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Sample records for load 1d stand-by

  1. Stand by Europe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Stand-by Europe Place: Czech Republic Product: Czech project development and distribution company References: Stand-by Europe1 This...

  2. Please Stand By: Reduce Your Standby Power Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Standby power, vampire power, phantom loads, leaking electricity… Whatever you want to call it, standby power is the power consumed by a product when in the lowest power consuming mode—typically...

  3. Order 580.1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    580.1D Title: PERSONAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Owner: Thomas Wilson, Jr., Office of Institutional Operations Approving Official: Bradley J. Tomer, Chief Operating Officer, Office of ...

  4. Order 580.1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    580.1D Title: PERSONAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Owner: Thomas Wilson, Jr., Office of Institutional Operations Approving Official: Bradley J. Tomer, Chief Operating Officer, Office of the Director {signature} /s/ Bradley J. Tomer Approval Date: 8/3/12 Last Reviewed Date: 8/3/12 Cancellation: Order 580.1C, Personal Property Management TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. PURPOSE ..................................................................................................................................... 2 2.

  5. A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator Print Wednesday, 15 June 2016 00:00 Topological insulators (TIs) are materials with many exotic properties. Perhaps the most technologically salient is the suppression of electron scattering on their surfaces-a tantalizing path to energy-saving, ultralow-power electronics. This prospect has led to a vigorous search for optimal TIs, most of which have so far been layered, quasi-2D materials. Now, an international team

  6. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.; Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Bucharest

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  7. Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Optimization Using 1-D MHD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Optimization Using 1-D MHD Simulations of Magnetic Drive Experiments. Abstract not provided. Authors: Robbins, Joshua Publication Date: ...

  8. Transport in interacting 1D double quantum wires

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport in interacting 1D double-- quantum wires Michael Lilly Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Sandia National Laboratories Collaborators Dominique Laroche, Guillaume ...

  9. Data:0b6a60c8-651f-4edd-9c97-e71fbf811c1d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    edd-9c97-e71fbf811c1d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  10. Data:80c4b163-4218-4bba-b1e5-536338a1d458 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    bba-b1e5-536338a1d458 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  11. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  12. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  13. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  14. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  15. Spatially separated excitons in 2D and 1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    separated excitons in 2D and 1D David Abergel March 10th, 2015 D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 1 / 24 Outline 1 Introduction 2 Spatially separated excitons in 2D - The role of disorder 3 Spatially separated excitons in 1D D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 2 / 24 Introduction D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 3 / 24 The fundamental idea Key ingredients: Independent contacts to each layer High degree of nesting of Fermi surfaces Low SP tunneling rate between layers Picture credit: Kharitonov et al., Phys. Rev. B 78 Phase

  16. Memo on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D Memo on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D On October 20, ... PDF icon Memo on Implementation of DOE O 414-1D More Documents & Publications Memo ...

  17. U

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Additions for non-member load 1d Stand-by Load Under Contract 1e Non-Controllable Demand Response 2 Total Internal Demand 2a Direct Control Load Management 2b Interruptible Load 2c ...

  18. 1D GAS-DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF SHOCK-WAVE PROCESSES VIA INTERNET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khishchenko, K. V.; Levashov, P. R.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Zakharenkov, A. S.

    2009-12-28

    We present a Web-interface for 1D simulation of different shock-wave experiments. The choosing of initial parameters, the modeling itself and output data treatment can be made directly via the Internet. The interface is based upon the expert system on shock-wave data and equations of state and contains both the Eulerian and Lagrangian Godunov hydrocodes. The availability of equations of state for a broad set of substances makes this system a useful tool for planning and interpretation of shock-wave experiments. As an example of simulation with the system, results of modeling of multistep shock loading of potassium between polytetrafluoroethylene and stainless steel plates are presented in comparison with experimental data from Shakhray et al.(2005).

  19. Data:Eac1dd3a-0268-4e5c-b1d1-ed9feeb2a12a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eac1dd3a-0268-4e5c-b1d1-ed9feeb2a12a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading......

  20. Data:873baff3-174f-491f-a4c4-7c1d016cc484 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    baff3-174f-491f-a4c4-7c1d016cc484 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1....

  1. LOADING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  2. (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions ...

  3. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  4. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  5. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 1d. Nonfuel Consumption (Site Energy...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    d Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 1d. Nonfuel Consumption (Site Energy) for Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Trillion Btu) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and...

  6. DRAFT - DOE O 460.1D, Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    60.1D, Hazardous Materials Packaging and Transportation Safety by Website Administrator The Order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of...

  7. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of ... (JHCM) technology Factors affecting waste loadings Waste loading requirements ...

  8. Order Module--DOE O 425.1D, VERIFICATION OF READINESS TO START UP OR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RESTART NUCLEAR FACILITIES | Department of Energy 5.1D, VERIFICATION OF READINESS TO START UP OR RESTART NUCLEAR FACILITIES Order Module--DOE O 425.1D, VERIFICATION OF READINESS TO START UP OR RESTART NUCLEAR FACILITIES "The familiar level of this module is divided into three sections. In the first section we will discuss the purpose of DOE O 425.1D and the requirements for 1) determining the level of readiness review (RR), 2) determining the startup authorization authority (SAA), and

  9. Order Module--DOE O 425.1D, VERIFICATION OF READINESS TO START...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In the first section we will discuss the purpose of DOE O 425.1D and the requirements for 1) determining the level of readiness review (RR), 2) determining the startup ...

  10. Structural resistance of chemically modified 1-D nanostructured titanates in inorganic acid environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, Bojan A.; Fredholm, Yann C.; Morgado, Edisson

    2010-10-15

    Sodium containing one-dimensional nanostructured layered titanates (1-D NSLT) were produced both from commercial anatase powder and Brazilian natural rutile mineral sands by alkali hydrothermal process. The 1-D NSLT were chemically modified with proton, cobalt or iron via ionic exchange and all products were additionally submitted to intensive inorganic acid aging (pH = 0.5) for 28 days. The morphology and crystal structure transformations of chemically modified 1-D NSLT were followed by transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that the original sodium rich 1-D NSLT and cobalt substituted 1-D NSLT were completely converted to rutile nanoparticles, while the protonated form was transformed in a 70%-30% (by weight) anatase-rutile nanoparticles mixture, very similar to that of the well-known TiO{sub 2}-photocatalyst P25 (Degussa). The iron substituted 1-D NSLT presented better acid resistance as 13% of the original structure and morphology remained, the rest being converted in rutile. A significant amount of remaining 1-D NSLT was also observed after the acid treatment of the product obtained from rutile sand. The results showed that phase transformation of NSLT into titanium dioxide polymorph in inorganic acid conditions were controllable by varying the exchanged cations. Finally, the possibility to transform, through acid aging, 1-D NSLT obtained from Brazilian natural rutile sand into TiO{sub 2}-polymorphs was demonstrated for the first time to the best of authors' knowledge, opening path for producing TiO{sub 2}-nanoproducts with different morphologies through a simple process and from a low cost precursor.

  11. Order Module--DOE O 414.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    14.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE Order Module--DOE O 414.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE "To ensure that DOE, including NNSA, products and services meet or exceed customers' requirements and expectations. To achieve quality for all work based upon the following principles: All work, as defined in this Order, is conducted through an integrated and effective management system. Management support for planning, organization, resources, direction, and control is essential to quality assurance (QA). Performance

  12. supplemental_lists_1d-2d-3c_06-24-2011.xls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls supplementallists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls Office spreadsheet icon supplementallists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls More Documents & Publications...

  13. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  14. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  15. Membranes having aligned 1-D nanoparticles in a matrix layer for improved fluid separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Revanur, Ravindra; Lulevich, Valentin; Roh, Il Juhn; Klare, Jennifer E.; Kim, Sangil; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2015-12-22

    Membranes for fluid separation are disclosed. These membranes have a matrix layer sandwiched between an active layer and a porous support layer. The matrix layer includes 1-D nanoparticles that are vertically aligned in a porous polymer matrix, and which substantially extend through the matrix layer. The active layer provides species-specific transport, while the support layer provides mechanical support. A matrix layer of this type has favorable surface morphology for forming the active layer. Furthermore, the pores that form in the matrix layer tend to be smaller and more evenly distributed as a result of the presence of aligned 1-D nanoparticles. Improved performance of separation membranes of this type is attributed to these effects.

  16. Slice imaging of nitric acid photodissociation: The O({sup 1}D) + HONO channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herath, Nuradhika; Everhart, Stephanie C.; Suits, Arthur G.; Vasyuntinskii, Oleg S.

    2011-01-21

    We report an imaging study of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) photodissociation near 204 nm with detection of O({sup 1}D), one of the major decomposition products in this region. The images show structure reflecting the vibrational distribution of the HONO coproduct and significant angular anisotropy that varies with recoil speed. The images also show substantial alignment of the O({sup 1}D) orbital, which is analyzed using an approximate treatment that reveals that the polarization is dominated by incoherent, high order contributions. The results offer additional insight into the dynamics of the dissociation of nitric acid through the S{sub 3} (2 {sup 1}A{sup '}) excited state, resolving an inconsistency in previously reported angular distributions, and pointing the way to future studies of the angular momentum polarization.

  17. Software Quality Assurance Guide for Use with DOE O 414.1D, Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-02-04

    The revision to DOE G 414.1-4 will conform to the revised DOE O 414.1D and incorporate new information and lessons learned since 2005, including information gained as a result of the February 2011, Government Accountability Office (GAO) report, GAO-11-143 NUCLEAR WASTE: DOE Needs a Comprehensive Strategy and Guidance on Computer Models that Support Environmental Cleanup Decisions.

  18. Uranium(VI) coordination polymers with pyromellitate ligand: Unique 1D channel structures and diverse fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Price, Jason R.; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhaoming; Kong, Linggen; Čejka, Jiří; Lu, Kim; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2015-03-15

    Three new coordination polymers of uranium(VI) with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. (ED)[(UO{sub 2})(btca)]·(DMSO)·3H{sub 2}O (1) (ED=ethylenediammonium; DMSO=dimethylsulfoxide) has a lamellar structure with intercalation of ED and DMSO. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}(btca)]·~6H{sub 2}O (2) has a 3D framework built from 7-fold coordinated uranyl trinuclear units and btca ligands with 1D diamond-shaped channels (~8.5 Å×~8.6 Å). [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(btca)]·4H{sub 2}O (3) has a 3D network constructed by two types of 7-fold coordinated uranium polyhedron. The unique μ{sub 5}-coordination mode of btca in 3 enables the formation of 1D olive-shaped large channels (~4.5 Å×~19 Å). Vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and fluorescence properties have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Table of content: three new uranium(VI) coordination polymers with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca) have been synthesized via room temperature and hydrothermal synthesis methods, and structurally characterized. Two to three dimensional (3D) frameworks are revealed. All 3D frameworks have unique 1D large channels. Their vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • Three new coordination polymers of U(VI) with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca). • Structures from a 2D layer to 3D frameworks with unique 1D channels. • Unusual µ{sub 5}-(η{sub 1}:η{sub 2}:η{sub 1}:η{sub 2:}η{sub 1}) coordination mode of btca ligand. • Vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and luminescent properties reported.

  19. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  20. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  1. Load Model Data Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  2. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.R. Maskaly

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with

  3. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  4. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  5. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  6. Probing the Quantum State of a 1D Bose Gas Using Off-Resonant Light Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykes, A. G.; Ballagh, R. J.

    2011-12-30

    We present a theoretical treatment of coherent light scattering from an interacting 1D Bose gas at finite temperatures. We show how this can provide a nondestructive measurement of the atomic system states. The equilibrium states are determined by the temperature and interaction strength, and are characterized by the spatial density-density correlation function. We show how this correlation function is encoded in the angular distribution of the fluctuations of the scattered light intensity, thus providing a sensitive, quantitative probe of the density-density correlation function and therefore the quantum state of the gas.

  7. Exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo for the 1-D transport equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. R.; Morel, J. E.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2013-07-01

    We define a new exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo method for solving the one-speed 1-D slab-geometry transport equation. This method is based upon the use of a linear discontinuous finite-element trial space in space and direction to represent the transport solution. A space-direction h-adaptive algorithm is employed to restore exponential convergence after stagnation occurs due to inadequate trial-space resolution. This methods uses jumps in the solution at cell interfaces as an error indicator. Computational results are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the new approach. (authors)

  8. Light and Fast: Probing Carriers and Vibrations in 1D and 2D Materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics and Fast: Probing Carriers and Vibrations in 1D and 2D Materials April 17, 2014 at 3pm/36-428 Paul McEuen Department of Physics, Cornell University mceuen_001 Abstract: Carbon nanotubes and 2D atomic membrane materials cut across many disciplines with their remarkable optical, thermal, mechanical, and electronic properties. In this talk we will examine cases when a combination of properties, e.g. optical and mechanical, are simultaneously important. First,

  9. Lysophospholipid presentation by CD1d and recognition by a human Natural Killer T-cell receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    López-Sagaseta, Jacinto; Sibener, Leah V.; Kung, Jennifer E.; Gumperz, Jenny; Adams, Erin J.

    2014-10-02

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells use highly restricted {alpha}{beta} T cell receptors (TCRs) to probe the repertoire of lipids presented by CD1d molecules. Here, we describe our studies of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) presentation by human CD1d and its recognition by a native, LPC-specific iNKT TCR. Human CD1d presenting LPC adopts an altered conformation from that of CD1d presenting glycolipid antigens, with a shifted {alpha}1 helix resulting in an open A pocket. Binding of the iNKT TCR requires a 7-{angstrom} displacement of the LPC headgroup but stabilizes the CD1d-LPC complex in a closed conformation. The iNKT TCR CDR loop footprint on CD1d-LPC is anchored by the conserved positioning of the CDR3{alpha} loop, whereas the remaining CDR loops are shifted, due in part to amino-acid differences in the CDR3{beta} and J{beta} segment used by this iNKT TCR. These findings provide insight into how lysophospholipids are presented by human CD1d molecules and how this complex is recognized by some, but not all, human iNKT cells.

  10. Evaluation of static pressure drops and PM10 and TSP emissions for modified 1D-3D cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, G.A.; Baker, R.V.; Hughs, S.E.

    1999-12-01

    Five modifications of a standard 1D3D cyclone were tested and compared against the standard 1D3D design in the areas of particulate emissions and static pressure drop across the cyclone. The modifications to the 1D3D design included a 2D2D inlet, a 2D2D air outlet, a D/3 trash exit, an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash exit, and a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing both PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air exhaust combined with either the conical D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. In reference to the standard 1D3D cyclone, the average reduction in PM10 emissions was 24 to 29% with a 29 to 35% reduction observed in TSP emissions. The modifications with the tapered air outlets did not show any significant improvements in controlling PM10 emissions. However, the modification with the tapered air outlet/expansion chamber combination exhibited statistical significance in reducing TSP emissions by 18% compared to the 1D3D cyclone. All modifications tested exhibited lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D.

  11. Cable load sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  12. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  13. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  14. Survey of Multi-Material Closure Models in 1D Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeng, Jungyeoul Brad; Hyde, David Andrew Bulloch

    2015-07-28

    Accurately treating the coupled sub-cell thermodynamics of computational cells containing multiple materials is an inevitable problem in hydrodynamics simulations, whether due to initial configurations or evolutions of the materials and computational mesh. When solving the hydrodynamics equations within a multi-material cell, we make the assumption of a single velocity field for the entire computational domain, which necessitates the addition of a closure model to attempt to resolve the behavior of the multi-material cells’ constituents. In conjunction with a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, we present a variety of both the popular as well as more recently proposed multi-material closure models and survey their performances across a spectrum of examples. We consider standard verification tests as well as practical examples using combinations of fluid, solid, and composite constituents within multi-material mixtures. Our survey provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various multi-material closure models in different problem configurations.

  15. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling Methods for 1D Seismic and EM Data Inversion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-09-22

    This software provides several Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods for the Bayesian model developed for inverting 1D marine seismic and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The current software can be used for individual inversion of seismic AVO and CSEM data and for joint inversion of both seismic and EM data sets. The structure of the software is very general and flexible, and it allows users to incorporate their own forward simulation codes and rockmore » physics model codes easily into this software. Although the softwae was developed using C and C++ computer languages, the user-supplied codes can be written in C, C++, or various versions of Fortran languages. The software provides clear interfaces for users to plug in their own codes. The output of this software is in the format that the R free software CODA can directly read to build MCMC objects.« less

  16. (p,. cap alpha. ) reactions on 1p, 2s-1d shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, F.; Trivisonno, D.; Avon, S.; Bianchin, R.; Rui, R.

    1983-07-01

    The /sup 12/C(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 9/B and /sup 32/S(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 29/P reactions have been studied at incident energies of 42.77 and 41.9 MeV, respectively. The experimental (p,..cap alpha..) relative cross sections are well reproduced by distorted wave direct pickup calculations with a semimicroscopic form factor and current shell model wave functions. A comparison between (p,..cap alpha..) and (/sup 3/He,d) spectra on 1p and 2s-1d shell nuclei, leading to the same final nucleus, shows a clear evidence of a dominant pickup process over the knockout mechanism in the dynamics of the (p,..cap alpha..) reaction.

  17. Characterization and thermal stability of cobalt-modified 1-D nanostructured trititanates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, Edisson; Abreu, Marco A.S. de

    2009-01-15

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructured sodium trititanates were obtained via alkali hydrothermal method and modified with cobalt via ion exchange at different Co concentrations. The resulting cobalt-modified trititanate nanostructures (Co-TTNS) were characterized by TGA, XRD, TEM/SAED, DRS-UV-Vis and N{sub 2} adsorption techniques. Their general chemical formula was estimated as Na{sub x}Co{sub y/2}H{sub 2-x-y}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O and they maintained the same nanostructured and multilayered nature of the sodium precursor, with the growth direction of nanowires and nanotubes along [010]. As a consequence of the Co{sup 2+} incorporation replacing sodium between trititanate layers, two new diffraction lines became prominent and the interlayer distance was reduced with respect to that of the precursor sodium trititanate. Surface area was slightly increased with cobalt intake whereas pore size distribution was hardly affected. Besides, Co{sup 2+} incorporation in trititanate crystal structure also resulted in enhanced visible light photon absorption as indicated by a strong band-gap narrowing. Morphological and structural thermal transformations of Co-TTNS started nearly 400 deg. C in air and the final products after calcination at 800 deg. C were found to be composed of TiO{sub 2}-rutile, CoTiO{sub 3} and a bronze-like phase with general formula Na{sub 2x}Ti{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Co{sup 2+} incorporation in 1D-trititanate crystal nanostructure (Co-TTNS) causes reduction in interlayer distance by comparison with its sodium precursor (Na-TTNS) and leads to enhanced visible light photon absorption efficiency due to a strong band-gap narrowing.

  18. IT and Building Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-09-30

    The article discusses available technologies for reducing IT energy consumption and the commensurate cooling load in commercial buildings. This article addresses the energy savings and market potential of these strategies as well.

  19. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  20. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  1. U-152: OpenSSL "asn1_d2i_read_bio()" DER Format Data Processing Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The vulnerability is caused due to a type casting error in the "asn1_d2i_read_bio()" function when processing DER format data and can be exploited to cause a heap-based buffer overflow.

  2. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  3. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Turbine Loads Database - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database ...

  4. Experimental method for laser-driven flyer plates for 1-D shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D. L.; Luo, S. N.; Swift, D. C.; Loomis, E.; Johnson, R.; Greenfield, S.; Peralta, P.; Koskelo, A.; Tonks, D.

    2007-12-12

    One-dimensional shocks can be generated by impacting flyer plates accelerated to terminal velocities by a confined laser-ablated plasma. Over the past few years, we have developed this capability with our facility-size laser, TRIDENT, capable of {>=}500 Joules at multi-microsecond pulse lengths to accelerate 1-D flyer plates, 8-mm diameter by 0.1-2 mm thick. Plates have been accelerated to terminal velocities of 100 to {>=}500 m/s, with full recovery of the flyer and target for post mortem metallography. By properly tailoring the laser temporal and spatial profile, the expanding confined plasma accelerates the plate away from the transparent sapphire substrate, and decouples the laser parameters from shock pressure profile resulting from the plate impact on a target. Since the flyer plate is in free flight on impact with the target, minimal collateral damage occurs to either. The experimental method to launch these plates to terminal velocity, ancillary diagnostics, and representative experimental data is presented.

  5. A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.

  6. Adaptive multi-grid method for a periodic heterogeneous medium in 1-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, J.; Belsky, V.

    1995-12-31

    A multi-grid method for a periodic heterogeneous medium in 1-D is presented. Based on the homogenization theory special intergrid connection operators have been developed to imitate a low frequency response of the differential equations with oscillatory coefficients. The proposed multi-grid method has been proved to have a fast rate of convergence governed by the ratio q/(4-q), where o

  7. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  8. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  9. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  10. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  11. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  12. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  13. commercial load | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  14. residential load | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  15. load profile | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  16. Decay-ratio calculation in the frequency domain with the LAPUR code using 1D-kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Garcia, C.; Berna, C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of computing the Decay Ratio in the frequency domain codes as the LAPUR code. First, it is explained how to calculate the feedback reactivity in the frequency domain using slab-geometry i.e. 1D kinetics, also we show how to perform the coupling of the 1D kinetics with the thermal-hydraulic part of the LAPUR code in order to obtain the reactivity feedback coefficients for the different channels. In addition, we show how to obtain the reactivity variation in the complex domain by solving the eigenvalue equation in the frequency domain and we compare this result with the reactivity variation obtained in first order perturbation theory using the 1D neutron fluxes of the base case. Because LAPUR works in the linear regime, it is assumed that in general the perturbations are small. There is also a section devoted to the reactivity weighting factors used to couple the reactivity contribution from the different channels to the reactivity of the entire reactor core in point kinetics and 1D kinetics. Finally we analyze the effects of the different approaches on the DR value. (authors)

  17. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  18. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  19. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  20. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  1. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  2. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  3. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  4. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Vlieks, Arnold E.

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  5. Libra: Scalable Load Balance Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-16

    Libra is a tool for scalable analysis of load balance data from all processes in a parallel application. Libra contains an instrumentation module that collects model data from parallel applications and a parallel compression mechanism that uses distributed wavelet transforms to gather load balance model data in a scalable fashion. Data is output to files, and these files can be viewed in a GUI tool by Libra users. The GUI tool associates particular load balancemore » data with regions for code, emabling users to view the load balance properties of distributed "slices" of their application code.« less

  6. A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

  7. The effect of magnetic field on bistability in 1D photonic crystal doped by magnetized plasma and coupled nonlinear defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdian, H.; Mohammadzahery, Z.; Hasanbeigi, A. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    In this work, we study the defect mode and bistability behavior of 1-D photonic band gap structure with magnetized plasma and coupled nonlinear defects. The transfer matrix method has been employed to investigate the magnetic field effect on defect mode frequency and bistability threshold. The obtained results show that the frequency of defect mode and bistability threshold can be altered, without changing the structure of the photonic multilayer. Therefore, the bistability behavior of the subjected structure in the presence of magnetized plasma can be utilized in manufacturing wide frequency range devices.

  8. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  9. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  10. Influence of sweeping detonation-wave loading on damage evolution during spallation loading of tantalum in both a planar and curved geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, George Thompson III; Hull, Lawrence Mark; Livescu, Veronica; Faulkner, James; Briggs, Matthew E.; Meyer, Ross Keith; Andrews, Heather Lynn; Hare, Steven John; Jakulewicz, Micah Shawn; Shinas, Michael A.

    2015-03-30

    Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning the shock hardening, damage evolution, and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. However, fewer quantitative studies have been conducted on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (unsupported shocks) loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Systematic studies quantifying the effect of sweeping-detonation wave loading are yet sparser. In this study, the damage evolution and spallation response of Ta is shown to be critically dependent on the peak shock stress, the geometry of the sample (flat or curved plate geometry), and the shock obliquity during sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading. Sweepingwave loading in the flat-plate geometry is observed to: a) yield a lower spall strength than previously documented for 1-D supported-shock-wave loading, b) exhibit increased shock hardening as a function of increasing obliquity, and c) lead to an increased incidence of deformation twin formation with increasing shock obliquity. Sweeping-wave loading of a 10 cm radius curved Ta plate is observed to: a) lead to an increase in the shear stress as a function of increasing obliquity, b) display a more developed level of damage evolution, extensive voids and coalescence, and lower spall strength with obliquity in the curved plate than seen in the flat-plate sweeping-detonation wave loading for an equivalent HE loading, and c) no increased propensity for deformation twin formation with increasing obliquity as seen in the flat-plate geometry. The overall observations comparing and contrasting the flat versus curved sweeping-wave spall experiments with 1D loaded spallation behavior suggests a coupled influence of obliquity and geometry on dynamic shock-induced damage evolution and spall strength. Coupled experimental and modeling research

  11. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  12. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  13. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  14. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  15. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  16. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  17. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  18. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  19. building load | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    building load Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 13:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  20. load data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load building...

  1. electric load data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electric load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  2. building load data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    building load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  3. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marusich, R.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-06

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  4. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marusich, R.M.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  5. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  6. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  7. Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors Authors: Cole, G D ; Lin, K L ; ...

  8. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  9. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  10. Method for loading resin beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notz, Karl J.; Rainey, Robert H.; Greene, Charles W.; Shockley, William E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

  11. Material behavior under complex loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breuer, H.J.; Raule, G.; Rodig, M.

    1984-09-01

    Studies of material behavior under complex loading form a bridge between standard material testing methods and the stress analysis calculations for reactor components at high temperatures. The aim of these studies is to determine the influence of typical load change sequences on material properties, to derive the equations required for stress analyses, to carry out tests under multiaxial conditions, and to investigate the structural deformation mechanisms of creep buckling and ratcheting. The present state of the investigations within the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials program is described, with emphasis on the experimental apparatus, the scope of the program, and the initial results obtained.

  12. A 2D/1D coupling neutron transport method based on the matrix MOC and NEM methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.; Zheng, Y.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2013-07-01

    A new 2D/1D coupling method based on the matrix MOC method (MMOC) and nodal expansion method (NEM) is proposed for solving the three-dimensional heterogeneous neutron transport problem. The MMOC method, used for radial two-dimensional calculation, constructs a response matrix between source and flux with only one sweep and then solves the linear system by using the restarted GMRES algorithm instead of the traditional trajectory sweeping process during within-group iteration for angular flux update. Long characteristics are generated by using the customization of commercial software AutoCAD. A one-dimensional diffusion calculation is carried out in the axial direction by employing the NEM method. The 2D and ID solutions are coupled through the transverse leakage items. The 3D CMFD method is used to ensure the global neutron balance and adjust the different convergence properties of the radial and axial solvers. A computational code is developed based on these theories. Two benchmarks are calculated to verify the coupling method and the code. It is observed that the corresponding numerical results agree well with references, which indicates that the new method is capable of solving the 3D heterogeneous neutron transport problem directly. (authors)

  13. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  14. Standing by Ohio: Cleaning Up our Environmental Legacy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deputy Secretary of Energy Dan Poneman visits Ohio to mark a milestone in the Department’s efforts to clean up our environmental legacy.

  15. Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the O({sup 1}D{sub 2}) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of amorphous water ice at 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yabushita, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-21

    Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice in the first absorption band was studied at 157 nm. Translational and internal energy distributions of the desorbed species, O({sup 1}D) and OH(v=0,1), were directly measured with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization method. Two different mechanisms are discussed for desorption of electronically excited O({sup 1}D) atoms from the ice surface. One is unimolecular dissociation of H{sub 2}O to H{sub 2}+O({sup 1}D) as a primary photoprocess. The other is the surface recombination reaction of hot OH radicals that are produced from photodissociation of hydrogen peroxide as a secondary photoprocess. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the major photoproducts in the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice.

  16. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  17. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Turbine Loads Database - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  18. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  19. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  20. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... and TOV requirements Battery storage ... Energy Planning Grid Technologies ... Planning System Planning Department Supplemental Review: 100% minimum load ...

  1. Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type | Department of Energy Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are generally defined as all electric loads except those related to main systems for heating,

  2. Rapid estimation of 4DCT motion-artifact severity based on 1D breathing-surrogate periodicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guang Caraveo, Marshall; Wei, Jie; Rimner, Andreas; Wu, Abraham J.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Yorke, Ellen

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Motion artifacts are common in patient four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images, leading to an ill-defined tumor volume with large variations for radiotherapy treatment and a poor foundation with low imaging fidelity for studying respiratory motion. The authors developed a method to estimate 4DCT image quality by establishing a correlation between the severity of motion artifacts in 4DCT images and the periodicity of the corresponding 1D respiratory waveform (1DRW) used for phase binning in 4DCT reconstruction. Methods: Discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) was applied to analyze 1DRW periodicity. The breathing periodicity index (BPI) was defined as the sum of the largest five Fourier coefficients, ranging from 0 to 1. Distortional motion artifacts (excluding blurring) of cine-scan 4DCT at the junctions of adjacent couch positions around the diaphragm were classified in three categories: incomplete, overlapping, and duplicate anatomies. To quantify these artifacts, discontinuity of the diaphragm at the junctions was measured in distance and averaged along six directions in three orthogonal views. Artifacts per junction (APJ) across the entire diaphragm were calculated in each breathing phase and phase-averaged APJ{sup }, defined as motion-artifact severity (MAS), was obtained for each patient. To make MAS independent of patient-specific motion amplitude, two new MAS quantities were defined: MAS{sup D} is normalized to the maximum diaphragmatic displacement and MAS{sup V} is normalized to the mean diaphragmatic velocity (the breathing period was obtained from DFT analysis of 1DRW). Twenty-six patients free-breathing 4DCT images and corresponding 1DRW data were studied. Results: Higher APJ values were found around midventilation and full inhalation while the lowest APJ values were around full exhalation. The distribution of MAS is close to Poisson distribution with a mean of 2.2 mm. The BPI among the 26 patients was calculated with a value

  3. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  4. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  5. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  6. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  7. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  8. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  9. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  10. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F.; Lind, Randall F.

    2003-01-01

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  11. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms Title: Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, ...

  12. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms Title: Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an ...

  13. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  14. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  15. peak_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Megawatts) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FRCC 27,266 28,818 30,601 32,823 32,904 34,524 35,444 35,375 38,730 37,493 37,194 39,062 40,696 40,475 42,383 46,396 45,751 46,676 44,836 NPCC 44,116 46,594 43,658 46,706 47,581 47,705 45,094 49,269 49,566 52,855

  16. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  17. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  18. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  19. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  20. Combi Systems for Low Load homes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System ...

  1. Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines Scott J. Johnson and C. P. "Case" van Dam Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering University of California One ...

  2. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  3. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan

    2011-10-25

    Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.

  4. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  5. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... improve load forecasting; reduce reserves levels and reduce operating costs - Develop new forecasting standards and integration procedures for high penetration renewable ...

  6. Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    loads account for an increasingly large portion of commercial electricity consumption. ... This includes analysis of their unit energy consumption and annual electricity consumption ...

  7. explicit representation of uncertainty in system load

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system load - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & ... Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear ...

  8. EPIC Residential and Commercial Plug Loads Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPIC Residential and Commercial Plug Loads Research Felix Villanueva, EIT Energy ... California Energy Commission Questions? Felix Villanueva felix.villanueva@energy.ca.gov

  9. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... the system effciency is the product of the VFD effciency, the motor effciency at its load point, and the driven equipment effciency (system VFD x Motor x Equipment ). ...

  10. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  11. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  12. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  13. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Steven R.

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  14. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  15. Waddington, NY Natural Gas Exports to Canada

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    WINTER Table 5j . Winter (FRCC) Historical and Projected Demand and Capacity, Calendar Year 2007 Region FRCC Subregion Country U WINTER Actual Line# DESCRIPTION 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 1 Unrestricted Non-coincident Peak Demand (Starting Point) = 2+1a+1b-1c-1d 41,701 49,601 50,463 51,606 1a New Conservation (Energy Efficiency) - - - 1b Estimated Diversity - - - - 1c Additions for non-member load (load served by non-registered LSE's in a region) - - - - 1d Stand-by Load Under

  16. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  17. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  18. Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

  19. Search for particle emission from a gas-loaded deuterium-palladium system in the alpha-beta phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    Neutron and proton emission due to possible solid state fusion events is monitored from a palladium sample loaded with deuterium gas to atomic fractions up to 0.7. Most of the experimental runs show no detectable activity above background rates, indicating a fusion rate <2.7x10{sup -22} s{sup -1}/deuterium-deuterium (D-D) pair. Two brief excursions by the proton counter might indicate a temporary rate of 3.5x10{sup -21} s{sup -1}/D-D pair. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  1. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saïl, K. Bassou, G.; Gafour, M. H.; Miloua, F.

    2015-12-15

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E{sub gap}, V{sub oc}, and V{sub bi}) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (E{sub ex}), the maximal absorption wavelength (λ{sub max}), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs.

  2. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  3. Order 430.1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 In response to requirements of Executive Order 13287, Preserve America Office of History and Heritage Resources Office of the Executive Secretariat U.S. Department of Energy September 2014 An Assessment of Historic Properties and Preservation Activities at the U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 3 Part I. Background and Overview

  4. Order 430.1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Operations Division, Office of Institutional Operations Approving Official: Bradley J. Tomer, Chief Operating Officer, Office of the Director signature s Bradley J....

  5. Statoil's offshore submerged turret loading system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevik, K. ); Smedal, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Statoil, the Norwegian state oil company, and Marine Consulting Group (MCG), with support from Norwegian research institutes, are jointly developing a new offshore shuttle tanker loading concept called the Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system. The STL comprises a spread-moored buoy and export line riser configured such that, when not in use, the buoy remains submerged. For shuttle tanker loading, the vessel moves over the buoy and pulls it into a compartment in the bottom of its hull. Mooring loads are then transferred into the vessel's hull; and the export riser is connected to the shuttle's tankage within the chamber, below waterline. Principal features of the innovative new system that allows operations in seastates well beyond present-system limits, increases safety and reduces pollution potential are outlined here.

  6. Web Login Service - Loading Session State...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Login Service - Loading Session State... Since your browser does not support JavaScript, you must press the Continue button once to proceed. Continue Insert your footer text here....

  7. Economic impacts of irrigation load management controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, D.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Irrigators subject to load management controls experience electric power interruptions during periods of peak power demand. The resulting interruptions in irrigation pumping may result in moisture stress-induced crop yield reductions. The results of analysis show a great sensitivity of irrigator incomes to such yield losses. The sensitivity is of such a magnitude that rural electric cooperatives (RECs) would have to offer load management incentives of at least five times their monthly demand charges for irrigators under typical conditions (not oversized irrigation pumps) to remain under load control when irrigated crops are experiencing yield-reducing moisture stress. Incentives of this magnitude cannot be economically justified by most RECs. Thus, provision for the voluntary withdrawal of irrigators from load control is an essential feature of most workable and effective irrigation laod management programs.

  8. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  9. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  10. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  11. Customer Load Eligibility Guidelines (CLEG), April 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.2. Mixed Residential and Commercial Uses (50% Rule). Load related to commercial enterprises metered through a bona fide residence is eligible for REP benefits as long as the...

  12. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... circuit method to estimate the load and efficiency of an in-service motor. Only nameplate data and a measurement of ... data, such as stator resistance, to improve accuracy of ...

  13. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  14. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  15. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  16. Passive load control for large wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

  17. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  18. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.

    1997-01-01

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  19. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  20. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  1. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minimum Daytime Load Calculation and Screening Page 1 of 30 Kristen Ardani, Dora Nakfuji, Anthony Hong, and Babak Enayati Page 1 of 30 [Speaker: Kristen Ardani] Cover Slide: Thank you everyone for joining us today for our DG interconnection collaborative informational webinar. Today we are going to talk about minimum day time load calculation and screening procedures and their role in the distributed PV interconnection process. We're going to hear from Babak Enayati of the Massachusetts

  2. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain rate Contact Eric Loomis (505) 665-3196 Email Dynamic materials experiments over a wide range of strain rates are essential to studying constitutive relations (e.g., plasticity), damage (e.g., spall), equations of state, phase transitions and kinetics, and novel materials. The Trident laser facility supplies unique,

  3. Forest products: Fiber loading for paper manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-29

    Fact sheet on manufacturing filler during paper manufacturing written for the NICE3 Program. With its new fiber loading process, Voith Sulzer, Inc., is greatly improving the efficiency of paper production and recycling. Fiber loading produces precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) filler in the pulp recycling process at costs below conventional means. Fiber loading allows papermakers to use as much filler, like PCC, as possible because it costs 80% less than fiber. In addition, increased filler and fines retention due to fiber loading reduces the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions, deinking sludge, and other waste while substantially lowering energy costs. Currently, the most efficient way to produce PCC as filler is to make it in a satellite plant adjacent to a paper mill. Satellite plants exist near large scale paper mills (producing 700 tons per day) because the demand at large mills justifies building a costly ($15 million, average) satellite plant. This new fiber loading process combines the PCC manufacturing technology used in a satellite plant with the pulp processing operations of a paper mill. It is 33% less expensive to augment an existing paper mill with fiber loading technology than to build a satellite plant for the same purpose. This technology is applicable to the manufacturing of all printing and writing paper, regardless of the size or capacity of the paper mill.

  4. One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.

    2015-12-08

    In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ionsmore » on the spinel lattice.« less

  5. One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.

    2015-12-08

    In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ions on the spinel lattice.

  6. Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fomina, Irina; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory; Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail; Bogomyakov, Artem; Puntus, Lada; Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

  7. Ex-ante modeling, Load Scheduling and Differentiated Service Models for Populations of Flexible Loads

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ex-ante modeling, Load Scheduling and Differentiated Service Models for Populations of Flexible Loads Anna Scaglione (UC Davis) GSR: Mahnoosh Alizadeh CERTS Review Meeting 2014 1 / 42 Main objectives of the project Objectives: Modeling control mechanisms and economic value for aggregated load flexibility Evaluation: Theory and validation by simulations 2 / 42 Residential/personal appliances potential Observation: Costs include that of recruiting customers The "Internet of things" will

  8. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs

  9. Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry

    2007-03-13

    A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

  10. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and ...

  11. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  12. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  13. Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Load Profiling (WELP) Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool AgencyCompany Organization: California Public...

  14. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Motor Load and Efficiency Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency To compare the operating costs of an existing standard motor with an appropriately-sized ...

  15. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Active Aerodynamic Load Control...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation of active aerodynamic load control technology is provided here. Turbine component fatigue damage calculations require time-series load histories at the turbine...

  16. Optimized scalar promotion with load and splat SIMD instructions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimized scalar promotion with load and splat SIMD instructions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimized scalar promotion with load and splat SIMD instructions ...

  17. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue ...

  18. Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load ...

  19. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Load ...

  20. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes This presentation was given at the...

  1. Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Explores the effect of compression ratio and piston ...

  2. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    See below for a few highlights from monitoring lighting and other electric loads. Lighting and Other Electric Loads at the Gray Building For the Massachusetts General Hospital Gray ...

  3. Bacman LowLoad GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Bacman LowLoad GEPP General Information Name Bacman LowLoad GEPP Facility Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Coordinates 11.152427744569,...

  4. Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans An alternative form of measuring road loads, instead of using a chassis dynamometer ...

  5. Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Blog Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading...

  6. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the ...

  7. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  8. Current scaling of axially radiated power in dynamic hohlraums and dynamic hohlraum load design for ZR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Raymond Cecil; Nash, Thomas J.; Sanford, Thomas W. L.

    2007-03-01

    We present designs for dynamic hohlraum z-pinch loads on the 28 MA, 140 ns driver ZR. The scaling of axially radiated power with current in dynamic hohlraums is reviewed. With adequate stability on ZR this scaling indicates that 30 TW of axially radiated power should be possible. The performance of the dynamic hohlraum load on the 20 MA, 100 ns driver Z is extensively reviewed. The baseline z-pinch load on Z is a nested tungsten wire array imploding onto on-axis foam. Data from a variety of x-ray diagnostics fielded on Z are presented. These diagnostics include x-ray diodes, bolometers, fast x-ray imaging cameras, and crystal spectrometers. Analysis of these data indicates that the peak dynamic radiation temperature on Z is between 250 and 300 eV from a diameter less than 1 mm. Radiation from the dynamic hohlraum itself or from a radiatively driven pellet within the dynamic hohlraum has been used to probe a variety of matter associated with the dynamic hohlraum: the tungsten z-pinch itself, tungsten sliding across the end-on apertures, a titanium foil over the end aperture, and a silicon aerogel end cap. Data showing the existence of asymmetry in radiation emanating from the two ends of the dynamic hohlraum is presented, along with data showing load configurations that mitigate this asymmetry. 1D simulations of the dynamic hohlraum implosion are presented and compared to experimental data. The simulations provide insight into the dynamic hohlraum behavior but are not necessarily a reliable design tool because of the inherently 3D behavior of the imploding nested tungsten wire arrays.

  9. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  10. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  11. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  12. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  13. Fuel cell stack compressive loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fahle, Ronald W.; Reiser, Carl A.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell module comprising a stack of fuel cells with reactant gas manifolds sealed against the external surfaces of the stack includes a constraint system for providing a compressive load on the stack wherein the constraint system maintains the stack at a constant height (after thermal expansion) and allows the compressive load to decrease with time as a result of the creep characteristics of the stack. Relative motion between the manifold sealing edges and the stack surface is virtually eliminated by this constraint system; however it can only be used with a stack having considerable resiliency and appropriate thermal expansion and creep characteristics.

  14. New method developed for LPG offshore loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

  15. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  16. LOADED WAVE GUIDES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walkinshaw, W.; Mullett, L.B.

    1959-12-01

    A periodically loaded waveguide having substantially coaxially arranged elements which provide an axial field for the acceleration of electrons is described. Radiofrequency energy will flow in the space between the inner wall of an outer guide and the peripheries of equally spaced irises or washes arranged coaxially with each other and with the outer guide, where the loading due to the geometry of the irises is such as to reduce the phase velocity of the r-f energy flowing in the guide from a value greater than that of light to the velocity of light or less.

  17. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  18. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  19. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)dimportant precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosolsdvary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typi-cally represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height vari-ation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homo-geneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting fo-liage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  20. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  1. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  2. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  3. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  4. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  5. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  6. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop was held October 25-26, 2011, in Washington, DC. This U.S. Department of Energy workshop was attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers. The results of the workshop informed the Demand Response and Energy Storage Study.

  7. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  8. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  9. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

  10. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  11. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-06-01

    This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control

  12. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions

  13. 2012 CERTS LAAR Program Peer Review - Integration and Extension of Direct Load Management of Smart Loads - Anna Scaglioni, UC Davis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Extension of Direct Load Management of Smart Loads Anna Scaglione, UC Davis GRA: Mahnoosh Alizadeh Project objective  Invent methods to "store" load demand for * Real-time "generation following" * Integration of load reserves as dispatchable assets in the Energy Market  Architecture for virtual "reserves" (queues) of electrical load demand * Watts to Job mapping (analysis)  Captures digitally the service requirements - Equal service type = Equal queue *

  14. Effect of antisymmetric CH stretching excitation on the dynamics of O({sup 1}D) + CH{sub 4} ? OH + CH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Huilin; Yang, Jiayue; Zhang, Dong; Shuai, Quan; Jiang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Dai, Dongxu; Wu, Guorong, E-mail: wugr@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn; Yang, Xueming, E-mail: wugr@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-04-21

    The effect of antisymmetric CH stretching excitation of CH{sub 4} on the dynamics and reactivity of the O({sup 1}D) + CH{sub 4} ? OH + CD{sub 3} reaction at the collision energy of 6.10 kcal/mol has been investigated using the crossed-beam and time-sliced velocity map imaging techniques. The antisymmetric CH stretching mode excited CH{sub 4} molecule was prepared by direct infrared excitation. From the measured images of the CH{sub 3} products with the infrared laser on and off, the product translational energy and angular distributions were derived for both the ground and vibrationally excited reactions. Experimental results show that the vibrational energy of the antisymmetric stretching excited CH{sub 4} reagent is channeled exclusively into the vibrational energy of the OH co-products and, hence, the OH products from the excited-state reaction are about one vibrational quantum hotter than those from the ground-state reaction, and the product angular distributions are barely affected by the vibrational excitation of the CH{sub 4} reagent. The reactivity was found to be suppressed by the antisymmetric stretching excitation of CH{sub 4} for all observed CH{sub 3} vibrational states. The degree of suppression is different for different CH{sub 3} vibrational states: the suppression is about 40%60% for the ground state and the umbrella mode excited CH{sub 3} products, while for the CH{sub 3} products with one quantum symmetric stretching mode excitation, the suppression is much less pronounced. In consequence, the vibrational state distribution of the CH{sub 3} product from the excited-state reaction is considerably different from that of the ground-state reaction.

  15. PIV, 2D-LIF and 1D-Raman measurements of flow field, composition and temperature in premixed gas turbine flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stopper, U.; Aigner, M.; Ax, H.; Meier, W.; Sadanandan, R.; Stoehr, M.; Bonaldo, A.

    2010-04-15

    Several laser diagnostic measurement techniques have been applied to study the lean premixed natural gas/air flames of an industrial swirl burner. This was made possible by equipping the burner with an optical combustion chamber that was installed in the high-pressure test rig facility at the DLR Institute of Combustion Technology in Stuttgart. The burner was operated with preheated air at various operating conditions with pressures up to p = 6 bar and a maximum thermal power of P = 1 MW. The instantaneous planar flow field inside the combustor was studied with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals on a single-shot basis was used to determine the shape and the location of the flame front as well as the spatial distribution of reaction products. 1D laser Raman spectroscopy was successfully applied for the measurement of the temperature and the concentration of major species under realistic gas turbine conditions. Results of the flow field analysis show the shape and the size of the main flow regimes: the inflow region, the inner and the outer recirculation zone. The highly turbulent flow field of the inner shear layer is found to be dominated by small and medium sized vortices. High RMS fluctuations of the flow velocity in the exhaust gas indicate the existence of a rotating exhaust gas swirl. From the PLIF images it is seen that the primary reactions happened in the shear layers between inflow and the recirculation zones and that the appearance of the reaction zones changed with flame parameters. The results of the multiscalar Raman measurements show a strong variation of the local mixture fraction allowing conclusions to be drawn about the premix quality. Furthermore, mixing effects of unburnt fuel and air with fully reacted combustion products are studied giving insights into the processes of the turbulence-chemistry interaction. (author)

  16. Spectra of atomic sulfur {sup 1}D in transitions to autoionizing Rydberg states in the region of 75 800-89 500 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-C.; Chen, I-C.; Huang, T.-P.; Yuh, J.-Y.; Lee, Y.-Y.

    2008-10-07

    We recorded photoionization spectra of sulfur atoms in transitions from state {sup 1}D in the range of 75 800-89 500 cm{sup -1}. Dissociation of CS{sub 2} after photolysis at 193 nm produced these sulfur atoms in a singlet excited state; they were then ionized with synchrotron radiation (NSRRC, beamline U9CGM) at resolution of up to 3 cm{sup -1} and detected with a quadruple mass filter. Rydberg series 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[3/2] and 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}{sup 0})ns[5/2] with n extending to 16 and 32, respectively, to limit {sup 2}D{sup 0} are assigned. New Rydberg series 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[1/2]{sub 1}, ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}{sup 0})nd[5/2], and ({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[5/2] with n from 5-9 for the former two series and 7-13 for the latter are assigned. A new Rydberg line at 85 335 cm{sup -1} is assigned to 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})6d {sup 1}P.

  17. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  18. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to

  19. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Decades of Wind Turbine Load Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decades of Wind Turbine Load Simulation Matthew Barone ∗ , Joshua Paquette † , Brian Resor ‡ Sandia National Laboratories § , Albuquerque, NM 87185 Lance Manuel ¶ University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 A high-performance computer was used to simulate ninety-six years of operation of a five megawatt wind turbine. Over five million aero-elastic simulations were performed, with each simulation consisting of wind turbine operation for a ten minute period in turbulent wind conditions. These

  1. Isorropia Partitioning and Load Balancing Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Isorropia is a partitioning and load balancing package which interfaces with the Zoltan library. Isorropia can accept input objects such as matrices and matrix-graphs, and repartition/redistribute them into a better data distribution on parallel computers. Isorropia is primarily an interface package, utilizing graph and hypergraph partitioning algorithms that are in the Zoltan library which is a third-party library to Tilinos.

  2. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening" Dora Nakafuji and Anthony Hong, Hawaiian Electric Co. Babak Enayati, DG Techincal Standards Review Group April 30, 2014 2 Speakers Babak Enayati Chair of Massachusetts DG Technical Standards Review Group Dora Nakafuji Director of Renewable Energy Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL Anthony Hong Director of Distribution Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Standardization of

  3. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  4. APPARATUS FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING A MACHINE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.H. Jr.

    1962-07-17

    An arrangement for loading and unloading a nuclear reactor is described. Depleted fuel elements are removed from the reactor through one of a small number of holes in a shielding plug that is rotatably mounted in an eccentric annular plug rotatably mounted in the top of the reactor. The fuel elements removed are stored in a plurality of openings in a rotatable magazine or storage means rotatably mounted over the plugs. (AEC)

  5. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  6. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ?50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  7. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) "Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening" Dora Nakafuji and Anthony Hong, Hawaiian Electric Co. Babak Enayati, DG Techincal Standards Review Group April 30, 2014 2 Speakers Babak Enayati Chair of Massachusetts DG Technical Standards Review Group Dora Nakafuji Director of Renewable Energy Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL Anthony Hong Director of

  8. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  9. Residential equipment part load curves for use in DOE-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Hugh; Huang, Y.J.; Parker, D.

    1999-02-01

    DOE-2 (DOE2 90) includes several correlation curves that predict the energy use of systems underpart load conditions. DOE-2 simulates systems on an hour-by-hour basis, so the correlations are intended to predict part load energy use (and efficiency) as a function of the part load ratio (PLR) for each hour, where PLR = Hourly Load/Available Capacity. Generally residential and small commercial HVAC equipment meets the load at off-design conditions by cycling on and off. Therefore, the part load correlations must predict the degradation due to this on and off operation over an hourly interval.

  10. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.