Sample records for lloydminster iraqi basrah

  1. Command and Control in the Iraqi Insurgency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Dwain; Collins, Matthew; Colmenares, Monica; McBane, Carla; Ritter, Kyle; Welling, Glen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of three critical facets: urban-based, Muslim-centered, or multi-factious. The urban setting of the Iraqi insurgency makes it comparable to the Algerian and Irish Republican Army insurgencies. In these cases, the high population density and built... likely capitalized on each of these distinctly urban advantages to shape and improve its C3 system. The Muslim identity of the Iraqi insurgents parallels the religious beliefs and culture of the insurgents in Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Algeria...

  2. Page 4 Summer 2004Wetland Wire Revisiting the Iraqi Marshlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wetlands ecology and management. They encountered water treatment and sewage treatment facilities that hadPage 4 Summer 2004Wetland Wire Revisiting the Iraqi Marshlands DUWC Director says restoration efforts are progressing, but the record is mixed hen Duke University Wetland Center Director Curtis

  3. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES OF IRAQI NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ARABIC: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC INVESTIGATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murad, Mohammed Kamil

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    (Kurdistan). On the formal level, all legislations, laws, and official documents should be in both languages. The Iraqi constitution itself is written in SA and Kurdish. A range of other minority languages are spoken by different ethnic groups in Iraq...

  4. Portrayal of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region in U.S. Newspapers: 2000-2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghafour, Goran Sabah

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The Iraqi Kurdistan region claims that it is a close ally of the United States and supports its agenda in the Middle East. Therefore, to know what issues, events and sources the U.S. mainstream newspapers use to portray the region...

  5. A Recent Story of NGOs in Northern Iraqi Kurdistan Giorgio Francia1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A Recent Story of NGOs in Northern Iraqi Kurdistan Giorgio Francia1 and Gérard Gautier2 Abstract In comparison to the other areas of Iraq, Kurdistan Region, in the northern part of the country, witnessed very on the day-to-day life in Kurdistan Region, as well as ­ paradoxically ­ a negative one on the funding

  6. A study of the lipid composition of two varieties of Iraqi dates and changes in lipid materials during storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Baha Al-Deen

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Deen Hussain, University of Baghdad Directed by: Dr. C. W. Dill Two varieties of Iraqi dates were analysed by thin layer and gas liquid chromatography for their lipid classes end their fatty acid composition. Phospholipids and free fatty acids represented... variety ( 11$), A study of the fatty acid composition of the lipid classes revealed that palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids are the most prevalent fatty acids in date lipids and represent approximately 80$ of the acids present...

  7. Secretary Bodman Hosts Iraqi Ministers of Oil and Electricity | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO OverviewRepository |Complex" at Los Alamos NationalBeginsof Energy

  8. Secretary Bodman Hosts Iraqi Ministers of Oil and Electricity | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »Usage »DownloadSolar »MiddleHighHighEnergyorof Energyof Energy

  9. Prehistory of Agriculture: New Experimental and Ethnographic Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Patricia C

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigations in Iraqi Kurdistan, edited by R. ]. 'at Iarmo (in Iraqi Kurdistan) and Beidha (in Iordan). We nowand southeast toward Iraqi Kurdistan and southwest Iran. It

  10. Humanity Must Be Defended: War, Politics and Humanitarian Relief in Iraq, 1990-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Adrian

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Haiti, Somalia, Iraqi Kurdistan and Cambodia. A few oldprovinces into Iraqi Kurdistan in the wake of Operationsometimes called Iraqi Kurdistan). The NGO representatives

  11. Maya Zooarchaeology: New Directions in Method and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investiga- tions in Iraqi Kurdistan. Studies in Ancient Ori-Investigations in Iraqi Kurdistan, edited by R. J. Braidwood

  12. In the shadow of segregation : women's identity in the modern Iraqi house

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ani, Raya H

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis intends to develop a critical perspective on the culture and politics of the modern house in Iraq. It advances the discussion from the authoritative religious environment of women's segregation in the Islamic ...

  13. The Degree of Participation Concept in Ad Hoc Networks Youssef Iraqi and Raouf Boutaba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    categories: table-driven routing and source-initiated on-demand rout- ing. Examples of the first category of routing protocols are: AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) routing [11]; DSR (Dynamic Source Routing mecha- nism. This can be driven by an energy saving policy for ex- ample. Special resource management

  14. Iraqi Civil Society Solidarity initiative Velletri: 25-31 March 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : .........................................................................................19 The Kurds, the boundaries of Kurdistan and Kirkuk

  15. Using institutions to moderate separatist tendencies : a focus on Iraqi Kurdistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstock, Adele B., 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis offers an alternate theory to the problem of secessionism by integrating two separate fields of research: nationalism and constitutional engineering. In particular, I apply two prominent theories of nationalism, ...

  16. Agricultural Development Assessments and Strategies in Post Conflict Settings: An Empirical Case Study of Eight Southern Iraqi Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafer, James C.

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    market development and network infrastructure have all taken their toll on evolution and improvement of agricultural growth in southern Iraq. It may be that the largest threat to the future of Iraq is not violence, but the diminishing hope of young people...

  17. US Government Outsourcing, the Private Military Industry, and Operation Iraqi Freedom: A Case Study in Conflict Contracting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpin, Allison Ann

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal Activities Inventory Reform FAR Federal Acquisition Regulations FPDS-NG Federal Procurement Data SystemNext Generation 5 GAO Government Accountability Office GMASS Global Maintenance and Supply Services GOCO government...

  18. Agricultural Development Assessments and Strategies in Post Conflict Settings: An Empirical Case Study of Eight Southern Iraqi Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafer, James C.

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and agricultural inputs. Outdated technology and undertrained producers lacking knowledge of production related areas such as plant and animal genetics, fertilizers, irrigation and drainage systems and farm equipment. Inadequate and unstable electricity... availability and provision, degradation of irrigation-infrastructure and management systems, a complete lack of or insufficient access to credit and private capital as well as inadequate market development and network infrastructure have all taken their toll...

  19. Civil Wars With or Without an End: Postwar Violence and Civil War Recurrence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omae, Masahiro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PKK: Partiya Karkaren Kurdistan. In Terror, Insurgency,Attacks on Civilians in Iraqi Kurdistan. 20 December.civilians- iraqi-kurdistan (June 23, 2012). Humphreys,

  20. University of New Orleans Office of Research and Sponsored Programs Weekly Funding Opportunities August 11, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region Notice seeking proposals to develop and implement a partnership program between universities in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Applications are due September 1, 2014. Approximately up to $400

  1. International Human Rights Activism in the United States during the Cold War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Zachary Steven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would be a reemergence of Kurdistan during World War II,the genocides in Iraqi Kurdistan, the former Yugoslavia, orAfghanistan, Somaliland, Iraqi Kurdistan, and Angola all had

  2. Parallel worlds: empirical region and place

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Of The

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the local names in Iraqi Kurdistan are in Arabic. The mostnotably the United States. Kurdistan participates in the

  3. University of New Orleans Office of Research and Sponsored Programs Weekly Funding Opportunities August 5, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    Kurdistan Region Notice seeking proposals to develop and implement a university partnership program for ?rural? universities (universities outside major cities) in the Iraqi Kurdistan region that links Iraqi universities in smaller cities in the Iraqi Kurdistan region with U.S. institutions to improve university

  4. University of New Orleans Office of Research and Sponsored Programs Weekly Funding Opportunities July 29, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    Kurdistan Region Notice seeking proposals to develop and implement a university partnership program for ?rural? universities (universities outside major cities) in the Iraqi Kurdistan region that links Iraqi universities in smaller cities in the Iraqi Kurdistan region with U.S. institutions to improve university

  5. Aspect and Argument Licensing in Neo-Aramaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalin, Laura Mennen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Neo-Aramaic dialect of Kurdistan: Texts, grammar, andlanguages from di?erent communities in Turkish Kurdistan,Iraqi Kurdistan, Iranian Azerbaijan, and Ira- nian

  6. For Cause and Comrade: Devoted Actors and Willingness to Fight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atran, Scott; Sheikh, Hammad; Gomez, Angel

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wholesale support for the defense of Kurdistan (whetherIraqi Kurdistan orGreater Kurdistan or, most often, both). Here, we find that

  7. Computational modeling of trabecular bone in lower extremity injuries due to impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pino, Wendy

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lower extremity injuries resulting from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) pose a serious threat to the safety of military troops. Reports from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom identify IEDs as the ...

  8. Examining the influence of civilian casualties on insurgent attacks in Iraq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karnis, Jessica Eve

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although there have been several attempts to tabulate civilian casualties in the Iraq War, the effect of these casualties on the Iraqi population and insurgent organizations has not been thoroughly examined. From the ...

  9. Two ancient human genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malaspinas, A.-S.; Lao, O.; Schroeder, H.; Rasmussen, M.; Raghavan, M.; Moltke, I.; Campos, P. F.; Santana Sagredo, F.; Rasmussen, S.; Gonalves, V. F.; Albrechtsen, A.; Allentoft, M. E.; Johnson, P. L. F.; Li, M.; Reis, S.; Bernardo, D. V.; DeGiorgio, M.; Duggan, A. T.; Bastos, M.; Wang, Y.; Stenderup, J.; Moreno-Mayar, J. V.; Brunak, S.; Sicheritz-Ponten, T.; Hodges, E.; Hannon, G. J.; Orlando, L.; Price, T. D.; Jensen, J. D.; Nielsen, R.; Heinemeier, J.; Olsen, J.; Rodrigues-Carvalho, C.; Lahr, M. Mirazn; Neves, W.; Kayser, M.; Higham, T.; Stoneking, M.; Pena, S. D. J.; Willerslev, E.

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    as follows: Africa: Bambaran, Dogon, YRI; Europe: CEU, Iraqi, Slovenian; EAsia: CHB, JPT, Thai, Mongolian; CSAsia: Kyrgyzstan, Nepalese, Pakistanis; Americas: Bolivian, Totonac; NewGuineaH: New Guinea Highlands. The reference panel includes around 820...

  10. Economic interests in the domestic politics of war : evidence from U.S. decisions to go to war with Iraq in 1991 and 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seljan, Samuel Sierra

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    percent of the worlds oil reserves, additional leverage inin size. Kuwaits oil reserves, while relatively large, onlyto offset Iraqi Proven oil reserves figures from Humphreys

  11. Aspect as the Source of Diathesis in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic and Beyond with Remarks on Transitivity, Accusativity, Ergativity and Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Eastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA), its dialects originate mainly in Kurdistan (currently shared between Turkey, Iraq hand some 20 thousand Jews, most of whom call it Aramaic save those of Northwestern Iraqi Kurdistan

  12. Part of something larger than ourselves: George H.W. Bush and the rhetoric of the first U.S. war in the Persian Gulf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rangel, Nicolas , Jr.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    in which he narrowly defined victory. Bush defined victory as the removal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, in an attempt to shape a historical consensus on the significance of U.S. action....

  13. Design of a composite combat helmet liner for prevention of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vechart, Andrew (Andrew Peter)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) represent a significant percentage of military personnel injuries observed in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Prevalence of blast-induced ...

  14. A global perspective on energy markets and economic integration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What will be the effect of Iraqi domestic instability on Iraqi oil production Negotiations for Iranian nuclear technology on Iranian oil supplies Saudi commitment to expanded oil production President Putin's policies on Russian oil and natural gas supplies President Chavez's policies on Venezuelan oil supplies Instability in Nigeria Higher oil prices on world economic growth Effect of economic growth on oil demand in China, India, U.S., etc. Higher oil prices on non-OPEC oil supplies

  15. Spatial resolution of temperature and chemical species in a flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albahadily, Fakhrildeen Niema

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Winefordner et al. (51). AE . /k A. g. I. B. ln ~ + ln ? + 1n? 1 A. g. i B. (36) where: subscript i = the level excited by the source subscript j = the thermally assisted level flame temperature AE . . ij the difference in energy between i and j.... Schweikert (Member) Abdel-Kad Ayou (Memb ) Vaneica . Y ng (Member) May 1984 ABSTRACT Spatial Resolution of Temperature and Chemical Species in a Flame. (May 1984) Fakhrildeen Niema Albahadily, B. S. , University of Basrah/Iraq Chairman of Advisory...

  16. Smart Museum of Art, The University of Chicago 5550 South Greenwood Avenue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Chuan

    Smart Museum of Art, The University of Chicago 5550 South Greenwood Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60637 Iraqi cuisine on the streets of Chicago, the University of Chicago's Smart Museum of Art surveys Director and Chief Curator of the Smart Museum of Art. "But it wasn't until the last few decades

  17. UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HOUSE PERMANENT SELECT COMMITTEE ON INTELLIGENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    of the Department of Energy in the Carter Administration my responsibilities included our nuclear weapons program points: Intelligence on WMD was a high priority concern of the Clinton administration, just as it was in the George H.W. Bush administration. The apparent misestimate of the presence and readiness of Iraqi

  18. Conceptual Framework for the Use of Fish Parasites as Bioindicators of Acute and Chronic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    Environmental Perturbation After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico 1Auburn University: Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico- exploratory oil well Ixtoc explodes, sinks (10.8, 5%) March 24th, 1989: Prince: Gulf of Mexico- oil tanker Megaborg fire (378, 189%) January 21st, 1991: Kuwait- Gulf War I, Iraqi

  19. Aramaic, the language of the Babylonian Talmud and other important sacred texts,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenspan, Hayit

    . Today JNA is still actively spoken by two ancient Jewish communities: the Jews of Kurdistan and the Nash in Kurdistan. Dr. Hezy Mutzafi of the TAU Department of Hebrew Culture Studies has been documenting the diverse only by a handful of elderly Jews from the area of Barzan in Iraqi Kurdistan. His description

  20. Counterpoint Returning Evidence to the Scene of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    be Repatriated to Iraqi Kurdistan BRUCE P. MONTGOMERY R?SUM? Le 22 avril 2008, cinq ans après l documents du renseignement saisis et d'intervenir auprès du « gou vernement du Kurdistan » afin de retourner'Anfal au Kurdistan iraquien. ABSTRACT On 22 April 2008, five years after the American invasion of Iraq

  1. a monthly publication of outreach and international affairs volume 2, issue 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    ." The educators were part the Iraqi Kurdistan Rural Universities Partnership Program, an initiative funded in rural Kurdistan and the U.S. and to help advance English language departments in the region. In addition Kurdistan Rural Universities Partnership Program pose on graduation day with professors and administrators

  2. Overview of physical oceanographic measurements taken during the Mt. Mitchell Cruise to the ROPME Sea Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, R.M.

    1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ROPME Sea Area (RSA) is one of the most important commercial waterways in the world. However, the number of direct oceanographic observations is small. An international program to study the effect of the Iraqi oil spill on the environment was sponsored by the ROPME, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  3. Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco).

  4. Engineer for hire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, D.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author and one of his collegues have written articles for the Bulletin which have pieced together a complex mosaic showing how Iraqi oil money was used to buy hardware and expertise from Western nations, particularly Germany, in an fruitless effort to build a nuclear weapon. The writers often talked to and quoted one of Iraq's German contacts, Bruno Stemmler. When employed as a physical chemist in Munich for MAN Technologies, Stemmler had been involved in the design and testing of gas centrifuges used to produce enriched uranium for nuclear reactor fuel, although the same centrifuges can be used to produce weapon material. Stemmler was accused of giving secret information about German centrifuges to the Iraqis. He told the Bulletin writers he wanted his version of the story told. Presented here is the story of Bruno Stemmler, engineer for hire.

  5. The slowdown continues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author reviews the oil market in the Middle East. Some of the highlights are: Aramco activity in Saudi Arabi seems to be struck at a historically low level; Iran is maintaining production rates despite persistent Iraqi, U.S. attacks; Iraq plans ambitious 5-year drilling program, development of eight new fields; and Oman set reserves record with any finds, remains the area's biggest driller.

  6. JPRS report: Arms control, [February 12, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: Foreign Minister Opens Regional Disarmament Workshop; North Korea Heavily Involved in Missile Production; Ministry Spokesman on Soviet Troop Withdrawal; Foreign Minister on Soviet Troops, Baltics; Soviet Role in Iraqi Scud Acquisition Viewed; Churkin on Comprehensive Test Ban, New York Conference; GDR Supported Iraq`s Chemical Weapons Armament; and others.

  7. winter spring summer autumn volume 4 t issue 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iraqi Politics and Implications for Oil and Energy I N T E R N AT I O N A L A F F A I R S Mixing Oil as in the United States (China's is seven times the U.S. level), the authors found that government-enforced air producing less than 4 percent of the world's oil, Iraq has an opportunity to greatly expand its energy

  8. Texas Rice, Volume IV, Number 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    e-announcements about the cen- sus and other NASS products and programs, go to www.usda.gov/nass/, click on News and Coming Events then click on Subscribe to News Releases and Announcements. For additional information re- garding the Census, call... will host a tour for the delega- tion, highlighting current rice research efforts. Jim Willis, President of Inter- national Programs for the US Rice Producers Association attended the meetings in Jordan last month where discussions focused on the Iraqi...

  9. Chirac Said Non Or Did He? Revisiting U.S. - UN Diplomacy on the 2003 Iraq War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rrecchia, Stefano

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    could for the most part be financed through sales of Iraqi oil.29 The belief that a protracted stabilization mission would be unnecessary in Iraq further reduced any incentive to secure UN approval as a means of legitimating the war and facilitating... Washington significant leverage over its foreign policy. Germany and Syria, by contrast, were firmly opposed. That put all the weight on the other six nonpermanent members, who remained uncommitted: Mexico, Chile, Pakistan, Angola, Cameroon, and Guinea...

  10. 11/10/09 12:30 PMIraq Swears by Bomb Detector U.S. Sees as Useless -NYTimes.com Page 1 of 4http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/04/world/middleeast/04sensors.html?_r=1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    11/10/09 12:30 PMIraq Swears by Bomb Detector U.S. Sees as Useless - NYTimes.com Page 1 of 4http.Y. / REGION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE HEALTH SPORTS OPINION ARTS STYLE TRAVEL JOBS REAL ESTATE AUTOS AFRICA Detector U.S. Sees as Useless Johan Spanner for The New York Times A device used by Iraqi forces to detect

  11. UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    .gov/vhapublications/ViewPublication.asp?pub_ID=1158 See also, Depleted Uranium Fact Sheet http://www1.va.gov/gulfwar/docs/DepletedUraniumFAQSheet.doc EVALUATION PROTOCOL FOR NON-GULF WAR VETERANS WITH POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DEPLETED URANIUM (DU) http://www1.va.gov/vhapublications/ViewPublication.asp?pub_ID=315 EVALUATION PROTOCOL FOR GULF WAR AND IRAQI FREEDOM VETERANS WITH POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DEPLETED

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Physical2006.......... 64.85 53.90Canadian| Iraqi |

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Physical2006.......... 64.85 53.90Canadian| Iraqi

  14. Vapour extraction (VAPEX) process for recovery of heavy oil and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, K.N. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Butler, R.M. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Lim, G.B. [Imperial Oil Resources Limited, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For over 90% of the vast resources of bitumen and heavy oil in Canada, in situ recovery processes have to be developed to produce and utilize them efficiently and economically. Thermal recovery processes using steam, although effective for thick reservoirs with good quality sands, are increasingly proving to be uneconomical, particularly for thin, shaley, or bottom water reservoirs. The inefficiency is caused by large heat losses, high water requirement, extensive surface facilities, and adverse environmental impact. To overcome these problems, a new non-thermal vapour extraction (VAPEX) process has been developed. The process is closely related to the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) concept. However, in the VAPEX process the steam chamber is replaced with a chamber containing light hydrocarbon vapours close to its dew point at the reservoir pressure. If the pressure used is close to the saturation pressure of hydrocarbons, deasphalting may occur in the reservoir causing a substantial reduction in viscosity and heavy metal contents. Experiments conducted in a Hele-Shaw cell and in a 2D physical scaled model using Lloydminster, Cold Lake, and Peace River heavy oil/bitumen and ethane, propane, and butane as solvents demonstrated that this process is very promising technically as well as economically. An active aquifer underlying the bitumen zone made the reservoir more valuable because of spreading of the solvent vapour directly underneath the formation which increased the vapour-bitumen contact extensively. The investigation was extended from a dual horizontal continuous injection/production well strategy described above to a single horizontal well cyclic process for the Cold Lake reservoir in a 3D physical scaled model. The tests illustrated that ethane was an effective solvent in producing Cold Lake bitumen and that the cyclic VAPEX process has the potential to be a breakthrough recovery technology.

  15. Baker rises to the top

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, W.

    1997-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    With its recent acquisition of Petrolite (St. Louis), Baker Performance Chemicals (BPC; Houston), a unit of Baker Hughes, leapfrogs Nalco-Exxon Energy Chemicals to become the biggest purveyor of oil field chemicals. {open_quotes}Petrolite and Baker were number two and number three,{close_quotes} says Credit Suisse First Boston analyst Gordon T. Hall, who adds that the combined operations will have at least $700 million/year in sales and be positioned to expand, primarily outside the US Hall says the Nalco-Exxon jv, the only other major oil field chemicals player, has sales of less than $650 million/year. Although Baker Hughes does no break out sales by division, BPC president Glen Bassett says sales last year were {open_quotes}more than $300 million{close_quotes} but not as high as Petrolite`s $361 million. {open_quotes}It`s Baker Hughes`s intent to merge Petrolite and [BPC],{close_quotes} Bassett says. Baker paid $689 million to obtain Petrolite, which was under shareholder pressure to seek a buyer . Petrolite is Baker`s third acquisition in a year. Last summer it bought Suramco Chemical Research (Lloydminster, AB) and BASF`s oil field chemicals business. Reports that the purchase could trigger FTC scrutiny may have been overblown. {open_quotes}I don`t believe there are any antitrust issues,{close_quotes} says Joe Pilaro, president of BRAE Partners (Princeton, NJ), an investment advisory firm. Petrolite`s products complement, rather than parallel, those of Baker Hughes, he says.

  16. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  17. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Physical2006.......... 64.85 53.90Canadian| Iraqi132.9

  18. An analysis of uranium dispersal and health effects using a Gulf War case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Albert Christian

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study described in this report used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to depleted uranium (DU) during the 1991 Gulf War for both U.S. troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. Only a few veterans in vehicles accidentally struck by U.S. DU munitions are predicted to have inhaled sufficient quantities of DU particulate to incur any significant health risk (i.e., the possibility of temporary kidney damage from the chemical toxicity of uranium and about a 1% chance of fatal lung cancer). The health risk to all downwind civilians is predicted to be extremely small. Recommendations for monitoring are made for certain exposed groups. Although the study found fairly large calculational uncertainties, the models developed and used are generally valid. The analysis was also used to assess potential uranium health hazards for workers in the weapons complex. No illnesses are projected for uranium workers following standard guidelines; nonetheless, some research suggests that more conservative guidelines should be considered.

  19. The bears come out for summer: A world awash in oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this issue, Energy Detente examines near term oil price and supply prospects. World oil prices have plunged over the last eight weeks to their lowest levels since 1991. This can be attributed to low world oil demand and bearish speculation on world oil markets that the on-again off-again oil export negotiations between Iraq and the United Nations may result in limited amounts of Iraqi crude being added to already swollen oil supplies. To recessionary economics in consuming countries, trends to raise taxes and reduce fuel price subsidies in many countries, and rising costs of environmental protection, producers also scrutinize a concerned Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). OPEC's reactive potentials are heightened in a period of such market uncertainities.

  20. The post-war Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tempest, P.

    1992-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand

  1. Libya: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Libya is moving forward with plans to sell most of its crude as refined products and should have the capacity to handle most of its production, about 1.3 million bpd, by the mid-90s. Production was increased after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, and peak capacity could be over 1.5 million bopd. Exploration pace is still increasing but U.S. sanctions have taken their toll. Gas projects are advancing as officials push to develop and utilize more domestic gas reserves. Libya has commissioned a new gas processing plant in Sahl gas field in Sirte basin and plans are under way for development of Tahaddi field, Libya's largest gas field with 9 Tcf.

  2. Petroleum prices and profits in the 90 days following the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the third in the past 20 years the world has experienced an interruption in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and shut down of Kuwait oil production capacity followed by the United Nations boycott of Iraqi oil removed 8 percent of the world's oil supply. The result was a sharp increase in the process of crude oil and petroleum products. These events raised numerous questions about the performance of energy markets and energy firms. This report supplies a first answer for some of those questions. At the time this report was prepared the invasion has been in effect for 90 days. Not all the data is available to fully answer every question. Some issues can only be completely resolved after more time has passed in which the invasion and its effects have had an opportunity to be fully assimilated. This report was specifically requested by W. Henson Moore, Deputy Secretary of Energy as a way of supplying the American public with what could be said about the current situation. Rumors abound and mixconceptions have proliferated. This report strives to give a proper perspective on some of the more vexing issues which the invasion produced. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has addressed many questions in this report. By the way of summary these are the 10 most most frequently asked questions and EIA's quick answers. The page references tell the reader where to look in the report for further explanation. These are not the only issues addressed and EIA hopes that readers will be able to satisfy their curiosity about their own questions within the pages of this report.

  3. Saudi Aramco details 1990 surge in oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabian Oil Co. that has jumped its crude oil production 29% to an average 6,257,600 b/d last year. That was Saudi Arabia's response to Iraq's Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait and the ensuing Persian Gulf crisis with its United Nations embargo on Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports. It was Saudi Aramco's biggest average crude oil volume since the 6,327,220 b/d gauged in 1982, according to the company's 1990 annual report. By the end of 1990 Saudi Aramco's maximum sustained production capability was 8.5 million b/d of crude. To meet long term demand, it decided to advance the timetable and increase the scope of a crude oil expansion program adopted in 1989. Reserves at the end of the year were 257.9 billion bbl of crude and 180.5 tcf of dissolved, associated, and non-associated natural gas, compared with 257.5 billion bbl and 180.355 tcf at yearend 1989.

  4. Support of the Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, Roger [International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100 - 1400 Vienna (Austria); Cochran, John; Danneels, Jeff [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Chesser, Ronald; Phillips, Carlton; Rogers, Brenda [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Iraq's former nuclear facilities contain large quantities of radioactive materials and radioactive waste. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the Iraq NDs Program) is a new program to decontaminate and permanently dispose of radioactive wastes in Iraq. The NDs Program is led by the Government of Iraq, under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) auspices, with guidance and assistance from a number of countries. The U.S. participants include Texas Tech University and Sandia National Laboratories. A number of activities are ongoing under the broad umbrella of the Iraq NDs Program: drafting a new nuclear law that will provide the legal basis for the cleanup and disposal activities; assembly and analysis of existing data; characterization of soil contamination; bringing Iraqi scientists to the world's largest symposium on radioactive waste management; touring U.S. government and private sector operating radwaste disposal facilities in the U.S., and hosting a planning workshop on the characterization and cleanup of the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Facility. (authors)

  5. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  6. Everything depends on the Saudis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, J.W. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that oil markets are at their lowest level in 18 months, since before the Persian Gulf crisis. What is remarkable is that the world oil industry is producing essentially at capacity, yet OPEC shows no sign of taking advantage of this situation to drive up prices. Rather, commodity market forces are quickly exploiting any short-term surplus or shortage, and the oil market is exposed to continuing price volatility. Oil market uncertainties - the return of Iraqi and Kuwaiti production, prospects for exports from former Soviet republics, and the fragility of economic recovery - appear bigger than normal and threaten to oversupply markets in the spring when oil demand declines seasonally. The downward trend in world oil prices that began in November may continue into the second quarter of 1992. However, by the second half an economic recovery may be underway. If that happens, demand should grow and the market firm. At any rate, prices in 1992 may be more stable than commonly expected, because Saudi Arabia does not seem to want prices much above or below 1991 levels. That would be a range of $20 - $21 for WTI.

  7. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing:A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues,recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, anddescriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  8. Energy Independence for North America - Transition to the Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, J.

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. transportation sector is almost totally dependent on liquid hydrocarbon fuels, primarily gasoline and diesel fuel from conventional oil. In 2002, the transportation sector accounted for 69 percent of the U.S. oil use; highway vehicles accounted for 54 percent of the U.S. oil use. Of the total energy consumed in the U.S., more than 40 percent came from oil. More significantly, more than half of this oil is imported and is projected by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) to increase to 68 percent by 2025 [1]. The supply and price of oil have been dictated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 2002, OPEC accounted for 39 percent of world oil production and this is projected by the EIA to increase to 50 percent in 2025. Of the world's oil reserves, about 80 percent is owned by OPEC members. Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets four times in the past 30 years (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-1991, and 1999- 2000) and with each came either a recession or slowdown in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the United States. In addition, these market upheavals have cost the U.S. approximately $7 trillion (in 1998 dollars) in total economic costs [2]. Finally, it is estimated that military expenditures for defending oil supplies in the Middle East range from $6 billion to $60 billion per year [3] and do not take into account the costs of recent military operations in Iraq (i.e., Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003). At the outset of his administration in 2001, President George W. Bush established the National Energy Policy Development (NEPD) Group to develop a national energy policy to promote dependable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for the future in order to avert potential energy crises. In the National Energy Policy report [4], the NEPD Group urges action by the President to meet five specific national goals that America must meet--''modernize conservation, modernize our energy infrastructure, increase energy supplies, accelerate the protection and improvement of the environment, and increase our nation's energy security.'' It is generally recognized that energy security can be achieved partially by reducing importation of oil from sources that are less politically stable.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21-25, 2008. As noted in the report, there was significant teaming between the various participants to best help the GOI. On-the-ground progress is the focus of the Iraq NDs Program and much of the work is a transfer of technical and practical skills and knowledge that Sandia uses day-to-day. On-the-ground progress was achieved in July of 2008 when the GOI began the physical cleanup and dismantlement of the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) facility at Al Tuwaitha, near Baghdad.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq)] [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)