laboratory houses ADAM, our advanced thermal manikin, as well as a passenger compartment climate simulator, testing equipment...

352

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Load Express  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Create project files with Load Express in just 4 easy steps. Select a weather profile, enter simulation parameters, define the zonesrooms in the building and create air handler...

353

Effect of Nonproportional Loadings on Ductile Fracture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, This study aims at understanding the effects of load path ... D-2: Forging of Magnesium Alloy by Impulsive Energy at Room Temperature.

354

Thermoplastic Flour Containing Eugenol-loaded Chitosan ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermoplastic Flour Containing Eugenol-loaded Chitosan ... Properties of AA 7075 Reinforced with Nanometric ZrO2 Obtained by Ball-milling.

355

Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for Assessing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for Assessing Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for Assessing the Energy Efficiency Potential of Industrial Motor Systems Speaker(s): Ali Hasanbeigi Date: February 8, 2011 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Aimee McKane Motor-driven equipment accounts for approximately 60% of manufacturing final electricity use worldwide. A major barrier to effective policymaking, and to more global acceptance of the energy efficiency potential in industrial motor systems, is the lack of a transparent methodology for quantifying the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings. This paper presents the results of groundbreaking analyses conducted for five countries and one region to begin to address this barrier. Using a combination of expert opinion and available data from the United States,

356

McKinsey Carbon Supply Curves | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » McKinsey Carbon Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: McKinsey Carbon Supply Curves Agency/Company /Organization: McKinsey and Company Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory, Resource assessment, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Website: www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/ References: McKinsey Climate Change Special Initiative[1] "The transition to a low-carbon economy represents one of the key challenges facing leaders in the early 21st century. Our Climate Change Special Initiative is a cross-functional and cross-industry effort, which

357

Nonparametric inference of quantile curves for nonstationary time series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper considers nonparametric specification tests of quantile curves for a general class of nonstationary processes. Using Bahadur representation and Gaussian approximation results for nonstationary time series, simultaneous confidence bands and integrated squared difference tests are proposed to test various parametric forms of the quantile curves with asymptotically correct type I error rates. A wild bootstrap procedure is implemented to alleviate the problem of slow convergence of the asymptotic results. In particular, our results can be used to test the trends of extremes of climate variables, an important problem in understanding climate change. Our methodology is applied to the analysis of the maximum speed of tropical cyclone winds. It was found that an inhomogeneous upward trend for cyclone wind speeds is pronounced at high quantile values. However, there is no trend in the mean lifetime-maximum wind speed. This example shows the effectiveness of the quantile regression technique.

Zhou, Zhou

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Modeling software artifact count attribute with s-curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The estimation of software project attributes, such as size, is important for software project resource planning and process control. However, research regarding software attribute modeling, such as size, effort, and cost, are high-level and static in nature. This research defines a new operation-level software project attribute that describes the operational characteristic of a software project. The result is a measurement based on the s-curve parameter that can be used as a control variable for software project management. This result is derived from modeling the count of artifact instances created by the software engineering process, which are stored by software tools. Because of the orthogonal origin of this attribute in regard to traditional static estimators, this s-curve based software attribute can function as an additional indicator of software project activities and also as a quantitative metric for assessing development team capability.

Ma, Norman K.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Fast B-spline Curve Fitting by L-BFGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a novel method for fitting planar B-spline curves to unorganized data points. In traditional methods, optimization of control points and foot points are performed in two very time-consuming steps in each iteration: 1) control points are updated by setting up and solving a linear system of equations; and 2) foot points are computed by projecting each data point onto a B-spline curve. Our method uses the L-BFGS optimization method to optimize control points and foot points simultaneously and therefore it does not need to perform either matrix computation or foot point projection in every iteration. As a result, our method is much faster than existing methods.

Zheng, Wenni; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wenping

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Active learning to maximize area under the ROC curve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In active learning, a machine learning algorithm is given an unlabeled set of examples U, and is allowed to request labels for a relatively small subset of U to use for training. The goal of active learning is to judiciously choose which examples in U to have labeled in order to optimize some performance criterion, e.g. generalization accuracy. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis has attracted high attention in machine learning research in the last few years. ROC curves have been advocated and gradually adopted as an al-ternative to classical machine learning metrics such as misclassification rate. We present several heuristics for active learning designed to optimize area under the ROC curve (AUC) and extensively evaluate them, along with other commonly-used active learning algorithms. One of our algorithms (ESTAUC) was the top performer. When good posterior probability estimates were available, ESTAUC and another of our heuristics (RAR) were by far the best.

Matthew G. Culver

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

EARLY SUPERNOVAE LIGHT CURVES FOLLOWING THE SHOCK BREAKOUT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first light from a supernova (SN) emerges once the SN shock breaks out of the stellar surface. The first light, typically a UV or X-ray flash, is followed by a broken power-law decay of the luminosity generated by radiation that leaks out of the expanding gas sphere. Motivated by recent detection of emission from very early stages of several SNe, we revisit the theory of shock breakout and the following emission, paying special attention to the photon-gas coupling and deviations from thermal equilibrium. We derive simple analytic light curves of SNe from various progenitors at early times. We find that for more compact progenitors, white dwarfs, Wolf-Rayet stars (WRs), and possibly more energetic blue-supergiant explosions, the observed radiation is out of thermal equilibrium at the breakout, during the planar phase (i.e., before the expanding gas doubles its radius), and during the early spherical phase. Therefore, during these phases we predict significantly higher temperatures than previous analysis that assumed equilibrium. When thermal equilibrium prevails, we find the location of the thermalization depth and its temporal evolution. Our results are useful for interpretation of early SN light curves. Some examples are (1) red supergiant SNe have an early bright peak in optical and UV flux, less than an hour after breakout. It is followed by a minimum at the end of the planar phase (about 10 hr), before it peaks again once the temperature drops to the observed frequency range. In contrast, WRs show only the latter peak in optical and UV. (2) Bright X-ray flares are expected from all core-collapse SNe types. (3) The light curve and spectrum of the initial breakout pulse hold information on the explosion geometry and progenitor wind opacity. Its spectrum in more compact progenitors shows a (nonthermal) power law and its light curve may reveal both the breakout diffusion time and the progenitor radius.

Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sari, Re'em [Racah Institute for Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

362

Forecasting technology costs via the Learning Curve - Myth or Magic?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is generally considered to be traditional fossil fuel power stations, hence making a further assumption that such a value for cost can be forecasted). In situations where niche markets exist (for example solar PV electricity for remote areas or hand held... Solar PV provides a good example of the use and dangers of using experience curves to forecast future costs of an energy technology. It is a good example since solar PV modules are generally accessed by an international market allowing for worldwide...

Alberth, Stephan

363

Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Industrial Development Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Industry Topics: Technology characterizations Resource Type: Publications, Case studies/examples Website: www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Energy_and_Climate_Change/ Country: United States, Canada, Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil UN Region: South-Eastern Asia, "Latin America and Caribbean" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., Northern America, "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

364

Building Energy Software Tools Directory : HVAC Residential Load...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD for the iPad Back to Tool HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD screenshot HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD screenshot HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD...

365

Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

15 Figure 12: Load profile by day of week, averaged over thebetween the average load profile and the profile of a givenfrom the average load profile. Figure 12: Load profile by

Price, Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Elastic-plastic strain acceptance criterion for structures subject to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local, or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

Solonick, W. [Electric Boat Corp., Groton, CT (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Elastic-Plastic Strain Acceptance Criteria for Structures Subject to Rapidly Applied Transient Dynamic Loading  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on material ductility considerations only and are set as a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local , or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

W.R. Solonick

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Decentralized agent-based underfrequency load shedding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the transition to a smart grid efforts are being made to decentralize control of electric power systems and modernize protection schemes that are currently in use. One specific application of distributed control is underfrequency load shedding ... Keywords: UFLS, Underfrequency load shedding, intelligent agents

Sara Mullen; Getiria Onsongo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Design Ground Snow Loads for Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weight of snow with a mean recurrence interval of 50 years, called the design ground snow load, is used by engineers and planners to estimate the weight of snow that roofs must be designed to support National maps of ground snow load have ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin; Dennis J. Edgell; Molly A. Delaney

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Apparatus for loading a band saw blade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

Reeves, S.R.

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

371

Protecting consumer privacy from electric load monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The smart grid introduces concerns for the loss of consumer privacy; recently deployed smart meters retain and distribute highly accurate profiles of home energy use. These profiles can be mined by Non Intrusive Load Monitors (NILMs) to expose much of ... Keywords: load monitor, privacy, smart meter

Stephen McLaughlin; Patrick McDaniel; William Aiello

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Quantifying the effectiveness of load balance algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load balance is critical for performance in large parallel applications. An imbalance on today's fastest supercomputers can force hundreds of thousands of cores to idle, and on future exascale machines this cost will increase by over a factor of a thousand. ... Keywords: framework, load balance, modeling, performance, simulation

Olga Pearce; Todd Gamblin; Bronis R. de Supinski; Martin Schulz; Nancy M. Amato

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Household type load's effects on photovoltaic systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar energy is one of the most important energy sources available because, besides the fact that it is not polluting the environment and it helps to the reduction of green house effect, it is free of charge and it can be easily converted to other ... Keywords: A.C. loads, D.C. loads, compact fluorescent lamp, photovoltaic system, power LED

Nazmi Ekren; Nevzat Onat; Safak Saglam

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Load Modeling Using a Measurement Based Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed in the second phase of a multi-year collaborative load modeling research program that was initiated in 2004. The measurement based approach described in this report will help utilities to develop representative load models using suitable measurement data.

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

375

Apparatus for loading a band saw blade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The Promise of Load Balancing the Parameterization of Moist Convection Using a Model Data Load Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parameterization of physical processes in atmospheric general circulation models contributes to load imbalances among individual processors of message-passing distributed-multiprocessor systems. Load imbalances increase the overall time to ...

S. P. Muszala; D. A. Connors; J. J. Hack; G. Alaghband

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the ULBNL-63728 Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non .............................................................................................................. 9 4. Baseline Profile (BLP) Models

378

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abbreviations ADDF ALM AMR CSP DOE DR ELRP ETS EWH FERC HVa Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJMs request. LBNLof load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Combi Systems for Low Load homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

text styles text styles Combi Systems for Low Load Homes Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer * Low load homes are more common than ever. * Typical space heating and DHW equipment have capacities larger than necessary * A single heating plant could provide high efficiency heat at lower costs, increased durability and improved combustion safety Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System specifications, sizing, and installation optimization guidelines were all developed. * Contractor capability was developed in MN market, but may not be developed in all local. 4 Recommended Guidance * Determine peak load on system: - Space heating design load (ie 40,000 Btu/hr)

380

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Mariah Power Windspire Wind Turbine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of the first round of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. NWTC testing results provide manufacturers with reports that may be used to meet part of small wind turbine certification requirements. This duration test report focuses on the Mariah Power Windspire wind turbine.

Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

benchmark and is bound to change as the proportion of plug load energy use grows in commercial buildings.

Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Combustion Impacts of Flexible Operation: Low Load, Load Following, and Increased Staging Impact on Boiler Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past few years, coal-fired generating units have changed from stable base load operation to flexible operation, including periods of prolonged low-load operation. These changes in operation can have various adverse effects on all plant equipment, particularly in older units and may impact their ability to operate without tube failures due to elevated levels of fireside corrosion and circumferential cracking. This report discusses the combustion-related impacts of low-load, load-following, ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

383

Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

An Analysis of Load Balancing Technology - Comparing LSF with other Load Balancing Software Packages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines what the load balancing needs of organizations are today, the solution LSF (Load Sharing Facility) provides for them, and how other currently available load balancing products compare to LSF. Jean Suplick (suplick@cxsoft.convex.com) CXSOFT Richardson, Texas January 1994 Why clusters?

Jean Suplick

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

Lu, Ning

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Effects of Pulse Duration on Bulk Laser Damage in 350-nm Raster-Scanned DKDP  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present the results of bulk damage experiments done on Type-I1 DKDP triple harmonic generator crystals that were raster conditioned with 351-355 nm wavelengths and pulse durations of 4 and 23.2 ns. In the first phase of experiments 20 different scan protocols were rastered into a sample of rapid growth DKDP. The sample was then rastered at damage-causing fluences to determine the three most effective protocols. These three protocols were scanned into a 15-cm sample of conventional-growth DKDP and then exposed to single shots of a I-cm beam from LLNL's Optical Sciences Laser at fluences ranging from 0.5 - 1.5X of the 10% damage probability fluence and nominal pulse durations of 0.1,0.3,0.8,3.2,7.0 and 20 ns. The experiment showed that pulse durations in the 1-3 ns range were much more effective at conditioning than pulses in the 16.3 ns range and that the multiple pass 'peak fluence' scan was more effective than the single pass 'leading edge' scan for 23.2 ns XeF scans.

Runkel, M; Bruere, J; Sell, W; Weiland, T; Milam, D; Hahn, D E; Nostrand, M C

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

387

PowerPoint Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems context 2012 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2 The shape of the equivalent Load Duration Curve (eq. LDC) is elongated at peak load to account for probabilities of...

388

Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography  

SciTech Connect

Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Electricity Price Curve Modeling and Forecasting by Manifold Learning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes a novel nonparametric approach for the modeling and analysis of electricity price curves by applying the manifold learning methodologylocally linear embedding (LLE). The prediction method based on manifold learning and reconstruction is employed to make short-term and mediumterm price forecasts. Our method not only performs accurately in forecasting one-day-ahead prices, but also has a great advantage in predicting one-week-ahead and one-month-ahead prices over other methods. The forecast accuracy is demonstrated by numerical results using historical price data taken from the Eastern U.S. electric power markets.

Jie Chen; Shi-Jie Deng; Xiaoming Huo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Approximating RR Lyrae light curves using cubic polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we use cubic polynomials to approximate RR Lyrae light curves and apply the method to HST data of RR Lyraes in the halo of M31. We compare our method to the standard method of Fourier decomposition and find that the method of cubic polynomials eliminates virtually all ringing effects and does so with significantly fewer parameters than the Fourier technique. Further, for RRc stars the parameters in the fit are all physical. Our study also reveals a number of additional periodicites in this data not found previously: we find 23 RRc stars, 29 RRab stars and 3 multiperiodic stars.

Reyner, Steven; Ngeow, C; Morgan, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Information Geometry and Chaos on Negatively Curved Statistical Manifolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel information-geometric approach to chaotic dynamics on curved statistical manifolds based on Entropic Dynamics (ED) is suggested. Furthermore, an information-geometric analogue of the Zurek-Paz quantum chaos criterion is proposed. It is shown that the hyperbolicity of a non-maximally symmetric 6N-dimensional statistical manifold M_{s} underlying an ED Gaussian model describing an arbitrary system of 3N non-interacting degrees of freedom leads to linear information-geometric entropy growth and to exponential divergence of the Jacobi vector field intensity, quantum and classical features of chaos respectively.

Carlo Cafaro

2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

392

FPGA curved track fitter with very low resource usage  

SciTech Connect

Standard least-squares curved track fitting process is tailored for FPGA implementation. The coefficients in the fitting matrices are carefully chosen so that only shift and accumulation operations are used in the process. The divisions and full multiplications are eliminated. Comparison in an application example shows that the fitting errors of the low resource usage implementation are less than 4% bigger than the fitting errors of the exact least-squares algorithm. The implementation is suitable for low-cost, low-power applications such as high energy physics detector trigger systems.

Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A NEW POPULATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS E. Berger,1,2,3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A NEW POPULATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS E. Berger,1,2,3 D. B. Fox,4 P. A The redshift distribution of the short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is a crucial, but currently fragmentary rays: bursts Online material: color figures 1. INTRODUCTION The redshift distribution of the short

Sheppard, Scott S.

394

A novel statistical time-series pattern based interval forecasting strategy for activity durations in workflow systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasting workflow activity durations is of great importance to support satisfactory QoS in workflow systems. Traditionally, a workflow system is often designed to facilitate the process automation in a specific application domain where activities ... Keywords: Activity duration, Interval forecasting, Statistical time series, Time-series patterns, Workflow system

Xiao Liu; Zhiwei Ni; Dong Yuan; Yuanchun Jiang; Zhangjun Wu; Jinjun Chen; Yun Yang

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Automatic Detection of Unsafe Component Loadings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic loading of software components (e.g., libraries or modules) is a widely used mechanism for improved system modularity and flexibility. Correct component resolution is critical for reliable and secure software execution, however, programming mistakes may lead to unintended or even malicious components to be resolved and loaded. In particular, dynamic loading can be hijacked by placing an arbitrary file with the specified name in a directory searched before resolving the target component. Although this issue has been known for quite some time, it was not considered serious because exploiting it requires access to the local file system on the vulnerable host. Recently such vulnerabilities started to receive considerable attention as their remote exploitation became realistic; it is now important to detect and fix these vulnerabilities. In this paper, we present the first automated technique to detect vulnerable and unsafe dynamic component loadings. Our analysis has two phases: 1) apply dynamic binary instrumentation to collect runtime information on component loading (online phase); and 2) analyze the collected information to detect vulnerable component loadings (offline phase). For evaluation, we implemented our technique to detect vulnerable and unsafe DLL loadings in popular Microsoft Windows software. Our results show that unsafe DLL loading is prevalent and can lead to serious security threats. Our tool detected more than 1,700 unsafe DLL loadings in 28 widely used software and discovered serious attack vectors for remote code execution. Microsoft has opened a Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) case on our reported issues and is working with us and other affected software vendors to develop necessary patches.

Taeho Kwon; Zhendong Su

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel  

SciTech Connect

In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energys Building Technology Office (DOEs BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikins Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

399

Load Data Analysis and PowerShape Training: Strategic Load Research and Advanced Topics in Load Profiling for Settlements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load shapes, representing usage patterns in the electric and gas industry, are a key factor in energy company operations and management. In the emerging restructured energy market, retail energy suppliers market energy to final customers and must arrange for electricity generation or gas delivery to meet their customers' needs. EPRI and Primen sponsored a workshop in September 2000 that addressed a range of issues associated with load shapes, including modeling, profiling for retail market settlement, re...

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

400

Space cooling demands from office plug loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Undersizing space cooling systems for office buildings can result in uncomfortable and angry tenants on peak cooling days. However, oversizing wastes money because more capacity is installed than is needed, and oversized systems have a lower energy efficiency which makes operating costs higher than necessary. Oversizing can adversely affect comfort as well, because oversized systems may provide poor humidity control and large temperature variations. Correct system sizing requires estimating building heat loads accurately. This paper discusses the heat load generated by the plug load, which includes any electrical equipment that is plugged into outlets.

Komor, P.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

2008. Approximating learning curves for active-learning-driven annotation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Active learning (AL) is getting more and more popular as a methodology to considerably reduce the annotation effort when building training material for statistical learning methods for various NLP tasks. A crucial issue rarely addressed, however, is when to actually stop the annotation process to profit from the savings in efforts. This question is tightly related to estimating the classifier performance after a certain amount of data has already been annotated. While learning curves are the default means to monitor the progress of the annotation process in terms of classifier performance, this requires a labeled gold standard which in realistic annotation settings, at least is often unavailable. We here propose a method for committee-based AL to approximate the progression of the learning curve based on the disagreement among the committee members. This method relies on a separate, unlabeled corpus and is thus well suited for situations where a labeled gold standard is not available or would be too expensive to obtain. Considering named entity recognition as a test case we provide empirical evidence that this approach works well under simulation as well as under real-world annotation conditions. 1.

Katrin Tomanek; Udo Hahn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Controlling adsorption of semiflexible polymers on planar and curved substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the adsorption of semiflexible polymers such as polyelectrolytes or DNA on planar and curved substrates, e.g., spheres or washboard substrates via short-range potentials using extensive Monte-Carlo simulations, scaling arguments, and analytical transfer matrix techniques. We show that the adsorption threshold of stiff or semiflexible polymers on a planar substrate can be controlled by polymer stiffness: adsorption requires the highest potential strength if the persistence length of the polymer matches the range of the adsorption potential. On curved substrates, i.e., an adsorbing sphere or an adsorbing washboard surface, the adsorption can be additionally controlled by the curvature of the surface structure. The additional bending energy in the adsorbed state leads to an increase of the critical adsorption strength, which depends on the curvature radii of the substrate structure. For an adsorbing sphere, this gives rise to an optimal polymer stiffness for adsorption, i.e., a local minimum in the critical potential strength for adsorption, which can be controlled by curvature. For two- and three-dimensional washboard substrates, we identify the range of persistence lengths and the mechanisms for an effective control of the adsorption threshold by the substrate curvature.

Tobias A. Kampmann; Horst-Holger Boltz; Jan Kierfeld

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

403

Unification of methods for determining distillation curve of oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the determination of the distillation curve of oils, various types of flask are recommended by industry-branch standards (OST) and specifications (TU). For example, TU 6-02-1072-86 for PEF fluid and TU 6-02-921-74 for the chlorofluorocarbon oil UF specify a Claisen flask (GOST 25336-82); the standard OST 38.01402-86 for mineral-base vacuum oils specifies a specially designed flask; TU 6-01-26-54-85 for Alkarene type vacuum oils specifies a Bogdanov flask. The latter two flasks are not included in any State (GOST) standards for chemical laboratory ware and hence are not in regular production. The accuracy in determining the distillation curve depends on the separating ability of the flask. Flasks designed as shown do not allow return of part of the condensate to the still section, so that it is impossible to regulate the reflux rate and hence impossible to obtain any reliable data on the fractional composition of the product and the distillation temperature. The Claisen and Bogdanov flasks, which have a developed surface, are more suitable for fractionation of oils.

Khitrik, A.A.; Vagapova, N.Kh.; Shagiakhmetov, R.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

2013-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

405

Wind and Load Forecast Error Model for Multiple Geographically Distributed Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of wind and load forecast errors on power grid operations is frequently evaluated by conducting multi-variant studies, where these errors are simulated repeatedly as random processes based on their known statistical characteristics. To generate these errors correctly, we need to reflect their distributions (which do not necessarily follow a known distribution law), standard deviations, auto- and cross-correlations. For instance, load and wind forecast errors can be closely correlated in different zones of the system. This paper introduces a new methodology for generating multiple cross-correlated random processes to simulate forecast error curves based on a transition probability matrix computed from an empirical error distribution function. The matrix will be used to generate new error time series with statistical features similar to observed errors. We present the derivation of the method and present some experimental results by generating new error forecasts together with their statistics.

Makarov, Yuri V.; Reyes Spindola, Jorge F.; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P.

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

406

Definition: Native Load | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Terms Load-Serving Entity References Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline...

407

Definition: Base Load | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Load Load Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Base Load The minimum amount of electric power delivered or required over a given period at a constant rate.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Baseload (also base load, or baseload demand) is the minimum amount of power that a utility or distribution company must make available to its customers, or the amount of power required to meet minimum demands based on reasonable expectations of customer requirements. Baseload values typically vary from hour to hour in most commercial and industrial areas. Related Terms electricity generation, power, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An in Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from

408

Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads  

SciTech Connect

As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

409

Impact of load type on microgrid stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

Monnin, Jared P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

High density load bearing insulation peg  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

411

Passive load control for large wind turbines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

Ashwill, Thomas D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac  

SciTech Connect

The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

413

High density load bearing insulation peg  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Performance of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load silicon crystal monochromators with porous media augmentation  

SciTech Connect

The performance of two Si crystal x-ray monochromators internally cooled with liquid nitrogen was tested on the F2-wiggler beamline at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Both crystals were (111)-oriented blocks of rectangular cross section having identical dimensions. Seven 6.4-mm-diameter coolant channels were drilled through the crystals along the beam direction. In one of the crystals, porous Cu mesh inserts were bonded into the channels to enhance the heat transfer. The channels of the second crystal were left as drilled. Symmetric, double-crystal rocking curves were recorded simultaneously for both the first and third order reflections at 8 and 24 keV. The power load on the cooled crystal was adjusted by varying the horizontal beam size using slits. The measured Si(333) rocking curve of the unenhanced crystal at 24 keV at low power was 1.9 arcsec FWHM. The theoretical width is 0.63 arcsec. The difference is due to residual fabrication and mounting strain. For a maximum incident power of 601 W and an average power density of about 10 W/MM{sup 2}, the rocking curve was 2.7 arcsec. The rocking curve for the enhanced crystal at low power was 2.4 arcsec. At a maximum incident power of 1803 W and an average power density of about 19 W/mm{sup 2} the rocking curve width was 2.2 arcsec FWHM. The use of porous mesh augmentation is a simple, but very effective, means to improve the performance of cryogenically cooled Si monochromators exposed to high power x-ray beams.

Rogers, C.S.; Mills, D.M.; Assoufid, L.; Graber, T.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Extremum seeking control techniques applied to photovoltaic systems with multimodal power curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Current(A) 0 200 320025 I-V curve P-V curve VMPP Power(W) 1000 Fig. 1. Photovoltaic cell I-V and P generator method, open-circuit voltage photovoltaic cell test method, incremental conductance method (CI) [5Extremum seeking control techniques applied to photovoltaic systems with multimodal power curves

Recanati, Catherine

416

REMARKS ON THE PARABOLIC CURVES ON SURFACES AND ON THE MANYDIMENSIONAL M  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REMARKS ON THE PARABOLIC CURVES ON SURFACES AND ON THE MANY­DIMENSIONAL M ¨ OBIUS--STURM THEORY V. I. Arnold V. A. Steklov Mathematical Institute August 26, 1997 Conjecture on Four Parabolic Curves of several variables) show that natural analogs of inflection points are parabolic curves of surfaces

Arnold, Vladimir Igorevich

417

Some new results on non-rigid correspondence and classification of curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present two new algorithms for correspondence and classification of planar curves in a non-rigid sense. In the first algorithm we define deforming energy based on aligning curves using certain of their properties, namely Multi-Step-Size Local Similarity ... Keywords: correspondence, curve alignment, dynamic programming, recognition

Xiqiang Zheng; Yunmei Chen; David Groisser; David Wilson

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Peak Load Shifting by Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reviews the technology of storing energy in hot water and explores the potential for implementing this form of thermal energy storagethrough means of smart electric water heatersas a way to shift peak load on the electric grid. The report presents conceptual background, discusses strategies for peak load shifting and demand response, documents a series of laboratory tests conducted on a representative model of smart water heater, and...

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

419

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading  

SciTech Connect

This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

Oyague, F.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

Buescher, Jr., Brent J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cloud amount and sunshine duration in the People`s Republic of China, 1954--1988  

SciTech Connect

A part of the world with extensive records of cloudiness is the People`s Republic of China (PRC). These data, along with records of other meteorological observations, have recently been made available through a joint research agreement established between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the PRC Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) for the purpose of studying possible global warming due to an enhanced greenhouse effect. This paper examines the variation of PRC cloudiness, along with that of sunshine duration (a useful measure of cloudiness), over the 35-year period 1954--1988.

Kaiser, D.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

IMPACT OF THE DURATION OF BACTERIAL EXPOSURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

SciTech Connect

These tests indicated that: (1) duration of exposure to bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is a key variable in obtaining zebra mussel mortality; (2) that given a choice of exposure periods up to 96 hr, the longer the exposure period, the higher the mean mortality that will be achieved; (3) that the first few hours that the mussels are exposed to the bacteria are the most important in achieving kill; (4) that the mortality achieved by exposure periods {>=}72 hr may be somewhat amplified by the degraded water quality conditions which can develop in recirculating water systems over such extended time periods.

Daniel P. Molloy

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

Fluctuations and the role of collision duration in reaction-diffusion systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a reaction-diffusion system, fluctuations in both diffusion and reaction events, have important effects on the steady-state statistics of the system. Here, we argue through extensive lattice simulations, mean-field type arguments, and the Doi-Peliti formalism that the collision duration statistics -- i.e., the time two particles stay together in a lattice site -- plays a leading role in determining the steady state of the system. We obtain approximate expressions for the average densities of the chemical species and for the critical diffusion coefficient required to sustain the reaction.

Fernando Peruani; Chiu Fan Lee

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

A Method to Search for Local Sources of Short Duration Bursts of Superhigh Energy Gamma Rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method of a search for local sources of superhigh energy gamma rays is described in the paper.It is shown that the method is more effective then the usually used method extracting excess from total intensity if gamma ray burst durations are short.Using the suggested method,the information detected with the Baksan installation ``Carpet'' during 1992-1996 years was analyzed.An excess of event numbers was found at the confidence level of 6.5$\\sigma$ in the direction to Mrk 501.

E. N. Alexeyev; D. D. Djappuev; A. U. Kudjaev; S. Kh. Ozrokov

2000-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

425

Review: Stability of nonlinear masonry members under combined load  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under examination is the post buckling of unreinforced load-bearing masonry walls or piers subject to a combined load consisting of a uniformly distributed axial load and a concentrated eccentric load at the top end. Fixed free-ended prismatic columns ... Keywords: Brick walls, Combined load, Instability, Masonry, No-tension material, Nonlinear constitutive law

Igino Mura

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Cyclic fatigue and resistance-curve behavior of an in situ toughened silicon carbide with Al-B-C additions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The room-temperature crack-growth properties of an in situ toughened, monolithic silicon carbide are reported. Hot pressing was performed at 1900 C with 3 wt.% Al, 2 wt.% C and 0.6 wt.% B additions. Compared to a commercial SiC (Hexoloy SA), significant improvements in both the fracture toughness and cyclic fatigue-crack propagation resistance have been achieved through control of the {beta} to {alpha} transformation. Using fatigue-precracked, disk-shaped compact-tension specimens, marked rising resistance-curve behavior was measured over the first {approximately}600 {micro}m of crack extension, leading to a plateau fracture toughness of K{sub c} {approximately} 9.1 MPa{radical}m; this represents more than a threefold increase over the toughness of Hexoloy, where a K{sub c} value of 2.5 MPa{radical}m was measured with no evidence of a resistance curve. Cyclic fatigue-crack growth rates in the toughened SiC were found to be faster than those under sustained loads (static fatigue) at the same stress-intensity level. The cyclic fatigue-crack growth resistance was found to be far superior to that of Hexoloy. Whereas cracking in the commercial SiC became unstable when the maximum stress intensity K{sub max} exceeded {approximately}2 MPa{radical}m, thresholds for fatigue-crack growth in the in situ toughened material exceeded a K{sub max} of 7 MPa{radical}m. Such dramatic improvements in the crack-growth resistance of SiC are attributed to a microstructure consisting of a network of interlocking, plate-like predominantly {alpha}-phase grains, which combine to both bridge and deflect the crack. These results represent the first reported evidence of cyclic fatigue behavior in a monolithic silicon carbide and the first direct measurement of the resistance curve properties in this ceramic.

Gilbert, C.J.; Cao, J.J.; Moberlychan, W.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.; Ritchie, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Photon Green Functions in Curved Space-Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantization of electrodynamics in curved space-time in the Lorenz gauge and with arbitrary gauge parameter makes it necessary to study Green functions of non-minimal operators with variable coefficients. Starting from the integral representation of photon Green functions, we link them to the evaluation of integrals involving Gamma-functions. Eventually, the full asymptotic expansion of the Feynman photon Green function at small values of the world function, as well as its explicit dependence on the gauge parameter, are obtained without adding by hand a mass term to the Faddeev-Popov Lagrangian. Coincidence limits of second covariant derivatives of the associated Hadamard function are also evaluated, as a first step towards the energy-momentum tensor in the non-minimal case.

Giuseppe Bimonte; Enrico Calloni; Luciano Di Fiore; Giampiero Esposito; Leopoldo Milano; Luigi Rosa

2005-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

428

Equilibrium spherically curved 2D Lennard-Jones systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To learn about basic aspects of nano-scale spherical molecular shells during their formation, spherically curved two-dimensional N-particle Lennard-Jones systems are simulated, studying curvature evolution paths at zero-temperature. For many N-values (N<800) equilibrium configurations are traced as a function of the curvature radius R. Sharp jumps for tiny changes in R between trajectories with major differences in topological structure correspond to avalanche-like transitions. For a typical case, N=25, equilibrium configurations fall on smooth trajectories in state space which can be traced in the E-R plane. The trajectories show-up with local energy minima, from which growth in N at steady curvature can develop.

J. M. Voogd; P. M. A. Sloot; R. van Dantzig

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

429

Graphene: QFT in curved spacetimes close to experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recently proposed step-by-step procedure, to merge the low-energy physics of the $\\pi$-bonds electrons of graphene, and quantum field theory on curved spacetimes, is recalled. The last step there is the proposal of an experiment to test a Hawking-Unruh effect, emerging from the model, that manifests itself as an exact (within the model) prediction for the electronic local density of states, in the ideal case of the graphene membrane shaped as a Beltrami pseudosphere. A discussion about one particular attempt to experimentally test the model on molecular graphene is presented, and it is taken as an excuse to solve some basic issues that will help future experiments. In particular, it is stated that the effect should be visible on generic surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature, that are infinite in number.

Alfredo Iorio

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

430

The Effects of Stator Compliance, Backs Steps, Temperature, and Clockwise Rotation on the Torque-Speed Curve of Bacterial Flagellar Motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rotation of a single bacterial flagellar motor is powered by multiple stators tethered to the cell wall. In a "power-stroke" model the observed independence of the speed at low load on the number of stators is explained by a torque-dependent stepping mechanism independent of the strength of the stator tethering spring. On the other hand, in models that depend solely on the stator spring to explain the observed behavior, exceedingly small stator spring constants are required. To study the dynamics of the motor driven by external forces (such as those exerted by an optical tweezer), back-stepping is introduced when stators are driven far out of equilibrium. Our model with back-stepping reproduces the observed absence of a barrier to backward rotation, as well the behaviors in the high-speed negative-torque regime. Recently measured temperature dependence of the motor speed near zero load (Yuan & Berg 2010 Biophys J) is explained quantitatively by the thermally activated stepping rates in our model. Finally, we suggest that the general mechanical properties of all molecular motors (linear and rotary), characterized by their force(torque)-speed curve, can be determined by their power-stroke potentials and the dependence of the stepping rates on the mechanical state of the motor (force or speed). The torque-speed curve for the clockwise rotating flagellar motor has been observed for the first time recently (Yuan et al. 2010 PNAS). Its quasi-linear behavior is quantitatively reproduced by our model. In particular, we show that concave and convex shapes of the torque-speed curve can be achieved by changing the interaction potential from linear to quadratic form. We also show that reversing the stepping rate dependence on force (torque) can lead to non-monotonicity in the speed-load dependency.

Giovanni Meacci; Ganhui Lan; Yuhai Tu

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

431

Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: HVAC Residential Load...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD for the iPad Carmel Software logo HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD is a comprehensive HVAC heating and cooling load calculation application for the...

433

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE By BEREKET TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE Dissertation Approved: Dr. Jeffrey D- Original RTSM.......................................................153 4.4.1 RTSM Peak Design Cooling Load

434

Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

actions to influence load profiles of their customers atISO needs to influence the load profile of a Facility arebe a specific target load profile to be achieved while in

Piette, Mary Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Property Models for High Waste Loaded Hanford HLW Glasses  

High Waste Loading Was Shown for Selected Wastes Examples of the high loaded glasses Al 2O 3 loadings in the 24-26 wt% range compared to <15% for a

436

Status of load management storage demonstrations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE is funding a nationwide demonstration of electric load management through the use of utility-controlled, customer-side thermal energy storage for residential space conditioning. The general concept of the projects was developed with the assistance of a broadly based working group drawn from the utility industry. This paper presents the current status of these demonstrations. Ten demonstrations are underway - five heat storage and five cool storage - using between 30 and 50 near-commercial thermal storage devices. The installations and experimental program are designed to: (1) collect reliable load research data for assessing the impact on the utility system; (2) delineate and solve installation problems; (3) establish maintainability; (4) illuminate customer and utility acceptance; and (5) generate cost data. The results obtained are expected to assist utilities in making local load-management decisions, to assist DOE in establishing priorities for R and D efforts in load management, and to provide objective information related to the electric system impact, energy conservation, and cost-effectiveness of this form of load management.

Long, H M; Mohre, D L

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A practical approach for electricity load forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractThis paper is a continuation of our daily energy peak load forecasting approach using our modified network which is part of the recurrent networks family and is called feed forward and feed back multi context artificial neural network (FFFB-MCANN). The inputs to the network were exogenous variables such as the previous and current change in the weather components, the previous and current status of the day and endogenous variables such as the past change in the loads. Endogenous variable such as the current change in the loads were used on the network output. Experiment shows that using endogenous and exogenous variables as inputs to the FFFB-MCANN rather than either exogenous or endogenous variables as inputs to the same network produces better results. Experiments show that using the change in variables such as weather components and the change in the past load as inputs to the FFFB-MCANN rather than the absolute values for the weather components and past load as inputs to the same network has a dramatic impact and produce better accuracy.

T. Rashid; T. Kechadi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Increased precision in sampling using regression modeling, with an application to electric load research  

SciTech Connect

A model is given for situations in survey sampling in which the characteristic of interest is an expected value of the dependent variable in a regression. For each sample unit, a regression can be used to estimate the expected value of the characteristic of interest for a given set of values of the explanatory variables. The model can be used to calculate the expected value and variance of an estimator of the population total of the expected value of the characteristic of interest, for a given set of values of the explanatory variables. The application involves the estimation of a class-load curve on the system peak day of an electric utility. The conventional method uses, for each customer in the sample, the customer's actual demand on the system peak day to estimate the customer's expected demand under the conditions of the peak day. The proposed method uses, for each customer in the sample, a model to estimate the customer's expected demand under the conditions of the peak day. The conditions are variables such as the time-of-day and weather. The variance of an estimator of a class expected load curve under the conditions of the peak day may be reduced by using the proposed method instead of the conventional method.

Oberg, K.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

Spletzer, Barry (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

440

Stratole/VorcoreLong-duration, Superpressure Balloons to Study the Antarctic Lower Stratosphere during the 2005 Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In September and October 2005, the Stratole/Vorcore campaign flew 27 superpressure balloons from McMurdo, Antarctica, into the stratospheric polar vortex. Long-duration flights were successfully achieved, 16 of those flights lasting for more ...

Albert Hertzog; Philippe Cocquerez; Ren Guilbon; Jean-Nol Valdivia; Stphanie Venel; Claude Basdevant; Gillian Boccara; Jrme Bordereau; Bernard Brioit; Franois Vial; Alain Cardonne; Alain Ravissot; ric Schmitt

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Internet use and the duration of buying and selling in the residential housing market, economic incentives and voting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study we examine the impact of internet use on the duration of non-sequential search in the housing market. We develop a model of partial equilibrium in the housing market which suggests an ambiguous effect on the ...

D'Urso, Victoria Tanusheva, 1975-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

Kelley, N.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Title Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number...

444

The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads and Overall Energy Performance Title The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads and Overall...

445

Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management Analysis Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management Analysis A disposal concept consists...

446

Definition: Dispersed Load By Substations | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

By Substations Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Dispersed Load By Substations Substation load information configured to represent a system for power flow or system...

447

Methods and apparatus for reduction of asymmetric rotor loads in ...  

A method for reducing load and providing yaw alignment in a wind turbine includes measuring displacements or moments resulting from asymmetric loads on the wind turbine.

448

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Prophet Load Profiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shots Keywords energy analysis, load profiling, cost comparison, energy budgeting, rate analysis, data collection, real-time monitoring, load shedding ValidationTesting NA...

449

Energetical factors in power systems with nonlinear loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the volt-ampere charac- teristic of the nonlinear load, an equivalent circuit, containing linear elements, can be determined. In this way, load-flow and.

450

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading...

451

Definition: Direct Control Load Management | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Control Load Management Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct Control Load Management Demand-Side Management that is under the direct control of the system operator....

452

Definition: Circuit Peak Load Management | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Circuit Peak Load Management Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Circuit Peak Load Management An application utilizing sensors, information processors, communications, and...

453

Definition: Real-Time Load Transfer | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Real-time load transfer is achieved through real-time feeder reconfiguration and optimization to relieve load on equipment, improve asset utilization, improve distribution...

454

Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Research and develop...

455

Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

On loading rate effects in toughening processes  

SciTech Connect

Environmental crack tip reactions are a known source of premature fracture in oxides. These rate-dependent phenomena commonly are studied in strength tests where loading rate serves as the major experimental variable. A material susceptible to environmentally-assisted crack growth is stronger at fast testing rates. A topic which has received far less attention is the influence of stressing rate or loading rate on the shielding processes which occur at some distance from the crack tip, although the inverse has been studied by Deuerler et al. The authors present here the first known documentation of a loading rate effect on shielding phenomena in ceramic materials. For these experiments Coors AD 94 alumina was chosen for study.

Tandon, S.; Faber, K.T. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This baseline load profile (BLP) is key toto as the baseline load profile or BLP and is keyactual and estimated load profiles look, Figure 1

Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote, Sila

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

SYSPLAN. Load Leveling Battery System Costs  

SciTech Connect

SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer`s monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer`s peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer`s side of the meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer`s load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.

Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

459

Matching equipment size to the cooling load  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a heat extraction rate analysis method, using ASHRAE algorithms that enables HVAC system designers to optimally size cooling equipment. The final stage of the cooling load calculation process determines the heat extraction rate required to achieve design conditions. Put another way, this stage determines the equipment capacity required to match the cooling load profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile. It is a stage in the design process that, in practice, may not be given the attention it deserves.

Bloom, B. (Harvey Toub Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "load duration curve" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

New method developed for LPG offshore loading  

SciTech Connect

An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

LOADED WAVE GUIDES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A periodically loaded waveguide having substantially coaxially arranged elements which provide an axial field for the acceleration of electrons is described. Radiofrequency energy will flow in the space between the inner wall of an outer guide and the peripheries of equally spaced irises or washes arranged coaxially with each other and with the outer guide, where the loading due to the geometry of the irises is such as to reduce the phase velocity of the r-f energy flowing in the guide from a value greater than that of light to the velocity of light or less.

Walkinshaw, W.; Mullett, L.B.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Maximum relative excitation of a specific vibrational mode via optimum laser-pulse duration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For molecules and materials responding to femtosecond-scale optical laser pulses, we predict maximum relative excitation of a Raman-active vibrational mode with period T when the pulse has a full-width-at-halfmaximum duration tau approximate to 0.42T. This result follows from a general analytical model, and is precisely confirmed by detailed density-functional-based dynamical simulations for C(60) and a carbon nanotube, which include anharmonicity, nonlinearity, no assumptions about the polarizability tensor, and no averaging over rapid oscillations within the pulse. The mode specificity is, of course, best at low temperature and for pulses that are electronically off-resonance, and the energy deposited in any mode is proportional to the fourth power of the electric field.

Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Zhibin; Jiang, Chenwei; Gao, Meng; Allen, Roland E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Reducing Duration of Refueling Outage by Optimizing Core Design and Shuffling Sequence  

SciTech Connect

Reducing the duration of refueling outage is possible by optimizing the core design and the shuffling sequence. For both options software tools have been developed that have been applied to the three most recent cycles of the Borssele plant in the Netherlands. Applicability of the shuffling sequence optimization to boiling water reactors has been demonstrated by a comparison to a recent shuffle plan used in the Hatch plant located in the United States. Their uses have shown that both core design and shuffling sequence optimization can be exploited to reduce the time needed for reloading a core with an in-core shuffling scheme. Ex-core shuffling schemes for pressurized water reactors can still have substantial benefit from a core design using a minimized number of insert shuffles.

Wakker, P.H.; Verhagen, F.C.M.; Bloois, J.T. van; Sutton, W.R. III

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Does Homeownership Lengthen Unemployment Duration? A French Micro-econometric Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to provide microeconomic evidence for the so called Oswalds hypothesis, which is whether homeownership results in negative outcomes in the labour market. In a first step, a multinomial logit model for the choice of tenure status is estimated. Estimated probabilities of being either homeowner, renter or housed free of charge are then used to explain the length of an individual unemployment spell. This flexible method of estimation accounts for both censoring and selection bias, without constraining the shape of the hazard rate of leaving unemployment. Results from a 3,965 individuals French data set suggest that home-ownership has a positive effect on unemployment duration.

Carole Brunet; Jean-yves Lesueur; Jel Codes C; R I. Introduction

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitive, intense-ion beam for active spectroscopic measurements on ITER  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the design of an intense, pulsed, repetitive, neutral beam based on magnetically insulated diode technology for injection into ITER for spectroscopic measurements of thermalizing alpha particle and thermal helium density profiles, ion temperature, plasma rotation, and low Z impurity concentrations in the confinement region. The beam is being developed to enhance low signal-to-noise ratios expected with conventional steady-state ion beams because of severe beam attenuation and intense bremstrahlung emission. A 5 GW (e.g., 100 keV, 50 kA) one-microsecond-duration beam would increase the signal by 10{sup 3} compared to a conventional 5 MW beam with signal-to-noise ratios comparable to those from a chopped conventional beam in one second.

Davis, H.A.; Bartsch, R.R.; Barnes, C.W. [and others

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

2500-Hour High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer Long Duration Test  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This report will provide a summary of experimental results for this long duration test.

C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; L. Moore-McAteer; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Finite Duration and Energy Effects in Lorentz-Violating Vacuum Cerenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vacuum Cerenkov radiation is possible in certain Lorentz-violating quantum field theories, when very energetic charges move faster than the phase speed of light. In the presence of a CPT-even, Lorentz-violating modification of the photon sector, the character of the Cerenkov process is controlled by the high-frequency behavior of the radiation spectrum. The development of the Cerenkov process can be markedly different, depending on whether the only limits on the emission of very energetic photons come from energy-momentum conservation or whether there are additional effects that cut off the spectrum at high frequencies. Moreover, since the high-frequency cutoff determines the total rate at which an emitting charge loses energy, it also controls all aspects of the emission that are related to the process's finite duration.

Brett Altschul

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

469

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This test is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines are being tested at the NWTC as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a grid connected ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) lattice tower manufactured by Abundant Renewable Energy. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Load relaxation studies of a metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of load relaxation studies of a commercial metallic glass as a function of temperature are reported. The data suggest that metallic glasses exhibit deformation behavior with flow laws similar to those governing plastic deformation in crystalline solids. The lack of appreciable work hardening in annealed material and the identification of an anelastic component are also indicated by the experimental observations. (GHT)

Hadnagy, T.D.; Krenisky, D.J.; Ast, D.G.; Li, C.Y.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Flexible loads in future energy networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a vignette of an information-rich energy network with flexible and responsive electrical loads in the form of a domestic refrigerator augmented with a thermal storage system and a supply-following controller that responds to the availability ... Keywords: renewable, supply-following

Jay Taneja, Ken Lutz, David Culler

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Exercising flexible load contracts: Two simple strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flexible load contract is a type of swing option where the holder has the right to receive a given quantity of electricity within a specified period, at a fixed maximum effect (delivery rate). The contract is flexible, in the sense that delivery (the ... Keywords: energy, exercise strategy, flexibility, swing option, uncertainty

Petter Bjerksund; Bjarte Myksvoll; Gunnar Stensland

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Demand or Request: Will Load Behave?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power planning engineers are trained to design an electric system that satisfies predicted electrical demand under stringent conditions of availability and power quality. Like responsible custodians, we plan for the provision of electrical sustenance and shelter to those in whose care regulators have given us the responsibility to serve. Though most customers accept this nurturing gladly, a growing number are concerned with the economic costs and environmental impacts of service at a time when technology (particularly distributed generation, storage, automation, and information networks) offers alternatives for localized control and competitive service. As customers and their systems mature, a new relationship with the electricity provider is emerging. Demand response is perhaps the first unsteady step where the customer participates as a partner in system operations. This paper explores issues system planners need to consider as demand response matures to significant levels beyond direct load control and toward a situation where service is requested and bargains are reached with the electricity provider based on desired load behavior. On one hand, predicting load growth and behavior appears more daunting than ever. On the other, for the first time load becomes a new resource whose behavior can be influenced during system operations to balance system conditions.

Widergren, Steven E.

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

474

Incentivizing Advanced Load Scheduling in Smart Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, researchers have proposed numerous advanced load scheduling algorithms for smart homes with the goal of reducing the grid's peak power usage. In parallel, utilities have introduced variable rate pricing plans to incentivize residential ... Keywords: Battery, Electricity, Energy, Grid

Ye Xu, David Irwin, Prashant Shenoy

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

476

Valve for fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

Christiansen, D.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Lifeline-based global load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On shared-memory systems, Cilk-style work-stealing has been used to effectively parallelize irregular task-graph based applications such as Unbalanced Tree Search (UTS). There are two main difficulties in extending this approach to distributed memory. ... Keywords: distributed work-stealing, global load balancing, uts, x10

Vijay A. Saraswat; Prabhanjan Kambadur; Sreedhar Kodali; David Grove; Sriram Krishnamoorthy

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Propagation in LHM slab loaded rectangular waveguide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strange properties of Left - Handed Materials (LHM), whose permittivity and permeability are both negative, is briefly introduced. The electric- and magnetic-field components are given in rectangular waveguide loaded with LHM by use of field component ... Keywords: cutoff wavelength, dispersion equation, group velocity, left-handed materials, rectangular waveguide

Rui-Lian Li

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z