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1

LLE Review  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January--March 1992, contains articles on the use of diffraction gratings in laser applications, and the fabrication of gratings for use in these applications. there are two articles on the use of lasers to explore fundamental physics issues and an article on the use of a solid-state diode array for x-ray imaging. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

Keck, R.L. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

LLE Review 83, Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2000, features an article by F. J. Marshall, T. Ohki, D. McInnis, Z. Ninkov, and J. Carbone, who detail the conversion of the OMEGA time-integrated x-ray diagnostics to electronic readout using direct-detection x-ray cameras [charge-injection devices (CID's)]. Pinhole and x-ray microscope images are shown along with inferred calibration measurements of the CID cameras. Currently, the same cameras are being used to obtain x-ray spectra in a TIM-based spectrometer, extending their use to all time-integrated imaging and spectroscopic x-ray instruments used on OMEGA. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) V. A. Smalyuk, B. Yaakobi, F. J. Marshall, and D. D. Meyerhofer investigate the spatial structure of the temperature and density of target-shell plasmas at peak compression (stagnation). This is accomplished by examining the energy dependence of the x-ray emission using narrow-band x-ray filters and the known absorption properties of the shell dopant (Ti). (2) F. Sequin, C. K. Ll, D. G. Hicks, J. A. Frenje, K. M. Green, R. D. Petrasso, J. M. Soures, V. Yu. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, P. B. Radha, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. Roberts, C. Sorce, T. C. Sangster, M. D. Cable, S. Padalino, and K. Fletcher detail the physics and instrumentation used to obtain and interpret secondary D-{sup 3}He proton spectra from current gas-filled-target and future cryogenic-target experiments. Through a novel extension of existing charged-particle detection techniques with track detectors, the authors demonstrate the ability to obtain secondary proton spectra with increased sensitivity. (3) M. Guardelben, L. Ning, N. Jain, D. Battaglia, and K. Marshall compare the utility of a novel liquid-crystal-based, point-diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) with the commercial standard phase-shifting interferometer and conclude that the LCPDI is a viable low-cost alternative. (4) A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans detail the mechanisms of glass polishing using the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technique currently being studied in the Center for Optics Manufacturing (COM). Material-removal experiments show that the nanohardness of carbonyl iron (CI) is important in MRF with nonaqueous MR fluids with no nonmagnetic abrasives, but is relatively unimportant in aqueous MR fluids and/or when nonmagnetic abrasives are present.

None

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

LLE Review 120 (July-September 2009)  

SciTech Connect

This issue has the following articles: (1) The Omega Laser Facility Users Group Workshop; (2) The Effect of Condensates and Inner Coatings on the Performance of Vacuum Hohlraum Targets; (3) Zirconia-Coated-Carbonyl-Iron-Particle-Based Magnetorheological Fluid for Polishing Optical Glasses and Ceramics; (4) All-Fiber Optical Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Faraday Rotation in Highly Terbium Doped Fiber; (5) Femtosecond Optical Pump-Probe Characterization of High-Pressure-Grown Al{sub 0.86}Ga{sub 0.14}N Single Crystals; (6) LLE's Summer High School Research Program; (7) Laser Facility Report; and (8) National Laser Users Facility and External Users Programs.

Edgell, D.H., editor

2001-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

4

LLE Review 117 (October-December 2008)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2008, features 'Demonstration of the Shock-Timing Technique for Ignition Targets at the National Ignition Facility' by T. R. Boehly, V. N. Goncharov, S. X. Hu, J. A. Marozas, T. C. Sangster, D. D. Meyerhofer (LLE), D. Munro, P. M. Celliers, D. G. Hicks, G. W. Collins, H. F. Robey, O. L. Landen (LLNL), and R. E. Olson (SNL). In this article (p. 1) the authors report on a technique to measure the velocity and timing of shock waves in a capsule contained within hohlraum targets. This technique is critical for optimizing the drive profiles for high-performance inertial-confinement-fusion capsules, which are compressed by multiple precisely timed shock waves. The shock-timing technique was demonstrated on OMEGA using surrogate hohlraum targets heated to 180 eV and fitted with a re-entrant cone and quartz window to facilitate velocity measurements using velocity interferometry. Cryogenic experiments using targets filled with liquid deuterium further demonstrated the entire timing technique in a hohlraum environment. Direct-drive cryogenic targets with multiple spherical shocks were also used to validate this technique, including convergence effects at relevant pressures (velocities) and sizes. These results provide confidence that shock velocity and timing can be measured in NIF ignition targets, thereby optimizing these critical parameters.

Bittle, W., editor

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

LLE Review 116 (July-September 2008)  

SciTech Connect

This issue has the following articles: (1) Optimizing Electron-Positron Pair Production on kJ-Class High-Intensity Lasers for the Purpose of Pair-Plasma Creation; (2) Neutron Yield Study of Direct-Drive, Low-Adiabat Cryogenic D2 Implosions on OMEGA; (3) Al 1s-2p Absorption Spectroscopy of Shock-Wave Heating and Compression in Laser-Driven Planar Foil; (4) A Measurable Lawson Criterion and Hydro-Equivalent Curves for Inertial Confinement Fusion; (5) Pulsed-THz Characterization of Hg-Based, High-Temperature Superconductors; (6) LLE's Summer High School Research Program; (7) FY08 Laser Facility Report; and (8) National Laser Users Facility and External Users Programs.

Marozas, J.A., editor

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

6

LLE 2010 Annual Report October 2009 - September 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fiscal year ending September 2010 (FY10) concluded the third year of the third five-year renewal of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-08NA28302 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This annual report summarizes progress in inertial fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) during the past fiscal year including work on the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). It also reports on LLE's progress on laboratory basic science research; laser, optical materials, and advanced technology development; operation of OMEGA and OMEGA EP for the NIC and high-energy density (HED) campaigns, the National Laser Users Facility (NLUF), and for other external users; and programs focusing on the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students during the year.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

LLE 1997. Annual report, October 1996--September 1997  

SciTech Connect

The fiscal year ending September 1997 (FY97) concluded the fifth year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and is the final report for the first five years of the cooperative agreement. In September 1997, the cooperative agreement was renewed for an additional five years. We summarize our research during FY97, the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students in LLE programs. A general introduction to LLE`s experimental physics program and a report on recent results are found on pp. 161-167. This article includes a useful summary of the system`s operational capabilities and system parameters after three years of operation. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion requires precise drive uniformity, the control of hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion of the fusion target, and accurate target fabrication and characterization. The article summarizes a wide variety of experiments relating to direct-drive laser fusion, from high-yield implosion experiments to planar and spherical Rayleigh-Taylor experiments, laser-imprinting experiments, and laser-plasma interaction experiments. A detailed analysis of the equation of motion for an electron in a plane wave is presented beginning on p. 24. A guiding center model is postulated and compared to numerical simulation of the actual particle motion. The formula is also verified analytically using the method of multiple scales. Work continues on this formalism to study the effects of the pondermotive force on laser-plasma interactions. A theoretical calculation of the dephasing time of an electron accelerated by a laser pulse is found on pp. 92-100. The trajectory of a charged particle, determined analytically for various pulse shapes, is then used to determine the dephasing time of an accelerated particle.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

LLE Review. Quarterly report, January--March 1992: Volume 50  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January--March 1992, contains articles on the use of diffraction gratings in laser applications, and the fabrication of gratings for use in these applications. there are two articles on the use of lasers to explore fundamental physics issues and an article on the use of a solid-state diode array for x-ray imaging. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

Keck, R.L. [ed.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

LLE review. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994, Volume 58  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period Jan - Mar 1994, contains articles on backlighting diagnostics; the effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; using PIC code simulations for analysis of ultrashort laser pulses interacting with solid targets; creating a new instrument for characterizing thick cryogenic layers; and a description of a large-aperture ring amplifier for laser-fusion drivers. Three of these articles - backlighting diagnostics; characterizing thick cryogenic layers; and large-aperture ring amplifier - are directly related to the OMEGA Upgrade, now under construction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Simon, A. [ed.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

LLE Review quarterly report, January--March 1993. Volume 54  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period January--March 1993. The OMEGA laser facility was decommissioned during this quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility. The decommissioning is described in this volume. Electron thermal transport in the corona and laser-irradiation uniformity are related issues for direct-drive laser fusion. Thermal transport can affect the laser-irradiation uniformity requirements. The status of Fokker-Planck modeling of electron transport at LLE is reviewed and is followed by a description of a new technique for achieving high laser uniformity using zero-correlation phase masks. The use of fast, optically triggered, superconducting opening switches can, in principle, reduce the peak electrical load requirements of systems like the OMEGA Upgrade. Recent research in this area is described. The last three articles discuss vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray emission from short-pulse, laser-matter interactions. The generation of a high spectral brightness, picosecond K{alpha} source is described. The subsequent articles describe the generation of high-order harmonics of a high-intensity laser system laser system in low- density, laser-atom interactions and the novel gas target used.

Meyerhofer, D.D. [ed.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

LLE review. Volume 61, Quarterly report, October--December 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of October--December 1994, contains articles on a diagnostic method employing krypton spectroscopy for measurement of temperature and shell-fuel mixing in high-temperature implosions; the first direct assessment of the ion-acoustic decay instability in a large-scale length, hot plasma; measurements of polarization mode dispersion and group-velocity walkaway in birefringent media using a frequency domain interferometer; an evaluation of the magnetic flux dynamics occurring in an optically triggered, thin-film superconducting switch; the effect of slurry fluid chemistry on particle size distribution during aqueous polishing of optical glass; and the influence of thermal and mechanical processing history in the preparation of well-ordered liquid crystal elastomer systems.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

LLE Review quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 62  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of January-March 1995, contains articles on the evaluation of the mechanism for laser damage in OMEGA UV multilayer coatings using a combination of conventional laser-damage characterization methods and atomic force microscopy; a dual-amplitude, fiber-coupled waveguide integrated-optic modulation device for generating temporally shaped optical pulses in OMEGA-, a proposal for modifying the indirect-drive irradiation geometry of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to provide the additional flexibility for performing direct-drive experiments; direct measurements of terminal-level lifetime in several different Nd:YLF laser media; an overview of the materials science issues, basic mechanisms, and potential device applications for light-emitting porous silicon; and a study of the time-dependent reflection and surface temperatures for laser-irradiated dental hard tissue at two CO{sub 2} laser wavelengths.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

LLE review. Quarterly report, July 1997--September 1997  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1997, begins with a general introduction to LLE`s experimental physics program and a report on recent results. This article includes a useful summary of the system`s operational capabilities and system parameters. Other highlights of the wide variety of research presented in this issue are: a promising method to directly observe the cold compressed shell of an imploding target. The shell is normally observed by backlighting. The proposal described here is to use a high-Z dopant that fluoresces under radiation from the hot core in the K{alpha} line. A study of the instabilities associated with near-forward stimulated Brillouin scattering. It includes a calculation of the saturation times and steady-state gain exponents. A successful program of pulse shaping for the OMEGA laser system. Examples of a variety of pulse shapes that can be programmed are presented. A description of the angular-scattering characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optical devices operating in transient and extended scattering modes. The possibility of applying these devices as modulators in practical IR imaging systems is evaluated. A faster method of shaping and finishing IR materials by the use of magnetorheological fluids. Detailed specifications and test results are included. An integrated circuit tester based on interferometric imaging. This technique holds promise of ultrafast noninvasive testing of the voltage states of sections of microchips. Continued success of the Laboratory`s High School Summer Research Program. The program, which started in 1989, has brought several dozen young people into intimate contact with modern science and technology. The volume concludes with a Laser Facility Report and the National Laser Users` Facility News.

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

LLE 1995 annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fiscal year ending September 1995 (FY95) concluded the third year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and reports on the successful completion of the OMEGA Upgrade. Previous annual reports describe the OMEGA Upgrade design. The preliminary design for the system was complete in October 1989 and the detailed design started in October 1990. The original 24-beam OMEGA system was decommissioned in December 1992 as construction for the OMEGA Upgrade began. We discuss the initial performance results (p. 99) of the upgraded OMEGA laser system. All acceptance tests were completed, and we demonstrated that all 60 beams can irradiate a target with more energy and better beam balance than was required by DOE`s acceptance criteria. We are most proud that all program milestones were met or exceeded, and that the system was completed on time and on budget.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the cart rails are designed by LLNL, and are included in this safety note. The other related components, such as the TIM rails and the Unimount flange, are addressed in a separate safety note, EDSN09-500005-AA. The Multipurpose Spectrometer (MSPEC) and VSG are mounted on the TIM Boat through the cart rails that are very similar in design. The tilt rotator combination with the Unimount flange is also a standard mounting procedure. The later mounting system has been included in this safety note. Figure-1 shows the interface components and the VSG snout. Figure-2 shows the VSG assembly mounted on the Unimount flange. The calibration pointer attachment is shown in place of the snout. There are two types of VSG, one made of 6061-T6 aluminum, weighing approximately 3 pounds, and the other made of 304 stainless steel, weighing approximately 5.5 pounds. This safety note examines the VSG steel design. Specific experiments may require orienting the VSG snout in 90 degrees increment with respect to the Unimount flange. This is done by changing the bolts position on the VSG-main body adapter flange to the Unimount adapter plate. There is no hazard involved in handling the VSG during this procedure as it is done outside the target chamber on the cart rail before installing on the TIM. This safety note addresses the mechanical integrity of the VSG structure, the tilt rotating fixture, the cart rails with handle and their connections. Safety Factors are also calculated for the MSPEC in place of the VSG.

Mukherjee, S K; Emig, J A; Griffith, L V; Heeter, R F; House, F A; James, D L; Schneider, M B; Sorce, C M

2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

16

Rats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rats Rats Nature Bulletin No. 81 August 31, 1946 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Clayton F. Smith, President Roberts Mann, Superintendent of Conservation RATS Rats and men have been at war since the dawn of history. The "cradle of mankind" Central Asia, apparently was also the place of origin of the rat. From there, living and traveling with man, it has spread over the globe. In the United States today there are about as many rats as there are people. Cur common rat is the Norway or brown rat which arrived here from Europe before the Revolutionary War. Fiercer and more cunning, it soon exterminated the black rat and the roof rat which had migrated here with the early colonists and thrived. The black rat -- which is glossy black above, smaller and more slender -- and the roof rat, a close relative, are found now only rarely in some of the southern states, although still common in tropical America.

17

Index of /images/rat/rat.seq  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rat/rat.seq rat/rat.seq Parent Directory rat.seq.1.tif rat.seq.10.tif rat.seq.100.tif rat.seq.101.tif rat.seq.102.tif rat.seq.103.tif rat.seq.104.tif rat.seq.105.tif rat.seq.106.tif rat.seq.107.tif rat.seq.108.tif rat.seq.109.tif rat.seq.11.tif rat.seq.110.tif rat.seq.111.tif rat.seq.112.tif rat.seq.113.tif rat.seq.114.tif rat.seq.115.tif rat.seq.116.tif rat.seq.117.tif rat.seq.118.tif rat.seq.119.tif rat.seq.12.tif rat.seq.120.tif rat.seq.121.tif rat.seq.122.tif rat.seq.123.tif rat.seq.124.tif rat.seq.125.tif rat.seq.126.tif rat.seq.127.tif rat.seq.128.tif rat.seq.129.tif rat.seq.13.tif rat.seq.130.tif rat.seq.131.tif rat.seq.132.tif rat.seq.133.tif rat.seq.134.tif rat.seq.135.tif rat.seq.136.tif rat.seq.137.tif rat.seq.138.tif rat.seq.139.tif rat.seq.14.tif rat.seq.140.tif rat.seq.141.tif rat.seq.142.tif

18

LLE Review 119 (April-June 2009)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This issue has the following articles: (1) Shock-Ignition Experiments on OMEGA at NIF-Relevant Intensities; (2) Laser-Driven Magnetic-Flux Compression in High-Energy-Density Plasmas; (3) Lorentz Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Hot, Dense Plasmas; (4) Characterization and Optimization of Yb-Doped Photonic-Crystal Fiber Rod Amplifiers Using Spatially Resolved Spectral Interferometry; (5) Optical Differentiation and Multimillijoule {approx}150-ps Pulse Generation in a Regenerative Amplifier with a Temperature-Tuned Intracavity Volume Bragg Grating; (6) Slow Crack Growth During Radiatiave Cooling of LHG8 and BK7 Plates; and (7) Finite Element Simulation of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photoconductor.

Edgell, D.H., editor

2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

19

LLE Review 121 (September-December 2009)  

SciTech Connect

This issue has the following articles: (1) Demonstration of the Highest Deuterium-Tritium Areal Density Using Triple-Picket Cryogenic Designs on OMEGA; (2) High-Precision Measurements of the Equation of State of Hydrocarbons at 1 to 10 Mbar Using Laser-Driven Shock Waves; (3) A Generalized Measurable Ignition Condition for Inertial Confinement Fusion (4) In-Situ Detection and Analysis of Laser-Induced Damage on a 1.5-m Multilayer-Dielectric Grating Compressor for High-Energy, Petawatt-Class Laser Systems; (5) Probing High-Areal-Density ({rho}R) Cryogenic-DT Implosions Using Down-Scattered Neutron Spectra Measured by the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer; (6) Strong-Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions; and (7) Neutron-Induced Nucleation Inside Bubble Chambers Using Freon 115 as the Active Medium.

Anderson, K.S., editor

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

LLE Review 118 (January-March 2009)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This issue has the following articles: (1) Applied Plasma Spectroscopy: Laser-Fusion Experiments; (2) Relativistic Electron-Beam Transport Studies Using High-Resolution, Coherent Transition Radiation Imaging; (3) Pressure-Driven, Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Interchange Instabilities in Laser-Produced, High-Energy-Density Plasmas; (4) Extended Model for Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flake Reorientation and Relaxation; (5) Modeling the Effects of Microencapsulation on the Electro-Optic Behavior of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes; (6) Capillarity and Dielectrophoresis of Liquid Deuterium; and (7) A Stable Mid-IR, GaSb-Based Diode Laser Source for Cryogenic Target Layering at the OMEGA Laser Facility.

Bittle, W., editor

2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Rat Deterrent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rat Deterrent Rat Deterrent Name: mike Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: my friends have a house with a basement, they have seen rats coming from cider blocks that are open at the top ,and on inspection with a mirror seem to go all the down to the foundation, i suggested maybe putting moth balls down the blocks to help out if they are coming from the botton up, they have a new baby in the house, will this hurt anyone or cause harm? thanks Replies: Moth balls are not going to hurt anyone, but they are not going to solve the problem either. Rats are serious pests that will not be deterred by moth balls and a permanent solution, sealing up access points after removing the rats, will be needed. J. Elliott Stuff the holes with steel wool. It's not poisonous, it's cheap, and rats can't chew through it.

22

ICF Program Status SNL Z Facility UR/LLE OMEGA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the NIF Project National Nuclear Security Administration September 28, 2006 #12;2 Key points · A new fusion and high energy density physics · OMEGA EP; Z/ZR; NIF and ignition; petawatt capabilities;... · Ignition and applications planned for NIF; integrated program of "non- ignition" experiments

23

LLE review, volume 73. Quarterly report, October 1997--December 1997  

SciTech Connect

This progress report contains discussion on the following topics: A high-bandwidth electrical-waveform generator based on aperture-coupled striplines for OMEGA pulse-shaping applications; sweep deflection circuit development using computer-aided circuit design for the OMEGA multichannel streak camera; D-{sup 3}He protons as a diagnostic for target {rho}R; growth rates of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion; three-dimensional analysis of the power transfer between crossed laser beams; characterization of freestanding polymer films for application in 351-nm, high-peak-power laser systems; subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses; bound-abrasive polishers for optical glass; and color gamut of cholesteric liquid crystal films and flakes by standard colorimetry.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

LLE Review, Volume 57. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, the visible fruits of long design labors on the OMEGA Upgrade began to appear. The target mirror structure was put in place, along with the target chamber itself. The laser bay structures were also installed, and the bay is now being prepared to receive optomechanical, control, and laser assemblies. Further details are in the OMEGA Upgrade Status Report in this issue. Theory and analysis of previous experiments continued during this reporting period. Articles contained herein describe an improved theory of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; a novel proposal for characterizing plasma-density profiles by using grid image refractometry; a much-improved treatment of the damping of ion sound waves in a mixture of light and heavy ions; and, finally, a new interpretation of measurements of 3/2-harmonic radiation emitted from the long-scale-length plasmas created in earlier OMEGA experiments.

Simon, A. [ed.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Metabolism of Americium in the Rat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. J. Barber, J. G Hamilton, Metabolism of Plutonium inRats, Plutonium Project Record of the National Nuclearin the Rat (CH 3606) Plutonium Project Record of the

Scott, K.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Gene therapy in alcoholic rats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

70 70 Sept. 9, 2001 Gene Therapy Reduces Drinking in "Alcoholic" Rats UPTON, NY - Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have shown that increasing the level of a brain protein important for transmitting pleasure signals can turn rats that prefer alcohol into light drinkers, and those with no preference into near teetotalers. The findings, published in the first September 2001 issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry (Vol. 78, No. 5), may have implications for the prevention and treatment of alcoholism in humans. "This is a preliminary study, but when you see a rat that chooses to drink 80 to 90 percent of its daily fluid as alcohol, and then three days later it's down to 20 percent, that's a dramatic drop in alcohol intake - a very clear change in behavior," said Panayotis Thanos, the lead researcher. "This gives us great hope that we can refine this treatment for future clinical use."

27

Status of the US National Inertial Fusion ProgramSNL Z Facility UR/LLE OMEGA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for inertial fusion and high energy density physics · NIF 81% complete, first ignition experiments planned Ignition Facility is 85 % complete NIF concentrates 1.8 Mega Joules of energy into a mm3 size target -- it needs to be flush left -- keep horizontal within Title/Logo limits at the top #12;7 NIF has executed

28

Overview of ICF Program SNL Z Facility UR/LLE OMEGA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fusion and the NIF Project National Nuclear Security Administration December 5, 2007 #12;2 Agenda · Mission/Strategic Objectives · National Ignition Facility (NIF) · National Ignition Campaign (NIC · The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser is on track for completion in FY09. · The National Ignition Campaign

29

ICF Program StatusSNL Z Facility UR/LLE OMEGA Presented to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the NIF Project National Nuclear Security Administration October 12, 2005 #12;2 Key points · The stockpile-based stewardship program will enable this transformation #12;National Nuclear Security Administration Office Acting Director Scott L. Samuelson NA-162 NA-10 National Nuclear Security Administration Office

30

LLNL Contribution to LLE FY09 Annual Report: NIC and HED Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In FY09, LLNL led 238 target shots on the OMEGA Laser System. Approximately half of these LLNL-led shots supported the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The remainder was dedicated to experiments for the high-energy-density stewardship experiments (HEDSE). Objectives of the LLNL led NIC campaigns at OMEGA included: (1) Laser-plasma interaction studies in physical conditions relevant for the NIF ignition targets; (2) Demonstration of Tr = 100 eV foot symmetry tuning using a reemission sphere; (3) X-ray scattering in support of conductivity measurements of solid density Be plasmas; (4) Experiments to study the physical properties (thermal conductivity) of shocked fusion fuels; (5) High-resolution measurements of velocity nonuniformities created by microscopic perturbations in NIF ablator materials; (6) Development of a novel Compton Radiography diagnostic platform for ICF experiments; and (7) Precision validation of the equation of state for quartz. The LLNL HEDSE campaigns included the following experiments: (1) Quasi-isentropic (ICE) drive used to study material properties such as strength, equation of state, phase, and phase-transition kinetics under high pressure; (2) Development of a high-energy backlighter for radiography in support of material strength experiments using Omega EP and the joint OMEGA-OMEGA-EP configuration; (3) Debris characterization from long-duration, point-apertured, point-projection x-ray backlighters for NIF radiation transport experiments; (4) Demonstration of ultrafast temperature and density measurements with x-ray Thomson scattering from short-pulse laser-heated matter; (5) The development of an experimental platform to study nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) physics using direct-drive implosions; (6) Opacity studies of high-temperature plasmas under LTE conditions; and (7) Characterization of copper (Cu) foams for HEDSE experiments.

Heeter, R F; Landen, O L; Hsing, W W; Fournier, K B

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Desert RATS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This helps the D-RATS team determine the system requirements necessary for exploring distant locations while exploration methods, equipment and tools developed in laboratory settings in a real world environment developing the technical skills required of the next generation of explorers. Desert RATS is one of a suite

32

Sub-threshold spinal cord stimulation facilitates spontaneous motor activity in spinal rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

facilitates spontaneous motor activity in spinal rats.facilitates spontaneous motor activity in spinal rats Paragtreadmill (electrical enabling motor control, eEmc) after a

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

What Connects Rat Tails to Cancer and Heart Disease?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What Connects Rat Tails to Cancer and Heart Disease? Collagen is the main (and most abundant) protein in all mammalian connective tissues, including those of the heart, lungs,...

34

The Omega Laser FaciLiTy Users grOUp WOrkshOp LLE Review, Volume 120 161  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(NNSA) already allocated for student/postdoctoral travel expenses. #12;The Omega Laser FaciLiTy Users gr Administration (NNSA) mission. The next section of this article contains a summary of the range of presentations-two students and postdoctoral fellows (Fig. 120.2), 27 of whom were supported by travel grants from NNSA

35

The Third Omega Laser FaciLiTy Users'grOUp WOrkshOp LLE Review, Volume 128250  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

students and postdoctoral fellows, 44 of whom received travel assistance from an NNSA grant, attended and postdoctoral fellows, 44 of whom were supported by travel grants from NNSA, attended the workshop and presented Cook, NNSA's Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs, talked to the OMEGA Users about NNSA

36

Modification of radiation damage in rat spinal cord by mitotane  

SciTech Connect

Modification of the paralytic response in rats after 6-MV photon irradiation of the spinal cord with either single or split exposures (two equal fractions given in a 24-hour period) by mitotane was investigated. Mitotane was administered as a suspension in physiologic saline (300 mg/kg/day) for either 5 days prior to or 5 days after irradiation. For rats receiving split doses of 6-MV photons, either the last two doses of mitotane were given 2 hours prior to each radiation fraction or mitotane was begun 2 hours after the second fraction and continued for 5 days. The data to 6 months after irradiation indicate that, in rats given mitotane for 5 days prior to single-dose photon irradiation, the paralytic response (as defined by the dose needed to produce paralysis in 50% of the irradiated groups of rats) was enhanced by a dose-enhancement factor (DEF) of 1.40. The DEF in the group of rats given mitotane after single doses of 6-MV photons was 1.15. In the split-dose irradiation experiments, the DEF for the groups of rats given mitotane prior to each radiation fraction was 1.36; while the DEF for the group of rats receiving mitotane beginning after the second fraction was 1.18. These data indicate that mitotane can potentiate the effects of 6-MV photon irradiation to the central nervous system, with mitotane administered prior to irradiation being the most effective sequence.

Glicksman, A.S.; Bliven, S.F.; Leith, J.T.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Quantitation of products from riboflavin in rat urine  

SciTech Connect

When (2-/sup 14/C) riboflavin is injected i.p. into rats, the excreted vitamin in urine and feces has been shown to be the intact vitamin with trace amounts of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Recent findings with /sup 14/C-riboflavin fed to rats indicated higher levels of riboflavin catabolites in urine, e.g., 7- and 8-carboxylumichromes. The authors have determined catabolites in urine from male rats fed 0, 2, and 6 ..mu..g riboflavin/g diet/day for six weeks. Two rats from each group were placed weekly in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 hours. On the fourth week, a third animal from each group received an i.p. injection of /sup 14/C-riboflavin and the urine was collected for 48 hours. Urine samples were extracted with phenol for flavin components and with chloroform for derivatives of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Riboflavin was the predominant flavin excreted by all diet groups with trace amounts of coenzymes and 7- and 8-hydroxymethylriboflavin. Riboflavin accounted for 85% of all the radioactivity recovered from the deficient and sufficient rats and 90% in rats fed excess. Lumichrome-type compounds including carboxylumichromes accounted for only a few % of recovered radioactivity. Thus, these components are primarily a product of intestinal microfloral degradation rather than significant tissue catabolites of riboflavin.

Chastain, J.L.; McCormick, D.B.

1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

38

The effect of dietary Cu and diabetes on indices of Cu nutriture in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The uptake-retention of 67Cu is affected by dietary Cu and diabetes. Consequently, the functional activities of select enzymes and tissue Cu status were assessed. STZ-diabetic and control rats were fed Cu suppl. or def. diets. Rats were gavaged with 28 {mu}Ci 67Cu, and killed 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h later. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic; with no effect of diet. Plasma ceruloplasmin activity (Cp) was lower in Cu def. rats; diabetic rats tended to have higher Cp than controls. Cu def. rats had low Cu levels in liver, kidney and plasma. Cu suppl. diabetic rats had higher liver and kidney Cu compared to Cu def. diabetic rats. Gel chromatography of liver showed that with time, there was a transfer of 67Cu from low to higher MW ligands. In nondiabetic rats, more 67Cu was associated with the higher MW ligands. The converse was observed for diabetic rats. There was no effect of diabetes on liver 67Cu localization. Diabetic rats had higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations in liver and kidney compared to controls Cu deficiency lowered MT values in both diabetic and control rats. CuZn SOD Cu activity was lowered with Cu def. and diabetes, while Mn SOD activity was similar among groups. Plasma lipid peroxide levels were lower in diabetic rats than controls. The results show that Cu metabolism is affected in diabetes, and the changes are functionally significant.

Rucker, R.B.; Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Tinker, D.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

1991-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

39

Antidotal effectiveness of activated charcoal in rats  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to investigate the relative adsorption of radiolabeled /sup 14/C-sodium pentobarbital by three types of activated charcoal. Factors affection adsorption of the drug by SuperChar, United States Pharmacopeia (USP), and Darco G-60 activated charcoals with surface areas of 2800-3500 m2/g, 1000 m/sup 2//g, and 650 m/sup 2//g, respectively, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, the drug was dissolved in water of 70% sorbitol (w/v), and the maximum binding capacity and dissociation constants for each of the charcoals were calculated. Rank order of maximum binding capacity was directly proportional to charcoal surface area in both water and sorbitol, while the dissociation constants for the charcoals in water were not different. For in vivo experiments, absorption of orally administered sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) was studied in rats with and without activated charcoal administration. The results of this research suggest that: (1) SuperChar given in water possesses the greatest antidotal efficacy, (2) sorbitol induced catharsis does not reduce oral absorption of sodium pentobarbital, and (3) sorbitol enhances the antidotal efficacy of USP charcoal.

Curd-Sneed, C.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Atrial natriuretic polypeptide-like material in rat lung  

SciTech Connect

Atrial natriuretic polypeptide-like immunoreactive material (ANP-IR) was found in rat lung by radioimmunoassay, with the concentration ranging from 0.6-1.2 pmol/g of tissue in each lobe. PAP-immunohistochemical study demonstrated that specific staining of granules for ..cap alpha..-human ANP are mainly located in the muscular layer of the pulmonary vein. Fractionation of lung extract by gel filtration and reserve phase HPLC revealed the presence of multiple forms of ANP-IR, which possibly possessed molecular structure partially different from rat ANP, atriopeptin I and III. Intravenous injection of lung extract induced potent diuresis and natriuresis in rats. These responses could be abolished when the lung extract was preincubated with antiserum for ..cap alpha..-human ANP. Specific binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled rat ANP were also found in lung membrane preparation by radioreceptor assay. Incubation of synthetic atriopeptin III (10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -6/M) with lung tissue induced 1-28 fold increase in lung cGMP content. The results suggest that ANP-IR and its receptors existing in rat lung may be involved in the regulation of pulmonary function and have a synergic effect with ANP of cardiac origin in the control of water-electrolytes balance.

Chang, J.K.; Chang, D.; Xie, C.W.; Song, D.L.; Li, X.R.; Zhang, S.X.; Wang, T.L.; Tang, J.

1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in the rat brain  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the localization, kinetics, and regulation of receptors for the circulating form of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; 99-126) in the rat brain. Quantitative autoradiographic techniques and a /sup 125/I-labeled ligand, /sup 125/I-ANP (99-126), were employed. After in vitro autoradiography, quantification was achieved by computerized microdensitometry followed by comparison with /sup 125/I-standards. ANP receptors were discretely localized in the rat brain, with the highest concentrations in circumventricular organs, the choroid plexus, and selected hypothalamic nuclei involved in the production of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin and in blood-pressure control. Spontaneously (genetic) hypertensive rats showed much lower numbers of ANP receptors than normotensive controls in the subfornical organ, the area postrema, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the choroid plexus. These changes are in contrast to those observed for receptors of angiotensin II, another circulating peptide with actions opposite to those of ANP. Under conditions of acute dehydration after water deprivation, as well as under conditions of chronic dehydration such as those present in homozygous Brattleboro rats, there was an up-regulation of ANP receptors in the subfornical organ. Our results indicate that in the brain, circumventricular organs contain ANP receptors which could respond to variations in the concentration of circulating ANP. In addition, brain areas inside the blood-brain barrier contain ANP receptors probably related to the endogenous, central ANP system. The localization of ANP receptors and the alterations in their regulation present in genetically hypertensive rats and after dehydration indicate that brain ANP receptors are probably related to fluid regulation, including the secretion of vasopressin, and to cardiovascular function.

Saavedra, J.M.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue sup 67 Cu retention kinetics in rats  

SciTech Connect

Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 {mu}Ci {sup 67}Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on {sup 67}Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained {sup 67}Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted.

Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

1991-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

43

Sequence analysis of the rat Brca1 homolog and its promoter region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

dog, and human to help identify the important functional domains ... regions among the rat, mouse, and human genes. .... resulted in Taq polymerase errors.

44

Effect of Low Dose Radiation on Antioxidant Levels in Rat Brain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Radiation on Antioxidant Levels in Rat Brain Mohan Doss Fox Chase Cancer Center Abstract Background: Parkinsons disease (PD) is characterized by progressive...

45

PyRAT - python radiography analysis tool (u)  

SciTech Connect

PyRAT is a radiography analysis tool used to reconstruction images of unknown 1-0 objects. The tool is written in Python and developed for use on LINUX and Windows platforms. The tool is capable of performing nonlinear inversions of the images with minimal manual interaction in the optimization process. The tool utilizes the NOMAD mixed variable optimization tool to perform the optimization.

Temple, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buescher, Kevin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstrong, Jerawan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Extraction of erythropoietin from normal kidneys. [Rats, dogs  

SciTech Connect

Significant amounts of active erythropoietin were extracted from the kidneys of normal rats, cattle, dogs, and rabbits by homogenization of the organs in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The mean erythropoietin activities of the extracts, as determined by the starved-rat assay, were 0.26 U/g beef kidney, 0.41 U/g dog kidney, and 0.11 U/g rat kidney. The dog kidney extracts had a mean activity of 0.35 U/g, as measured by stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in cultured bone marrow cells (in vitro assay) and produced a dose-dependent stimulation of /sup 59/Fe incorporation into circulating red cells when assayed in polycythemic mice. Extracts of rabbit kidney cortices had a mean activity of 2.12 U/g, as measured by stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in cultured bone marrow cells. When the dog kidney homogenate was fractionated on DEAE-cellulose, all of the erythropoietin activity was adsorbed to the exchanger in the presence of 0.01 M acetate buffer, pH 4.5, and was completely eluted by 0.1 M Na/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/-0.5 M NaCl, pH 8. An antibody made aganist human urinary erythropoietin completely inactivated the erythropoietic factor in the dog kidney extract. Serum from a donor dog had no erythropoietin activity when assayed in the starved rat, suggesting that the factor in the extracts is intracellular erythropoietin rather than that contained in plasma trapped in the renal vasculature. The complete inactivation of the erythropoietic factor in these kidney homogenates by antierythropoietin and its behavior on DEAE-cellulose indicate that this factor is structurally similar to native plasma erythropoietin. The extracts are completely active without being incubated in the presence of serum.

Sherwood, J.B.; Goldwasser, E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Relaxation Time Constants and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Rat Retina at 7 Tesla  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relaxation Time Constants and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Rat Retina at 7 Tesla Govind Nair* and ADC of the rat eyes were measured at 50 3 50 3 800 lm at 7 Tesla. Profiles of T1, T2, T2* and ADC

Duong, Timothy Q.

48

EXCRETION OF ALPHA-FOETOPROTEIN IN THE URINE OF PREGNANT RATS AND HEPATOMA-BEARING ANIMALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary.-Urine of normal rats, pregnant animals and animals bearing chemically induced hepatoma was tested with antisera to foetoproteins by the double immunodiffusion technique. Antigens were not detected in the urine of normal rats. Alpha-foetoprotein was demonstrated in the urine of pregnant rats and hepatomabearing animals. THREE specific embryonic proteins have been described in the rat. One antigen, the lipoprotein esterase, is present in the serum of the adult animal in minute amounts. The other two constituents, alpha-foetoprotein and alpha-M-foetoprotein, formerly termed LA antigen and alpha-2-glycoprotein, normally occur in the serum of the foetus, neonate and pregnant rat (Stanislawski-Birencwajg, 1967). Alpha-M-foetoprotein also appears in the serum of rats with acute toxic liver injury and following a variety of experimental procedures (van Gool and Ladiges, 1969; Heim and Lane, 1964). On the other hand, both foetoproteins are detected in the serum of rats with chemically induced hepatoma (Stanislawski-Birencwajg, Uriel and Grabar,. 1967). Since the alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) is present in the amniotic fluid, to which foetal urine contributes substantially (Pitkin, Reynolds and Burchell, 1968; Vernier and Smith, 1968), it is surprising that urinary excretion in the adult has received little attention (Masseyeff, 1972). In the rat, urinary excretion of non-plasma proteins, i.e. tissue antigens emanating from the accessory sex glands, kidneys, liver and testes, has been reported from

E. Okon; E. Rosenmann; T. Dishont; J. H. Boss

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Norepinephrine uptake by rat jejunum: Modulation by angiotensin II  

SciTech Connect

Angiotensin II (ANG II) is believed to stimulate sodium and water absorption from the small intestine by enhancing sympathetic nerve transmission. This study is designed to determine whether ANG II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission within the small intestine by inhibition norepinephrine (NE) uptake. Intracellular NE accumulation by rat jejunum was concentration dependent and resolved into high- and low-affinity components. The high-affinity component (uptake 1) exhibited a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 1.72 {mu}M and a maximum velocity (V{sub max}) of 1.19 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. The low-affinity component (uptake 2) exhibited a K{sub m} of 111.1 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 37.1 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. Cocaine, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake, inhibited the intracellular accumulation of label by 80%. Treatment of animals with 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals, also attenuated NE uptake by 60%. Thus accumulation within sympathetic nerves constitutes the major form of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake into rat jejunum. ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. At a dose of 1 mM, ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation by 60%. Cocaine failed to potentiate the inhibition of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake produced by ANG II. Thus ANG II appears to prevent ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation within rat jejunum by inhibiting neuronal uptake.

Suvannapura, A.; Levens, N.R. (CIBA-GEIGY Corp., Summit, NJ (USA))

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Effect of co-exposure and cadmium in rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metabolism and toxicity of heavy metals may be influenced by certain factors such as protein malnutrition, essential element deficiency or alcoholism. Ethanol has been found to enhance the absorption of lead in body and alcoholics have been reported to be more susceptible to lead intoxication. As alcoholism may be common among industry workers and a significant section of population, who may be exposed to cadmium, it was considered of interest to investigate the influence of ethanol-cadmium co-exposure on cadmium sensitive hepatic, renal and serum enzymes, tissue accumulation of cadmium, essential trace element status and cadmium induced hepatic metallothione in synthesis in rats.

Tandon, S.K.; Tewari, P.C.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A highly sensitive radioreceptor assay for atrial natriuretic peptide in rat plasma  

SciTech Connect

To enable serial measurements of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations in the rat, a microradioreceptor assay (RRA) for this hormone was developed. Glomerular microsomes bearing ANP receptors were used to bind ANP. The smallest quantity of ANP detectable by this method was 0.2 fmol/sample. By contrast, a radioimmunoassay for ANP was sensitive to 2.4 fmol/sample. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation for the RRA were 4.1 and 11.6%, respectively. Recovery of 10, 20, 50, and 100 pM synthetic ANP added to unextracted rat plasma was essentially 100%. Biologically inactive, synthetic amino- and carboxy-terminal ANP fragments added to rat plasma were not detected. Plasma ANP was stable when measured four consecutive times at 90-min intervals in 10 fasting rats. In a separate group of rats, fasting plasma ANP levels averaged 34 {plus minus} 3 and rose to 57 {plus minus} 5 pM in the postprandial state, whereas levels in fasting time controls remained constant. It is concluded that the RRA for ANP described here detects ANP in microliter quantities of unextracted rat plasma. Thus serial measurements of ANP concentrations can be undertaken in rats without inducing major changes in the volume status.

Ballermann, B.J. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and/or triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism.

Finch, John M. [Inveresk Research, Tranent EH33 2NE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Osimitz, Thomas G. [Science Strategies LLC, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States)]. E-mail: perseus1@worldnet.att.net; Gabriel, Karl L. [ConTox Ltd, Fort Washington, PA 19034-0368 (United States); Martin, Tom [Inveresk Research, Tranent EH33 2NE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Henderson, Wendy J. [Inveresk Research, Tranent EH33 2NE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Capen, Charles C. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43082 (United States); Butler, William H. [Glebe Cottage, Big Common Lane, Bletchingley, Surrey RH14QE, England (United Kingdom); Lake, Brian G. [BIBRA International Ltd, Woodmansterne Road, Carshalton, Surrey SM5 4DS, England (United Kingdom); Centre for Toxicology, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, England (United Kingdom)

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Exercise training modulates apoptotic signaling in the aging rat heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in cardiac function. A critical contributor to the age-related impairment in heart function is the loss of cardiac myocytes through ??apoptosis??, or programmed cell death. A dramatic increase in the rate of apoptosis has been reported with aging in the rat left ventricle. In contrast, exercise training not only improves cardiac function, but also reduces the risk of heart disease. However, the ability of exercise training to modulate apoptotic signaling and apoptosis in the aging heart remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on apoptotic signaling and apoptosis in the aging heart. We hypothesized that (1) aging would increase pro-apoptotic signaling and apoptosis in the rat left ventricle, and (2) exercise training would ameliorate upregulation of Bcl-2 family-driven apoptosis in the heart. Four and 25 month old Fischer-344 rats were assigned to four groups: young control (YC), young trained (YT), old control (OC), and old trained (OT). Exercise training groups ran on a treadmill for 60 min/day at 15 m/min (15? incline), 5 d/wk for 12 wk. Protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3 was measured using Western immunoblot analysis. Apoptosis (DNA fragmentation) was assessed using a cell death detection ELISA. Bax levels in OC were dramatically higher (+176.0%) compared to YC. In contrast, exercise training resulted in a significant decrease (-53.4%) in Bax in OT compared to OC. Bcl-2 levels in OC were lower (-26.3%) compared to YC. Conversely, exercise training significantly increased Bcl-2 levels by 117.8% in OT compared to OC. Caspase-9 levels were higher (+98.7%) in OC than YC, while exercise training significantly reduced caspase-9 levels in YT (-52.6%) and OT (-76.9%), respectively. Aging resulted in a dramatic increase (+122.8%) in cleaved caspase-3 levels and a significant decrease (-32.9%) with exercise training. Finally, apoptosis (DNA fragmentation) significantly increased (+163.8%) with aging and decreased (-43.9%) with exercise training. These novel data indicate that aging increases pro-apoptotic signaling and apoptosis in the left ventricle, while exercise training is effective in diminishing pro-apoptotic signaling and apoptosis in the aging heart.

Kwak, Hyo Bum

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 13 CLA and Bone Modeling in Rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 13 CLA and Bone Modeling in Rats Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 13 C

55

Particulate oil shale inhalation and pulmonary inflammatory response in rats  

SciTech Connect

This experiment detrimetal that long-term inhalation of shale dusts by rats elicits a limited inflammatory response in the lung less profound than that observed in animals exposed to equivalent levels of quartz alone. This observation suggests that organic and inorganic constituents of shale may provide a protective effect. The implications for fibrogenic disease are two-fold: (1) inhalation of oil shale dusts appeared to be less detriemtal than the inhalation of quartz along, and (2) there was no apparent synergistic action of quartz and the complex of organic materials present in shale. Animals exposed to shale dusts failed to develop any significant lung lesions, while all of the animals exposed to quartz developed granulomas and some frank fibrosis.

Wilson, J.S.; Holland, L.M.; Halleck, M.S.; Martinez, E.; Saunders, G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Ultrastructural changes in rat hepatocytes following acute methyl mercury intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Male rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight for 4 days. The earliest ultrastructural changes consisted of dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, wavy transformation of the mitochondrial membranes and occasional accumulation of liposomes. Focal areas of cytoplasmic degradation were observed 1 day after the initial administration of mercury. An increased number of lysosomes as well as swelling and floccular degeneration of the mitochondria were frequently observed at 2 days. Sequestration of cytoplasmic organelles within the hepatocytes, extrusion of degenerated hepatic organelles and cytoplasmic debris into the sinusoid could be observed 24 hours after the initial mercury administration and became a frequent finding after 4 days of intoxication. (auth)

Desnoyers, P.A.; Chang, L.W.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Endotoxin suppresses surfactant synthesis in cultured rat lung cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulmonary complications secondary to postburn sepsis are a major cause of death in burned patients. Using an in vitro organotypic culture system, we examined the effect of E. coli endotoxin (LPS) on lung cell surfactant synthesis. Our results showed that E. coli endotoxin (1.0, 2.5, 10 micrograms LPS/ml) was capable of suppressing the incorporation of /sup 3/H-choline into de novo synthesized surfactant, lamellar bodies (LB), and common myelin figures (CMF) at 50%, 68%, and 64%, respectively. In a similar study, we were able to show that LPS also inhibited /sup 3/H-palmitate incorporation by cultured lung cells. LPS-induced suppression of surfactant synthesis was reversed by hydrocortisone. Our results suggest that LPS may play a significant role in reducing surfactant synthesis by rat lung cells, and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis-related respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in burn injury.

Li, J.J.; Sanders, R.L.; McAdam, K.P.; Gelfand, J.A.; Burke, J.F.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Cocaine hypophagia and hyperlocomotion in rats before and after exposure to a high-fat diet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relatively few studies have examined the effects of psychostimulants in obese subjects. Using the dietary obese rat model, the present experiments determined the reductions in food intake (hypophagia) and increases in locomotion (hyperlocomotion) induced by cocaine in diet-induced obese prone (DIO-prone) rats and diet resistant prone (DR-prone) rats as well as diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and diet resistant (DR) rats. In Experiment 1, thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were given intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injections of cocaine (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) immediately prior to placement into locomotor chambers outfitted with a food source and a water source for a 60-minute test period. In Experiment 2, the same rats were exposed to a high-fat diet, and were subsequently divided into groups according to the extent of the weight gain (high weight gainers ? DIO group, low weight gainers ? DR group, and residual weight gainers ? MIX group). The rats were retested for reactivity to cocaine using conditions similar to those in Experiment 1. Rats injected with cocaine prior to high-fat exposure (Experiment 1) showed a dose dependent suppression of food intake, as well as a dose dependent increase in locomotor activity, with DR-prone rats exhibiting an enhanced degree of cocaine-induced hypophagia, as well as cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion as compared to the other groups. In Experiment 2, DIO rats exhibited a suppression of food intake after injection of 10 mg/kg cocaine, as well as an increase in locomotor activity that was significantly greater than noted in the other groups. When the results of Experiment 1 were analyzed as a function of prospective body weight gain (as opposed to placement into distinct groups), reactivity to cocaine decreased as body weight gain increased. In contrast, after high-fat exposure and weight gain, increased body weight gain was associated with an increased magnitude of suppression in food intake after cocaine administration. Similar patterns of differential cocaine sensitivity were observed for cocaine hyperlocomotion in Experiment 2. These studies indicate that although the propensity to develop obesity is associated with a diminished cocaine response, cocaine reactivity is enhanced after the induction of obesity.

Ho, Dao Hong

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Biomethylation of inorganic arsenic by the rat and some laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

This article concerns the distribution (in the liver, kidney and blood) and excretion (in the urine, feces and bile) of arsenic metabolites such as dimethylated, monomethylated and inorganic arsenic in rats following a single oral and intravenous (iv) administration of arsenic acid. This paper also describes studies on the species difference in the arsenic methylation between the rats and some other laboratory animals as mice, hamsters, rabbits and cats.

Odanaka, Y.; Matano, O.; Goto, S.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Automated whole-genome multiple alignment of rat, mouse, and human  

SciTech Connect

We have built a whole genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline which combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment, and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes; and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: <7% of the rat contigs are aligned to multiple places in human and 97% of all alignments with human sequence > 100kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment; and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present.

Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

2004-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

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61

Age-related changes in receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in various regions of rat brain  

SciTech Connect

The effects of age on cholinergic markers and receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was examined in the frontal cortex and striatum of male Fischer-344 rats. Choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased 27% in the striatum of aged rats compared to young controls. Muscarinic receptor density as measured by ({sup 3}H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding showed a similar 26% decrease in the striatum of aged rats. Phosphoinositide hydrolysis was measured by the release of inositol phosphate (IP) from tissue slices prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)myoinositol in response to carbachol, norepinephrine, and quisqualate. In the cortex, stimulated IP release was significantly greater in slices from aged rats compared to young rats for all three agonists. In contrast, stimulated IP release was significantly decreased in striatal slices from aged rats compared to young for all three agonists. These data indicate a differential effect of age on agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the cortex and striatum. The decreased responsiveness in the latter area may result from the age-related loss of postsynaptic receptors.

Mundy, W.; Tandon, P.; Tilson, H. (Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Ali, S. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Autoradiographic localization and characterization of angiotensin II binding sites in the spleen of rats and mice  

SciTech Connect

Specific binding sites for angiotensin II (Ang II) were localized in the red pulp of the spleen of rats and mice by quantitative autoradiography using /sup 125/I-Sar1-Ang II as a ligand. In the rat, the binding was saturable and specific, and the rank order for Ang II derivatives as competitors of /sup 125/I-Sar1-Ang II binding correlates well with their affinity for Ang II receptors in other tissues. Kinetic analysis in the rat spleen revealed a single class of binding sites with a KD of 1.11 nM and a Bmax value of 81.6 fmol/mg protein. Ang II binding sites were also localized on isolated rat spleen cells with similar affinity but with much lower Bmax, 9.75 fmol/mg protein. Ang II receptors were not detected in thymus sections from rats or mice, or on isolated rat thymocytes. The binding sites described here might represent a functional Ang II receptor with a role in the regulation of splenic volume and blood flow and in the modulation of the lymphocyte function.

Castren, E.; Kurihara, M.; Saavedra, J.M.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Establishing a rodent (Fischer 344 rat) model of mild cognitive impairment in aging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mild Cognitive Impairment is characterized by age-related decline in a variety of cognitive domains, including reference and working memory and olfactory function. Importantly, declining age-related mnemonic abilities is not inevitable; learning and memory deficits emerge in some people by middle-age while others remain largely cognitively-intact even at advanced chronological ages. The goal of this thesis is to establish a Fischer 344 (F344) rat model with some features of human cognitive aging which can then be utilized to undercover the neurobiological underpinnings of age-related cognitive deficits. Young (6 mo), middle-aged (11 mo), and aged (22 mo) F344 rats were behaviorally characterized in a well-established reference memory version of the Morris water maze task. Indeed, age-related impairments did occur across the lifespan. Moreover, the reference memory protocol used here was sufficiently sensitive to detect a difference in individual abilities among aged F344 rats such that approximately half of the rats performed on par with young while the other half performed outside this range, demonstrating impairment. These data mimic individual differences in declarative memory among aged humans. Subsequently, subsets of rats initially characterized on the reference memory version of the water maze were tested on either a spatial working memory water maze task or an olfactory discrimination task. Despite detecting an age-related delay-dependent decline in spatial working memory, this impairment was not correlated with spatial reference memory. In contrast, a strong and significant relationship was observed among aged rats in the odor discrimination task such that aged rats with the worst spatial reference memory were also the most impaired in their ability to discriminate odors for a food reward. Importantly, this subset of cognitively-impaired rats was not impaired on digging media discrimination problems with identical task demands, nor were they anosmic. These data are among the first to demonstrate a cross-domain cognitive deficit in a rodent model of human aging. Together, the current study both confirms the use of the naturalistic F344 rat model for the study of cognitive deficits within the context of aging and provides the most comprehensive cognitive profile of this rat population to date.

LaSarge, Candi Lynn

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

In vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in human and rat skin  

SciTech Connect

Dermal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides can occur during manufacture and application. This study examined the in vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroids using rat and human skin. Dermatomed skin from adult male Long Evans rats or human cadavers was mounted in flow-through diffusion cells, and radiolabeled bifenthrin, deltamethrin or cis-permethrin was applied in acetone to the skin. Fractions of receptor fluid were collected every 4 h. At 24 h, the skins were washed with soap and water to remove unabsorbed chemical. The skin was then solubilized. Two additional experiments were performed after washing the skin; the first was tape-stripping the skin and the second was the collection of receptor fluid for an additional 24 h. Receptor fluid, skin washes, tape strips and skin were analyzed for radioactivity. For rat skin, the wash removed 53-71% of the dose and 26-43% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid ranged from 1 to 5%. For human skin, the wash removed 71-83% of the dose and 14-25% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid was 1-2%. Tape-stripping removed 50-56% and 79-95% of the dose in rat and human skin, respectively, after the wash. From 24-48 h, 1-3% and about 1% of the dose diffused into the receptor fluid of rat and human skin, respectively. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, deltamethrin and cis-permethrin penetrated rat and human skin following dermal application in vitro. However, a skin wash removed 50% or more of the dose from rat and human skin. Rat skin was more permeable to the pyrethroids than human skin. Of the dose in skin, 50% or more was removed by tape-stripping, suggesting that permeation of pyrethroids into viable tissue could be impeded. The percentage of the dose absorbed into the receptor fluid was considerably less than the dose in rat and human skin. Therefore, consideration of the skin type used and fractions analyzed are important when using in vitro dermal absorption data for risk assessment.

Hughes, Michael F., E-mail: hughes.michaelf@epa.go [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Edwards, Brenda C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Extracellular calcium sensing in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) can act as a first messenger in many cell types through a G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). It is still debated whether the CaR is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we report the expression of CaR mRNA and protein in rat aortic VSMCs and show that Ca2+o stimulates proliferation of the cells. The effects of Ca2+o were attenuated by pre-treatment with MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor, as well as an allosteric modulator, NPS 2390. Furthermore, stimulation of the VSMCs with Ca2+o-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but surprisingly did not cause inositol phosphate accumulation. We were not able to conclusively state that the CaR mediates Ca2+o-induced cell proliferation. Rather, an additional calcium-sensing mechanism may exist. Our findings may be of importance with regard to atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of VSMCs and high local levels of calcium.

Smajilovic, Sanela [Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmia (DARC), Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, Jakob Lerche [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmia (DARC), Copenhagen (Denmark); Christoffersen, Tue E.H. [Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmia (DARC), Copenhagen (Denmark)] (and others)

2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

66

Automated whole-genome multiple alignment of rat, mouse, and human  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have built a whole genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline which combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment, and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes; and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: 100kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment; and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present.

Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

2004-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

67

Endogenous N-nitroso compounds, and their precursors, present in bacon, do not initiate or promote aberrant crypt foci in the colon of rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

groups of 10 rats, whose diets contained 7, 14 or 28 fat. Tested meats were bacon, pork, chicken and beef by the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of rats, 45 days after the start of a high-fat bacon similar. Rats fed a diet based on beef, pork or chicken meat had less fecal NOC than controls (most p

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Genome sequence of the brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90 percent of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.

Gibbs, Richard A.; Weinstock, George M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Scherer, Steven; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Worley, Kim C.; Burch, Paula E.; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Hines, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; DeRamo, Christine; Delgado, Oliver; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Miner, George; Morgan, Margaret; Hawes, Alicia; Gill, Rachel; Holt, Robert A.; Adams, Mark D.; Amanatides, Peter G.; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Barnstead, Mary; Chin, Soo; Evans, Cheryl A.; Ferriera, Steven; Fosler, Carl; Glodek, Anna; Gu, Zhiping; Jennings, Don; Kraft, Cheryl L.; Nguyen, Trixie; Pfannkoch, Cynthia M.; Sitter, Cynthia; Sutton, Granger G.; Venter, J. Craig; Woodage, Trevor; Smith, Douglas; Lee, Hong-Maei; Gustafson, Erik; Cahill, Patrick; Kana, Arnold; Doucette-Stamm, Lynn; Weinstock, Keith; Fechtel, Kim; Weiss, Robert B.; Dunn, Diane M.; Green, Eric D.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhu, Baoli; Marra, Marco; Schein, Jacqueline; Bosdet, Ian; Fjell, Chris; Jones, Steven; Krzywinski, Martin; Mathewson, Carrie; Siddiqui, Asim; Wye, Natasja; McPherson, John; Zhao, Shaying; Fraser, Claire M.; Shetty, Jyoti; Shatsman, Sofiya; Geer, Keita; Chen, Yixin; Abramzon, Sofyia; Nierman, William C.; Havlak, Paul H.; Chen, Rui; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Ren, Yanru; Song, Xing-Zhi; Li, Bingshan; Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Cawley, Simon; Cooney, A.J.; D'Souza, Lisa M.; Martin, Kirt; Wu, Jia Qian; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Jackson, Andrew R.; Kalafus, Kenneth J.; McLeod, Michael P.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Virk, Davinder; Volkov, Andrei; Wheeler, David A.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Tuzun, Eray; Birney, Ewan; Mongin, Emmanuel; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Woodwark, Cara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Bork, Peer; Suyama, Mikita; Torrents, David; Alexandersson, Marina; Trask, Barbara J.; Young, Janet M.; et al.

2004-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

69

Environmental Lighting Has a Selective Influence on Ethanol Intake in Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rats. PHYSIOL BEHAV 66(2) 323328, 1999.The effect of lighting condition on levels of absolute ethanol intake were systematically examined in the present study. Wistar rats were exposed to one of three lighting conditions: constant light, constant dark, and a standard 12?12 light/dark cycle. The animals were acclimatized to lighting conditions for 2 weeks prior to ethanol (EtOH) acquisition with water and food available ad lib. EtOH was then presented in increasing concentrations from 2 % (v/v; 95 % with tap water) to 10 % on alternate days in free choice with water. Immediately following the acquisition phase, a maintenance period was initiated that began with everyday presentations of 10 % EtOH solution in free choice with water. After 10 days, lighting conditions for the constant light and dark groups were switched to normal lighting (12/12 light/ dark). EtOH and water intake were recorded for an additional 10 days. Rats exposed to constant light during EtOH acquisition and maintenance consumed less EtOH during the maintenance period than rats exposed to normal lighting conditions. When lighting conditions were switched to a normal cycle, water consumption increased significantly but EtOH intake did not change. Rats living in constant dark during EtOH acquisition and maintenance consumed less EtOH during the acquisition period when compared with rats living in normal lighting conditions. Unlike animals trained under constant lighting, switching to normal lighting conditions had no effect on EtOH or water intake. There were no differences in water consumption levels among the groups during acquisition and maintenance, suggesting a specificity of the effects of lighting condition on EtOH intake. The present study, therefore, has attempted to show that an environmental variable such as lighting may exert

F. L. W. Goodwin; S. Amir; Z. Amit

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

RADIATION-INDUCED CONDITIONED AVOIDANCE BEVIOR IN RATS, MICE, AND CATS  

SciTech Connect

Association of a distinctive taste stimulus with exposure to x rays results in a conditioned aversion toward the stimulus in rats, mice, and cats. This is manifested by a progressive reduction in the amount of flavored fluid consumed during a series of x-ray exposures and subsequently by the acquired value of the flavored fluid to act as a con- ditioned stiraulus for aversive behavior in the absence of radiation. Saccharin-flavored water was effective as a conditioned stimulus for rats and mice, and chocolateflavored milk was effective for cats. Some implications of these observations for the study of behavior are discussed. (auth)

Kimeldorf, D.J.; Garcia, J.; Rubadeau, D.O.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Dietary quercetin exacerbates the development of estrogen-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E{sub 2}-induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E{sub 2} pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E{sub 2}-induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin + E{sub 2}-treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin + E{sub 2} group relative to those in the E{sub 2} group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin-exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F{sub 2{alpha}} (8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E{sub 2}-induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E{sub 2}-induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E{sub 2}-treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E{sub 2} and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E{sub 2} and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox cycling to estrogen metabolites, and thus quercetin may exacerbate E{sub 2}-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats.

Singh, Bhupendra [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Mense, Sarah M. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Bhat, Nimee K. [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Putty, Sandeep; Guthiel, William A. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Remotti, Fabrizio [Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Bhat, Hari K., E-mail: bhath@umkc.ed [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Mutations of the Apc gene in experimental colorectal carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane in F344 rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary We investigated in the rat the role of the Apc gene, which is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and sporadic colon cancer in the process leading from normal colonic mucosa to aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and finally to adenomas and adenocarcinomas. We analysed mutations in exon 15 of the rat Apc gene using in vitro synthesized protein assay in 66 ACF and in 28 colon tumours induced by azoxymethane. No Apc mutations were found in ACF, whereas five mutations were found in the tumours. The data suggest that mutations of the Apc gene are associated with the transition from ACF to adenoma and adenocarcinoma and not from normal mucosa to ACF.

G Caderni; M Bazzicalupo; C Briani; A Giannini; M Fazi; P Dolaral

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration  

SciTech Connect

Workplace exposure to 1-bromopropane (1-BrP) can potentially occur during its use in spray adhesives, fats, waxes, and resins. 1-BrP may be used to replace ozone depleting solvents, resulting in an increase in its annual production in the US, which currently exceeds 1 million pounds. The potential for human exposure to 1-BrP and the reports of adverse effects associated with potential occupational exposure to high levels of 1-BrP have increased the need for the development of biomarkers of exposure and an improved understanding of 1-BrP metabolism and disposition. In this study, the factors influencing the disposition and biotransformation of 1-BrP were examined in male F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following inhalation exposure (800 ppm) or intravenous administration (5, 20, and 100 mg/kg). [1,2,3-{sup 13}C]1-BrP and [1-{sup 14}C]1-BrP were administered to enable characterization of urinary metabolites using NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS/MS, and HPLC coupled radiochromatography. Exhaled breath volatile organic chemicals (VOC), exhaled CO{sub 2}, urine, feces, and tissues were collected for up to 48 h post-administration for determination of radioactivity distribution. Rats and mice exhaled a majority of the administered dose as either VOC (40-72%) or {sup 14}CO{sub 2} (10-30%). For rats, but not mice, the percentage of the dose exhaled as VOC increased between the mid ({approx} 50%) and high ({approx} 71%) dose groups; while the percentage of the dose exhaled as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} decreased (19 to 10%). The molar ratio of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to total released bromide, which decreased as dose increased, demonstrated that the proportion of 1-BrP metabolized via oxidation relative to pathways dependent on glutathione conjugation is inversely proportional to dose in the rat. [{sup 14}C]1-BrP equivalents were recovered in urine (13-17%, rats; 14-23% mice), feces (< 2%), or retained in the tissues and carcass (< 6%) of rats and mice administered i.v. 5 to 100 mg/kg [{sup 14}C]1-BrP. Metabolites characterized in urine of rats and mice include N-acetyl-S-propylcysteine, N-acetyl-3-(propylsulfinyl)alanine, N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)cysteine, 1-bromo-2-hydroxypropane-O-glucuronide, N-acetyl-S-(2-oxopropyl)cysteine, and N-acetyl-3-[(2-oxopropyl)sulfinyl]alanine. These metabolites may be formed following oxidation of 1-bromopropane to 1-bromo-2-propanol and bromoacetone and following subsequent glutathione conjugation with either of these compounds. Rats pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a potent inhibitor of P450 excreted less in urine ({down_arrow}30%), exhaled as {sup 14}CO2 ({down_arrow}80%), or retained in liver ({down_arrow}90%), with a concomitant increase in radioactivity expired as VOC ({up_arrow}52%). Following ABT pretreatment, rat urinary metabolites were reduced in number from 10 to 1, N-acetyl-S-propylcysteine, which accounted for > 90% of the total urinary radioactivity in ABT pretreated rats. Together, these data demonstrate a role for cytochrome P450 and glutathione in the dose-dependent metabolism and disposition of 1-BrP in the rat.

Garner, C.E. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)]. E-mail: cegarner@rti.org; Sumner, S.C.J. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Davis, J.G. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Burgess, J.P. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Yueh, Y. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Demeter, J. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Zhan, Q. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Valentine, J. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Jeffcoat, A.R. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Burka, L.T. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mathews, J.M. [Department of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE THYROID GLAND IN RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE IN TOTAL X-RAY IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of the thyroid gland of white male rats to x irradiation (800 r) depends upon the age and individual reactivity of the animal. In young rats the irradiation provokes marked changes in the thyroid gland, which in some instances are expressed by an insignificant rise of the activity (in the first hours and days after irradiation) followed by its decrease (from the 5th to 30th day). In other cases a drop of the activity is seen already in the first hours. In all rats of this group the thyroid gland reverts tu normal towards the second month. In adult rats (5- 7-month-old) the above dose of irradiation provokes less pronounced changes in the structure of the gland, as compared to young rats. Towards the l8th day after irradiation the structure of the thyroid gland normalizes. Irradiation (800 r) of old rats does not cause noticeable changes in the histological picture of the thyroid gland. In young rats with a severe course of radiation sickness, sacrificed in the agonal state on the 9th-l3th day following irradiation, there is a sharp drop of the thyroid gland activity. (auth)

Loskutova, E.A.

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Hyperamplification of centrosomes and asynchronous nuclear division induced by N-nitrosodimethylamine in rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanisms of hepatocyte multinucleation was investigated in rats exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). By using immunohistochemical reaction to ?-tubulin it was established that the number of cells containing three and more centrosomes increased ... Keywords: asynchronous DNA synthesis, centrosomes, cytochrome P4502E1, multinucleated hepatocytes, multipolar mitosis, oxidative stress

Bauyrzhan Umbayev; Tamara Shalakhmetova; William Au

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Pulmonary toxicity, distribution, and clearance of intratracheally instilled silicon nanowires in rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are being manufactured for use as sensors and transistors for circuit applications. The goal was to assess pulmonary toxicity and fate of Si NWusing an in vivo experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally ...

Jenny R. Roberts; Robert R. Mercer; Rebecca S. Chapman; Guy M. Cohen; Sarunya Bangsaruntip; Diane Schwegler-Berry; James F. Scabilloni; Vincent Castranova; James M. Antonini; Stephen S. Leonard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Increased angiotensin II receptors in brain nuclei of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors by in vitro autoradiography in selective brain nuclei of control, salt-treated (1% NaCl in drinking water), deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-treated (DOCA pivalate, 25 mg/kg sc weekly), and DOCA-salt-treated (DOCA + salt treatments) uninephrectomized male Wistar-Kyoto rats. After 4 wk of treatment, only the DOCA-salt group developed hypertension. ANG II binding increased in median preoptic nucleus and subfornical organ of salt- and DOCA-treated rats. DOCA-treated rats also showed increased ANG II binding in paraventricular nucleus. DOCA-salt-treated rats showed higher ANG II binding in nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema, as well as in the areas mentioned before. Although salt and/or DOCA treatments alone increased ANG II receptors in some brain nuclei, after combined DOCA-salt treatment there was significantly higher ANG II binding in all areas, except the median preoptic nucleus. These results suggest that increased ANG II receptors in selected brain areas may play a role in the pathophysiology of mineralocorticoid-salt experimental hypertension.

Gutkind, J.S.; Kurihara, M.; Saavedra, J.M.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Evaluation of deltamethrin kinetics and dosimetry in the maturing rat using a PBPK model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Immature rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides like deltamethrin (DLM). A companion kinetics study (Kim et al., in press) revealed that blood and brain levels of the neuroactive parent compound were inversely related to age in rats 10, 21, 40 and 90 days old. The objective of the current study was to modify a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of DLM disposition in the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat (Mirfazaelian et al., 2006), so blood and target organ dosimetry could be accurately predicted during maturation. Age-specific organ weights and age-dependent changes in the oxidative and hydrolytic clearance of DLM were modeled with a generalized Michaelis-Menten model for growth and the summary equations incorporated into the PBPK model. The model's simulations compared favorably with empirical DLM time-courses in plasma, blood, brain and fat for the four age-groups evaluated (10, 21, 40 and 90 days old). PND 10 pups' area under the 24-h brain concentration time curve (AUC{sub 0-24h}) was 3.8-fold higher than that of the PND 90 adults. Our maturing rat PBPK model allows for updating with age- and chemical-dependent parameters, so pyrethroid dosimetry can be forecast in young and aged individuals. Hence, this model provides a methodology for risk assessors to consider age-specific adjustments to oral Reference Doses on the basis of PK differences.

Tornero-Velez, Rogelio, E-mail: tornero-velez.rogelio@epa.go [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Mirfazaelian, Ahmad, E-mail: amirfazaelian@gmail.co [Department of Chemical Injuries, Baghiatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kim, Kyu-Bong, E-mail: kimkb@rx.uga.ed [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Engineering, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Anand, Sathanandam S., E-mail: satheesh.s.anand@usa.dupont.co [Dupont Haskell Global Centers for Health and Environmental Sciences, 1090 Elkton Road, Newark, DE 19714 (United States); Kim, Hyo J., E-mail: hyokimm@yahoo.co.k [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2352 (United States); Haines, Wendy T., E-mail: toxicology@unc.ed [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, CB 7270, NC 27599-7270 (United States); Bruckner, James V., E-mail: bruckner@rx.uga.ed [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2352 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W., E-mail: jwfisher@uga.ed [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

A Glucose BioFuel Cell Implanted in Rats Philippe Cinquin1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Glucose BioFuel Cell Implanted in Rats Philippe Cinquin1 *, Chantal Gondran2 , Fabien Giroud2 powerful ones, Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFCs), are based on enzymes electrically wired by redox mediators applications. Citation: Cinquin P, Gondran C, Giroud F, Mazabrard S, Pellissier A, et al. (2010) A Glucose BioFuel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

The effect of methylsulfonylmethane on the experimental colitis in the rat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), naturally occurring in green plants, fruits and vegetables, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. MSM is an organosulfur compound and a normal oxidative metabolite of dimethyl sulfoxide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of MSM in a rat model of experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 1 ml of 5% of acetic acid. Rats were treated with MSM (400 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days. Animals were euthanized and distal colon evaluated histologically and biochemically. Tissue samples were used to measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta}) levels. Results showed that MSM decreased macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage scores caused by administration of acetic acid. MSM treatment also significantly reduced colonic levels of MDA, MPO and IL-1{beta}, while increased the levels of GSH and CAT compared with acetic acid-induced colitis group. It seems that MSM as a natural product may have a protective effect in an experimental ulcerative colitis. - Research Highlights: > Methylsulfonylmethane occurs naturally in some green plants, fruits and vegetables. > Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. > We evaluated the effects of MSM in a rat model of experimental ulcerative colitis. > MSM has protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rat.

Amirshahrokhi, K., E-mail: k.amirshahrokhi@arums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 56197, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bohlooli, S. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 56197, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chinifroush, M.M. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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81

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus  

SciTech Connect

Neonatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can interfere with hormone-sensitive developmental processes, including brain sexual differentiation. We hypothesized that disruption of these processes by gestational PCB exposure would be detectable as early as the day after birth (postnatal day (P) 1) through alterations in hypothalamic gene and protein expression. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice, once each on gestational days 16 and 18, with one of the following: DMSO vehicle; the industrial PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221); a reconstituted mixture of the three most prevalent congeners found in humans, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180; or estradiol benzoate (EB). On P1, litter composition, anogenital distance (AGD), and body weight were assessed. Pups were euthanized for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) or TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells or quantitative PCR of 48 selected genes in the preoptic area (POA). We found that treatment with EB or A1221 had a sex-specific effect on developmental apoptosis in the neonatal anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a sexually dimorphic hypothalamic region involved in the regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function. In this region, exposed females had increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei, whereas there was no effect of treatment in males. For ER{alpha}, EB treatment increased immunoreactive cell numbers and density in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of both males and females, while A1221 and the PCB mixture had no effect. PCR analysis of gene expression in the POA identified nine genes that were significantly altered by prenatal EDC exposure, in a manner that varied by sex and treatment. These genes included brain-derived neurotrophic factor, GABA{sub B} receptors-1 and -2, IGF-1, kisspeptin receptor, NMDA receptor subunits NR2b and NR2c, prodynorphin, and TGF{alpha}. Collectively, these results suggest that the disrupted sexual differentiation of the POA by prenatal EDC exposures is already evident as early as the day after birth, effects that may change the trajectory of postnatal development and compromise adult reproductive function.

Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L. [Center for Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gore, Andrea C., E-mail: andrea.gore@mail.utexas.edu [Center for Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Studies on Pentoxifylline and Tocopherol Combination for Radiation-Induced Heart Disease in Rats  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether the application of pentoxifylline (PTX) and tocopherol l (Vit. E) could modify the development of radiation-induced heart disease and downregulate the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1mRNA in rats. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups: control group, irradiated group, experimental group 1, and experiment group 2. Supplementation was started 3 days before irradiation; in experimental group 1, injection of PTX (15 mg/kg/d) and Vit. E (5.5 mg/kg/d) continued till the 12th week postirradiation, whereas in experimental group 2 it was continued until the 24th week postirradiation. All rats were administrated a single dose of 20 Gy irradiation to the heart except the control group. Histopathologic evaluation was performed at various time points (Days 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 and 24th week) up to 24 weeks after irradiation. Changes of levels of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were also investigated at the same time points using competitive polymerase chain reaction. Results: Compared with the irradiated group, levels of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA of the rat hearts were relatively low in the two experimental groups on the 12th week postirradiation. In experimental group 1, there was a rebound expression of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA on the 24th week postirradiation, whereas that of the experimental group 2 remained low (p < 0.05). The proportions of collagen fibers of the two experimental groups were lower than that of irradiated group (p < 0.05). A rebound could be observed in the experimental group 1. Conclusion: PTX and Vit. E downregulated the expression of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA. The irradiated rat hearts showed a marked pathologic response to the drugs. The withdrawal of drugs in the 12th week postirradiation could cause rebound effects of the development of fibrosis.

Liu Hui [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xiong Mai [Department of Cardiac Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xia Yunfei; Cui Nianji; Lu Rubiao [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Deng Ling [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Lin Yuehao [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Clinical Laboratory, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Rong Tiehua [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: esophagus2003@yahoo.com.cn

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Effect of synthetic ANP on renal and loop of Henle functions in the young rat  

SciTech Connect

The present studies were undertaken to determine, by recollection micropuncture, the effect of a synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on the absolute and fractional deliveries of water and sodium to the juxtamedullary end-descending limb. Two groups of young female Munich-Wistar rats were studied: 1) control received the vehicle only; and 2) ANP received a prime followed by the constant infusion of a synthetic rat atrial peptide (28 amino acids). With the infusion of ANP, clearance of p-( UC)aminohippurate (( UC(PAH) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) fell significantly. Despite this fall in GFR and renal plasma flow, ANP produced a 2-fold increase in urine volume and a 10-fold increase in sodium excretion. Absolute and fractional sodium deliveries to the end-descending limb increased by approx.30% in the ANP group, whereas mean juxtamedullary single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) remained stable. In three additional rats prepared for micropuncture of the superficial end-accessible proximal tubule, ANP reduced cortical SNGFR by approx.15%. By contrast, GFR did not decline in response to ANP in larger rats, when treated identically. The authors conclude that 1) in young rats ANP can produce a natriuresis in the absence of a rise in GFR; 2) the fall in GFR observed following ANP is due presumably to the immaturity of the animals used in these studies; and 3) ANP produces a rise in absolute and fractional water and sodium deliveries to the end-descending limb that cannot be attributed to a change in SNGFR. The relatively small rise in fractional sodium delivery to the end-descending limb, most probably due to inhibition of sodium and water reabsorption in the juxtamedullary proximal tubule and/or thin descending limb, accounts for only a smallproportion of sodium excretion in the final urine.

Roy, D.R.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

EFFECTS OF FEEDING A VITAMIN K-DEFICIENT RATION CONTAINING IRRADIATED BEEF TO RATS, DOGS, AND CATS  

SciTech Connect

A ration containing 35% beef irradiated with 2.79 megarad fed to 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats caused the death of 9 rats because of hemorrhage. The mean reciprocal of the prothrombin time was 0.068 plus or minus 0.018 sec/sup -/. When 3 male cats and 3 male dogs were fed a ration containing irradiated bsef for 40 weeks, all gained weight and the prothrombin time of the blood remained normal. The amount of vitamin K in the ration was calculated to be 6 mu g/100 g of ration solids, which was adequate to prevent prolonged prothrombin times of the blood of cats and dogs, although it was inadequate for rats. Irradintion of beef with 2.8 megarad was previously shown to cause a 50--85% loss in vitamin K content. Rats fed a ration containing nonirradiated beef survived and there was no prolonged prothrombin time of the blood. (H.H.D.)

Reber, E.F.; Malhotra, Om.P.

1961-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Decreased angiotensin II binding affinity and binding capacity in the anterior pituitary gland of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats  

SciTech Connect

Angiotensin II (ANG) binding sites were quantified in single pituitary glands from 4-week-old and 14-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched male normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats after incubation with /sup 125/I-(Sar/sup 1/)-ANG, autoradiography with computerized densitometry, and comparison to /sup 125/I-standards. The maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) decreased while the dissociation constant (K/sub d/) for ANG increased in 14-week-old SHR when compared to age-matched WKY control rats. Conversely, no difference between rat strains was found in 4-week-old animals. Our results suggest that pituitary ANG binding sites may play a role in the pathophysiology of established genetic hypertension.

Gutkind, J.S.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Critical period window for spectral tuning defined in the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the rat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Repair Critical Period Window for Spectral Tuning Defined inregulation of the CP window is tied to sensory experience,of the critical period window for the rat primary auditory

de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Chang, Edward F; Bao, Shaowen; Merzenich, Michael M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Theoretical study of 3-D molecular similarity and ligand binding modes of orthologous human and rat D2 dopamine receptors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The D"2 dopamine receptor (D"2DR) is an important target for the treatment of some central nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson disease, schizophrenia and drug-dependence. In this work, we built 3-D models of the long form of human and rat D"2DRs ... Keywords: 7TM receptor, D2 dopamine receptor ligands, Drug development, Molecular modeling, Parkinson's disease, Rat striatum

Marvin A. Soriano-Ursa; Jorge O. Ocampo-Lpez; Karina Ocampo-Mendoza; Jos G. Trujillo-Ferrara; Jos Correa-Basurto

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A Cytogenetic Footprint for Mammary Carcinomas Induced by PhIP in Rats  

SciTech Connect

PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine), a mutagen/carcinogen belonging to the class of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) found in cooked meats, is a mammary gland carcinogen in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of certain human cancers including breast cancer. To gain insight into the genomic alterations associated with PhIP-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis, we used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to examine chromosomal abnormalities in rat mammary carcinomas induced by PhIP, and for comparison, by DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), a potent experimental mammary carcinogen. There was a consistent and characteristic pattern of chromosome-region loss in PhIP-induced carcinomas that clearly distinguished them from carcinomas induced by DMBA.

Christian, A T

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration  

SciTech Connect

Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.

Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

PREFERRING sP RATS BY THE CANNABINOID ANTAGONIST SR-141716  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract The present study assessed the efficacy of the cannabinoid CBi receptor antagonist, SR-141716, in reducing voluntary ethanol intake in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. Ethanol (10%, v/v) and food were available in daily 4h scheduled access periods; water was present 24 h/day. The acute administration of a 2.5 and a 5 mg/kg dose of SR-141716 selectively reduced ethanol intake, whereas a 10 mg/kg dose of SR-141716 reduced to a similar extent both ethanol and food intake. These results suggest that the cannabinoid CBi receptor is involved in the mediation of the ethanolreinforcing effects in sP rats.

unknown authors

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Development of a multi-electrode array for spinal cord epidural stimulation to facilitate stepping and standing after a complete spinal cord injury in adult rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

segments via ascending projections from the sacral segmentsof hindlimb nerve projections to the rat spinal cord: a663. Nelson S, Mendell L: Projection of single knee flexor

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography  

SciTech Connect

An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 {mu}m, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 {mu}m diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 {mu}m was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct investigation of mechanisms of vascular dysfunctions.

Umetani, K. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukushima, K. [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Hospital, Fujishirodai, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Cross-linking of atrial natriuretic peptide to binding sites in rat olfactory bulb membranes  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for /sup 125/I-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)2 in rat olfactory bulb membranes have been studied using pharmacological and biochemical methods. Various unlabeled ANP-related peptides were tested for the ability to inhibit the binding of the radioligand in membrane binding assays. ANP(92-126) and ANP(99-126) were the most potent inhibitors tested, both exhibiting an IC50 value of 0.40 nM. ANP(103-126) and ANP(103-123) were 3 and 70 times less potent, respectively. ANP(111-126) was unable to inhibit the binding of the radioligand at a concentration of 1 microM. Several peptides unrelated to ANP were unable to inhibit the binding of the radioligand to rat olfactory bulb membranes. Membranes labeled with /sup 125/I-ANP were incubated with cross-linking agents and subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by autoradiography. A band possessing an apparent molecular mass of 116 kDa was identified. The labeling of this band was progressively decreased by increasing concentrations of unlabeled ANP(99-126) (IC50 = 0.6 nM) and by several other ANP-related peptides at nanomolar concentrations. For comparison purposes, ANP binding sites in rat aorta membranes were labeled with /sup 125/I-ANP and cross-linked using identical techniques. Three bands possessing molecular masses of 120, 72, and 62 kDa were identified. These results indicate that the ANP binding site in rat olfactory bulb membranes displays pharmacological and biochemical properties similar to peripheral ANP receptors.

Wildey, G.M.; Glembotski, C.C.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Lipidomic changes in rat liver after long-term exposure to ethanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study we examined the progression of ALD along with lipidomic changes in rats fed ethanol for 2 and 3 months to understand the mechanism, and identify possible biomarkers. Male Fischer 344 rats were fed 5% ethanol or caloric equivalent of maltose-dextrin in a Lieber-DeCarli diet. Animals were killed at the end of 2 and 3 months and plasma and livers were collected. Portions of the liver were fixed for histological and immunohistological studies. Plasma and the liver lipids were extracted and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A time dependent fatty infiltration was observed in the livers of ethanol-fed rats. Mild inflammation and oxidative stress were observed in some ethanol-fed rats at 3 months. The multivariate and principal component analysis of proton and phosphorus NMR spectroscopy data of extracted lipids from the plasma and livers showed segregation of ethanol-fed groups from the pair-fed controls. Significant hepatic lipids that were increased by ethanol exposure included fatty acids and triglycerides, whereas phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased. However, both free fatty acids and PC decreased in the plasma. In liver lipids unsaturation of fatty acyl chains increased, contrary to plasma, where it decreased. Our studies confirm that over-accumulation of lipids in ethanol-induced liver steatosis accompanied by mild inflammation on long duration of ethanol exposure. Identified metabolic profile using NMR lipidomics could be further explored to establish biomarker signatures representing the etiopathogenesis, progression and/or severity of ALD. - Highlights: > Long term exposure to ethanol was studied. > A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based lipidomic approach was used. > We examined the clustering pattern of the NMR data with principal component analysis. > NMR data were compared with histology and immunohistochemistry data. > Biochemical parameters were compared with the observed NMR lipid data.

Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555 (United States); Kondraganti, Shakuntala [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555 (United States); Shakeel Ansari, G.A., E-mail: sansari@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The effects of ethanol on strychnine sensitive glycine receptors in the rat basolateral amygdala  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism, presented by Cogner (1956), theorized that alcoholism was induced by the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, which in turn reinforced intake of ethanol. If this holds true, then it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CNS effects of ethanol may be dominant in the area of the brain that controls or influences anxiety. Given the known role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety-induced responses, we hypothesized that the anxiety reducing effects of ethanol would be observed within the amygdala and may be measured as alterations of neuronal excitability. The first aim of this thesis was to establish an animal model of alcoholism in the laboratory. This was done by introducing a nutritionally complete ethanol containing liquid diet. We compared two liquid diet formularies, one prepared in-house and one commercially prepared. The second aim enlisted a behavioral experiment to test our hypothesis of alterations of the anxiety response in the chronically ethanol treated rats. We utilized the light/dark box apparatus to measure the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of chronic ethanol ingestion and withdrawal. In these tests we found that both the ethanol and control rats displayed a slightly greater interest in exploring the dark side of the box, while the ethanol withdrawal rats spent a significant percent of their total time on the light side. The third aim was to use whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to study the cellular effects of ethanol on the rat basolateral amygdala neurons. Initially we were able to demonstrate that the acutely isolated BLA neurons contained strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. However, we found no significant alteration in the glycine-, GABA-, or NMDA-mediated response within these neurons with chronic ethanol exposure or withdrawal.

Botting, Shaleen Kaye

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The correlation dimension of rat hearts in an experimentally controlled environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electric response of several isolated rat hearts in a controlled environment was studied experimentally. The correlation dimension D 2 was estimated and was found to be between 4 and 6.5 when the response was nearly periodic. The variation of D 2 with the concentration of calcium was studied and a general trend of its increase with increasing concentration was found. Two types of ventricular fibrillation (VF) were observed

Guy Dori; Shmuel Fishman; S. A. Ben-Haim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Characterization of angiotensin-binding sites in the bovine adrenal and the rat brain  

SciTech Connect

The first study was designed to determine whether systemically administered MSG affects neurons in the CVOs that are potentially important in mediating angiotensin-dependent responses. Rats were pretreated with MSG and the receptors for angiotensin II were assayed by radioligand binding in brain homogenates from the septum anteroventral third ventricular region (AV3V) and the thalamus/hypothalamus region using {sup 125}I-angiotensin II as the radioligand. The results of this experiment indicate that systematically administered MSG in the rat significantly reduced the number (Bmax) of Ang II receptors in a tissue sample which contained both extra blood-brain barrier organs as well as tissue within the blood-brain barrier with no change in the affinity (Kd) of the binding sites. The second chapter reports the successful solubilization of bovine adrenal {sup 125}I Ang II and {sup 125}I Sar{sup 1},Ile{sup 8}-Ang II binding sites with the detergent CHAPS. The results of our studies indicate the presence of two angiotensin binding sites. The one site is specific for naturally occurring angiotensins as well as sarcosine-1 substituted angiotensin analogues. The other site which can be optimally stabilized be re-addition of 0.3% CHAPS into the incubation assay binds sarcosine-1 substituted angiotensins exclusively. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography experiments suggest that these sites, possibly, represent distinct proteins. The third chapter discusses the successful solubilization and partial characterization of the rat brain angiotensin receptor.

Rogulja, I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel oxides and nickel-copper oxides to rat, mouse, and dog pulmonary alveolar macrophages  

SciTech Connect

Metal oxides containing either Ni alone (NiO's) or both Ni and Cu (Ni-CuO's) are encountered during Ni refining. Six NiO compounds calcined at temperatures ranging from < 650 to 1045/sup 0/ and four Ni-CuO's containing from 6.9 to 28% Cu and 44 to 69% Ni were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity to alveolar macrophages (AM). NiO's were less toxic to rat AM than were the Ni-CuO compounds. The toxicity of the Ni-CuO compounds increased with increasing Cu content and decreasing Ni content of the molecules, indicating that the toxicity was due to the Cu content of the molecules. AM obtained from beagle dogs, F344/N rats, and B6C3F/sub 1/ mice displayed the following species sensitivities: dog > rat approx. = mouse, with dog AM being most sensitive. The observed differences in species sensitivities correlated with differences in the phagocytic abilities of dog, rat, and mouse AM, with the ranking of phagocytic abilities of the AM in decreasing order of ability being dog > rat > mouse.

Benson, J.M.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA and immunoreactivity in the rat heart and human atrial appendage  

SciTech Connect

The localization of mRNA encoding preproatrial natriuretic peptide was investigated in tissue sections and cultures of rat heart and in sections of human right atrial appendage using the technique of in situ hybridization with /sup 32/P- and /sup 35/S-labeled RNA probes. Rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) transcripts were demonstrated in numerous atrial myocytes and, to a lesser extent, in ventricular myocytes in both tissue sections and newborn rat heart cultures. These findings are consistent with those obtained by RNA blot analysis of rat heart total RNA, indicating that a single prepro-ANP transcript of approx. 900 nucleotides was present in the ventricles as well as the atria. Using a /sup 35/S-labeled RNA probe for human ANP mRNA, ANP transcripts were also localized to the majority of myocytes in the human right atrial appendage. Only background levels of autoradiographic labeling were obtained when RNA probes identical to the coding sequence of rat or human ANP mRNA were used. A close correlation was found between the distribution of ANP immunoreactivity and prepro-ANP mRNA in these preparations. These results provide unequivocal evidence for the expression of the ANP gene in the rat ventricles, as well as the atria, because myocytes in these tissues have been established as the sites of both ANP localization and precursor biosynthesis. The combined use of cardiac cultures and in situ hybridization may be of value in future studies investigating the regulation of ANP synthesis in cardiac myocytes.

Hamid, Q.; Wharton, J.; Terenghi, G.; Hassall, C.J.S.; Aimi, J.; Taylor, K.M.; Nakazato, H.; Dixon, J.E.; Burnstock, G.; Polak, J.M.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Charcterization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors (ANP-R) in rat kidney and lung tissues  

SciTech Connect

The ability of several rat ANP analogues to compete with SVI-ANP(1-28) for binding to plasma membranes of rat kidney cortex (RKPM) and rat lung (RLPM) was examined. Their ability to compete on RKPM was: ANP(1-28)>pro-ANP>ANP(5-28)>ANP(5-27), ANP(5-25) being inactive. Conversely, the potency of the analogues on RLPM was: ANP(5-28)>ANP(5-27)>ANP(1-28)>ANP-(5-25), pro-ANP being unable to compete. The stimulation of particulate guanylate cyclase by these peptides paralleled their ability to compete. Truncation of the C-terminal therefore decreases the binding of the peptide to RKPM. In contrast, the N-terminal seems to be important for interaction with ANP-R on RLPM. ANP-R were photolabeled with SVI-iodo-azidosalicylyl-ANP(1-28) (ASA-ANP) or azidobenzoyl- SVI-ANP(1-28) (AB-ANP) in which the C-terminal tyrosine is iodinated. In ASA-ANP, the iodine is located on the benzene ring. ASA-ANP identified a protein of approx.140 kDa in RKPM. AB-ANP recognized an additional protein of approx.120 kDa. The bulkier N-terminal of the ASA-ANP seems to hinder the binding of the analogue to the approx.120-kDa protein. In RLPM only the approx.120-kDa protein was detected by AB-ANP. The approx.140-kDa receptor may be unique to the kidney. ANF-R in RKPM and RLPM respectively, appear to interact with different domains of ANP suggesting the existence of two forms of the ANP-R.

Tallerico-Melnyk, T.; Yu, H.; Flynn, T.G.; Yip, C.C.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Reversal of docosahexaenoic acid deficiency in the rat brain, retina, liver, and serum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract The loss of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the retina or brain has been associated with a loss in nervoussystem function in experimental animals, as well as in human infants fed vegetable oil-based formulas. The reversibility of the loss of DHA and the compensation by an increase in the n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) was studied in young adult rats. Long-Evans rats were subjected to a very low level of n-3 fatty acids through two generations. The F2 generation, n-3-deficient animals at 7 weeks of age were provided a repletion diet containing both ?-linolenate and DHA. A separate group of F2 generation rats had been maintained on an n-3-adequate diet of the same composition. Tissues from the brain, retina, liver, and serum were collected on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 from both groups of animals. The concentrations of DHA, DPAn-6, and other fatty acids were determined and the rate of recovery and length of time needed to complete DHA recovery were determined for each tissue. The DHA level in the brain at 1 and 2 weeks after diet reversal was only partially recovered, rising to approximately 20 % and 35%, respectively, of the n-3-adequate group level. Full recovery was not obtained until 8 weeks after initiation of the repletion diet. Although the initial rate of retinal DHA accretion was greater than that of brain DHA, the half-time for DHA recovery was only marginally greater. On the other hand, the levels of DHA in the serum and liver were approximately 90 % and 100 % replaced, respectively, within 2 weeks of diet reversal. A consideration of the total amounts and time courses of DHA repleted in the nervous system compared with the liver and circulation suggests that transport-related processes may limit the rate of DHA repletion in the retina and brain.Moriguchi, T., J.

Toru Moriguchi; James Loewke; Megan Garrison; Janice Nicklay Catalan; Norman Salem

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Effects of cadmium on the renal and skeletal muscle microcirculation in rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of cadmium on the arteriolar diameters of the kidney and skeletal muscle were quantified, because of the hypertensive effect of cacmium. The effect of cacmium on the constrictor response of the renal arterioles to angiotensin II (Ang II) were also assessed. In vivo preparations of the rat hydronephrotic kidney and cremaster muscle were used for direct visualization of the microvessels with intravital television microscopy. Hydronephrosis was induced in twenty-seven male Wistar-Kyoto rats (150-180 g) by unilateral ureter ligation. The hydronephrotic kidney, with intact cortical circulation and innervation, was exteriorized in a specially designed bath for microcirculation observation 6-8 weeks following the ureter ligation. The cremaster muscle experiments were conducted in another thirty-seven male WKY rats (120-180 g). Disparate effects of cadmium were observed in these two microcirculation beds. Topical cadmium (1.35 [mu]M-0.45 mM) increased the diameters of the pre- and postglomerular vessels in the hydronephrotic kidney maximally by 15-26%. Cadmium (0.27 mM) inhibited the Ang II response of the arterioles non-competitively. However, intraperitoneally injected cadmium (2 mg/kg), which significantly increased the mean arterial pressure, did not dilate the arterioles nor alter the Ang II response. On the other hand, cadmium (13.5 [mu]M-0.72 mM) constricted the larger arterioles in the cremaster muscle (60-160 [mu]m) concentration-dependently, but not small arterioles (15-30 [mu]m). In summary, topical cadmium dilates renal arterioles and decreases their reactivity to Ang II, but constricts the larger cremaster arterioles. The disparate effects of cadmium suggest different Ca[sup 2+] utilization mechanisms in different vascular beds. The construction of the cremaster arterioles may contribute to cadmium-induced hypertension by increasing peripheral resistance.

Zhang Chong.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke  

SciTech Connect

Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase {alpha} subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke.

Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H. [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch (United States); Englander, Ella W. [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch (United States); Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)], E-mail: elenglan@utmb.edu

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

RatBot: anti-enumeration peer-to-peer botnets  

SciTech Connect

Botnets have emerged as one of the most severe cyber threats in recent years. To obtain high resilience against a single point of failure, the new generation of botnets have adopted the peer-to-peer (P2P) structure. One critical question regarding these P2P botnets is: how big are they indeed? To address this question, researchers have proposed both actively crawling and passively monitoring methods to enumerate existing P2P botnets. In this work, we go further to explore the potential strategies that botnets may have to obfuscate their true sizes. Towards this end, this paper introduces RatBot, a P2P botnet that applies some statistical techniques to defeat existing P2P botnet enumeration methods. The key ideas of RatBot are two-fold: (1) there exist a fraction of bots that are indistinguishable from their fake identities, which are spoofing IP addresses they use to hide themselves; (2) we use a heavy-tailed distribution to generate the number of fake identities for each of these bots so that the sum of observed fake identities converges only slowly and thus has high variation. We use large-scale high-fidelity simulation to quantify the estimation errors under diverse settings, and the results show that a naive enumeration technique can overestimate the sizes of P2P botnets by one order of magnitude. We believe that our work reveals new challenges of accurately estimating the sizes of P2P botnets, and hope that it will raise the awareness of security practitioners with these challenges. We further suggest a few countermeasures that can potentially defeat RatBot's anti-enumeration scheme.

Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Songqing [GEORGE MASON UNIV.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

INTERMITTENT PRESENTATIONS OF ETHANOL SIPPER TUBE INDUCE ETHANOL DRINKING IN RATS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Aims: Intermittent presentations of the ethanol sipper have been reported to induce more ethanol drinking in rats than when the ethanol sipper was continuously available during the session. This intermittent sipper effect was observed in a social drinking situation, in which subjects experienced intermittent opportunities to interact briefly with a conspecific rat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the intermittent sipper procedure in situations providing for intermittent presentations of food, and, in addition, in situations that do not provide for intermittent presentations of another rewarding event. Methods: Four groups of male Long-Evans hooded rats, arranged in a 2 2 factorial design with two levels of Sipper Procedure (Intermittent vs Continuous) and two levels of Food procedure (Food vs No Food), were trained in drinking chambers. During each daily session, Intermittent Sipper groups received access to the ethanol sipper during each of 25 trials of 10 s each, while Continuous Sipper groups had access to the ethanol sipper during the entire session ( 30 min). During each session, Food groups received 25 presentations of food pellets while No Food groups received no food pellets. Ethanol concentrations in the sipper [3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 % (vol./vol.)] increased across sessions. Results: More rapid escalation of ethanol intake was observed in the Intermittent Sipper groups than in the Continuous Sipper groups, and this effect was observed in both the Food and No Food conditions (Ps ethanol sipper, yet induced more ethanol drinking than Continuous Sipper procedures. The intermittent sipper effect is not dependent on presentations of food. Implications for scheduleinduced polydipsia and Pavlovian autoshaping are discussed.

Arthur Tomie; William C. Miller; Erik Dranoff; Larissa A. Pohorecky

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3 h (358.3 {+-} 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 {+-} 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: > We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. > Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. > PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

Shah, Ashini [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Coburn, Cary G. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Leon-Olea, Martha [Neuromorfologia Funcional, Direccion de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Mexico City (Mexico); Gaertner, Mark [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Curras-Collazo, Margarita C., E-mail: margarita.curras@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

PERIODICITY OF ESTROUS CYCLE IN ALBINO RATS; RESPONSE TO SOME CRUDE DRUG COMBINATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: The extracts of bark, leaves and stem of A. indica, fruits of P. longum, berries of E. officinalis and seeds of G. indicum were prepared using different solvents. Three different combinations of these extracts were tried on the female albino rats for their effect on the estrous cycle. The combination consisting of alcoholic extracts of leaves and stem of A. indica, fruits of P. longum, berries of E. officinalis and seeds of G. indicum has exhibited considerable effect on estrous cycle by prolongation of diestrous phase.

C. K. Kokate; M. Krishna; Reddy; N. Chari

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Therapeutic efficacy of dimercaptosuccinic acid and thiamine/ascorbic acid on lead intoxication in rats  

SciTech Connect

Thiamine, folic acid, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid either individually or in combination have been proven to be effective in reducing the toxic manifestations of lead and in enhancing the antidotal efficacy of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA. In a recent report from the authors' laboratory, it was observed that given combination of thiamine and ascorbic acid with thiol chelators improved the ability of the animals to excrete lead thereby reducing body lead burden. In view of the beneficial effect of these two vitamins, it was considered of interest to evaluate their potential to modify the prophylactic action of DMS in lead intoxication in rat after repeated administration.

Tandon, S.K.; Flora, S.J.S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Exercise training regulation of extracellular matrix and remodeling in the aging rat heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aging is characterized by a progressive impairment of cardiac structure and function. The cardiac remodeling involves loss of cardiac myocytes, reactive hypertrophy of the remaining cells, and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibrosis in the aging heart. In contrast, exercise training not only improves cardiac function, but also reduces the risk of heart disease. However, the ability of exercise training to modulate ECM and remodeling in the aging heart remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on ECM remodeling in the aging heart. We hypothesized that (1) exercise training would attenuate age-related changes in left ventricle morphology including extramyocyte space and collagen contents, and (2) exercise training would ameliorate age-induced changes in ECM-related factors including MMPs, TIMPs, TNF-?, TGF-?1, and ?-SMA in the heart. Three and 31 month old Fischer 344 Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats were assigned to four groups: young sedentary (YS), young exercise-trained (YE), old sedentary (OS), and old exercise-trained (OE). Exercise training groups walked briskly on a treadmill for 45 min/day (12 incline) at 20m/min (young) or 10 m/min (old), 5 d/wk for 12 wk. We found that endurance exercise training might ameliorate the ageinduced increase in extramyocyte space and collagen contents of the left ventricle. Exercise training might protect against age-induced fibrosis by increasing MMP-2, MMP-14 in the soluble fraction and MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-14 in the insoluble fraction of old rat hearts. Conversely, exercise training might reduce the fibrosis by decreasing TIMP-1 in the soluble fraction of old rat hearts. Further, exercise training reduced potential upstream pro-fibrotic mediators including TNF-? and TGF-?1 in the aging rat hearts. These results are the first to demonstrate that exercise training has a protective effect against age-induced extracellular collagen matrix remodeling in the aging heart, associated with increased MMP-1, -2, -3, -14 and decreased TIMP-1, TNF-?, and TGF- ?1.

Kwak, Hyo Bum

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

An integrated functional genomic study of acute phenobarbital exposure in the rat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in drinking water following exposure for three years [8]. Isenberg et al. reported that in F344 rats, exposure to 500 ppm PB in the diet for 1-2 weeks produces an increase in relative liver weight which is reversible on returning the animals to control diet... ) in PB treated animals compared to controls (table 1) at all time points for 500 and 1000 ppm. Body weight was significantly increased in the 500 and 1000 ppm groups at day 14 (p intake for the 500...

Waterman, Claire L; Currie, Richard A; Cottrell, Lisa A; Dow, Jacky; Wright, Jayne; Waterfield, Catherine J; Griffin, Julian L

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

114

Intracranial electrode implantation produces regional neuroinflammation and memory deficits in rats  

SciTech Connect

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The procedure entails intracranial implantation of an electrode in a specific brain structure followed by chronic stimulation. Although the beneficial effects of DBS on motor symptoms in PD are well known, it is often accompanied by cognitive impairments, the origin of which is not fully understood. To explore the possible contribution of the surgical procedure itself, we studied the effect of electrode implantation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on regional neuroinflammation and memory function in rats implanted bilaterally with stainless steel electrodes. Age-matched sham and intact rats were used as controls. Brains were removed 1 or 8 weeks post-implantation and processed for in vitro autoradiography with [(3)H]PK11195, an established marker of microglial activation. Memory function was assessed by the novel object recognition test (ORT) before surgery and 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. Electrode implantation produced region-dependent changes in ligand binding density in the implanted brains at 1 as well as 8 weeks post-implantation. Cortical regions showed more intense and widespread neuroinflammation than striatal or thalamic structures. Furthermore, implanted animals showed deficits in ORT performance 2 and 8 weeks post-implantation. Thus, electrode implantation resulted in a widespread and persistent neuroinflammation and sustained memory impairment. These results suggest that the insertion and continued presence of electrodes in the brain, even without stimulation, may lead to inflammation-mediated cognitive deficits in susceptible individuals, as observed in patients treated with DBS.

Kuttner-Hirshler, Y.; Biegon, A.; Kuttner-Hirshler, Y.; Polat, U.; Biegon, A.

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

115

Availability of cadmium to rats from crops grown on cadmium-enriched soil  

SciTech Connect

The research was initiated to enhance understanding of the availability to animals of Cd present in edible plants. Such information is of considerable importance since agricultural crops can accumulate high concentrations of the metal when grown in certain soils or with sewage sludge as a fertilizer. Edible plants were labeled with /sup 109/Cd by growing them on /sup 109/CdCl/sup 2/ treated soil. The availability of /sup 109/Cd to male and female rats was then determined by feeding semisynthetic diets containing either freeze-dried radioactive spinach, lettuce, soybean, carrots, tomatoes, or wheat flour, or comparable nonradioactive plant powders spiked with /sup 109/CdCl/sup 2/. Retention of /sup 109/Cd by liver and kidney was determined after a 14-day feeding period. With the exception of spinach, Cd accumulation by rats was not found to be significantly influenced by the form of Cd in the diet whether supplied as plant-bound /sup 109/Cd or added to nonradioactive diets as /sup 109/CdCl/sup 2/. The mean retention of Cd in liver and kidney was 0.17% of the dose consumed for males and 0.26% for females consuming diets containing wheat, soybean, carrots, lettuce, or tomatoes.

Buhler, D.R.; Tinsley, I.J.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Gel entrapment culture of rat hepatocytes for investigation of tetracycline-induced toxicity  

SciTech Connect

This paper aimed to explore three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes for testing drug-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gel entrapped rat hepatocytes were applied for investigation of the tetracycline-induced steatohepatitis, while hepatocyte monolayer was set as a control. The toxic responses of hepatocytes were systematically evaluated by measuring cell viability, liver-specific function, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, adenosine triphosphate content and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results suggested that gel entrapped hepatocytes showed cell death after 96 h of tetracycline treatment at 25 {mu}M which is equivalent to toxic serum concentration in rats, while hepatocyte monolayer showed cell death at a high dose of 200 {mu}M. The concentration-dependent accumulation of lipid as well as mitochondrial damage were regarded as two early events for tetracycline hepatotoxicity in gel entrapment culture due to their detectability ahead of subsequent increase of oxidative stress and a final cell death. Furthermore, the potent protection of fenofibrate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate were evidenced in only gel entrapment culture with higher expressions on the genes related to {beta}-oxidation than hepatocyte monolayer, suggesting the mediation of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial damage in tetracycline toxicity. Overall, gel entrapped hepatocytes in three-dimension reflected more of the tetracycline toxicity in vivo than hepatocyte monolayer and thus was suggested as a more relevant system for evaluating steatogenic drugs.

Shen Chong [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Meng Qin [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: mengq@zju.edu.cn; Schmelzer, Eva; Bader, Augustinus [Biotechnological-Biomedical Center, Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Autofluorescence dynamics during reperfusion following long-term renal ischemia in a rat model  

SciTech Connect

Optical properties of near-surface kidney tissue were monitored in order to assess response during reperfusion to long (20 minutes) versus prolonged (150 minutes) ischemia in an in vivo rat model. Specifically, autofluorescence images of the exposed surfaces of both the normal and the ischemic kidneys were acquired during both injury and reperfusion alternately under 355 nm and 266 nm excitations. The temporal profile of the emission of the injured kidney during the reperfusion phase under 355 nm excitation was normalized to that under 266 nm as a means to account for changes in tissue optical properties independent of ischemia as well as changes in the illumination/collection geometrical parameters in future clinical implementation of this technique using a hand-held probe. The scattered excitation light signal was also evaluated as a reference signal and found to be inadequate. Characteristic time constants were extracted using fit to a relaxation model and found to have larger mean values following 150 minutes of injury. The mean values were then compared with the outcome of a chronic survival study where the control kidney had been removed. Rat kidneys exhibiting longer time constants were much more likely to fail. This may lead to a method to assess kidney viability and predict its ability to recover in the initial period following transplantation or resuscitation.

Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

118

In vitro macro- and micro-autoradiographic localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in the rat kidney  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the receptor localization of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the rat kidney, by in vitro macro- and micro-autoradiography (ARG) of (/sup 125/I)-ANP using nonfixed frozen sections. First, we examined the optimum conditions for ARG with respect to the effects of polyethylenimine (PEI), thickness of section, incubation time and degradation of (/sup 125/I)-ANP. Saturation experiments of (/sup 125/I)-ANP using rat kidney sections revealed the presence of high affinity binding sites of (/sup 125/I)-ANP in the renal cortex (Kd = 0.52 nM). Macro-autoradiograms showed that the dense grains representing specific binding sites of (/sup 125/I)-ANP were distributed in the cortex in a punctate pattern. Using micro-autoradiography, the localization of the dense grains on the emulsion was compared with the staining pattern of the same section subjected to double staining. In the renal cortex, the dense grains were observed on the glomerulus, blood vessels and proximal tubules. Dense grains were also observed in the mesangium area of glomeruli, the inside wall of blood vessels (especially endothelium), and the inside wall of proximal tubules (possibly brush border). These results suggested that the physiological action of ANP in the kidney is mediated by its receptors. Also, ARG was useful for accurately detecting the action sites of ANP.

Yamamoto, I.; Ogura, T.; Ota, Z.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Changes in expression of a functional G sub i protein in cultured rat heart cells  

SciTech Connect

The muscarinic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, and pertussis toxin were used to examine the functional status of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein that inhibits adenylate cyclase (G{sub i}) in cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes. The isoproterenol stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in myocyte membranes and adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation in intact cells (4 days in culture) were insensitive to carbachol. However, in cells cultured for 11 days, carbachol inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation by 30%. Angiotensin II (ANG II) was also found to inhibit isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation in day 11 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pertussis toxin treatment reversed the inhibitory effects of both ANG II and carbachol, suggesting a role for G{sub i} in the process. Carbachol binding to membranes from day 4 cells was relatively insensitive to guanine nucleotides when compared with binding to membranes from day 11 or adult cells. Furthermore, pertussis toxin-mediated {sup 32}P incorporation into a 39- to 41-kDa substrate in day 11 membranes was increased 3.2-fold over that measured in day 4 membranes. These findings support the view that, although G{sub i} is expressed, it is nonfunctional in 4-day-old cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes and acquisition of functional G{sub i} is dependent on culture conditions. Furthermore, the ANG II receptor can couple to G{sub i} in heart.

Allen, I.S.; Gaa, S.T.; Rogers, T.B. (Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (USA))

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Angiotensin receptors and angiotensin I-converting enzyme in rat intestine  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to map the distribution of angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors and ANG I-converting enzyme (ACE) in rat intestine. ANG II binding sites were visualized by in vitro autoradiography using iodinated (Sar1, Ile8)ANG II. The distribution of ACE was mapped using an iodinated derivative of lisinopril. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and the interior of the whole intestine washed with ice-cold saline. Segments of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were quickly frozen in a mixture of isopentane and dry ice. Twenty-micron frozen sections were thaw-mounted onto gelatin-coated slides, incubated with either ligand, and exposed to X-ray film. After exposure and subsequent development, the films were quantitated by computerized densitometry. ANG II receptors were most dense in the colon, followed by the ileum, duodenum, and jejunum. Within each segment of intestine, specific ANG II binding sites were localized exclusively to the muscularis. In contrast, ACE was present in both the mucosa and the muscularis. The colocalization of ANG II receptors and ACE may suggest a role for locally generated ANG II in the control of intestinal function. The luminal orientation of ACE in the mucosa of the small intestine may suggest that at this site ACE serves primarily to hydrolyze dietary peptides.

Duggan, K.A.; Mendelsohn, F.A.; Levens, N.R. (Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Estrogen effects on angiotensin receptors are modulated by pituitary in female rats  

SciTech Connect

The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that changes in angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors might modulate the layered target tissue responsiveness accompanying estradiol administration. Estradiol was infused continuously in oophorectomized female rats. Aldosterone was also infused in control and experimental animals to avoid estrogen-induced changes in renin and ANG II. ANG II binding constants were determined in radioreceptor assays. Estradiol increased binding site concentration in adrenal glomerulosa by 76% and decreased binding sites of uterine myometrium and glomeruli by 45 and 24%, respectively. There was an accompanying increase in the affinity of ANG II binding to adrenal glomerulosa and uterine myometrium. Because estrogen is a potent stimulus of prolactin release from the pituitary of rodents, studies were also designed to test the hypothesis that prolactin may mediate some or all of the estrogen-induced effects observed. Hypophysectomy abolished estradiol stimulation of prolactin release and most ANG II receptor changes. Prolactin administration to pituitary intact rats was associated with a 50% increase in receptor density of adrenal glomerulosa simulating estradiol administration. However, the changes in glomeruli and uterine myometrium were opposite in that both tissues also increased receptor density, suggesting that prolactin was not the sole mediator of the estrogen-induced receptor changes. In conclusion, regulation of ANG II receptors in a number of diverse target tissues by estradiol is complex with contributions from estrogens and pituitary factors, which include but do not exclusively involve prolactin.

Douglas, J.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Distinct angiotensin II receptor in primary cultures of glial cells from rat brain  

SciTech Connect

Angiotensin II (Ang-II) has profound effects on the brain. Receptors for Ang-II have been demonstrated on neurons, but no relationship between glial cells and Agn-II has been established. Glial cells (from the hypothalamus and brain stem of 1-day-old rat brains) in primary culture have been used to demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors. Binding of /sup 125/I-Ang-II to glial cultures was rapid, reversible, saturable, and specific for Ang-II. The rank order of potency of /sup 125/I-Ang-II binding was determined. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogeneous population of high-affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 110 fmol/mg of protein. Light-microscopic autoradiography of /sup 125/I-Ang-II binding supported the kinetic data, documenting specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells. Ang-II stimulated a dose-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols in glial cells, an effect mediated by Ang-II receptors. However, Ang-II failed to influence (/sup 3/H) norepinephrine uptake, and catecholamines failed to regulate Ang-II receptors, effects that occur in neurons. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells in primary cultures derived from normotensive rat brain. The receptors are kinetically similar to, but functionally distinct from, the neuronal Ang-II receptors.

Raizada, M.K.; Phillips, M.I.; Crews, F.T.; Sumners, C.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Dynamics of some parameters of the endocrine and lymphatic systems in rats during cold adaptation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the combined behavior of the endocrine and lymphatic systems in rats at stages of long-term adaptation of the animals to moderate cold. After decapitation of male Wister rats, the corticosterone concentration in the blood plasma was determined by saturation analysis and serum levels of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) and triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) were determined by radioimmunoassay. The thymus was weighed and the structure of the popliteal lymph nodes (LN) was studied in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and with azure II-eosin. Morphometry of the structural components of LN was undertaken and the numbers of the various cell forms per 1000 cells were counted in different zones of LN. The increase in activity of the lymphoid tissue in the phase of adaptation may be connected with intensification of the peripheral action of thyroid hormones. During long-term adaptation, in the phase of consistently increased specific resistance, a new type of endocrine-lymphoid relation is formed, and it differs significantly both in the original state and in the acute phase of stress.

Borodin, Yu.I.; Sedova, L.A.; Selyatitskaya, V.G.; Shorin, Yu.P.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Absorption of zinc and iron by rats fed meals containing sorghum food products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc and iron absorption from freeze-dried traditionally-prepared sorghum food products was studied in rats. After a period of marginal zinc or iron depletion, rats were fed test meals containing 1 of 4 sorghum foods cooked maize gruel or an inorganic mineral each of which was extrinsically labeled with either /sup 65/Zn or /sup 59/Fe before being added to the diets. Absorption was determined by whole body percent retention of the initial radioisotope dose over a period of 19 days. Iron was highly available from all products tested (75-83%) with no significant differences in absorption among groups (p>0.05). Zinc from fermented Aceta (97%) was more available than that from the other sorghum products (69-78%) or maize gruel (76%). Zinc from acid To (78%) and Aceta (97%) was as available as that from zinc oxide in the control diet (93%) (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in zinc absorption among groups fed Acid To (78%), neutral To (76), alkali To (69%) or maize gruel (76%) (psorghum foods. Iron and zinc were highly available from all sorghum foods. Reduction phytate by fermentation increased Zn availability.

Stuart, S.M.A.; Johnson, P.E.; Hamaker, B.; Kirleis, A.

1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

125

Angiotensin II induces secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and a tissue metalloprotease inhibitor-related protein from rat brain astrocytes  

SciTech Connect

The present study investigates angiotensin (Ang) II effects on secretory protein synthesis in brain astrocytes cultured from neonatal and 21-day-old rats. Ang II-induced changes in the de novo synthesis of (35S)methionine-labeled secretory proteins were visualized using two-dimensional NaDodSO4/PAGE. Astrocytes from 21-day-old rat brain possess specific high-affinity receptors for Ang II. These cells express two Ang II-induced secretory proteins with Mr 55,000 (AISP-55K) and Mr 30,000 (AISP-30K), which were time- and dose-dependent (EC50, 1 nM). (Sar1, Ile8)Ang II (where Sar is sarcosine) inhibited Ang II-induced secretion of AISP-55K but not AISP-30K. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicates that AISP-55K is identical to rat plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, whereas AISP-30K exhibits 72-81% identity to three closely related proteins: human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases, a rat phorbol ester-induced protein, and the murine growth-responsive protein 16C8. Immunofluorescent staining with rat plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 antibody was induced in the majority of cells in culture after Ang II treatment of astrocytes from 21-day-old rat brains. Absence of this response to Ang II in astrocytes from neonatal rat brain provides evidence that this action of Ang II on astrocytes is developmentally regulated.

Olson, J.A. Jr.; Shiverick, K.T.; Ogilvie, S.; Buhi, W.C.; Raizada, M.K. (Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is activated by extracellular calcium (Ca2+o). Rat-1 fibroblasts have been shown to proliferate and increase ERK activity in response to elevation of [Ca2+]o, and these responses are dependent on functional CaR expression. In this report, we examined the role of cross-talk between the CaR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mediating these responses in Rat-1 cells. This report shows that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR kinase, significantly inhibits the increase in proliferation induced by elevated Ca2+o. Further, we show that AG1478 acts downstream or separately from G-protein subunit activation of phospholipase C. AG1478 significantly inhibits Ca2+o-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity. A similar inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed in response to the inhibitor AG494. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of metalloproteases involved in shedding of membrane anchored EGF family ligands substantially inhibited the increase in ERK activation in response to elevated Ca2+o. This is consistent with the known expression of TGFa by Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that EGFR transactivation is an important component of the CaR mediated response to increased Ca2+o in Rat-1 fibroblasts, and most likely involves CaR-mediated induction of regulated proteolysis and ligand shedding.

Tomlins, Scott A.; Bollinger, Nikki; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Rodland, Karin D.

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Detecting Radiation-Induced Injury Using Rapid 3D Variogram Analysis of CT Images of Rat Lungs  

SciTech Connect

A new heterogeneity analysis approach to discern radiation-induced lung damage was tested on CT images of irradiated rats. The method, combining octree decomposition with variogram analysis, demonstrated a significant correlation with radiation exposure levels, whereas conventional measurements and pulmonary function tests did not. The results suggest the new approach may be highly sensitive for assessing even subtle radiation-induced changes

Jacob, Rick E.; Murphy, Mark K.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Carson, James P.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

doi:10.1093/alcalc/agh256 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF RESVERATROL ON ETHANOL-INDUCED LIPID PEROXIDATION IN RATS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Aim: Chronic ethanol treatment induces an increase in oxidative stress. As polyphenolic compounds are potent antioxidants, we aimed to examine whether dietary supplementation of resveratrol may attenuate lipid peroxidation, the major end-point of oxidative damage resulting from chronic ethanol administration. Method: Three groups of male Wistar rats were used. The first group served as control and received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 0.9 % saline. The second group of rats was daily injected with 35% ethanol at 3 g/kg body weight. The third group was given the same dose of ethanol and supplemented with resveratrol (5 g/kg) in the standard diet. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, was measured in the liver, heart, brain, and testis. Results: At the end of a 6 weeks treatment period, MDA levels were significantly increased by 51.5, 53.7, 72.7, and 40.5 % in the liver, heart, brain, and testis, respectively. However, when ethanol treated rats were given resveratrol the increase in MDA levels was significantly reduced in all organs to nearly those of control rats. Conclusion: Resveratrol is able to inhibit the ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation and have protective effect against oxidative injury.

A. Kasdallah-grissa; B. Mornagui; E. Aouani; M. Hammami; N. Gharbi; A. Kamoun; S. El-fazaa

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Metabolism of selenium (Se) in rats chronically poisoned with D- or L-selenomethionine (SeMet), selenite or selenate  

SciTech Connect

L-SeMet is a potential cancer chemoprevention agent for humans. Little difference was seen in the acute toxicity of L vs. D-SeMet in rats. To study chronic toxicity, weanling male rats were fed purified diets containing 2.5, 5.0 or 10 ppm Se as L-SeMet, D-SeMet, Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ or Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 4/ for 6 weeks. Controls received 0.1 ppm Se as selenite. All rats fed 10 ppm Se died within 29 days. Se fed as D-SeMet was retained in the tissues as strongly as L-SeMet. Rats fed D or L-SeMet deposited large amounts of Se in muscle not reflected by proportionate increases in either plasma or RBC Se. Therefore, attempts to follow increases in Se body burden in individuals supplemented with large doses of L-SeMet by monitoring plasma or whole blood Se levels should be interpreted with caution.

McAdam, P.A.; Levander, O.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Effects of head-up tilt on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and regional cardiac output distribution in aging rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many senescent individuals demonstrate an inability to regulate mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to standing or head-up tilt; however, whether this aging effect is the result of depressed cardiac function or an inability to reduce peripheral vascular conductance remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of aging on MAP, heart rate (HR), regional blood flow (via radioactive-microspheres), and vascular conductance during head-up tilt in conscious young (4 mo; n=12) and old (24 mo; n=10) male Fischer-344 rats. Heart rate and MAP were measured continuously during normal posture and during 10 minutes of head-up tilt. Blood flow was determined during normal posture and at the end of 10 minutes of head-up tilt. Young rats increased MAP significantly at the onset of head-up tilt and generally maintained the increase in MAP for the duration of head-up tilt, while aged rats showed a significant reduction in MAP after 10 minutes of head-up tilt. In the normal posture, aged rats demonstrated lower blood flow to splanchnic, bone, renal, and skin tissues versus young rats. With tilt there were decreases in blood flow to skin, bone, and hind-limb in both age groups and in fat, splanchnic, reproductive, and renal tissues in the young. Bone blood flow was attenuated with age across both conditions in hind foot, distal femur, femur marrow, and proximal and distal tibia. Head-up tilt caused a decrease in blood flow across both age groups in all bones sampled with the exception of the hind foot. These results provide evidence that the initial maintenance of MAP in aged rats during head-up tilt occurs through decreased regional blood flow and vascular conductance, and that the fall in pressure is not attributable to an increase in tissue blood flow and vascular conductance. Therefore, reductions in arterial pressure during headup tilt are likely a result of an old age-induced reduction in cardiac performance. In addition, this is the first study to demonstrate a decreased bone vascular conductance in both young and old rats during head-up tilt.

Ramsey, Michael Wiechmann

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Expression of the Bcl-2 protein in nasal epithelia of F344/N rats during mucous cell metaplasia and remodeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exposure to ozone induces mucous cell metaplasia in rat airway epithelia. During the regeneration process, apoptotic mechanisms may be responsible for eliminating metaplastic cells. Therefore, the present study investigated expression of Bcl-2, a regulator of apoptosis, in ozone-induced mucous cell metaplasias. Adjacent metaplastic mucous cells in nasal airway epithelia that were exposed to ozone were heterogeneous in their expression of Bcl-2; some cells expressed high levels, whereas others expressed low levels or no Bcl-2. On Western blot analysis, Bcl-2 was detected in protein extracts from nasal epithelia of rats exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for 1 mo but not in control rats exposed to filtered air. The number of metaplastic mucous cells in transitional epithelia of rat nasal airways was increased from 0 to about 200 after 3 and 6 mo of exposure to ozone; only 0 to 10 metaplastic mucous cells remained after a recovery period of 13 wk in rats exposed to ozone for 3 mo. The number of mucous cells of the respiratory epithelium lining the midseptum did not change after ozone exposure or recovery. The percentage of Bcl-2-positive cells lining the midseptum increased from 7 to 14 % after a 3- and 6-mo ozone exposure, respectively. In transitional epithelia of the lateral wall and the nasoturbinates and maxilloturbinates, 35 to 55 % of cells were Bcl-2-positive after a 1-mo exposure and 10 to 18 % after both a 3- and a 6-mo exposure to ozone. Bcl-2 reactivity decreased to 0 to 8 % after a recovery period of 13 wk. These observations suggest that Bcl-2 plays a role in

Johannes Tesfaigzi; Jon A. Hotchkiss; Jack R. Harkema

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland  

SciTech Connect

Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-/sup 125/I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci.

Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN ON WATER INTAKE, FOOD INTAKE, AND BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE ALBINO RAT*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1961, Dubos and Schaedler (1) reported a reduction in water intake in animals treated with bacterial endotoxin. Mice were raised in a pathogen-free environment and subsequently tested with one of several toxins. Alteration in daily water intake was found to occur at doses well below the LDs0. Because of the long-standing interest in this laboratory in drive states, their behavioral consequences, and physiological basis (2), this property of endotoxin was explored in the albino rat. Our animals were not raised in a pathogen-free environment. Using fairly large doses of toxin, we were able to confirm the findings of Dubos and Schaedler, and, in addition, demonstrate a profound toxin effect on food intake and body temperature. Using behavioral and physiological techniques, we made exploratory studies of resistance and sensitization to toxin and of its possible site of action. Materials and Methods Animals.--AU the animals were male Sprague-Dawley albino rats, 90 to 120 days old, weighing 300 gm or more. They were housed in individual wire cages in a temperature-controlled room, and were fed Purina lab chow and tap water. Water intakes were measured by making water bottles available for 30 minutes every day and weighing the bottles before and after consumption. After several "familiarization " days the rats would drink a fairly standard amount each day. Food intake was measured by weighing the food in the cages every 24 hours, the food being continuously available. Animals on food-intake measurement were given water ad lib and those on water-intake measurement were given food ad lib. Temperatures were taken with an ordinary rectal thermometer, lubricated and inserted almost its entire length. The animals showed no unusual distress and tolerated the procedure day after day. Thermometers were left in place 3 to 5 minutes and then read. Thermometem that dropped out were replaced for 3 additional minutes. A paper towel on the cage floor facilitated recovery of lost thermometers. Toxin.--A eommerdally prepared lipopolysaccharide extract of Eschericlda coli was used

E. Holmes; Neal; E. Miller, Ph.D.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Level of osteopenia and bone recovery in alcohol-fed adolescent rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adolescence is a period in human growth and development that is a time of rapid and drastic change. It is also known to be an age of widespread alcohol abuse. Studies addressing the reversibility of the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption on young, actively growing adolescent bones have not been done. The objective of this study was to determine the level of bone recovery, if any, once an adolescent ceases alcohol consumption. Fifty, 4-week old, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were individually housed and maintained in an American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care-accredited facility at Texas A&M. The rats (n = 6 or 7 per group) were fed either alcohol (35% ethanol-derived calories), isocaloric liquid diet, or chow for 2 or 4 weeks, depending on the experimental group. The weekly blood alcohol concentrations averaged 309 [] 9 mg/dl. The rats were sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks after the experimental feeding began. The BioQuant Morphometric System was used to perform the histomorphometric analyses of the proximal tibia. Tibia bone volume per trabecular volume (BV/TV) in both age groups of alcohol and pair-fed animals was significantly less when compared to the chow 4 week animals. BV/TV was increased in the alcohol recovery group when compared to the alcohol 2 and 4 week groups, but the level of growth never reached the chow-fed 4 week group. Femur length, diameter and volume measurements increased in the alcohol recovery group when compared to both the alcohol 2 and 4 week groups. However, the length and volume parameters did not fully recover to equal those of the control chow 4 week animals, or even the some-age pair-fed animals. Femur diameter of the alcohol recovery animals was comparable to the alcohol 4 week animals, but less than the chow-fed. Alcohol also suppressed IGF-I levels. Full bone recovery did not occur within two weeks after removal of alcohol from the diet, suggesting the detrimental effects due to alcohol were not completely reversible during this time frame.

Spears, Heather Lynae

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Dietary Fats and Risk of Chronic DiseaseChapter 7 Dietary Conjugated Linolenic Acid Modifies Body Fat Mass, and Serum and Liver Lipid Levels in Rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dietary Fats and Risk of Chronic Disease Chapter 7 Dietary Conjugated Linolenic Acid Modifies Body Fat Mass, and Serum and Liver Lipid Levels in Rats Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press ...

137

Dietary Fats and Risk of Chronic DiseaseChapter 17 Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake and Lipid peroxidation in Retinal Membranes of Rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dietary Fats and Risk of Chronic Disease Chapter 17 Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake and Lipid peroxidation in Retinal Membranes of Rats Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Download

138

Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause disorders associated with prostatic hyperplasia and hyperactivity.

Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi, E-mail: urmichatterji@gmail.com

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Autoradiographic localization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptor subtypes in rat kidney  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) clearance receptors in rat kidney was investigated by in vitro autoradiography using des(Gln18,Ser19,Gly20,Leu21,Gly22)-ANP-(4- 23) (C-ANP) and 125I-Tyr0-ANP-(5-25) as relatively specific ligands of this receptor. Alpha-125I-ANP (100 pM) bound reversibly but with high affinity to glomeruli, outer medullary vasa recta bundles, and inner medulla. C-ANP (10 microM) inhibited greater than 60% of this glomerular binding but did not inhibit the binding of alpha-125I-ANP to medullary tissues. Alpha-125I-ANP also bound reversibly to the renal arteries up to the glomerulus. This arterial binding was only partly inhibited by 10 microM C-ANP. In the presence of 10 microM C-ANP, increasing concentrations of alpha-125I-ANP bound to a residue of glomerular sites with apparent dissociation constants of 0.82 +/- 0.16 to 2.73 +/- 1.20 nM at different cortical levels. 125I-Tyr0-ANP-(5-25) bound significantly to glomeruli and intrarenal arteries but not to vasa recta bundles or inner medulla. This glomerular binding also occurred with nanomolar dissociation constants. It was completely inhibited by 1 microM alpha-ANP and 10 microM C-ANP, but not by unrelated peptides such as gastrin. These results suggest that renal ANP clearance receptors are restricted in vivo to the glomeruli and renal arterial system of the rat.

Brown, J.; Salas, S.P.; Singleton, A.; Polak, J.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (England))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid on the process and development of diabetic nephropathy induced in rats by streptozotocin: Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-oxidative activation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), although the precise regulatory mechanism is still unclear. Recent reports have shown that chemical molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) can suppress oxidative stress by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We therefore hypothesized that 4-PBA could provide renoprotection through the suppression of oxidative stress in DN rats. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: a normal control (NC) group, a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN model group, and a DN plus 4-PBA (1 g/kg) treatment group. At the end of 4, 8, and 12 weeks, hydroxyproline content, NADPH oxidase activity and the expression of phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1{alpha} (p-IRE1{alpha}), p47phox, nitrotyrosine (NT) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the kidneys of all rats were determined; malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum and urine were also detected; renal nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) activity in all of the rats was examined at the end of 12 weeks. Compared with the NC group, the DN rats showed a significant increase in hydroxyproline content, NADPH oxidase activity, NF-{kappa}B activity, the expression of p-IRE1{alpha}, p47phox, NT and Nrf2 in renal tissue; markedly, MDA levels were higher and SOD activity was lower in serum and urine of DN rats than in NC rats for the indicated time. These alterations were inhibited by the administration of 4-PBA. These findings first demonstrated that treatment with 4-PBA significantly inhibits the process and development of diabetic nephropathy in rats through the regulation of ER stress-oxidative activation.

Luo Zhifeng [Institute of Nephrology of Chongqing and Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Feng Bing, E-mail: fxb12@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Nephrology of Chongqing and Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Mu Jiao; Qi Wei; Zeng Wei; Guo Yanhong; Pang Qi; Ye Zilin; Liu Li; Yuan Fahuan [Institute of Nephrology of Chongqing and Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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141

Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

Han Suxia; He Guangming; Wang Tao; Chen Lei; Ning Yunye; Luo Feng; An Jin; Yang Ting; Dong Jiajia; Liao Zenglin; Xu Dan [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, and Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wen Fuqiang, E-mail: wenfuqiang.scu@gmail.co [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, and Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Effect of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on recovery from spinal cord injury in rats given uncontrollable stimulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The eventual outcome of spinal cord injury is largely influenced by damage that occurs after the injury. Damaged connections between spinal cord cells and the brain allow a positive feedback mechanism to go unchecked when activated by ascending pain messages. Over-excitation then causes secondary damage. This study examines whether a pharmacological manipulation that should attenuate over-excitation reduces the adverse effects of shock treatment. Rats received spinal impact injuries and, the next day, were given the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.08 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle before receiving either a bout of uncontrollable stimulation or identical treatment without the stimulation itself. Their hindlimb motor activity was monitored for 21 days. Results indicate a significant effect of the drug on rats that received uncontrollable stimulation. The study has clinical implications for the treatment of spinal cord injuries in humans.

Petrich, Christine

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

143

Metabolic Rate Constants for Hydroquinone in F344 Rat and Human Liver Isolated Hepatocytes: Application to a PBPK model.  

SciTech Connect

Hydroquinone (HQ) is an important industrial chemical that also occurs naturally in foods and in the leaves and bark of a number of plant species. Exposure of laboratory animals to HQ may result in a species-, sex-, and strain-specific nephrotoxicity. The sensitivity of male F344 vs. female F344 and Sprague-Dawley rats or B6C3F1 mice appears to be related to differences in the rates of formation and further metabolism of key nephrotoxic metabolites. Metabolic rate constants for the conversion of HQ through several metabolic steps to the mono-glutathione conjugate and subsequent detoxification via mercapturic acid were measured in suspension cultures of hepatocytes isolated from male F344 rats and humans. An in vitro mathematic kinetic model was used to analyze each metabolic step by simultaneously fitting the disappearance of each substrate and the appearance of subsequent metabolites. An iterative, nested approach was used whereby downstream metabolites were considered first and the model was constrained by the requirement that rate constants determined during analysis of individual metabolic steps must also satisfy the complete, integrated metabolism scheme, including competitive pathways. The results from this study indicated that the overall capacity for metabolism of HQ and its mono-glutathione conjugate is greater in hepatocytes from humans than those isolated from rats, suggesting a greater capacity for detoxification of the glutathione conjugates. Metabolic rate constants were applied to an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the model was used to predict total glutathione metabolites produced in the liver. The results showed that body burdens of these metabolites will be much higher in rats than humans.

Poet, Torka S.; Wu, Hong; English, J C.; Corley, Rick A.

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: Role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microsomal glutathione transferase (MGST1) is activated by oxidative stress. Although MGST1 is found in mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1), there is no information about the oxidative activation of mtMGST1. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether mtMGST1 also undergoes activation and about its function. When rats were treated with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS), mtMGST1 activity was significantly increased, and the increased activity was reduced by the disulfide reducing agent dithiothreitol. In mitochondria from GalN/LPS-treated rats, disulfide-linked mtMGST1 dimer and mixed protein glutathione disulfides (glutathionylation) were detected. In addition, cytochrome c release from mitochondria isolated from GalN/LPS-treated rats was observed, and the release was inhibited by anti-MGST1 antibodies. Incubation of mitochondria from control rats with diamide and diamide plus GSH in vitro resulted in dimer- and mixed disulfide bond-mediated activation of mtMGST1, respectively. The activation of mtMGST1 by diamide plus GSH caused cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and the release was prevented by treatment with anti-MGST1 antibodies. In addition, diamide plus GSH treatment caused mitochondrial swelling accompanied by cytochrome c release, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BKA), inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore. Furthermore, mtMGST1 activity was also inhibited by CsA and BKA. These results indicate that mtMGST1 is activated through mixed disulfide bond formation that contributes to cytochrome c release from mitochondria through the MPT pore.

Lee, Kang Kwang; Shimoji, Manami; Hossain, Quazi Sohel [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Pharmacology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Sunakawa, Hajime [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Functional Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Aniya, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Pharmacology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan)], E-mail: yaniya@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by extracellular calcium (Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}). Rat-1 fibroblasts have been shown to proliferate and increase ERK activity in response to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub o}, and these responses are dependent on functional CaR expression. In this report, we examined the role of cross-talk between the CaR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mediating these responses in Rat-1 cells. This report shows that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR kinase, significantly inhibits the increase in proliferation induced by elevated Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}. Furthermore, we show that AG1478 acts downstream or separately from G protein subunit activation of phospholipase C. AG1478 significantly inhibits Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity. A similar inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed in response to the inhibitor AG494. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of metalloproteases involved in shedding of membrane anchored EGF family ligands substantially inhibited the increase in ERK activation in response to elevated Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}. This is consistent with the known expression of TGF{alpha} by Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that EGFR transactivation is an important component of the CaR-mediated response to increased Ca {sub o} {sup 2+} in Rat-1 fibroblasts and most likely involves CaR-mediated induction of regulated proteolysis and ligand shedding.

Tomlins, Scott A. [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bolllinger, Nikki [Biological Sciences Division, Battelle for the US DOE, PO Box 999, 790 Sixth Street, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Creim, Jeffrey [Biological Sciences Division, Battelle for the US DOE, PO Box 999, 790 Sixth Street, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division, Battelle for the US DOE, PO Box 999, 790 Sixth Street, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)]. E-mail: Karin.rodland@pnl.gov

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Effect of Hypericum perforatum CO2 extract on the motivational properties of ethanol in alcohol-preferring rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Aims: Extracts of Hypericum perforatum (HPE) attenuate voluntary ethanol intake in different lines of alcohol-preferring rats. The present study evaluated the effect of the intragastric (IG) administration of a CO 2 Hypericum perforatum extract (HPCO 2) on operant ethanol self-administration, as well as on voluntary ethanol intake, after a period of ethanol deprivation in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Methods: HPCO 2 was administered by means of an indwelling IG catheter, 1 h before the tests. For the self-administration experiments, the rats were trained to self-administer 10 % (v/v) ethanol in 30-min daily sessions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. HPCO 2 was also tested on 0.2 % w/v saccharin self-administration. For the ethanol deprivation experiments, rats that had a previous experience with voluntary ethanol drinking were deprived of ethanol for 9 days, whereas water and food were freely available; HPCO 2 was given by IG injection 1 h before the ethanol re-presentation. Results: HPCO 2 in doses of 31 or 125 mg/kg but not 7 mg/kg, significantly reduced ethanol self-administration, while it did not modify saccharin self-administration. The same doses of the extract abolished the increased ethanol intake following ethanol deprivation. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that HPCO 2 markedly reduces the reinforcing properties of ethanol in the selfadministration paradigm, as well as the increase of ethanol intake following ethanol deprivation. These findings further support the view that the use of HPE may represent an interesting pharmacological approach in the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

Marina Perfumi; Laura Mattioli; Laura Forti; Maurizio Massi; Roberto Ciccocioppo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo arrays, with over 20,000 target genes, were used to evaluate o-NT- and BCA-induced RPMs, when compared to a non-transformed mesothelial cell line (Fred-PE). Analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software revealed 169 cancer-related genes that were categorized into binding activity, growth and proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and invasion and metastasis. The microarray data were validated by positive correlation with quantitative real-time RT-PCR on 16 selected genes including igf1, tgfb3 and nov. Important carcinogenic pathways involved in RPM formation included insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), p38 MAPkinase, Wnt/{beta}-catenin and integrin signaling pathways. This study demonstrated that mesotheliomas in rats exposed to o-NT- and BCA were similar to mesotheliomas in humans, at least at the cellular and molecular level.

Kim, Yongbaek [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, MD B3-08, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Thai-Vu Ton [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, MD B3-08, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); De Angelo, Anthony B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Morgan, Kevin [Aventis, Bridgewater, NJ 08807 (United States); Devereux, Theodora R. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Anna, Colleen [Environmental Carcinogenesis Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Collins, Jennifer B. [Microarray Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Paules, Richard S. [Microarray Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Crosby, Lynn M. [Wyeth Research, Chazy, NY 12921 (United States); Sills, Robert C. [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, MD B3-08, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)]. E-mail: sills@niehs.nih.gov

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Phytic acid plus calcium, but not phytic acid alone, decreases fluoride bioavailability in the rat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of in vitro studies have suggested that fluoride becomes insoluble when some soy-based infant formulas are diluted with fluoridated water because of the presence of phytate, added calcium or a combination of these factors. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in vivo. Male albino rats were fed a purified diet containing phytic acid, calcium and fluoride for 4 weeks in a factorial design of treatments. Phytic acid was added to the diet by chemically reacting a phytic acid concentrate with casein prior to diet preparation to mimic a soy-protein. Food intake, weight gain and femur P were unaffected by dietary treatments. Both phytic acid and supplemental calcium alone had little or no effect upon fluoride uptake into either bone or teeth. The combination of phytic acid plus supplemental calcium, however, significantly increased % of fluoride intake found in the feces which was reflected in a significant decrease in fluoride concentration of femur, 2nd molar teeth and vertebrate bone. These results provide evidence that insoluble complex formation produced by a calcium and phytate interaction can explain reduced fluoride solubility in some soy-based infant formulas as well as decreased fluoride absorbability in vivo.

Cerklewski, F.L. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in intact and uninephrectomized (UNX) rats  

SciTech Connect

Previous experimental observations have suggested that ANP increases the transcapillary shift of water and albumin. The present studies were conducted in anesthetized euvolemic rats 6 weeks after UNX or sham operation. The effect of iv infusion of 103-126 hANP was assessed on GFR and ERPF ({sup 99}Tc.DTPA and {sup 131}I-hippuran clearances), and UAE (nephelemetric method). ANP infusion was associated with no change in mean arterial pressure during the low dose (LD) and a 30 mm Hg decrease during the high dose (HD). ANP induced a dose-dependent and reversible increase in UNaV. Both proximal (as assessed by lithium excretion) and distal reabsorption of sodium were decreased by ANP. GFR was altered whereas ERPF decreased only during HD-AMP; filtration fraction (FF) dose-dependently increased in response to ANP. UAE increased dose-dependently and to a similar extent in both groups in response to ANP. The increase in UAE was readily reversible after discontinuation of ANP. There was a positive correlation between changes in UAE and changes in FF induced by ANP. These results indicate that ANP has a potent albuminuric effect. The simultaneous increase in UAE and FF, which could explain the effect of ANP on proximal tubular handling of sodium, may result from an ANP-induced rise in intraglomerular capillary pressure and/or an increase in glomerular permeability to albumin.

Valentin, J.P.; Ribstein, J.; Mimran, A. (CHU, Montpellier (France))

1990-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

150

Gene Expression of ANP, BNP and ET-1 in the Heart of Rats during Pulmonary Embolism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: Atrial natriuretic petide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) may reflect the severity of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). The exact nature and source of BNP, ANP and ET-1 expression and secretion following PE has not previously been studied. Methods and Results: Polystyrene microparticles were injected to induce PE in rats. Gene expression of BNP, ANP and ET-1 were determined in the 4 cardiac chambers by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, ET-1 and cardiac troponin I (TNI) were measured in plasma. PE dose-dependently increased gene expression of ANP and BNP in the right ventricle (RV) and increased gene expression of ANP in the right atrium (RA). In contrast PE dosedependently decreased BNP gene expression in both the left ventricle (LV) and the left atrium (LA). Plasma levels of BNP, TNI and ET-1 levels dose-dependently increased with the degree of PE. Conclusion: We found a close correlation between PE degree and gene-expression of ANP, and BNP in the cardiac chambers with a selective increase in the right chambers of the heart. The present data supports the idea of natriuretic peptides as

Henrik Gutte; Jytte Oxbl; Ulrik Sloth Kristoffersen; Jann Mortensen; Andreas Kjr

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Influence of copper and iron on subacute cadmium intoxication in protein-malnourished rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male albino rats maintained on low-protein (9%) diets were dosed intraperitoneally with 0.75 mg Cd/kg, as cadmium chloride, for 20 days. Groups of these animals were provided with diets supplemented with 40 ppm Cu, 400 ppm Fe or a combination of both during the exposure period. Hepatic and renal distribution of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe along with activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases and ribonuclease and glutathione content were studied. Uptake of Cd both in liver and in kidney was significant and was accompanied by increased Zn and depletion of Fe concentration. The Cu level remained unaltered. Dietary supplementation of Cu or Fe interacted effectively and influenced the metal distribution. Acid and alkaline phosphatases in both liver and kidney were inhibited by Cd exposure. However, Cu and/or Fe supplements could to a varying degree offset the Cd-induced inhibition. Cadmium exposure did not, however, elicit any effect on hepatic and renal ribonuclease activity of low-protein-fed animals. The glutathione concentration registered profound increase on Cd exposure, possibly to act as a defense mechanism.

Tewari, P.C.; Kachru, D.N.; Tandon, S.K.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Imaging mass spectrometry offers simultaneous detection of drugs, drug metabolites and endogenous substances in a single experiment. This is important when evaluating effects of a drug on a complex organ system such as the brain, where there is a need to understand how regional drug distribution impacts function. Nicotine is an addictive drug and its action in the brain is of high interest. Here we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, nano-DESI, imaging to discover the localization of nicotine in rat brain tissue after in vivo administration of nicotine. Nano-DESI is a new ambient technique that enables spatially-resolved analysis of tissue samples without special sample pretreatment. We demonstrate high sensitivity of nano-DESI imaging that enables detection of only 0.7 fmole nicotine per pixel in the complex brain matrix. Furthermore, by adding deuterated nicotine to the solvent, we examined how matrix effects, ion suppression, and normalization affect the observed nicotine distribution. Finally, we provide preliminary results suggesting that nicotine localizes to the hippocampal substructure called dentate gyrus.

Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Laskin, Julia

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Intrarenal renin-angiotensin system modulates glomerular angiotensin receptors in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modulates glomerular angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors. In one protocol ANG II receptors were measured 7 days after unilateral denervation of the left kidney in rats. There were 50% more receptors in the glomeruli from denervated compared with innervated kidneys, which was associated with a 63% reduction in left renal vein renin. The differences in ANG II receptors between the left and right kidneys were not longer present when angiotensin-converting enzyme was inhibited with enalapril or when pharmacological amounts of ANG II were infused. In a second protocol, renal cortical renin content was raised in the left kidney by placing a 0.20-mm clip on the left renal artery. At 7 days, glomerular ANG II receptors were reduced by 72.3% in the clipped compared with the contralateral kidneys. The differences in ANG II receptors were no longer present after enalapril treatment. Pharmacological maneuvers that either blocked ANG II formation or increased circulating ANG II resulted in an equal number of ANG II receptors in the right and left kidneys. The data indicate that the intrarenal RAS modulates the density of glomerular ANG II receptors and is a more important receptor modulation than plasma ANG II.

Wilkes, B.M.; Pion, I.; Sollott, S.; Michaels, S.; Kiesel, G. (North Shore Univ. Hospital and Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (USA))

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Evidence for extracellular, but not intracellular, generation of angiotensin II in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa  

SciTech Connect

Based on the observation that high levels of renin and angiotensin II (Ang II) are found in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), it has been postulated that Ang II is formed intracellularly by the renin-converting enzyme cascade in this tissue. To test this hypothesis, the authors examined renin-angiotensin system components in subcellular fractions of the rat adrenal ZG. Renin activity and immunoreactive-Ang II (IR-Ang II) were observed in vesicular fractions but were not colocalized. In addition, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, and converting enzyme were not observed in the renin or IR-Ang II-containing vesicular fractions. These data do not support the hypothesis that Ang II is formed intracellularly within the renin-containing vesicles of the ZG. Rather, since modulatable renin release from adrenal ZG slices was observed and renin activity was found in dense vesicular fractions (33-39% sucrose), it is likely that Ang II formation in the ZG is extracellular and initiated by the release of vesicular renin. In ZG lysomal fractions {sup 125}I-labeled Ang II was degraded to {sup 125}I-labeled des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II. Since Ang II antibodies do not recognize des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II, these finding explain why IR-Ang II in the ZG is due predominantly to Ang II and not to its C-terminal immunoreactive fragments.

Urata, H.; Khosla, M.C.; Bumpus, M.; Husain, A. (Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Piezoelectric Drop-on-Demand Inkjet Printing of Rat Fibroblast Cells: Survivability Study and Pattern Printing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel piezoelectric, drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet system has been developed and used to print L929 rat fibroblast cells. We investigate the survivability of the cells subjected to the large stresses during the printing process. These stresses are varied by changing the diameter of the orifice (36 to 119 microns) through which the cells are dispensed, as well as changing the electrical pulse used to drive the piezoelectric element. It is shown that for the smallest 36 microns diameter orifice, cell survival rates fall from 95% to approximately 76% when the ejection velocity is increased from 2 to 16 m/s. This decrease in survival rates is less significant when the larger orifice diameters of 81 microns and 119 microns are used. Analysis shows that there is a clear inverse relationship between cell survival rates and the mean shear rates during drop formation. By using the same printing set-up, fibroblast cells are printed onto alginate and collagen into patterns. Printed cells are cultured over a period of da...

Li, Er Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur Tryggvi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

In vivo determination of triglyceride (TG) secretion in rats fed different dietary saturated fats using (2- sup 3 H)-glycerol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (154{plus minus}1 g) were fed diets containing 2% corn oil (CO) + 14% butterfat (BF), beef tallow (BT), olive oil (OO) or coconut oil (CN) vs a 16% CO control diet for 5 weeks. Changes in plasma TG specific activity (dpm/mg TG) were determined in individual unanesthetized rats after injection of 100 {mu}Ci (2-{sup 3}H)-glycerol via a carotid cannula. Fractional rate constants were obtained using a 2-compartment model and nonlinear regression analysis. Results demonstrated no difference in the fractional rate constants among dietary groups; but, differences in the rates of hepatic TG secretion were noted. Rats fed BT showed a higher rate of hepatic TG secretion than rats fed CO. Rats fed BF, OO or CN showed somewhat higher rates of hepatic TG secretion than CO. VLDL TG, phospholipid, and apolipoprotein B and E levels were higher with saturated fats vs CO. The data suggest that the higher plasma TG levels noted in response to feeding saturated fats vs corn oil can be explained, in part, by an increased flux of hepatic TG secretion.

Lai, H.C.; Yang, H.; Lasekan, J.; Clayton, M.; Ney, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1990-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

157

Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re in seven lobes of the rat liver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. {sup 166}Ho and {sup 188}Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for preclinical therapy studies, from tissue composition to organ morphology and activity distribution.

Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Zaidi, Habib [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) and Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Gronigen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Rat MHC-linked peptide transporter alleles strongly influence peptide binding by HLA-B27 but not B27-associated inflammatory disease  

SciTech Connect

Rats transgenic for the human MHC molecule HLA-B27 were used to study the effect of two alleles, cim{sup a} and cim{sup b}, which are associated with peptide transport by the MHC-encoded Tap2 transporter, on the function of HLA-B27 as a restriction element for CTL recognition of the male H-Y minor H Ag and on the multisystem inflammatory disease characteristic of B27 transgenic rats. Anti-H-Y CTL generated in cim{sup a} B27 transgenic rats lysed male B27 cim{sup b/b} targets significantly less well than cim{sup a/a} or cim{sup a/b} targets. Addition of exogenous H-Y peptides to male B27 cim{sup b/b} targets increased susceptibility to lysis to the level of cim{sup a/a} targets sensitized with exogenous H-Y peptides. {sup 3}H-labeled peptides eluted from B27 molecules of lymphoblasts from rats of two cim{sup b} and three cim{sup a} RT1 haplotypes showed that the cim{sup b} peptide pool favors comparatively longer and/or more hydrophobic peptides. These results indicate that RT1-linked Tap2 polymorphism in the rat strongly influences peptide loading of HLA-B27. Nonetheless, the prevalence and severity of multisystem inflammatory lesions were comparable in backcross rats bearing either cim{sup a/b} or cim{sup b/b}. It thus appears either that binding of specific peptides to B27 is unimportant in the pathogenesis of B27-associated disease or that the critical peptides, unlike H-Y and many others, are not influenced by Tap transporter polymorphism. 42 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Simmons, W.A.; Satumtira, Nimman; Taurog, J.D. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

MRP2 and the handling of mercuric ions in rats exposed acutely to inorganic and organic species of mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercuric ions accumulate preferentially in renal tubular epithelial cells and bond with intracellular thiols. Certain metal-complexing agents have been shown to promote extraction of mercuric ions via the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). Following exposure to a non-toxic dose of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}), in the absence of complexing agents, tubular cells are capable of exporting a small fraction of intracellular Hg{sup 2+} through one or more undetermined mechanisms. We hypothesize that MRP2 plays a role in this export. To test this hypothesis, Wistar (control) and TR{sup -} rats were injected intravenously with a non-nephrotoxic dose of HgCl{sub 2} (0.5 {mu}mol/kg) or CH{sub 3}HgCl (5 mg/kg), containing [{sup 203}Hg], in the presence or absence of cysteine (Cys; 1.25 {mu}mol/kg or 12.5 mg/kg, respectively). Animals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure to mercury and the content of [{sup 203}Hg] in blood, kidneys, liver, urine and feces was determined. In addition, uptake of Cys-S-conjugates of Hg{sup 2+} and methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) was measured in inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from either control Sf9 cells or Sf9 cells transfected with human MRP2. The amount of mercury in the total renal mass and liver was significantly greater in TR{sup -} rats than in controls. In contrast, the amount of mercury in urine and feces was significantly lower in TR{sup -} rats than in controls. Data from membrane vesicles indicate that Cys-S-conjugates of Hg{sup 2+} and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} are transportable substrates of MRP2. Collectively, these data indicate that MRP2 plays a role in the physiological handling and elimination of mercuric ions from the kidney.

Bridges, Christy C., E-mail: Bridges_cc@mercer.edu; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration in WldS transgenic rats after optic nerve crush and lens injury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the latter inactive in WldS trans- genic rats. WldS is a fusion protein that consists of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl-transferase-1 (Nmnat1) and a short fragment of the ubiquitin assem- bly protein UFD2. Whilst several reports have suggested... - fered saline (PBS) followed by 4% paraformaldehyde. Eyes and optic nerves were removed and post-fixed by immersion overnight in cold 4% paraformaldehyde. Tis- sue was then washed with PBS and transferred to 30% sucrose solution (overnight at 4 C...

Lorber, Barbara; Tassoni, Alessia; Bull, Natalie D; Moschos, Marilita M; Martin, Keith R

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

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161

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for developmental exposure to BDE-47 in rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used commercially as additive flame retardants and have been shown to transfer into environmental compartments, where they have the potential to bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. Of the 209 possible PBDEs, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is usually the dominant congener found in human blood and milk samples. BDE-47 has been shown to have endocrine activity and produce developmental, reproductive, and neurotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BDE-47 in male and female (pregnant and non-pregnant) adult rats to facilitate investigations of developmental exposure. This model consists of eight compartments: liver, brain, adipose tissue, kidney, placenta, fetus, blood, and the rest of the body. Concentrations of BDE-47 from the literature and from maternal-fetal pharmacokinetic studies conducted at RTI International were used to parameterize and evaluate the model. The results showed that the model simulated BDE-47 tissue concentrations in adult male, maternal, and fetal compartments within the standard deviations of the experimental data. The model's ability to estimate BDE-47 concentrations in the fetus after maternal exposure will be useful to design in utero exposure/effect studies. This PBPK model is the first one designed for any PBDE pharmaco/toxicokinetic description. The next steps will be to expand this model to simulate BDE-47 pharmacokinetics and distributions across species (mice), and then extrapolate it to humans. After mouse and human model development, additional PBDE congeners will be incorporated into the model and simulated as a mixture.

Emond, Claude, E-mail: claude.emond@umontreal.c [Departement de sante environnementale et sante au travail Faculte de medecine, Universite de Montreal, P.O. Box 6128, Main Station, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); BioSimulation Consulting Inc., Newark, DE 19711 (United States); Raymer, James H.; Studabaker, William B.; Garner, C. Edwin [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Birnbaum, Linda S. [Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Piezoelectric Drop-on-Demand Inkjet Printing of Rat Fibroblast Cells: Survivability Study and Pattern Printing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel piezoelectric, drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet system has been developed and used to print L929 rat fibroblast cells. We investigate the survivability of the cells subjected to the large stresses during the printing process. These stresses are varied by changing the diameter of the orifice (36 to 119 microns) through which the cells are dispensed, as well as changing the electrical pulse used to drive the piezoelectric element. It is shown that for the smallest 36 microns diameter orifice, cell survival rates fall from 95% to approximately 76% when the ejection velocity is increased from 2 to 16 m/s. This decrease in survival rates is less significant when the larger orifice diameters of 81 microns and 119 microns are used. Analysis shows that there is a clear inverse relationship between cell survival rates and the mean shear rates during drop formation. By using the same printing set-up, fibroblast cells are printed onto alginate and collagen into patterns. Printed cells are cultured over a period of days to verify their long-term viability. Fibroblasts printed onto the collagen are found to successfully adhere, spread and proliferate, subsequently forming a denser patterns after 5 days in culture. Cell agglomeration is found to affect the printing performance, especially for the printhead with the smallest orifice, leading to frequent clogging of the nozzle. We also study the number of cells in each droplet, when printed under optimal conditions. The probability density of this number follows a binomial distribution, which consistent with a uniform distribution of cells in the medium and within the printhead.

Er Qiang Li; Eng Khoon Tan; Sigurdur Tryggvi Thoroddsen

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

163

Synthesis, internalization, and localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in rat adrenal medulla  

SciTech Connect

Some, though not all studies, have indicated that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) can bind to adrenal medullary cells. ANP-like immunoreactivity (ANP-LI) has also been identified in catecholamine-secreting cells. Together, these findings suggest that ANP may be taken up and/or synthesized in the adrenal medulla. The present study was designed to ascertain, by in situ hybridization, whether adrenal chromaffin cells could synthesize ANP, to define by an in vivo ultrastructural autoradiographic approach, whether ANP could, in fact, bind to rat adrenal medulla cells, to determine whether there was a cellular (noradrenaline (NA) vs. adrenaline (A)) selectivity in the binding process, and to establish whether extracellular (125I)ANP could be internalized by these cells. The cellular and subcellular distribution of endogenous ANP-LI was also investigated in both cell types by cryoultramicrotomy and immunocytochemical approaches. The in situ hybridization studies indicate the presence of mRNA to ANP in about 15% of adrenal medullary cells. Intravenous injection of (125I)ANP resulted in a 3-fold, preferential and specific radiolabeling of A-as compared to NA-containing cells. In A-containing cells, plasma membranes were significantly labeled 2 and 5 min post injection; cytoplasmic matrix, mitochondria, and secretory granules throughout the time course studied (1-30 min post injection). Lysosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and nuclei were not labeled. ANP-LI was identified in both NA- and A-containing cells; in the former, it was almost exclusively localized in secretory vesicles, in the latter it was detected in plasma membranes, cytoplasmic matrix, nuclear euchromatin, some mitochondria and relatively fewer granules than in NA-containing cells.

Morel, G.; Chabot, J.G.; Garcia-Caballero, T.; Gossard, F.; Dihl, F.; Belles-Isles, M.; Heisler, S.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Involvement of calcium-sensing receptor in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, which activates intracellular effectors, for example, it causes inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation to increase the release of intracellular calcium. Although intracellular calcium overload has been implicated in the cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis, the role of CaR in the induction of apoptosis has not been fully understood. This study tested the hypothesis that CaR is involved in I/R cardiomyocyte apoptosis by increasing [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The isolated rat hearts were subjected to 40-min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, meanwhile GdCl{sub 3} was added to reperfusion solution. The expression of CaR increased at the exposure to GdCl{sub 3} during I/R. By laser confocal microscopy, it was observed that the intracellular calcium was significantly increased and exhibited a collapsed {delta}{psi} {sub m}, as monitored by 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) during reperfusion with GdCl{sub 3}. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased as shown by TUNEL assay. Typical apoptotic cells were observed with transmission electron microscopy in I/R with GdCl{sub 3} but not in the control group. The expression of cytosolic cytochrome c and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly increased whereas the expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c significantly decreased in I/R with GdCl{sub 3} in comparison to the control. In conclusion, these results suggest that CaR is involved in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ischemia/reperfusion through activation of cytochrome c-caspase-3 signaling pathway.

Zhang Weihua [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Fu Songbin [Department of Genetics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150086 (China); Lu Fanghao [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)]. E-mail: lufanghao1973@yahoo.com.cn; Wu Bo [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Gong Dongmei [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Pan, Zhen-wei [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Lv Yanjie [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Yajun [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li Quanfeng [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Wang Rui [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ont., P7B5E1 (Canada); Yang Baofeng [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu Changqing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China) and Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150086 (China)]. E-mail: xucq@163.com

2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

165

INFLUENCE OF TUMOUR GROWTH ON THE EVOLUTION OF CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOID CELLS IN RATS BEARING A SPONTANEOUSLY METASTASIZING SYNGENEIC FIBROSARCOMA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary.-Regional and distant lymph node cells, thoracic duct cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes from rats bearing a spontaneously metastasizing and apparently non-immunogenic sarcoma were assayed for cytotoxic activity on microcultures of tumour cells at 7, 14 and 21 days of tumour growth. In the regional lymph nodes detectable cytotoxicity was present at 7 days and the overall activity remained constant at 14 and 21 days. At Day 7 of tumour growth the cytotoxic cell population in the regional node was tumour specific in its cytotoxic effect, very radiosensitive and could not be removed by nylon wool column purification. In contrast the cells in the regional nodes at Day 21 were nonspecifically cytotoxic and could be completely removed by nylon wool treatment. In the peripheral blood, cytotoxic lymphoid cells not removed by nylon wool, were detectable at all stages of tumour growth. The thoracic duct lymph cells were, however, without cytotoxic activity throughout the period of tumour growth studied. Distant lymph node cells were assayed for cytotoxicity and it was found that they acquired significant cytocidal properties only late in tumour growth. The sera from tumour-bearing rats were tested for inhibitory

G. A. Currii; J. Gage

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Schwann cell but not olfactory ensheathing glia transplants improve hindlimb locomotor performance in the moderately contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cultured adult rat Schwann cells (SCs) or olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG), or both, were transplanted in the adult Fischer rat thoracic (T9) spinal cord 1 week after a moderate contusion (10 gm, 12.5 mm, NYU impactor). Rats received either a total of 2 ? 10 6 cells suspended in culture medium or culture medium only (controls). At 12 weeks after injury, all grafted animals exhibited diminished cavitation. Although in medium-injected rats 33 % of spinal tissue within a 5-mm-long segment of cord centered at the injury site was spared, significantly more tissue was spared in SC (51%), OEG (43%), and SC/OEG (44%) grafted animals. All three types of glial grafts were filled with axons, primarily of spinal origin. SC grafts contained more myelinated axons than SC/OEG and OEG grafts. Both types of SC-containing grafts expressed more intense staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan compared with OEG-only

Toshihiro Takami; Martin Oudega; Margaret L. Bates; Patrick M. Wood; Naomi Kleitman; Mary Bartlett Bunge

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Dietary apigenin and naringenin protect against colon carcinogenesis by lowering high multiplicity aberrant crypt foci and enhancing apoptosis in azoxymethane-treated rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. However, evidence indicates that a proper diet abundant in fruits and vegetables may be protective against colon cancer development. Bioactive compounds in fruits and vegetables, such as flavonoids and limonoids, have been shown to possess anti-proliferative and antitumorigenic effects in various in vitro and in vivo models of cancer. Since there are few animal studies involving flavonoids and limonoids and colon cancer, this experiment investigated the potentially protective effects of four citrus flavonoids and one limonoid mixture against the promotion stage of chemically-induced colon cancer in rats. Male SD rats (n =60; 10 rats/group) were assigned to receive diets containing 0.1% apigenin, 0.02% naringenin, 0.1% hesperidin, 0.01% nobiletin, 0.035% limonin glucoside/obacunone glucoside mixture, or a control diet (0% flavonoid/limonoid). Rats received the diets for 10 wk and were injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg) at wk 3 and 4. The excised colons were evaluated for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, cell proliferation (PCNA assay), apoptosis (TUNEL assay), and iNOS and COX-2 expression. When compared to the control diet, apigenin lowered the number of high multiplicity ACF (> 4 AC/focus) by 57% (PACF by 51% (PACF are indicative of future tumor development in both humans and rats. Furthermore, dysregulated proliferation and apoptosis may also lead to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the ability of dietary apigenin and naringenin to reduce high multiplicity ACF, lower proliferation, and increase apoptosis may contribute toward colon cancer prevention. However, their protection is not due to their influence on iNOS and COX-2 protein levels.

Leonardi, Tety

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

On-off intermittency of thalamo-cortical oscillations in the electroencephalogram of rats with genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spike-wave discharges (SWD) are electroencephalographic hallmarks of absence epilepsy. SWD are known to originate from thalamo-cortical neuronal network that normally produce sleep spindle oscillations. Although both sleep spindles and SWD are considered as thalamo-cortical oscillations, functional relationship between them is still uncertain. The present study describes temporal dynamics of SWD and sleep spindles as determined in long-term EEG recordings in WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. It was found that non-linear dynamics of SWD fits well to the law of 'on-off intermittency'. Typical sleep spindles that occur during slow-wave sleep (SWS) also demonstrated 'on-off intermittency' behavior, in contrast to high-voltage spindles during intermediate sleep stage, whose dynamics was uncertain. This implies that both SWS sleep spindles and SWD are controlled by a system-level mechanism that is responsible for regulating circadian activity and/or sleep-wake transitions.

Evgenia Sitnikova; Alexander E. Hramov; Alexey A. Ovchinnikov; Alexey A. Koronovskii

2013-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

169

Effects of x-irradiation on steroid biotransformations by testicular tissue. Final report, May 1, 1966--July 31, 1976. [Rats  

SciTech Connect

A number of parameters of testicular and body function were investigated after various dosages of x-irradiation to ascertain: what relationship they have to the radiation syndrome and testicular repression and regeneration of the rat; and how sensitive these parameters are to radiation. Changes in androgen synthesis were not well correlated with either body or gonad weights, hematocrit values or testicular histology. Lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, metabolism of testosterone, prostaglandins, cyclic nucleotides and serotonin metabolism were all related to the direct effects of radiation on the male gonad. Indirect effects on the testis appear to be mediated by serotonin and the pineal gland. The pineal gland appeared to be responsible for variations in androgen synthesis and radiosensitivity of the testis through its secretory products-melatonin and arginine vasopressin. These compounds have the capacity of inducing endocrine rhythms by affecting: the hypothalamus-pituitary axis; the liver; and/or the gonad directly.

Ellis, L.C.

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Characterization of Solubilized Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptors from Rat Olfactory Bulb and A10 Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors from Al 0 cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and rat olfactory bulbs have been solubilized and then pharmacologically and biochemically compared. The dissociation constant for *% ANP(99-126) was 12.7 PM for the VSMC-derived receptor and 164 PM for the olfactory receptor. Competition binding between 1251-ANP(99-1 26) and several unlabeled ANP analogs with the soluble olfactory receptor, demonstrated a rank order potency of ANP(99-126) = ANP ( 103-l 26)>>> ANP ( 103-l 23). However, the rank order potency of the soluble VSMC ANP receptor was ANP(99-126) = ANP ( 103-l 26) = ANP ( 103-l 23). Therefore, the olfactory ANP receptor appears to require the complete COOH-terminal sequence of ANP as compared with the VSMC ANP receptor. When the 2 soluble receptor preparations were applied to a GTP-agarose

T. Ft. Gibson; A. D. Zyskind; C. C. Glembotski

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Original article Microinjection of NMDA Receptor Agents into the Central Nucleus of the Amygdale Alters Water Intake in Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective(s) The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is a forebrain structure which is important in regulation of ingestive behavior and there is direct and circumstantial evidence to indicate that some circuits involved with feeding behavior include glutamatergic elements. The present study examined whether administration of NMA (N-Methyl-DL-aspartic acid) or MK801 into the CeA altered water intake under deprivation. Materials and Methods Animals were deprived for 24 hr before tested for water intake. NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamatergic receptor agonist, NMA and its antagonist, MK801 were infused bilaterally, and water intake measured for 1 hr thereafter. Results The intra-CeA injection of NMDA glutamatergic agonist, NMA (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 g/rat) increased water intake (Pwater intake significantly (Pwater intake in this nucleus.

Jalal Solati; Ramin Hajikhani

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Printed in U.S.A. Effect of Acute Ethanol on Striatal Dopamine Neurotransmission in Ambulatory Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of ethanol on evoked dopamine release in the caudate putamen has been measured in behaving animals with in vivo electrochemistry. Dopamine was measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in adult male rats to resolve the competing processes of dopamine uptake and release. Ethanol dose dependently decreased dopamine efflux compared with salinetreated animals: to 89 % of controls with 0.5 g/kg, 70 % with 1 g/kg, 34 % with 2.5 g/kg, and 18 % with 5 g/kg. This decrease was not due to a change in uptake, as measured by the rate of dopamine disappearance after stimulation, and therefore can be attributed to decreased dopamine release. Additionally, it was not mediated by a decrease in biosynthesis, as measured by L-DOPA accumulation after NSD 1015 administration. The selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12909 compensated

Evgeny A. Budygin; Paul E. M. Phillips; Donita L. Robinson; Andrew P. Kennedy; Raul R. Gainetdinov; R. Mark Wightman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Block of voltage-gated potassium channels by Pacific ciguatoxin-1 contributes to increased neuronal excitability in rat sensory neurons  

SciTech Connect

The present study investigated the actions of the polyether marine toxin Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on neuronal excitability in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, bath application of 2-20 nM P-CTX-1 caused a rapid, concentration-dependent depolarization of the resting membrane potential in neurons expressing tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (Na{sub v}) channels. This action was completely suppressed by the addition of 200 nM TTX to the external solution, indicating that this effect was mediated through TTX-sensitive Na{sub v} channels. In addition, P-CTX-1 also prolonged action potential and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) duration. In a subpopulation of neurons, P-CTX-1 also produced tonic action potential firing, an effect that was not accompanied by significant oscillation of the resting membrane potential. Conversely, in neurons expressing TTX-resistant Na{sub v} currents, P-CTX-1 failed to alter any parameter of neuronal excitability examined in this study. Under voltage-clamp conditions in rat DRG neurons, P-CTX-1 inhibited both delayed-rectifier and 'A-type' potassium currents in a dose-dependent manner, actions that occurred in the absence of alterations to the voltage dependence of activation. These actions appear to underlie the prolongation of the action potential and AHP, and contribute to repetitive firing. These data indicate that a block of potassium channels contributes to the increase in neuronal excitability, associated with a modulation of Na{sub v} channel gating, observed clinically in response to ciguatera poisoning.

Birinyi-Strachan, Liesl C. [Neurotoxin Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway NSW (Australia); Gunning, Simon J. [Neurotoxin Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway NSW (Australia); Lewis, Richard J. [Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD (Australia); Nicholson, Graham M. [Neurotoxin Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: Graham.Nicholson@uts.edu.au

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies of the antiarrhythmic drug meobentine (N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N prime , N double prime -dimethylguanidine) and its N-(4-trifluoromethyoxybenzyl)-N prime , N double prime - dimethylguanidine analogue, fluorobentine in the rat, dog and man  

SciTech Connect

A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed that was able to detect 40 pg meobentine (M) in 0.1 ml plasma. Cross-reactivity of suspected M metabolites was very low. This RIA was later also used to assay for fluorobentine (F), a fluorine analogue of M. M exhibits three-compartment open model iv kinetics in the rat, dog, and man. Terminal drug half-life in the rat, dog, and man; total-body clearance in the rat, dog, and man; and terminal-phase volume of distribution in the rat, dog, and man were determined. (14C)-M absorption is essentially complete in the rat and dog, but this parameter could not be directly ascertained in man. Relative oral drug bioavailability is linear in the rat and dog but falls off between 5-10 mg/kg in man. F was synthesized in an attempt to counteract suspected problems with M's poor absorption or extensive metabolism that might be affecting its efficacy in humans. F would likely be unavailable for O-demethylation, might well be more lipophilic than M, and yet still be active.

Warren, J.T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Bath and Shower Effects in the Rat Parotid Gland Explain Increased Relative Risk of Parotid Gland Dysfunction After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid glands of Wistar rats was performed using 150-MeV protons. To determine suitable (i.e., subtolerance) dose levels for a bath-dose, both whole parotid glands were irradiated with 5 to 25 Gy. Subsequently groups of Wistar rats received 30 Gy to the caudal 50% (shower) and 0 to 10 Gy to the cranial 50% (bath) of both parotid glands. Stimulated saliva flow rate (function) was measured before and up to 240 days after irradiation. Results: Irradiation of both glands up to a dose of 10 Gy did not result in late loss of function and is thus regarded subtolerance. Addition of a dose bath of 1 to 10 Gy to a high-dose in the caudal 50% of the glands resulted in enhanced function loss. Conclusion: Similar to the spinal cord, the parotid gland demonstrates a bath and shower effect, which may explain the less-than-expected sparing of function after IMRT.

Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: p.van.luijk@rt.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schippers, Jacobus M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Accelerator Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

doi:10.1093/alcalc/agl085 THE GLYCINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR ORG 25935 DECREASES ETHANOL INTAKE AND PREFERENCE IN MALE WISTAR RATS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Previous findings from our group indicate that accumbal glycine receptors (GlyRs) are involved in mediating the dopamine (DA) activating effects of ethanol (EtOH), and that administration of glycine locally into the nucleus accumbens (nAc) reduces EtOH consumption in EtOH high-preferring rats. Aims: The present study examines the influence of a systemically administered glycine reuptake inhibitor, Org 25935, on EtOH preference and intake, in male Wistar rats with an EtOH preference>60 % (during continuous access to a bottle of EtOH, 6 % v/v, and a bottle of water), called EP>60 rats, as well as in animals with an EtOH preference 60 and EPwater. Results: Org 25935 decreased EtOH intake and EtOH preference, as compared with vehicle, whereas water intake was unaffected. This effect was dose-dependent, developed gradually and was sustained for up to 40 days, also after introduction of an alcohol deprivation period. Conclusion: It is suggested that Org 25935, and possibly also other GlyT1 inhibitors, can represent a new pharmacological treatment principle for alcohol dependence or abuse.

Anna Molander; Helga Hifdt Lid; Elin Lf; Mia Ericson; Bo Sderpalm

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Effects of aging and exercise training on the mechanisms of Angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction in rat skeletal muscle arterioles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aging is associated with increases in regional and systemic vascular resistance and impaired ability to increase blood flow to active muscles during exercise. Aging enhances vasoconstrictor responsiveness in both humans and animals, and an increase in Angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction is one possible mechanism for old age-associated increase in muscle vascular resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether aging alters Ang II-induced vasoconstriction, 2) whether exercise training attenuates the age-associated alteration in Ang II-mediated vasoconstriction, and 3) the mechanism(s) through which aging and exercise training alter Ang II-induced vasoconstriction in rat skeletal muscle arterioles. Male Fischer 344 rats were assigned to 4 groups: Young sedentary (YS; 4 months), old sedentary (OS; 24 months), young trained (YT) and old trained (OT). Exercise-trained groups performed treadmill exercises for 60 min/day at 15 m/min, on a 15 incline for 5 days/week for 10-12 weeks. First-order (1A) arterioles were isolated from soleus and gastrocnemius muscles for in vitro experimentation. Intraluminal diameter changes were determined in response to the cumulative addition of Ang II (310-11 - 310-5 M). Ang II dose responses were then determined following the removal of endothelium and treatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10-5 M), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Ang II-induced vasoconstriction was augmented in the aged skeletal muscle arterioles, both in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, and age-associated increases in Ang II-induced vasoconstriction were abolished with the removal of endothelium and with L-NAME. Exercise training ameliorated the age-induced increase in Ang II-vasoconstriction, and this alteration was eliminated by the removal of endothelium and with NOS inhibition. These findings suggest that aging enhances Ang II-induced vasoconstrictor responses in the arterioles from both soleus, high oxidative, and white portion of gastrocnemius, low oxidative glycolytic muscles, and this age-associated change occurs through an endothelium-dependent NOS signaling pathway. These results also demonstrated that exercise training can ameliorate the age-associated increase in Ang II vasoconstriction in the arterioles from both high oxidative and low oxidative glycolytic muscles through an endothelium-mediated NOS mechanism.

Park, Yoonjung

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Effect of angiotensin II on Ca sup 2+ kinetics and contraction in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells  

SciTech Connect

This in vitro study was undertaken to determine the changes in Ca{sup 2+} kinetics and cell shape of cultured putative glomerular mesangial cells in the rat in response to angoitensin II (ANG II). Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ((Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}) was measured using quin 2. ANG II-stimulated {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} efflux was also determined. ANG II induced rapid concentration-dependent increases in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} efflux. ANG II also induced contraction of mesangial cells as assessed by alterations in cell shape. Even in Ca{sup 2+}-free medium, ANG II increased (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} and {sup 45}Ca{sub 2+} efflux, but to a lesser extent. Under this condition, contraction of mesangial cells induced by ANG II was also observed. Readdition of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} and the ANG II-induced increase in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} caused a second and slower (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} increase. High potassium (50 mM) induced a change of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}, but to a lesser extent compared with the ANG II-induced change. The Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker verapamil partially inhibited ANG II-induced {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} influx but totally blocked the increase in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} induced by high potassium. Verapamil did not inhibit ANG II-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} efflux or the change in cell shape. Dantrolene (10{sup {minus}4} M), a blocker of Ca{sup 2+} release from endoplasmic reticulum, inhibited ANG II-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} efflux and change in cell shape. These results indicate that ANG II rapidly increases (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} in cultured rat mesangial cells, in part by mobilizing Ca{sup 2+} from dantrolene-sensitive intracellular pools and in part through activation of receptor-operated and voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channels. The (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} mobilization, however, seems to be the primary modulator of initial glomerular mesangial cell contraction.

Takeda, Katsuji; Meyer-Lehnert, H.; Kim, J.K.; Schrier, R.W. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA))

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Characterization of the Bone Loss and Recovery Response at the Distal Femur Metaphysis of the Adult Male Hindlimb Unloaded Rat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extended periods of mechanical unloading are known to be detrimental to bone health. Astronauts who spend months in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are at particular risk. It is anticipated that NASA will not drastically increase the size of the astronaut corps, and this will mean increased likelihood of repeat missions for more astronauts. Thus, it is important to better understand the effects that prolonged, multiple bouts of unloading have on bone. This study utilized the hindlimb unloaded (HU) rat model to examine bone loss and recovery for single and double unloading bouts. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 months old) were randomized into the following groups: baseline (sacrificed at 6 months), 1HU7 (unloaded for 1 month, weight-bearing recovery for 3 months), 2HU10 (unloaded for 1 month, recovered for 2 months, unloaded for another month, and then recovered 2 months), 1HU10 (normal cage activity until 1 month HU ending at month 10, 2 month recovery followed), and aging controls (remained ambulatory throughout experiment). Every month (28 days), animals were terminated and the left femurs were excised, resulting in n=15 per group for each time point. Mineral and geometric properties were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the distal femur metaphysis, and quasi-static reduced platen compression (RPC) was used to estimate the mechanical properties of cancellous bone. Strength indices based on pQCT parameters were calculated as predictors of mechanical properties. Bone mass properties decreased due to HU and recovered within 2-3 months post-HU. A combination of increased periosteal apposition and endocortical resorption also occurred during HU. The initial HU bout suppressed normal age-related increases in mechanical properties and recovered within 1-2 months. Cancellous compressive strength index (CSI) most closely matched changes in mechanical properties. A second HU bout after two months recovery had a less detrimental effect on pQCT parameters but a greater negative impact on mechanical properties, when compared to pre-HU values. The opposite is true for mechanical properties if loss is characterized relative to aging controls. Recovery after the second HU period did not appear to be significantly affected by a previous bout of HU.

Davis, Joshua Morgan

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels Contribute to Thromboxane A2-Induced Contraction of Rat Small Mesenteric Arteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: Thromboxane A 2 (TxA 2)-induced smooth muscle contraction has been implicated in cardiovascular, renal and respiratory diseases. This contraction can be partly attributed to TxA2-induced Ca 2+ influx, which resulted in vascular contraction via Ca 2+-calmodulin-MLCK pathway. This study aims to identify the channels that mediate TxA2-induced Ca 2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle cells. Methodology/Principal Findings: Application of U-46619, a thromboxane A2 mimic, resulted in a constriction in endothelium-denuded small mesenteric artery segments. The constriction relies on the presence of extracellular Ca 2+, because removal of extracellular Ca 2+ abolished the constriction. This constriction was partially inhibited by an L-type Ca 2+ channel inhibitor nifedipine (0.51 mM). The remaining component was inhibited by L-cis-diltiazem, a selective inhibitor for CNG channels, in a dose-dependent manner. Another CNG channel blocker LY83583 [6-(phenylamino)-5,8-quinolinedione] had similar effect. In the primary cultured smooth muscle cells derived from rat aorta, application of U46619 (100 nM) induced a rise in cytosolic Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+]i), which was inhibited by L-cis-diltiazem. Immunoblot experiments confirmed the presence of CNGA2 protein in vascular smooth muscle cells. Conclusions/Significance: These data suggest a functional role of CNG channels in U-46619-induced Ca 2+ influx and contraction of smooth muscle cells.

Yuk Ki Leung; Juan Du; Yu Huang; Xiaoqiang Yao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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181

but Not of MMP-9, Depends on the Emergence of GAP-43 Positive Axons in the Adult Rat Cochlear Nucleus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9 and MMP-2, major modulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM), were changed in amount and distribution in the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) following its sensory deafferentation by cochlear ablation. To determine what causal relationships exist between the redistribution of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and deafferentation-induced reinnervation, kainic acid was stereotaxically injected into the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB) prior to cochlear ablation, killing cells that deliver the growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) into AVCN. Deafferentation-induced changes in the pattern of MMP-9 staining remained unaffected by VNTB lesions. By contrast, changes in the distribution of MMP-2 normally evoked by sensory deafferentation were reversed if GAP-43 positive axons were prevented to grow in AVCN. In conclusion, GAP-43-containing axons emerging in AVCN after cochlear ablation seem to be causal for the maintenance of MMP-2-mediated ECM remodeling. 1.

Michaela Fredrich; Robert-benjamin Illing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver cell line  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic analysis of the uptake and metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites within live cells in real time has the potential to provide novel insights into genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms of cellular injury caused by PAHs. The present work, combining the use of metabolite spectra generated from metabolite standards using multiphoton spectral analysis and an 'advanced unmixing process', identifies and quantifies the uptake, partitioning, and metabolite formation of one of the most important PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, BaP) in viable cultured rat liver cells over a period of 24 h. The application of the advanced unmixing process resulted in the simultaneous identification of 8 metabolites in live cells at any single time. The accuracy of this unmixing process was verified using specific microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, glucuronidation and sulfation inhibitors as well as several mixtures of metabolite standards. Our findings prove that the two-photon microscopy imaging surpasses the conventional fluorescence imaging techniques and the unmixing process is a mathematical technique that seems applicable to the analysis of BaP metabolites in living cells especially for analysis of changes of the ultimate carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t-9,10-epoxide. Therefore, the combination of the two-photon acquisition with the unmixing process should provide important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which BaP and other PAHs alter cellular homeostasis.

Barhoumi, Rola, E-mail: rmouneimne@cvm.tamu.edu [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4458 (United States); Mouneimne, Youssef [American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Ramos, Ernesto [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4458 (United States); Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Safe, Stephen [Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Parrish, Alan R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri, Colombia, MO 65211 (United States); Burghardt, Robert C., E-mail: rburghardt@cvm.tamu.edu [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4458 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

High-Energy Petawatt Capability for the Omega Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 60-beam Omega laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) has been a workhorse on the frontier of laser fusion and high-energy-density physics for more than a decade. LLE scientists are currently extending the performance of this unique, direct-drive laser system by adding high-energy petawatt capabilities.

Waxer, L.J.; Maywar, D.N.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J.D.

2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

184

MEASUREMENTS OF SPECIFIC ELECTRICAL CONTACT RESISTANCE BETWEEN SIC AND LEAD-LITHIUM EUTECTIC ALLOY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Angeles, CA, 90095-1597, USA, morley@fusion.ucla.edu Silicon Carbide (SiC) has been proposed as a possible resistance of disks of high purity CVD SiC were measured with liquid lead-lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy melts at the SiC/LLE interface was not significant. The contact resistance during initial exposure did not behave

Abdou, Mohamed

185

J. M. Soures for R. L. McCrory University of Rochester  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

optics and other technologies National Ignition Campaign (NIC) Support of NIC ignition NIF ignition PDD higher gains than the baseline NIF indirect-drive design · LLE will make major contributions to IFE. Betti talk #12;LLE's IFE research program will focus on advanced ignition concepts after NIF ignition I

186

doi:10.1093/alcalc/agh065, available online at www.alcalc.oupjournals.org DUAL EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON CELL DEATH IN PRIMARY CULTURE OF HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Aims: In-vivo and in-vitro studies have shown that ethanol induces hepatocyte damage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a broad range of ethanol concentrations on apoptosis and necrosis in primary culture of human and rat hepatocytes. Methods: Human and rat hepatocytes were isolated from human hepatectomies and male Wistar rats (200250 g) using the classical collagenase perfusion method. After stabilization of cell culture, ethanol (010 mmol/l) was administered and the parameters were measured 24 h after ethanol addition. Apoptosis was studied by DNA fragmentation, iodide propidiumDNA staining, caspase-3 activity and annexin V binding in hepatocytes. Necrosis was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and GSH/GSSG were used as parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Ethanol enhanced dose-dependently all the parameters associated with apoptosis in human and rat hepatocytes. Low or high ethanol concentrations induced an opposite action against cell necrosis in cultured hepatocytes. Low concentrations of ethanol (12 mmol/l) reduced LDH release from human and rat hepatocytes. However, the highest ethanol concentration (10 mmol/l) induced a sharp increase in cell necrosis. The effect of ethanol on cell necrosis was related to lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes. Conclusions: Ethanol differentially regulates apoptosis or necrosis in cultured hepatocytes. Although ethanol exerted a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis, low ethanol concentrations were able to reduce basal lipid peroxidation and necrosis in hepatocytes. The highest ethanol concentration (10 mmol/l) induced apoptosis and necrosis in human and rat cultured hepatocytes.

Rafael Castilla; Ral Gonzlez; Dalia Fouad; Enrique Fraga; Jordi Muntan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A SUBCHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO 0, 0.4, 1.4 OR 4.0 PPM ACROLEIN.  

SciTech Connect

Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 1.4, or 4.0 ppm acrolein for 62 days. The major objective of the study was to relate the results of a series of pulmonary function tests to biochemical and pathological alterations observed in the lung. Cytological and reproductive potential endpoints were also assessed after acrolein exposure. Rats were exposed to acrolein for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 62 days. Mortality was observed only in the 4.0 ppm chamber where 32 of 57 exposed males died; however, none of the 8 exposed females died. Most of the mortality occurred within the first 10 exposure days. Histologic examination indicated that the animals died of acute bronchopneumonia. The surviving males and females exposed to 4.0 ppm acrolein gained weight at a significantly slower rate than control animals. The growth of both sexes in the 0.4 and 1.4 ppm groups was similar to that of their respective controls. Histopathologic examination of animals after 62 days of exposure revealed bronchiolar epithelial necrosis and sloughing, bronchiolar edema with macrophages, and focal pulmonary edema in the 4.0 ppm group. These lesions were, in some cases, associated with edema of the trachea and peribronchial lymph nodes, and acute rhinitis which indicated an upper respiratory tract effect of acrolein. Of particular interest was the variability of response between rats in the 4.0 ppm group, some not affected at all while others were moderately affected. Intragroup variability in toxicity was also apparent in the 1.4 ppm exposure group where only 3 of 31 animals examined had lesions directly related to acrolein exposure. Extra respiratory organs appeared unaffected.

KUTZMAN,R.S.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Characterization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-containing follicles in the rat ovary during the estrous cycle and effects of ACE inhibitor on ovulation  

SciTech Connect

Ovarian angiotensin I (Ang I)-converting enzyme (ACE), estimated by the specific binding of the ACE inhibitor (125I)iodo-MK-351A, is localized on multiple ovarian structures, including follicular granulosa cells, corpora lutea, terminal epithelium, and ovarian blood vessels, but total ovarian ACE does not display a cyclic pattern of variation during the rat estrous cycle. We have previously shown that ACE is localized on the granulosa cell layer of a subpopulation of rat ovarian follicles. Our present study shows that ovarian granulosa cells contain high affinity (binding site affinity (Kd), approximately 90 pM) and low capacity (binding site density (Bmax), approximately 12 fmol/2.5 X 10(5) cells) (125I)iodo-MK-351A-binding sites and convert (125I)iodo-Ang I to (125I)iodo-Ang II (greater than 85% of this conversion was inhibited by the ACE inhibitor captopril). Throughout the rat estrous cycle, 94-100% of developing follicles and 89-96% of atretic follicles contained high levels of ACE; however, ACE was either not observed or its levels were very low in preovulatory follicles. These findings indicate the presence of high levels of biologically active ACE on the surface of granulosa cells and suggest a potential role for follicular ACE in early stages of follicular maturation and atresia. Although ACE is known to process a variety of peptides found within the ovary, and these peptides may have opposing effects on follicular maturation, we attempted to define the cumulative effect of ACE inhibition on follicular maturation.

Daud, A.I.; Bumpus, F.M.; Husain, A. (Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the adipose tissue and whether these changes occur simul- taneously across lipid fractions. It has previously been found that a HFD, especially a diet rich in SFA, decreases SCD expression in both rat liver and adipose tissue [33,34]. A HFD has also been shown... of petroleum ether containing 0.005% butylated hydroxytolvene after addition of 1.5 ml distilled water. The phases were separated after thorough mixing and centrifugation at 1500 g for 10 min. The petroleum ether phase was pipetted off and the solvent...

Cedernaes, Jonathan; Alsi, Johan; Vstermark, ke; Risrus, Ulf; Schith, Helgi B

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

190

Long-term mequindox treatment induced endocrine and reproductive toxicity via oxidative stress in male Wistar rats  

SciTech Connect

Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial chemical of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide group. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that MEQ exerts testicular toxicity by causing oxidative stress and steroidal gene expression profiles and determine mechanism of MEQ testicular toxicity. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were fed with MEQ for 180 days at five different doses as 0, 25, 55, 110 and 275 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to control, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated at 110 and 275 mg/kg MEQ, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was slightly increase at only 275 mg/kg. Furthermore, in LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, one metabolite 2-isoethanol 4-desoxymequindox (M11) was found in the testis. There was significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and testosterone at 275 mg/kg, serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) at 110 and 275 mg/kg, while lutinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated at 110 mg/kg. Moreover, histopathology of testis exhibited germ cell depletion, contraction of seminiferous tubules and disorganization of the tubular contents of testis. Compared with control, mRNA expression of StAR, P450scc and 17{beta}-HSD in testis was significantly decreased after exposure of 275 mg/kg MEQ while AR and 3{beta}-HSD mRNA expression were significantly elevated at the 110 mg/kg MEQ group. Taken together, our findings provide the first and direct evidence in vivo for the formation of free radicals during the MEQ metabolism through N {yields} O group reduction, which may have implications to understand the possible mechanism of male infertility related to quinoxaline derivatives.

Ihsan, Awais, E-mail: awais.dr@gmail.com [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang Xu [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu Zhaoying [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128 (China); Wang Yulian [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang Xianju [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu Yu; Yu Huan; Zhang Hongfei; Li Tingting; Yang Chunhui [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yuan Zonghui, E-mail: yuan5802@mail.hzau.edu.cn [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Mefenamic acid bi-directionally modulates the transient outward K{sup +} current in rat cerebellar granule cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on ion channels has been widely studied in several cell models, but less is known about their modulatory mechanisms. In this report, the effect of mefenamic acid on voltage-activated transient outward K{sup +} current (I{sub A}) in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells was investigated. At a concentration of 5 {mu}M to 100 {mu}M, mefenamic acid reversibly inhibited I{sub A} in a dose-dependent manner. However, mefenamic acid at a concentration of 1 {mu}M significantly increased the amplitude of I{sub A} to 113 {+-} 1.5% of the control. At more than 10 {mu}M, mefenamic acid inhibited the amplitude of I{sub A} without any effect on activation or inactivation. In addition, a higher concentration of mefenamic acid induced a significant acceleration of recovery from inactivation with an increase of the peak amplitude elicited by the second test pulse. Intracellular application of mefenamic acid could significantly increase the amplitude of I{sub A}, but had no effect on the inhibition induced by extracellular mefenamic acid, implying that mefenamic acid may exert its effect from both inside and outside the ion channel. Furthermore, the activation of current induced by intracellular application of mefenamic acid was mimicked by other cyclooxygenase inhibitors and arachidonic acid. Our data demonstrate that mefenamic acid is able to bi-directionally modulate I{sub A} channels in neurons at different concentrations and by different methods of application, and two different mechanisms may be involved.

Zhang Man; Shi Wenjie; Fei Xiaowei; Liu Yarong; Zeng Ximin [Institute of Brain Science, School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Mei Yanai [Institute of Brain Science, School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yamei@fudan.edu.cn

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Characterization of solubilized atrial natriuretic peptide receptors from rat olfactory bulb and A10 cultured smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors from A10 cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and rat olfactory bulbs have been solubilized and then pharmacologically and biochemically compared. The dissociation constant for 125I-ANP(99-126) was 12.7 pM for the VSMC-derived receptor and 164 pM for the olfactory receptor. Competition binding between 125I-ANP(99-126) and several unlabeled ANP analogs with the soluble olfactory receptor, demonstrated a rank order potency of ANP(99-126) = ANP(103-126) much greater than ANP(103-123). However, the rank order potency of the soluble VSMC ANP receptor was ANP(99-126) = ANP(103-126) = ANP(103-123). Therefore, the olfactory ANP receptor appears to require the complete COOH-terminal sequence of ANP as compared with the VSMC ANP receptor. When the 2 soluble receptor preparations were applied to a GTP-agarose column, a portion of the olfactory ANP receptor was retained on the column and could be eluted with 5 mM GTP, while the VSMC ANP receptor did not adsorb to the column. Since the olfactory bulb ANP receptor has been shown to contain a binding component of 116 kDa, while the VSMC ANP receptor binding component is 66 kDa, these receptors appear to be similar to the 2 receptor classes described recently in which the 120 kDa receptor that binds GTP is postulated to be coupled to guanylate cyclase, while the 60 kDa receptor does not bind GTP, is not coupled to guanylate cyclase, and may possess a hormone clearance function. Taken together, these data indicate that cyclic GMP appears to be a second messenger for ANP in the brain.

Gibson, T.R.; Zyskind, A.D.; Glembotski, C.C.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Nicotine dose-concentration relationship and pregnancy outcomes in rat: Biologic plausibility and implications for future research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure during pregnancy can lead to profound adverse effects on fetal development. Although CS contains several thousand chemicals, nicotine has been widely used as its surrogate as well as in its own right as a neuroteratogen. The justification for the route and dose of nicotine administration is largely based on inferential data suggesting that nicotine 6 mg/kg/day infused continuously via osmotic mini pumps (OMP) would mimic maternal CS exposure. We provide evidence that 6 mg/kg/day nicotine dose as commonly administered to pregnant rats leads to plasma nicotine concentrations that are 3-10-fold higher than those observed in moderate to heavy smokers and pregnant mothers, respectively. Furthermore, the cumulative daily nicotine dose exceeds by several hundred fold the amount consumed by human heavy smokers. Our study does not support the widely accepted notion that regardless of the nicotine dose, a linear nicotine dose-concentration relationship exists in a steady-state OMP model. We also show that total nicotine clearance increases with advancing pregnancy but no significant change is observed between the 2nd and 3rd trimester. Furthermore, nicotine infusion even at this extremely high dose has little effect on a number of maternal and fetal biologic variables and pregnancy outcome suggesting that CS constituents other than nicotine mediate the fetal growth restriction in infants born to smoking mothers. Our current study has major implications for translational research in developmental toxicology and pharmacotherapy using nicotine replacement treatment as an aid to cessation of cigarette smoking in pregnant mothers.

Hussein, Jabeen [Department of Pediatrics, Health Sciences Center, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Farkas, Svetlana [Department of Pediatrics, Health Sciences Center, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); MacKinnon, Yolanda [Department of Pediatrics, Health Sciences Center, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Ariano, Robert E. [Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Sitar, Daniel S. [Departments of Internal Medicine and, Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Hasan, Shabih U. [Department of Pediatrics, Health Sciences Center, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)]. E-mail: hasans@ucalgary.ca

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Synergistic acceleration of thyroid hormone degradation by phenobarbital and the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 in rat hepatocytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy balance is maintained by controlling both energy intake and energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in regulating energy expenditure. Their levels are adjusted by a tight feedback-controlled regulation of thyroid hormone production/incretion and by their hepatic metabolism. Thyroid hormone degradation has previously been shown to be enhanced by treatment with phenobarbital or other antiepileptic drugs due to a CAR-dependent induction of phase II enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. We have recently shown, that PPAR{alpha} agonists synergize with phenobarbital to induce another prototypical CAR target gene, CYP2B1. Therefore, it was tested whether a PPAR{alpha} agonist could enhance the phenobarbital-dependent acceleration of thyroid hormone elimination. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes the apparent half-life of T3 was reduced after induction with a combination of phenobarbital and the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 to a larger extent than after induction with either compound alone. The synergistic reduction of the half-life could be attributed to a synergistic induction of CAR and the CAR target genes that code for enzymes and transporters involved in the hepatic elimination of T3, such as OATP1A1, OATP1A3, UGT1A3 and UGT1A10. The PPAR{alpha}-dependent CAR induction and the subsequent induction of T3-eliminating enzymes might be of physiological significance for the fasting-induced reduction in energy expenditure by fatty acids as natural PPAR{alpha} ligands. The synergism of the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 and phenobarbital in inducing thyroid hormone breakdown might serve as a paradigm for the synergistic disruption of endocrine control by other combinations of xenobiotics.

Wieneke, N.; Neuschaefer-Rube, F. [University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutrition Science, Biochemistry of Nutrition, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Bode, L.M. [University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutrition Science, Food Chemistry, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Kuna, M. [University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutrition Science, Biochemistry of Nutrition, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Andres, J. [Charite - Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Carnevali, L.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hirsch-Ernst, K.I. [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Institute of Pharmakology and Toxikology, Molekular Pharmakology, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, D-37075 Goettingen (Germany); Pueschel, G.P. [University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutrition Science, Biochemistry of Nutrition, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D14558 Nuthetal (Germany)], E-mail: gpuesche@uni-potsdam.de

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A comparative integrated transcript analysis and functional characterization of differential mechanisms for induction of liver hypertrophy in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of the present work was to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying liver hypertrophy (LH), a recurrent finding observed following acute or repeated drug administration to animals, using transcriptomic technologies together with the results from conventional toxicology methods. Administration of 5 terminated proprietary drug candidates from participating companies involved in the EU Innomed PredTox Project or the reference hepatotoxicant troglitazone to rats for up to a 14-day duration induced LH as the main liver phenotypic toxicity outcome. The integrated analysis of transcriptomic liver expression data across studies turned out to be the most informative approach for the generation of mechanistic models of LH. In response to a xenobiotic stimulus, a marked increase in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) was observed in a subset of 4 studies. Accumulation of these newly-synthesized proteins within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) would suggest proliferation of this organelle, which most likely is the main molecular process underlying the LH observed in XME studies. In another subset of 2 studies (including troglitazone), a marked up-regulation of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid {beta}-oxidation was noted, associated with induction of genes involved in peroxisome proliferation. Therefore, an increase in peroxisome abundance would be the main mechanism underlying LH noted in this second study subset. Together, the use of transcript profiling provides a means to generate putative mechanistic models underlying the pathogenesis of liver hypertrophy, to distinguish between subtle variations in subcellular organelle proliferation and creates opportunities for improved mechanism-based risk assessment.

Boitier, Eric, E-mail: eric.boitier@sanofi-aventis.com [sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Vitry sur Seine (France); Amberg, Alexander [sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Frankfurt (Germany); Barbie, Valerie [Merck Serono S.A., Stratified Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Blichenberg, Arne [Nycomed GmbH, Institute for Pharmacology and Preclinical Drug Safety, Barsbuettel (Germany); Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gruhler, Albrecht [Novo Nordisk A/S, Protein Science, Malov (Denmark); McCarthy, Diane [Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA (United States); Meyer, Kirstin; Riefke, Bjoern; Raschke, Marian [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Investigational Toxicology, Berlin (Germany); Schoonen, Willem [MSD, Toxicology and Drug Disposition, Oss (Netherlands); Sieber, Maximilian [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Toxikologie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Suter, Laura [Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Investigative Toxicology, Basel (Switzerland); Thomas, Craig E. [Eli Lilly and Company, Investigative Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Sajot, Nicolas [Servier, Drug Safety Assessment, Orleans-Gidy (France)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF ETHANOL LEADS TO SUBSTANTIAL CELL DAMAGE IN CULTURED RAT ASTROCYTES IN CONDITIONS PROMOTING ACETALDEHYDE ACCUMULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Aims: This study aimed at comparing the cerebral cytotoxicity of ethanol and its main metabolite acetaldehyde after acute or chronic exposures of rat astrocytes in primary culture. Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated on the cell reduction of viability (MTT reduction test) and on the characterization of DNA damage by single cell gel electrophoresis (or comet assay). Results: Changes in astrocyte survival and in DNA integrity only occurred when the astrocytes were chronically exposed to ethanol (20 mM; 3, 6 or 9 days). On the other hand, viability and DNA integrity were deeply affected by acute exposure to acetaldehyde. Both effects were dependent on the concentration of acetaldehyde. The cytotoxic effect of acetaldehyde was also indirectly evaluated after modifications of the normal ethanol metabolism by the use of different inducers or inhibitors. In presence of ethanol, the concomitant induction of catalase (i.e. by glucose oxidase) and inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase (i.e. by methylene blue) led to acetaldehyde accumulation within cells. It was followed by both a reduction in viability and a substantial increase in DNA strand breaks. Conclusions: These data were thus consistent with a possible predominant role of acetaldehyde during brain ethanol metabolism. On the other hand, the effects observed after AMT could also suggest a possible direct ethanol effect and a role for free radical attacks. These data were thus consistent with a possible predominant role of acetaldehyde during brain ethanol metabolism. On the other hand, the effects observed after AMT could also suggest a possible direct ethanol effect and a role for free radical attacks.

N. Signorini-allibe; B. Gonthier; F. Lamarche; H. Eysseric; L. Barret

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Effect of protein kinase C inhibitors on the actions of phorbol esters on vascular tone and adrenergic transmission in the isolated rat kidney  

SciTech Connect

The effect of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors 1-(5-isoquinoline-sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), polymyxin B (PMB), D-sphingosine (SPH), sangivamycin (SNG) and staurosporin (ST) on the action of PKC activators phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) and 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on adrenergic neuroeffector events was investigated to determine the contribution of PKC in adrenergic transmission in the rat kidney. Infusion of TPA (5 x 10(-6) mM) or PDBu (6 x 10(-6) mM) produced renal vasoconstriction and enhanced the overflow of tritium elicited by periarterial renal nerve stimulation (RNS) (2 Hz) in the isolated rat kidney perfused with Tyrode's solution and prelabeled with (3H)norepinephrine. H-7 (2.7 x 10(-3) mM) and ST (2 x 10(-5) mM) did not alter RNS-induced overflow of tritium but attenuated the vasoconstrictor response to RNS and exogenous NE. PMB (1 x 10(-8) mM) and SPH (3.3 x 10(-4) mM) but not SNG (3.3 x 10(-3) mM) attenuated the RNS-induced overflow of tritium but increased the basal renal vascular tone and enhanced the vasoconstrictor response to RNS and exogenous NE. H-7, PMB, SPH, SNG or ST failed to alter the effects of PDBu to increase basal vascular tone and the overflow of tritium and the increase in renal vasoconstriction to RNS. PMB at 1 x 10(-9) mM but not at 1 x 10(-8) mM and SPH (3.3 x 10(-4) mM) but not H-7, SNG or ST inhibited the effect of TPA to increase the overflow of tritium. The effect of TPA on the vasoconstrictor response to RNS or to increase basal vascular tone was not altered by PKC inhibitors. These data suggest that in the rat kidney, PKC is either resistant to the actions of H-7, PMB, SPH, SNG and ST, or PDBu and TPA produce renal vasoconstriction and facilitate adrenergic transmission by a mechanism unrelated to PKC activation.

Sehic, E.; Malik, K.U. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L. [Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, J.-J. [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-W. [Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hawwen@csmu.edu.tw

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Effects of chloroquine and hepatic stimulator substance on cellular accumulation and nuclear binding of sup 125 I-epidermal growth factor in primary culture of adult rat hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of chloroquine and hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) on cellular accumulation and nuclear binding of {sup 125}I-epidermal growth factor (EGF) were examined in primary culture of adult rat hepatocytes. When intact hepatocytes were incubated at 37{degrees}C with {sup 125}I-EGF, the cellular accumulation and the nuclear binding reached a peak at 1 h and declined thereafter, where the nuclear binding was 2.49% at 1 h and 2.53% at 2 h. Chloroquine resulted in a time-dependent increase in the cellular accumulation and the nuclear binding was 3.37% at 1 h and 3.72% at 2 h. In contrast, HSS produced no change in each value, suggesting that HSS does not modulate EGF receptors in plasma membrane and nucleus.

Murawaki, Y.; Storkenmaier, R.; Fleig, W.E.; Hahn, E.G. (Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Determination of the functional size of oxytocin receptors in plasma membranes from mammary gland and uterine myometrium of the rat by radiation inactivation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gel filtration of detergent-solubilized oxytocin (OT) receptors in plasma membrane fractions from both regressed mammary gland and labor myometrium of the rat, showed that specific (/sup 3/H)OT binding was associated with a heterogeneously sized population of macromolecules. As radiation inactivation is the only method available to measure the apparent molecular weights of membrane proteins in situ, we used this approach to define the functional sizes of OT receptors. The results indicate that both mammary and myometrial receptors are uniform in size and of similar molecular mass. Mammary and myometrial receptors were estimated to be 57.5 +/- 3.8 (SD) and 58.8 +/- 1.6 kilodaltons, respectively. Knowledge of the functional size of OT receptors will be useful in studies involving the purification and characterization of the receptor and associated membrane components.

Soloff, M.S.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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201

Toxicometabolomics approach to urinary biomarkers for mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced nephrotoxicity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) in rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study was to determine and characterize surrogate biomarkers that can predict nephrotoxicity induced by mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) using urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectral data. A procedure for {sup 1}H NMR urinalysis using pattern recognition was proposed to evaluate nephrotoxicity induced by HgCl{sub 2} in Sprague-Dawley rats. HgCl{sub 2} at 0.1 or 0.75 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), and urine was collected every 24 h for 6 days. Animals (n = 6 per group) were sacrificed 3 or 6 days post-dosing in order to perform clinical blood chemistry tests and histopathologic examinations. Urinary {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy revealed apparent differential clustering between the control and HgCl{sub 2} treatment groups as evidenced by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS)-discriminant analysis (DA). Time- and dose-dependent separation of HgCl{sub 2}-treated animals from controls was observed by PCA of {sup 1}H NMR spectral data. In HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats, the concentrations of endogenous urinary metabolites of glucose, acetate, alanine, lactate, succinate, and ethanol were significantly increased, whereas the concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate, allantoin, citrate, formate, taurine, and hippurate were significantly decreased. These endogenous metabolites were selected as putative biomarkers for HgCl{sub 2}-induced nephrotoxicity. A dose response was observed in concentrations of lactate, acetate, succinate, and ethanol, where severe disruption of the concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, formate, glucose, and taurine was observed at the higher dose (0.75 mg/kg) of HgCl{sub 2}. Correlation of urinary {sup 1}H NMR PLS-DA data with renal histopathologic changes suggests that {sup 1}H NMR urinalysis can be used to predict or screen for HgCl{sub 2}-induced nephrotoxicity{sub .}

Kim, Kyu-Bong, E-mail: kyubong@inje.ac.k [Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5-Nokbun-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Um, So Young, E-mail: syum@kfda.go.k [Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5-Nokbun-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myeon Woo, E-mail: mwchung@kfda.go.k [Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5-Nokbun-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chul, E-mail: ipipe4@nate.co [Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5-Nokbun-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ji Seon, E-mail: aquajs24@nate.co [Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5-Nokbun-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hwa, E-mail: hwa2003@kfda.go.k [Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5-Nokbun-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Han Sung, E-mail: nhk1515@korea.k [Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5-Nokbun-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Mu, E-mail: bmlee@skku.ed [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki Hwan, E-mail: hyokwa11@korea.k [Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5-Nokbun-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effect of Treating Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats With Sorbinil, Myo-inositol or Aminoguanidine on Endoneurial Blood Flow, Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity and Vascular Function of Epineurial Arterioles of the Sciatic Nerve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previously we have demonstrated that diabetes causes impairment in vascular function of epineurial vessels, which precedes the slowing of motor nerve conduction velocity. Treatment of diabetic rats with aldose reductase inhibitors, aminoguanidine or myo-inositol supplementation have been shown to improve motor nerve conduction velocity and/or decreased endoneurial blood flow. However, the effect these treatments have on vascular reactivity of epineurial vessels of the sciatic nerve is unknown. In these studies we examined the effect of treating streptozotocininduced rats with sorbinil, aminoguanidine or myo-inositol on motor nerve conduction velocity, endoneurial blood flow and endotheliumdependent vascular relaxation of arterioles that provide circulation to the region of the sciatic nerve. Treating diabetic rats with sorbinil, aminoguanidine or myo-inositol improved the reduction of endoneurial blood flow and motor nerve conduction velocity. However, only sorbinil treatment significantly improved the diabetes-induced impairment of acetylcholinemediated vasodilation of epineurial vessels of the sciatic nerve. All three treatments were efficacious in preventing the appropriate metabolic derangements associated with either activation of the polyol pathway or increased nonenzymatic glycation. In addition, sorbinil was shown to prevent the diabetes-induced decrease in lens glutathione level. However, other mark-

Lawrence J. Coppey; Jill S. Gellett; Eric P. Davidson; Joyce A. Dunlap; Mark; A. Yorek

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Solubilization and molecular characterization of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor in human platelets: Comparison with ANP receptors in rat tissues  

SciTech Connect

We have previously demonstrated the presence of binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in human platelets. These sites have pharmacological characteristics similar to those of rat vascular smooth muscle. They are subject to regulation by circulating levels of ANP in plasma, varying inversely with the latter after high sodium intake, in arterial hypertension and congestive heart failure. We have now solubilized these platelet receptors with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 (0.6%). The preparations were incubated with (125I)ANP in the presence of increasing concentrations of ANP-(99-126), ANP-(101-126), ANP-(103-126), and ANP-(103-123). The order of potency of these peptides to displace (125I)ANP was similar for the solubilized and particulate receptor. Bound (125I)ANP was covalently cross-linked to the receptor with 5 mM disuccinimidyl suberate. Autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel showed that (125I)ANP specifically interacts with a 125-kDa membrane component, some of which may be reduced by 2% mercaptoethanol or 10 mmol/L dithiothreitol to a 70-kDa species. A small proportion of a 70-kDa peptide is also found under nonreducing conditions. The concentration of ANP-(99-126) that inhibits binding of (125I)ANP by 50% to both the 125-kDa and the 70-kDa species was 0.1 nM, while that for ANP-(103-123) was 3 nM. The internally ring-deleted analog Des(Gln116,Ser117,Gly118,Leu119,Gly120)ANP -(102-121) or C-ANP displaced with equal potency ANP binding to the high and low mol wt (Mr) bands, as also found in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells, but not in the mesemteric arteries these cells are derived from. In the latter, C-ANP displaced only binding from the lower Mr band. These results show that the ANP receptor in human platelets is heterogeneous.

Schiffrin, E.L.; Carrier, F.; Thibault, G.; Deslongchamps, M. (Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and neurological development of rat offspring, which may be a cause of concern, as humans are systematically exposed to the compound through usage of sunscreens and other cosmetics.

Axelstad, Marta, E-mail: maap@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Boberg, Julie [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Hougaard, Karin Sorig [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark); Lund, Soren Peter [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lerso Parkalle 105, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Hass, Ulla [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg (Denmark)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

BIG RU N INDIANA LAKESHORE RUN E LUMBER CIT Y WARSAW JOHNST  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

RU RU N INDIANA LAKESHORE RUN E LUMBER CIT Y WARSAW JOHNST OWN BU RNSIDE MILLSTONE FROSTBUR G JUN EAU PLU MVILLE CHERRY HILL KAN E BOSWELL MAR ION CENT ER CREEKSIDE SALTSBUR G POINT N BLAIR SVILL E COU NCIL RU N SIGEL LEWISVILLE BEAR C REEK AR MBRUST OHIOPYLE HALLT ON BR OOKVILLE MAR KTON NOL O RAT HMEL COR SICA MAR CHAND SMIC KSBU RG HOWE APOLLO SEVEN SPRIN GS YAT ESBORO MCNEES LUCIND A GEORGE PIN EY LEEPER TIMBLIN WILL ET FERGUSON CLIMAX PANIC DAVY HILL TIDIOUT E GRAMPIAN SLIGO ROC KVI LLE MAYFIELD VANDERGRIF T GIRT Y SAY NEW SALEM WET MOR E COWANSHAN NOC K ST ILLWAT ER ELD ERS RIDGE BLAIR CARROLLT OWN BU RNIN G WELL COOKPORT MCCREA FU RNACE RIDGWAY NEW ALEXANDR IA IRISH RU N WILC OX PLU M CREEK PADDYTOWN KEATING HOR TON GUF FEY WH ITESBURG BET ULA SMELTZ ER ODONN ELL DECAT UR W HAZELHU RST ST RONGSTOWN COL EGROVE SH EFFIELD WERT Z H OLLOW RED HILL ULYSSES PLATT SVIL LE BR ANCH W LATR OBE LEID Y TRIU

206

Research Article Curcumin Decreased Oxidative Stress, Inhibited NF-?B Activation, and Improved Liver Pathology in Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To study the mechanism of curcumin-attenuated inflammation and liver pathology in early stage of alcoholic liver disease, female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and treated with ethanol or curcumin via an intragastric tube for 4 weeks. A control group treated with distilled water, and an ethanol group was treated with ethanol (7.5 g/kg bw). Treatment groups were fed with ethanol supplemented with curcumin (400 or 1 200 mg/kg bw). The liver histopathology in ethanol group revealed mild-tomoderate steatosis and mild necroinflammation. Hepatic MDA, hepatocyte apoptosis, and NF-?B activation increased significantly in ethanol-treated group when compared with control. Curcumin treatments resulted in improving of liver pathology, decreasing the elevation of hepatic MDA, and inhibition of NF-?B activation. The 400 mg/kg bw of curcumin treatment revealed only a trend of decreased hepatocyte apoptosis. However, the results of SOD activity, PPAR? protein expression showed no difference among the groups. In conclusion, curcumin improved liver histopathology in early stage of ethanol-induced liver injury by reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of NF-?B activation. Copyright 2009 Suchittra Samuhasaneeto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.

Suchittra Samuhasaneeto; Duangporn Thong-ngam; Onanong Kulaputana; Doungsamon Suyasunanont; Naruemon Klaikeaw

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Dossier concerning the abuses of Luis de Rosas, governor of New Mexico (1637-1641), his murder in 1641, and the extrajudicial execution of the alleged conspirators in the murder by Alonso Pacheco de Heredia, governor of New Mexico (1642-1644)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

agosto en el pueblo de Sandia y luego que dicho gouernadora dichos conuentos, en el de Sandia me lle- go a las ocho oen 13 de agosto en el pueblo de Sandia y 10| luego que dicho

Hidalgo Strolle, Martha; Craddock, Jerry R.; Polt, John H. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

ORTE DER FORSCHUNG 1 | 13 MaxPlanckForschung 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in der Via Gregoriana in Rom ­ zu Zeiten Federico Zuccaris führte es direkt in den Garten des Palazzos Augen. Ein wahrhaft paradiesischer Garten der Wissenschaften. Tor zur Hölle oder Pforte ins Paradies

209

A method for in vitro culture of rat Zymbal gland: use in mechanistic studies of benzene carcinogenesis in combination with 2P-postlabeling. Environ. Health Perspect. 82  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zymbal glands were excised bilaterally from the ear ducts of female Sprague-Dawley rats (three/group), minced into approximately four fragments per gland, and transferred into a microtiter plate containing 1.5 mL per well of Waymouth's tissue culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, hydrocortisone, insulin, and gentamicin. After addition of a test compound or solvent vehicle, plates were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 96 hr at 37C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2 in air. Tissue in culture for 6 hr was histologically indistinguishable from the freshly excised tissue, while that in culture for 24, 48, and 96 hr showed a progressive deterioration often with necrosis and/or squamous metaplasia. More pronounced deterioration was noted in samples treated with 750 or 1500 pg/mL of benzene. Using a nuclease Pi-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, aromatic DNA adducts were detected in cultured Zymbal glands exposed for 48 hr to benzene and its derivatives, as well as to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Benzene produced very low levels of adducts (0.5 adducts per 109 nucleotides), whereas its congeners produced relatively high levels of adducts (50-2000 lesions per 109 nucleotides), which decreased in the order benzoquinone> hydroquinone> phenol> benzenetriol> catechol. Each adduct profile overall was characteristic for the compound studied, suggesting the formation of compound-specific electrophiles. AAF and DMBA adducts were identical to those formed in vivo in animals. Our results show that the Zymbal glands are capable of metabolizing different carcinogens to DNA-reactive intermediates, a process that may be causally associated with tumor formation in vivo in this organ.

M. Vijayaraj Reddy; Gary R. Blackburn; Susan E. Irwin; Choudari Kommineni; Carl R. Mackerer; Myron A. Mehiman

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Arsenite reduces insulin secretion in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells by decreasing the calcium-dependent calpain-10 proteolysis of SNAP-25  

SciTech Connect

An increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been consistently observed among residents of high arsenic exposure areas. We have previously shown that in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells, low arsenite doses impair the secretion of insulin without altering its synthesis. To further study the mechanism by which arsenite reduces insulin secretion, we evaluated the effects of arsenite on the calcium-calpain pathway that triggers insulin exocytosis in RINm5F cells. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis were also performed to complement the characterization. Free [Ca{sup 2+}]i oscillations needed for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were abated in the presence of subchronic low arsenite doses (0.5-2 {mu}M). The global activity of calpains increased with 2 {mu}M arsenite. However, during the secretion of insulin stimulated with glucose (15.6 mM), 1 {mu}M arsenite decreased the activity of calpain-10, measured as SNAP-25 proteolysis. Both proteins are needed to fuse insulin granules with the membrane to produce insulin exocytosis. Arsenite also induced a slowdown in the {beta} cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, reflected by a reduction of dividing cells and in their arrest in G2/M. Data obtained showed that one of the mechanisms by which arsenite impairs insulin secretion is by decreasing the oscillations of free [Ca{sup 2+}]i, thus reducing calcium-dependent calpain-10 partial proteolysis of SNAP-25. The effects in cell division and proliferation observed with arsenite exposure can be an indirect consequence of the decrease in insulin secretion.

Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea [Department of Genomic Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Burns, Anna L. [Department of Genomic Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Salazar, Ana Maria; Sordo, Monserrat [Department of Genomic Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Hiriart, Marcia [Department of Biophysics, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Section of Environmental Toxicology, CINVESTAV, IPN (Mexico); Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia [Department of Genomic Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: ostrosky@servidor.unam.mx

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis.

Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Hanna, Lynn A. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Keen, Carl L. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: clkeen@ucdavis.edu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Relationship between calcium loading and impaired energy metabolism during Na+, K+ pump inhibition and metabolic inhibition in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes  

SciTech Connect

This study tested the hypothesis that the initiating mechanism is a major determinant of the response to calcium (Ca) accumulation in myocardium. Cultured neonatal rat ventriculocytes were exposed to Na+, K+ pump inhibition with 1 mM ouabain and metabolic inhibition with 20 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 1 mM cyanide (DOG-CN) for up to 2 h. Microspectrofluorometry of myocytes loaded with fura-2 showed that ouabain resulted in a relatively rapid increase in (Ca2+)i up to 2-3 microM (two to threefold above peak systolic level) and that DOG-CN produced an initial decrease and then a relatively slow increase in (Ca2+)i up to peak systolic level. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis (EPMA) showed prominent increases in Na and Ca and decreases in K and Mg in cytoplasm and mitochondria with both interventions, although the increases in Ca were greater with ouabain than DOG-CN. ATP was reduced by 58% after 1 and 2 h of ouabain and by 70 and 90% after 1 and 2 h of DOG-CN, respectively. Thus, ouabain produced greater calcium accumulation and less ATP reduction than DOG-CN. Upon return to normal medium for 30 min, myocytes showed recovery of most electrolyte alterations and resumption of normal Ca2+ transients after 1 h exposure to either ouabain or DOG-CN; however, recovery was less after 2 h of either treatment, with elevated (Ca2+)i maintained in many myocytes. We conclude that the severity of myocyte injury is influenced by the magnitude and duration of both ATP reduction and calcium accumulation.

Morris, A.C.; Hagler, H.K.; Willerson, J.T.; Buja, L.M.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Long-Lasting Reductions of Ethanol Drinking, Enhanced Ethanol-Induced Sedation, and Decreased c-fos Expression in the Edinger-Westphal Nucleus in Wistar Rats Exposed to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intermittent or continuous exposure to a wide variety of chemically unrelated environmental pollutants might result in the development of multiple chemical intolerance and increased sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Interestingly, clinical evidence suggests that exposure to organophosphates might be linked to increased ethanol sensitivity and reduced voluntary consumption of ethanol-containing beverages in humans. The growing body of clinical and experimental evidence emerging in this new scientific field that bridges environmental health sciences, toxicology, and drug research calls for well-controlled studies aimed to analyze the nature of the neurobiological interactions of drugs and pollutants. Present study specifically evaluated neurobiological and behavioral responses to ethanol in Wistar rats that were previously exposed to the pesticide organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF). In agreement with clinical data, animals pretreated with a single injection of CPF showed long-lasting ethanol avoidance that

The Organophosphate Chlorpyrifos; Francisca Carvajal; Matilde Lpez-grancha; Montserrat Navarro; Maria Del Carmen Snchez-amate; Inmaculada Cubero

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by proteoliposomes and cultured rat sertoli cells: Evidence for involvement of voltage-activated and voltage-independent calcium channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have previously reported incorporation into liposomes of Triton X-100-solubilized FSH receptor-G-protein complexes derived from purified bovine calf testis membranes. In the present study we have used this model system to show that FSH induces flux of 45Ca2+ into such proteoliposomes in a hormone-specific concentration-dependent manner. FSH, inactivated by boiling, had no stimulatory effect on 45Ca2+ flux, nor did isolated alpha- or beta-subunits of FSH. Addition of GTP (or its analogs 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate and guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) or sodium fluoride (in the presence or absence of GTP or its analogs) failed to induce 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes, suggesting that the uptake of 45Ca2+ was receptor, and not G-protein, related. Voltage-independent (ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride) and voltage-activated (methyoxyverapamil and nifedipine) calcium channel-blocking agents reduced FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes to control levels. FSH also induced uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells. Ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake or estradiol secretion by cultured rat Sertoli cells, nor did methoxyverapamil or nifedipine. All four calcium channel blockers, however, were able to reduce FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake to basal levels and FSH-stimulated conversion of androstenedione to estradiol by up to 50%, indicating an involvement of Ca2+ in FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Our results suggest that the well documented changes in intracellular calcium levels consequent to FSH binding may be due, at least in part, to an influx of calcium through FSH receptor-regulated calcium channels.

Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Albany Medical College, NY (USA))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Letter: Meyerhofer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This letter confirms that the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was an important part of the FY10 NIF Polar Drive Exploding Pusher experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments were designed by LLE to produce requested neutron yields to calibrate and qualify nuclear diagnostics. LLE built a deuterium-tritium filling system for the glass shells and provided them to LLNL for mounting. In FY10, four exploding pusher implosions were performed with measured neutron yields within a factor of two of requested and ion temperatures within 20% of requested. These implosions are proving to be an ideal platform for commissioning the nuclear diagnostic suite on the NIF and are achieving all of the objectives planned for this campaign.

Mackinnon, A J

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

216

Risk equivalent of exposure versus dose of radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a risk analysis study of low-dose irradiation and the resulting biological effects on a cell. The author describes fundamental differences between the effects of high-level exposure (HLE) and low-level exposure (LLE). He stresses that the concept of absorbed dose to an organ is not a dose but a level of effect produced by a particular number of particles. He discusses the confusion between a linear-proportional representation of dose limits and a threshold-curvilinear representation, suggesting that a LLE is a composite of both systems. (TEM)

Bond, V.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Faszination Chemie: Keine unter allen Wissenschaften bietet dem Menschen eine grssere Flle von Gegenstnden des Denkens, der berlegung und von frischer, sich stets erneuender Erkenntnis dar als die Chemie. F O T O : S C H U E R P F , Z R I C H  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faszination Chemie: «Keine unter allen Wissenschaften bietet dem Menschen eine grössere Fülle von Gegenständen des Denkens, der ?berlegung und von frischer, sich stets erneuender Erkenntnis dar als die Chemie Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemi- ker beschrieben wurde, erregt nicht alle Forscher gleich. Oft stösst sie auf

Giger, Christine

219

Hand gesture recognition and tracking based on distributed locally linear embedding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This method searches for the kinematic parameters which map the 2D projec- tion images to the 3D hand model. 3 in dimensionality reduction [15]. A no- vel methodology called neighborhood linear embedding (NLE) has been describe the neighborhood selection methods of LLE and NLE. In Section 4, the unsupervised learning

Ge, Shuzhi Sam

220

Cryogenic DT and D2 targets for inertial confinement fusiona... T. C. Sangster,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Facility NIF W. J. Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 2001 are based on a spherical ablator containing most of the critical fabrication tolerances for ignition on the NIF. At the University of Rochester required for ignition on the NIF. At LLE, these cryogenic DT and D2 capsules are being imploded

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Database and Evaluation Methodology for Optical Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), polarization and dispersion (electromagnetic optics), and fluorescence and phosphorescence (quantum optics these interactions, resulting in very different hues. Inelastic scattering events such as fluorescence or Raman Million = 10 Million 15 Million VS 1.9 Trillion airlightsurface T LLeL vp += - Airlight Model

Black, Michael J.

222

MHH Forschungsbericht 2004470 Abteilung Ansthesiologie  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Basisdiagnostik, Basistherapie und ?berwachung. In: Adams HA, Flemming A, Ahrens J, Schneider H, (Hrsg.). Kursbuch. Auflage, 2004; 20-7. Greve S. Kardiale Notfälle. In: Adams HA, Flemming A, Ahrens J, Schneider H, (Hrsg, Flem- ming A, Ahrens J, Schneider H, (Hrsg.). Kursbuch Rettungsmedizin - Fibel für an- gehende Notärzte

Manstein, Dietmar J.

223

Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts Gaëlle Uzu, Sophie Sobanska of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce (lactuca sativa) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead Pb-rich fallouts are studied. INTRODUCTION Particles emitted in the atmosphere present a large

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

UNIVERSIT DE PAU ET DES PAYS DE L'ADOUR COLE DOCTORALE SCIENCES SOCIALES ET HUMANITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BEAUREGARD, PR, Université de Toulouse Le Mirail (rapporteur) M. Jean-Gérard LAPACHERIE, PR, Université de, Université de Saragosse (rapporteur) Mme Raphaëlle COSTA DE BEAUREGARD, PR, Université de Toulouse Le Mirail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

38. JahrgangNummer 6 Juli 2011 www.presse.uni-oldenburg.de/uni-info  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interessen an Risiken (Schiff bau; offshore Aktivitäten) und Potentialen (Windenergie) und die ?ffentlichkeit ­Sicherheit, Offshore Windenergie, Interpretation von Messungen, ?lunfälle und chronische Belastungen://www.norddeutscherklimaatlas.de/). Typische Stakeholder haben zu tun mit Küsten schutz, Landwirtschaft, offshore Aktivitäten, Tourismus

Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

226

Globaler Wandel, Klimawandel und regionale Anpassung1 Hans von Storch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interessen an Risiken (Schiff bau; offshore Aktivitäten) und Potentialen (Windenergie) und die ?ffentlichkeit ­Sicherheit, Offshore Windenergie, Interpretation von Messungen, ?lunfälle und chronische Belastungen://www.norddeutscherklimaatlas.de/). Typische Stakeholder haben zu tun mit Küsten schutz, Landwirtschaft, offshore Aktivitäten, Tourismus

von Storch, Hans

227

www.strath.ac.uk/engineering Faculty of Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interessen an Risiken (Schiff bau; offshore Aktivitäten) und Potentialen (Windenergie) und die ?ffentlichkeit ­Sicherheit, Offshore Windenergie, Interpretation von Messungen, ?lunfälle und chronische Belastungen://www.norddeutscherklimaatlas.de/). Typische Stakeholder haben zu tun mit Küsten schutz, Landwirtschaft, offshore Aktivitäten, Tourismus

Mottram, Nigel

228

RSS Fingerprints Based Distributed Semi-Supervised Locally Linear Embedding (DSSLLE) Location Estimation System for Indoor WLAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important requirement for many novel location based services, is to determine the locations of people, equipment, animals, etc. The accuracy and response time of estimation are critical issues in location estimation system. Most of the location estimation ... Keywords: Dimensional reduction techniques, Distributed systems, Locally linear embedding (LLE), Location aware services, Semi-supervised learning, User location and tracking, Wireless LANs

Vinod Kumar Jain; Shashikala Tapaswi; Anupam Shukla

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

National Conference of Black Physics Students 2001 Stanford University Applied Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and rooftops of several buildings including the Hyatt Regency Hotel, the Amoco Building, and the 1250 Poydras City Residences, Energy Center, LL&E Tower, Sheraton New Orleans, 1010 Common, World Trade Center New Hotel, and 1515 Poydras. Buildings that sustained heavy damage included: Texaco Center, Dominion Tower

Wechsler, Risa H.

230

The Metabolism of Curium in the RAT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alpha particle transmutation of plutonium by the follow- ingan alpha. particle to form plutonium 238 which, in turn, isits radioactive daughter, plutonium 238, has a half-life of

Hamilton, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Direct-Drive Inertial Fusion Research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics: A Review  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the status of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). LLE's goal is to demonstrate direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by 2014. Baseline "all-DT" NIF direct-drive ignition target designs have been developed that have a predicted gain of 45 (1-D) at a NIF drive energy of ~1.6 MJ. Significantly higher gains are calculated for targets that include a DT-wicked foam ablator. This paper also reviews the results of both warm fuel and initial cryogenic-fuel spherical target implosion experiments carried out on the OMEGA UV laser. The results of these experiments and design calculations increase confidence that the NIF direct-drive ICF ignition goal will be achieved.

McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Skupsky, S.; Bahr, R.E.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Craxton, R.S.; Collins, T.J.B.; Delettrez, J.A.; Donaldson, W.R.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Keck, R.L.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Lund, L.D.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Marshall, F.J.; Morse, S.F.B.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Thorp, K.A.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

2010-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

RL-721 Document ID Number: REV4 NEPA REVIEW SCREENING FORM  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

eX-00049 Rev. 1 eX-00049 Rev. 1 I. Project Title: Washington River Protection Solutions LLe -Proposed Actions For eY 2013 Scheduled To Take Place Under ex B1.15, "Support Buildings" II. Project Description and Location (including Time Period over which proposed action will occur and Project Dimensions ·e.g., acres displaced/disturbed, excavation length/depth, area/location/number of buildings, etc.): Washington River Protection Solutions LLe (WRPS) will site, construct, operate small scale support buildings & structures, & undertake small-scale modifications of existing buildings & structures during CY 2013. WRPS will perform all activities in accordance with the categorical exclusion (CX) limitations set forth in 10 CFR 1021, Appendices A, B to Subpart

233

TRITIUM OPERATIONS AT THE LABORATORY FOR LASER ENERGETICS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester has conducted inertial confinement fusion experiments since the early 1970s. Beginning in 1996, LLE filled and fielded targets containing DT gas with pressures as high as 30 atm. Facilities are being upgraded to prepare, characterize, and field targets with DT ice on their inner surface. To this end, process loops that can pressurize DT gas to 1200 bar and operate at 17 K are in the final stages of commissioning. To preclude both accidental and chronic tritium releases and to minimize the potential for exposures to personnel, both metal hydride-based and oxidation drier-based cleanup systems have been installed and commissioned with hydrogen. Cryogenic DT targets will be fielded in 2006.

Shmayda, W.T.; Loucks, S.J.; Janezic, R.; Duffy, T.W.; Harding, D. R.; Lund, L.D.

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

234

Ten-Inch Manipulator-Based Neutron Temporal Diagnostic for Cryogenic Experiments on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the neutron emission from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions provide important information about target performance that can be compared directly with numerical models. For ''warm'' target experiments on LLE's OMEGA the neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD), originally developed at LLNL, is used to measure the neutron burn history with high resolution and timing accuracy. Due to the standoff required by the cryogenic target handling system, NTD is mechanically incompatible with cryogenic target experiments. This presentation describes a new cryogenic- compatible neutron temporal diagnostic (cryoNTD), which has been designed for LLE's standard ten-inch-manipulator (TIM) diagnostic inserters. First experimental results of the performance of the cryoNTD compared to NTD on warm direct-drive implosions and on cryogenic implosions will be presented.

Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Lerche, R.A.; Griffith, R.L.; Sorce, C.

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

235

Khesbn no. 45-46 - January 1967 - Journal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i-'l"lllt ,l:. ''lst! u/ D]y ttl n]lnt y'rt15 ,,'r'itl g ,l?uilJlyD x hrD Eylyr yt )ttl. ' JlB n:'lD tyDy"ts "lyl l''Ni2 llE .lJ:xbyr b'l iz]"tTl'''N 'l3. 'ty.t r:11y 1:1)5 DJy:

Admin, LAYCC

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

Ayers, S L

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

237

Radiobiology of normal rat lung in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer radiation therapy that utilizes biochemical tumor cell targeting and provides a mixed field of high and low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation with differing ...

Kiger, Jingli Liu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Pramipexole effects on startle gating in rats and normal men  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brain regional activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase (reflex depends on the catechol O-methyltransferase Val158Met

Swerdlow, Neal R.; Lelham, Sophia A.; Sutherland Owens, Ashley N.; Chang, Wei-Li; Sassen, Sebastiaan D.; Talledo, Jo A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Fluid shear-induced hypertrophy in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

subjected to low shear rates, increase their beating ratedue to shear. Beating rates increase nearly 3 fold, which isstress increases protein synthesis rate and induces

Fujimura, Atsushi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Fluid shear-induced hypertrophy in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

32 Figure 1: BNP and ANP Expression relative to GAPDH forNo Shear Ratio for BNP & ANP for Cardiomyocytes on Glass34 Figure 15: BNP and ANP Expression relative to Ef1 for

Fujimura, Atsushi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Replay of memories of extended behavior in the rat hippocampus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hippocampus is a highly conserved structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain that is known to be critical for spatial learning in rodents, and spatial and episodic memory in humans. During pauses in exploration, ...

Davidson, Thomas James Damon Cheakamus

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Arginine and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduce Fat Mass in Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We hypothesized that subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue would differ in monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types and backgrounds were sampled. External fat samples were collected from eight different carcass locations: round, sirloin, loin, rib, chuck, brisket, plate and flank. Samples were used to provide information on slip points, fatty acid composition and MUFA:SFA ratios. Lipids were extracted from s.c. adipose tissue by a modified chloroform:methanol procedure, and fatty acid composition and slip points were measured. The brisket was significantly lower in palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acid than the other seven sampling sites (P = 0.001). The brisket demonstrated the highest values of MUFA (P = 0.001) with the exception of possessing the lowest value of transvaccenic (18:1t11) acid (P = 0.002). There were also significant differences in the amounts of PUFA among the eight sampling sites. The lowest values were from the brisket with a mean of 25.1. The flank had the highest slip point with a mean of 39.0 (P ? 0.001). There was a high negative correlation shown between palmitoleic and stearic acid (R2 = 0.827). The brisket displayed the highest values for MUFA:SFA ratios (P = 0.001), whereas the flank was the lowest. Due to the significant differences amongst fat depots within bovine carcasses in their fatty acid composition we conclude that substantial differences exist across fat depots.

Nall, Jennifer L.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Water Retrieval by Norway Rats: Behavior as Deduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by five rest. Average water intake for the days fiveon score sheets. Average water intake per day for five days

Wallace, R J

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Cyclooxygenase-2 is Upregulated in Copper-Deficient Rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the SOD mimetic Tempol (Cu-D/T; 1 mM in drinking water) for 4 weeks. COX-2 protein ... INTRODUCTION. Inadequate dietary intake of copper is known to.

245

Meeting the oxygen requirements of an isolated perfused rat liver  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liver perfusion systems can be used as organ culture platforms for metabolic, genetic and systems engineering, tissue regeneration, pharmacokinetics, organ storage and marginal donor reconditioning for transplantation. The ...

Izamis, Maria-Louisa, 1979-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Single Glucose Biofuel Cells Implanted in Rats Power Electronic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel cells10­12 . These systems generate electricity under mild conditions through the oxidation the first implanted glucose biofuel cell (GBFC) that is capable of generating sufficient power from a mammal, vibra- tions or body movements to generate power for an implanted device are limited because

Recanati, Catherine

247

Spontaneous death of isolated adult rat cardiocytes in culture in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

internucleosomal cleavage of genomic DNA. Apoptosis . Vol 2 . No 2 . 1997. S. Yamamoto, K. Yasui,* P. T. Palade and T. N. James. World Health Organization...

248

Formation of a Simple Cognitive Map by Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thomas R. Zentall University of Kentucky, U.S.A. Cognitiveof Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-was in accordance with University of Kentucky institutional

Singer, Rebecca A.; Abroms, Benjamin D.; Zentall, Thomas R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Pulmonary Edemagenesis in F-344 Rats Exposed to SFE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... initial cell damage -then type I1 cell proliferation), other enzyme ... of the active channels of this ... fluid will follow the path of least resistance (ie move to ...

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Microsoft Word - BPA Personal Property.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audit Services Audit Report Management Controls over the Bonneville Power Administration's Personal Property Accountability OAS-M-08-01 October 2007 Department of Energy vvasnlngron, UL LUSU:, October 1 , 2007 MEMORANDUM FOR TQ-YADMINISTRATOR, BONNEVILLE POWER ADNIINISTRATION [?L&& < / ( ' F'IIOM. or" Collard / Assistant Inspector General for Performance Audits Office of Inspector General INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Management Controls over the Bonneville Power Administration's Personal PI-opesly Accountability" Bonncvillc Power Administration (Bonnev~lle) is responsible for marketing, selling, and transniitting power produced from the Federal Columbia River Power System. To fuliill

251

Scientific Report (2002-2004)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK-B135 An overview of our work as well as two recent publications are contained in this scientific report. The work reported here revolves around the discovery of new coherent nonlinear kinetic waves in laser produced plasmas, we call KEEN waves (kinetic, electrostatic electron nonlinear waves), and optical mixing experiments on the Imega laser system at LLE with blue-green light for the exploration of ways to suppress parametric instabilities in long scale length, long pulsewidth laser-plasmas such as those which will be found on NIF or LMJ.

Bedros Afeyan

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

252

Phase equilibrium predictions for polar and hydrogen bonding mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Perturbed-Hard-Chain Theory (PHCT) has been generalized to treat pure compounds and mixtures with polar forces (dipoles and quadrupoles) as well as hydrogen bonding. The generalization to polar compounds is based on the perturbation expansion for anisotropic molecules by Gubbins and coworkers. The effects of hydrogen bonding are taken into account using an approach similar to that of Heidemann and Prausnitz. With these two generalizations, accurate mixture VLE and LLE predictions can be made, even for highly non-ideal systems, using pure component parameters alone. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Donohue, M.D.; Vimalchand, P.; Ikonomou, G.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Electricity Price Curve Modeling and Forecasting by Manifold Learning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes a novel nonparametric approach for the modeling and analysis of electricity price curves by applying the manifold learning methodologylocally linear embedding (LLE). The prediction method based on manifold learning and reconstruction is employed to make short-term and mediumterm price forecasts. Our method not only performs accurately in forecasting one-day-ahead prices, but also has a great advantage in predicting one-week-ahead and one-month-ahead prices over other methods. The forecast accuracy is demonstrated by numerical results using historical price data taken from the Eastern U.S. electric power markets.

Jie Chen; Shi-Jie Deng; Xiaoming Huo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

The risk equivalent of an exposure to-, versus a dose of radiation  

SciTech Connect

The long-term potential carcinogenic effects of low-level exposure (LLE) are addressed. The principal point discussed is linear, no-threshold dose-response curve. That the linear no-threshold, or proportional relationship is widely used is seen in the way in which the values for cancer risk coefficients are expressed - in terms of new cases, per million persons exposed, per year, per unit exposure or dose. This implies that the underlying relationship is proportional, i.e., ''linear, without threshold''. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Bond, V.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Microsoft Word - SAUUL_report_d  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

THE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS OF THE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS OF ULTRAFAST, ULTRAINTENSE LASERS: Opportunities in science and technology using the brightest light known to man A report on the SAUUL workshop held, June 17-19, 2002 THE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS OF ULTRAFAST, ULTRAINTENSE LASERS (SAUUL) A report on the SAUUL workshop, held in Washington DC, June 17-19, 2002 Workshop steering committee: Philip Bucksbaum (University of Michigan) Todd Ditmire (University of Texas) Louis DiMauro (Brookhaven National Laboratory) Joseph Eberly (University of Rochester) Richard Freeman (University of California, Davis) Michael Key (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) Wim Leemans (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) David Meyerhofer (LLE, University of Rochester)

256

Searching for R-parity violation at run-II of the tevatron.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present an outlook for possible discovery of supersymmetry with broken R-parity at Run II of the Tevatron. They first present a review of the literature and an update of the experimental bounds. In turn they then discuss the following processes: (1) resonant slepton production followed by R{sub P} decay, (a) via LQD{sup c} and (b) via LLE{sup c}; (2) how to distinguish resonant slepton production from Z{prime} or W{prime} production; (3) resonant slepton production followed by the decay to neutralino LSP, which decays via LQD{sup c}; (4) resonant stop production followed by the decay to a chargino, which cascades to the neutralino LSP; (5) gluino pair production followed by the cascade decay to charm squarks which decay directly via L{sub 1}Q{sub 2}D{sub 1}{sup c}; (6) squark pair production followed by the cascade decay to the neutralino LSP which decays via L{sub 1}Q{sub 2}D{sub 1}{sup c}; (7) MSSM pair production followed by the cascade decay to the LSP which decays (a) via LLE{sup c}, (b) via LQD{sup c}, and (c) via U{sup c}D{sup c}D{sup c}, respectively; and (8) top quark and top squark decays in spontaneous R{sub P}.

Allanach, B.; Banerjee, S.; Berger, E. L.; Chertok, M.; Diaz, M. A.; Dreiner, H.; Eboli, O. J. P.; Harris, B. W.; Hewett, J.; Magro, M. B.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Navarro, L.; Parua, N.; Porod, W.; Restrepo, D. A.; Richardson, P.; Rizzo, T.; Seymour, M. H.; Sullivan, Z.; Valle, J. W. F.; de Campos, F.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

257

OMEGA: A NEW COLD X-RAY SIMULATION FACILITY FOR THE EVALUATION OF OPTICAL COATINGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on recent progress for the development of a new cold X-ray optical test capability using the Omega Facility located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. These tests were done on the 30 kJ OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Rochester, NY. We conducted a six-shot series called OMEGA II on 14 July 2006 in one eight-hour day (supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency). The initial testing was performed using simple protected gold optical coatings on fused silica substrates. PUFFTFT analyses were completed and the specimen's thermal lateral stress and transverse stress conditions were calculated and interpreted. No major anomalies were detected. Comparison of the pre- and posttest reflective measurements coupled with the TFCALC analyses proved invaluable in guiding the analyses and interpreting the observed damage. The Omega facility is a high quality facility for performing evaluation of optical coatings and coupons and provides experience for the development of future National Ignition Facility (NIF) testing.

Fisher, J H; Newlander, C D; Fournier, K B; Beutler, D E; Coverdale, C A; May, M J; Tobin, M; Davis, J F; Shiekh, D

2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

258

Plutonium (iv) complexes of mixed pyridine n-oxide and phosphinoxide f-element extractants.  

SciTech Connect

Analytical and bulk scale separation and processing of aqueous acidic solution s containing f-element ions are regularly accomplished using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) methods that employ a neutral organic donor ligand dissolved in an organic phase . 1-5 Several monofunctional ligands have been used as LLE reagents, but all display one or more deficiencies1 'S due to the chemical similarity of the tri valent lanthanides (Ln) to th e trivalent actindes (An) . Since the trivalent 4f and 5f ions have identical charges, chemical separation agents for these two groups need to differentiate among these har d cations based on their size or chemical bonding preferences . This task is not easy since, as a consequence of the lanthanide and actinide contractions, the Ln and An fission products which need to be separated have similar ionic radii . In order to develop new ligands for the separation process, we must have a fundamental understanding of how these separation agents interact with both Ln and An ions on a molecular level.

Matonic, J. H. (John H.); Enriquez, A. E. (Alejandro E.); Scott, B. L. (Brian L.); Paine, R. T. (Robert T.); Neu, M. P. (Mary P.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Monetary Policy and Household Mobility: The Effects of Mortgage Interest Rats.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Homeowner Mobility and Mortgage Interest Rates: New Evidencenew mortgages. Table 2 Basic Hazard Models of Household Mobility (mobility decisions are related to increases in family size, the existence of a new

Quigley, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

In vitro electrophysiology of neurons in subnuclei of rat inferior colliculus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that underlie the on-type response after injecting depol- arizing current are unclear, but may be related

Li, Yang V.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Amino acid, lipid and red blood cell studies on selenium toxicity with the laboratory rat.  

SciTech Connect

The amino acid and lipid analysis on blood and liver and the amino acid analysis on urine gave irregular values for each determination. Therefore, the average values which were presented in the 1966 Technical Progress report (C00-1449-2) were not considered valid and were not submitted for publication. However, experiments on the in vivo conversion of 75 Se-labeled selenite-Se to urinary metabolites led to the observance of an unknown metabolite. This metabolite, which was different from the ordinary selenium analogues of sulfur, was designated as "U-1" (C00-1449-3). The use of the 59 Fe was involved in the study of the anemia of chronic selenium toxicity. The findings because of the labeled iron led to the conclusion that the anemia was from massive hemolysis (C00-1449-3).

Halverson, A W; Tsay, D -T; Triebwasser, K C; Whitehead, E I

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Dynamics of Hepatic Gene Expression Profile in a Rat Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and lidars to investigate the glaciation processes and the scavenging of black carbon in mixed phase layer

Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

263

Morphine and Heroin Differentially Modulate In Vivo Hippocampal LTP in Opiate-Dependent Rat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, People's Republic of China Addictive drugs have been shown to severely influence many neuronal functions for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2 Pharmacology to corresponding drugs. Here, we further demonstrated that during opiates withdrawal, the re-exposure of morphine

Tian, Weidong

264

Amphetamine effects on startle gating in normal women and female rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nucleus accumbens (NAC) catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT)low activity to the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase (

Talledo, Jo A.; Sutherland Owens, Ashley N.; Schortinghuis, Tijmen; Swerdlow, Neal R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Keystone rodent interactions: prairie dogs and kangaroo rats structure the biotic composition of a desertified grassland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

La Vida del Fire Ant................................11 Lesson 4: Mound, Sweet Mound duties of workers include caring for the young, maintaining or repairing the mound, protecting the colony to the ground to begin the mounds. · There are two types of fire ant colonies in Texas: monogynous (one queen

Davidson, Ana

266

Keystone rodent interactions: prairie dogs and kangaroo rats structure the biotic composition of a desertified grassland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

end up eliminating or harming many non-target species. This can only benefit RIFAs, which will quickly of the southern U.S. Costs for various control methods vary considerably. Per mound treatment costs range from- eral bird species, spiders, lizards, and toads. Their effectiveness at mound control undoubtedly var

Davidson, Ana

267

Is decreased bone mineral density associated with development of scoliosis? A bipedal osteopenic rat model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ankara, Turkey. 2 Izmir KentHospital, Cigli, Izmir, Turkey. 3 University of California

Dede, Ozgur; Akel, Ibrahim; Demirkiran, Gokhan; Yalcin, Nadir; Marcucio, Ralph; Acaroglu, Emre

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Nanofabricated collagen-inspired synthetic elastomers for primary rat hepatocyte culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic substrates that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix proteins hold significant promise for use in systems designed for tissue engineering applications. In this report, we designed a synthetic polymeric ...

Bettinger, Christopher J.

269

Swamp rats, fat cats and soggy suburbs : planners and engineers in south east Florida  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. cities continue to physically expand, supported by and creating demand for water supply, road, sewerage, electricity networks. But the relationship between the professional values, education and practices of city or ...

Phelan, Katherine A., 1971-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Rat liver mitochondrial and microsomal tests for the assessment of quinone toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Short-term toxicity tests using mitochondrial and microsomal metabolism were developed and applied to a series of eight quinones. In the mitochondrial assay, the degree to which test compounds inhibited mitochondrial respiration varied from an effective concentration (EC50) of 9 to 125 [mu]M. In the microsomal assay, the maximum percentage of increase over control oxygen consumption rates elicited by the quinones ranged from 8 to 837%. The ability of the compounds to stimulate microsomal oxygen uptake reflects their capability to redox cycle and form reactive oxygen species. Results of the mitochondrial and microsomal assay were statistically correlated with several quinone physicochemical parameters and qualitatively compared to reduction potential. The biological response observed in both test systems appeared to be most strongly influenced by the reduction potential of the quinone. Biomechanisms of action were suggested on the basis of this relationship. To assess the ability of the mitochondrial and microsomal assays to indicate toxicity of the quinonoid compounds, results were statistically correlated with literature-derived toxicity data. It was concluded that the mitochondrial assay appears to be a valid indicator of acute toxicity, whereas the microsomal assay better portends the potential for chronic toxicity.

Bramble, L.A.; Boardman, G.D.; Dietrich, A.M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Bevan, D.R. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Effect of type and amount of dietary fat on bile flow and composition in rats.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

containing 7 or 20 p. 100 of corn oil or 20 p. 100 of lard or mutton tallow. In those conditions of these two components was lower in the « lard » and « mutton tallow » groups. Among the groups receiving group, while the absolute biliary cholesterol concentration was identical in the lard and mutton tallow

Recanati, Catherine

272

Improving spatiotemporal resolution of USPIO-enhanced dynamic imaging of rat kidneys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of classical type, Adv. Math. 105 (1994), no. 1, 76­110. [BDN] Bergshoe,E. A., De Baetselier, I and Nutma, T­133 [GGT] Gordon, D. Grenier, D. Terras, A. Hecke operators and the fundamental domain for SL(3, Z), Math. and Vanhove, P. D-instantons, Strings and M-theory , Phys. Lett. B408 (1997) 122­134 [Gr1] Grenier, D

Moura, José

273

Transplantation of nasal olfactory tissues into transected spinal cord of adult rats.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transplants of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) from olfactory bulbs have recently been shown to support regrowth and reinnervation of damaged spinal cord, which has led (more)

Lu, Jike

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Autoradiographic localization of (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding sites in the rat adrenal gland  

SciTech Connect

To gain greater insight into sites of action of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) within the adrenal, we have localized the (/sup 125/I)-Ang II binding site using in vitro autoradiography. Autoradiograms were generated either by apposition of isotope-sensitive film or with emulsion-coated coverslips to slide-mounted adrenal sections labeled in vitro with 1.0 nM (/sup 125/I)-Ang II. Analysis of the autoradiograms showed that Ang II binding sites were concentrated in a thin band in the outer cortex (over the cells of the zona glomerulosa) and in the adrenal medulla, which at higher power was seen as dense patches. Few sites were evident in the inner cortex. The existence of Ang II binding sites in the adrenal medulla was confirmed by conventional homogenate binding techniques which revealed a single class of high affinity Ang II binding site (K/sub d/ . 0.7nM, B/sub max/ . 168.7 fmol/mg). These results suggest that the adrenal medulla may be a target for direct receptor-mediated actions of Ang II.

Healy, D.P.; Maciejewski, A.R.; Printz, M.P.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The effect of angiotensin 1-7 on tyrosine kinases activity in rat anterior pituitary  

SciTech Connect

Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) is a peptide originated from Ang II. It is known that in vessels Ang 1-7 shows opposite effects to Ang II. Ang 1-7 can modify processes of proliferation. However, Ang 1-7 action in pituitary gland cells was never studied. Moreover, the specific binding sites for Ang 1-7 are still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ang 1-7 on tyrosine kinases (PTKs) activity in the anterior pituitary. The reaction of phosphorylation was carrying out in presence of different concentration of Ang 1-7 and losartan (antagonist of AT1 receptor) and PD123319 (antagonist of AT2). Our results show that Ang 1-7 inhibited activity of PTK to 60% of basic activity. Losartan did not change the Ang 1-7-induced changes in PTKs activity. The presence of PD123319 together with Ang 1-7 caused stronger inhibition PTKs activity than Ang 1-7 alone. These observations suggest that Ang 1-7 binds to the novel, unknown, specific for this peptide receptor.

Rebas, Elzbieta [Department of Molecular Neurochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: elkar@zdn.am.lodz.pl; Zabczynska, Joanna [Department of Student, Medical University of Lodz (Poland); Lachowicz, Agnieszka [Department of Comparative Endocrinology, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule  

SciTech Connect

Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Blood proteolytic activity elevation and plasma protein degradation in spontaneously hypertensive rat models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from individualsby profiling gene expression in LCLs derived from livingsubjects. LCLs derived from (1) three monozygotic twin pairs

Chow, Jason C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Serotonin 5HT-1A receptor density in the brain of the spontaneously hypertensive rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of blood pressure by doxycycline treatment22 3.3after doxycycline treatment..22Protease activity after doxycycline treatment..

Valdez, Shakti Regmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Effects of Age on Pavlovian Autoshaping of Ethanol Drinking in Non-Deprived Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wa- ter drinking and g/kg water intake were assessed using1. Mean daily g/kg water intake from the sipper CS duringsame sessions g/kg fluid intake in the Water groups did not

Tomie, Arthur; Mohamed, Walaa M.; Pohorecky, Larissa A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Blood proteolytic activity elevation and plasma protein degradation in spontaneously hypertensive rat models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G-protein alpha s, H-Ras, NF-kB, pard6, PI3K cat class IA,G-protein alpha-s, H-Ras, NF-kB, Pi3k cat class IA, PKA-cat,Beta-catenin, MDM2, MMP-2, NF-kb, PIAS2, SUMO- 1, XPA, p21

Chow, Jason C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

National Laser User Facilities Program | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

User Facilities Program | National Nuclear Security User Facilities Program | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog National Laser User Facilities Program Home > National Laser User Facilities Program National Laser User Facilities Program National Laser Users' Facility Grant Program Overview The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester

282

National Laser User Facilities Program | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser User Facilities Program | National Nuclear Security Laser User Facilities Program | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog National Laser User Facilities Program Home > National Laser User Facilities Program National Laser User Facilities Program National Laser Users' Facility Grant Program Overview The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester

283

Neutron-induced reactions in the hohlraum to study reaction in flight neutrons  

SciTech Connect

We are currently developing the physics necessary to measure the Reaction In Flight (RIF) neutron flux from a NIF capsule. A measurement of the RIF neutron flux from a NIF capsule could be used to deduce the stopping power in the cold fuel of the NIF capsule. A foil irradiated at the Omega laser at LLE was counted at the LANL low-background counting facility at WIPP. The estimated production rate of {sup 195}Au was just below our experimental sensitivity. We have made several improvements to our counting facility in recent months. These improvements are designed to increase our sensitivity, and include installing two new low-background detectors, and taking steps to reduce noise in the signals.

Boswell, M. S.; Elliott, S. R.; Tybo, J. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Guiseppe, V.; Rundberg, B. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Kidd, M. [Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

284

KT Monograph Section F01 Appendix  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lia cf .V ici ae rv ili a V. er vi lia /L ath yr us sa tiv us La th yr us sa tiv us cf .L ath yr us sa tiv us sm all 'L ath yr us sa tiv us Pi su m sa tiv um Pi su m sp . cf .P isu m Le ns sp . cf .L en ss p. Pi su m /L en s La rg el eg um ei nd et. 0... su m /L en s La rg el eg um ei nd et. H. di sti ch um /v ul ga re cf . sy m m etr ic H. di sti ch um /v ul ga re sm all hu lle d in de t. H. di sti ch um /v ul ga re sm all in de t. H. di sti ch um /v ul ga re cf . tai lg ra in s H. di sti ch um /v ul...

Bending, J

2004-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

285

Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

Hoppe, M. [ed.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fundamental Drop Dynamics and Mass Transfer Experiments to Support Solvent Extraction Modeling Efforts  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation Safeguards and Separations (NEAMS SafeSep) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to further a modeling effort designed to predict mass transfer behavior for selected metal species between individual dispersed drops and a continuous phase in a two phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) system. The purpose of the model is to understand the fundamental processes of mass transfer that occur at the drop interface. This fundamental understanding can be extended to support modeling of larger LLE equipment such as mixer settlers, pulse columns, and centrifugal contactors. The work performed at the INL involved gathering the necessary experimental data to support the modeling effort. A custom experimental apparatus was designed and built for performing drop contact experiments to measure mass transfer coefficients as a function of contact time. A high speed digital camera was used in conjunction with the apparatus to measure size, shape, and velocity of the drops. In addition to drop data, the physical properties of the experimental fluids were measured to be used as input data for the model. Physical properties measurements included density, viscosity, surface tension and interfacial tension. Additionally, self diffusion coefficients for the selected metal species in each experimental solution were measured, and the distribution coefficient for the metal partitioning between phases was determined. At the completion of this work, the INL has determined the mass transfer coefficient and a velocity profile for drops rising by buoyancy through a continuous medium under a specific set of experimental conditions. Additionally, a complete set of experimentally determined fluid properties has been obtained. All data will be provided to LANL to support the modeling effort.

Kristi Christensen; Veronica Rutledge; Troy Garn

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

Gibson, J. [ed.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Characterization and Segmental Distribution of 251-Bolton-Hunterlabeled Substance P Binding Sites in Rat Spinal Cord  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substance P (SP) is widely distributed in the spinal cord and has been implicated as a neurotransmitter in several spinal cord neuronal systems. To investigate SP receptors in the spinal cord, 1251-Bolton-Hunter-SP (*I-BH-SP) was used to identify and characterize spinal cord binding sites for the peptide. The binding of *%BH-SP had the following characteristics: high affinity; time, temperature, and membrane concentration dependent; reversible; and saturable. The KS0 of SP in whole spinal cord was 0.46 nM as compared with 0.95, 60, and 150 nM for physalaemin, eledoisin, and kassinin. Four putative antagonists of SP were e 0.0001 times as potent as SP in inhibiting *%BH-SP binding. lCsos were 5, 7.5, 7.0, and 45 PM for D-Pro*, D-Trp73s-SP; D-Pro*, D-Phe, D-Trp-SP; D-Arg, D-Pro*, D-Tqfss, Leu-SP; and D-Pro4, D-Trp7Vs30-SP(4-1 I), respectively.

Clivel G. Charlton; Cinda; J. Helke

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Journal of Neuroscience Methods 62 (1995) 2l-27 A phase plane representation of rat exploratory behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(roundtrips)performedfrom areferenceplacetermedtherat's homebase.We offer aphaseplanerepresentationof excursions

290

Age influences the effects of nicotine and monoamine oxidase inhibition on mood-related behaviors in rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inhibit MAO by 40% to 50% (Fowler et al. 1996a, b, 2003),people with major depression (Fowler et al. 1996a). The aimthe brains of smokers (Fowler et al. 1996a, b). Assessment

Villgier, Anne-Sophie; Gallager, Brittney; Heston, Jon; Belluzzi, James D.; Leslie, Frances M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

4-Hydroxy-PCB106 acts as a direct thyroid hormone receptor agonist in rat GH3 cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action by interacting directly with the TH receptor (TR). We found that the hydroxylated PCB metabolite, 4-OH-CB106, bound to the human TR?1 and significantly elevated endogenous growth hormone (GH) expression in GH3 cells in a manner similar to that of T3 itself. This effect was also observed using a consensus TH response element (TRE) in a luciferase expression system, and was blocked by a single base-pair substitution in this TRE. In addition, we found that 4-OH-CB106 did not alter the ability of TR?1 to physically interact with the TRE in the GH promoter, or with SRC1 or NCoR. These effects were directly parallel to effects of T3, indicating that 4-OH-CB106 exerts a direct agonistic effect on the TR?1.

Seo-hee You A; Kelly J. Gauger A; Ruby Bansal B; R. Thomas Zoeller A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Exploring Adaptations to Famine: Rats Selectively Bred for Differential Intake of Saccharin Differ on Deprivation-Induced Hyperactivity and Emotionality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or daily chow or water intake. Tests in early generationsequal to normal daily water intake. ANOVAs on food intakeintake (ml) in a 24-hr two-bottle test, expressed relative to a pre-established daily water

Dess, Nancy K.; Arnal, Jill; Chapman, Clinton D.; Siebel, Sara; VanderWeele, Dennis A.; Green, Kenneth F.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of zinc plus cyclo (his-pro) in genetically diabetic Goto-Kakizaki and aged rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

blood glucose levels and water intake. The present study wasfed blood glucose levels, water intake, and plasma insu- lin2 weeks. Although food and water intake showed a tendency to

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Dietary long-chain, but not medium-chain, triglycerides impair exercise performance and uncouple cardiac mitochondria in rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

= 6) (n = 6) (n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5) Morphological data Body weight (g) 322 3 327 12 365 16** 287 15 276 8 262 8 Heart weight (g) 0.81 0.02 0.88 0.03 0.91 0.05 0.77 0.05 0.77 0.01 0.74 0.01 HW/BW 1000 2.6 0.1 2.7 0.1 2.5... performance amongst subjects fed 400 kcal as MCTs, LCTs or carbohydrates, despite increased ketogenesis in MCT-fed subjects [24]. Meanwhile others have reported a drop in cycling perfor- mance when dietary carbohydrates are replaced by MCTs [25,26], although...

Murray, Andrew J; Knight, Nicholas S; Little, Sarah E; Cochlin, Lowri E; Clements, Mary; Clarke, Kieran

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Microvessel structure formation in a 3D perfused co-culture of rat hepatocytes and liver endothelial cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many liver physiological and pathophysiological behaviors are not adequately captured by current in vitro hepatocyte culture methods. A 3D perfused microreactor previously demonstrated superior hepatic functional maintenance ...

Hwa, Albert J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Xpf and Not the Fanconi Anaemia Proteins or Rev3 Accounts for the Extreme Resistance to Cisplatin in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have psng &optional (eps 0.01)) (let ((s (sin ang))) (if))) (P1 1 (-PO (*rat pi))) (ql O (-qO (*rat ql))) (rsin 1) rat ) ((sng (aain (coerce rsin

Babu, M. Madan

297

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in two animal species (rats and mice), as shown by an increased incidence of mammary gland adenocarcinomas and hemangiosarcomas in female rats and an increased incidence of...

298

Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multidrug resistance in epilepsy: rats with drug-resistant seizures exhibit enhanced brain expression of P-glycoprotein compared with rats with drug-responsive seizures

Holger A. Volk; Wolfgang Lscher

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle: Process Analysis and Design Using Comprehensive Phase Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Of the 100+ thermochemical hydrogen cycles that have been proposed, the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) Cycle is a primary target of international interest for the centralized production of hydrogen from nuclear power. However, the cycle involves complex and highly nonideal phase behavior at extreme conditions that is only beginning to be understood and modeled for process simulation. The consequence is that current designs and efficiency projections have large uncertainties, as they are based on incomplete data that must be extrapolated from property models. This situation prevents reliable assessment of the potential viability of the system and, even more, a basis for efficient process design. The goal of this NERI award (05-006) was to generate phase-equilibrium data, property models, and comprehensive process simulations so that an accurate evaluation of the S-I Cycle could be made. Our focus was on Section III of the Cycle, where the hydrogen is produced by decomposition of hydroiodic acid (HI) in the presence of water and iodine (I2) in a reactive distillation (RD) column. The results of this project were to be transferred to the nuclear hydrogen community in the form of reliable flowsheet models for the S-I process. Many of the project objectives were achieved. At Clemson University, a unique, tantalum-based, phase-equilibrium apparatus incorporating a view cell was designed and constructed for measuring fluid-phase equilibria for mixtures of iodine, HI, and water (known as HIx) at temperatures to 350 C and pressures to 100 bar. Such measurements were of particular interest for developing a working understanding of the expected operation of the RD column in Section III. The view cell allowed for the IR observation and discernment of vapor-liquid (VL), liquid-liquid, and liquid-liquid-vapor (LLVE) equilibria for HIx systems. For the I2-H2O system, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) was discovered to exist at temperatures up to 310-315 C, in contrast to the models and predictions of earlier workers. For the I2-HI-H2O ternary, LLE and LLVE were all observed for the first time at temperatures of 160 and 200 C. Three LLE tie-lines were measured at 160 C, and preliminary indications are that the underlying phase behavior could result in further improvements in the performance of the S-I Cycle. Unfortunately, these new results were obtained too late in the project to be incorporated into the modeling and simulation work described below. At the University of Virginia, a uniquely complete and reliable model was developed for the thermodynamic properties of HIx, covering the range of conditions expected for the separation of product hydrogen and recycled iodine in the RD column located in Section III. The model was validated with all available property spectroscopy data. The results provide major advances over prior understanding of the chemical speciation involved. The model was implemented in process simulation studies of the S-I Cycle, which showed improvement in energy efficiency to 42%, as well as significantly smaller capital requirements due to lower pressure operation and much smaller equipment sizes. The result is that the S-I Cycle may be much more economically feasible than was previously thought. If both the experimental and modeling work described above were to be continued to ultimate process optimization, both the American public and the global community would benefit from this alternative energy source that does not produce carbon emissions.

Thies, Mark C.; O'Connell, J. P.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Water Pool Storage  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Behavior of Spent Nuclear Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Water Pool Storage A. 0; Johnson, jr. , I ..: . Prepared Cor the Energy Research and Development Administration under Contract EY-76-C-06-1830 ---- Pat t i ~ < N ~ ~ r ~ t b w t ~ - ! I , ~ I ~ ~ ~ I . I I ~ ) ~ I I ~ ~ N O T I C E T€& - was prepad pnpn4. m w n t of w k spon-d by the Unitd S t . & ) C a u n m ~ (*WU ij*. M t e d $tam w the Wqy R e s e w & a d Ohrsropmcnt ~dmhirmlion, nor m y d thair ewhew,,nq Pny @fw a n t r ~ ~ t 0 ~ 1 , s ~ k m r i t r i l t t q r , ~ , m r tWf ernpfQw, r(tLltm any wartany, s x p r e s or kWld,= w w aAql -9 . o r r w p a m l ~ ~ t y for e~ o r uodruincvr of any infomutim, 9 F p d + d - , or repratants that -would nat 1 d - e privately owned rfghas. ,i PAQFIC NORTHWEST UBORATORY operated b ;"' SArnLLE ' fw the E M R m RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRAT1QN Wk.Cwfraa rv-76c-ts-is38

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

L. LCl,, J,  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

'. : '. : L. LCl,, J, \\\, \ .,' 1: -, 'b c. /k) /I !,/'.. il."' Z L .G x c C L J / ,cI.L A ) Z L J-f y 2 S ~ ~ ~ i~ ~ j< j.;& ;& ,,;li *-;1Lbij(2ta<; C :,-., - & . ,, _ ; ,, f. .,, ~ c c -I,-::, . :.2c; ;;s c ,' :,I., ).( ; L Z " . . n i IK A -, 1 i,' ILLll\li , _ L '.'J .;.;.:J~.-'IIM..j,-, _-._. c d '. si I' ,. (. ,. i ; . ' ,. L-1 i. B. :Iiil~Zll,~ Ztisiness Ivim a g e 2 ','.-.:y; sit-,. cf C h i c a g o C ';iiy ,b 3 . cc. I -I;.insis ,I : ,:' g ;,1 . .,:,-, ;1-1--p1: -... a I*- - h. ; ;.1s Fzil n o t ;m L y carks 'L';le -i;itne rol* t,':c ren:gotitticn c;' t. , fi> ,. -I . \ ,- - i.d...AL t:.i-tLonA L~tWratol*~ 0;3C1"3tk:: c 2 P tl"act, bz'i. 12lrci-i rmr;; 2i.;,T,I.-'ic,.:;1

302

A Framework for Automating Cost Estimates in Assembly Processes  

SciTech Connect

When a product concept emerges, the manufacturing engineer is asked to sketch out a production strategy and estimate its cost. The engineer is given an initial product design, along with a schedule of expected production volumes. The engineer then determines the best approach to manufacturing the product, comparing a variey of alternative production strategies. The engineer must consider capital cost, operating cost, lead-time, and other issues in an attempt to maximize pro$ts. After making these basic choices and sketching the design of overall production, the engineer produces estimates of the required capital, operating costs, and production capacity. 177is process may iterate as the product design is refined in order to improve its pe~ormance or manufacturability. The focus of this paper is on the development of computer tools to aid manufacturing engineers in their decision-making processes. This computer sof~are tool provides aj?amework in which accurate cost estimates can be seamlessly derivedfiom design requirements at the start of any engineering project. Z+e result is faster cycle times through first-pass success; lower ll~e cycie cost due to requirements-driven design and accurate cost estimates derived early in the process.

Calton, T.L.; Peters, R.R.

1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

303

National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

Callaghan, R.W.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW.

Freeman, C. G.; Canfield, M. J.; Graeper, G. B.; Lombardo, A. T.; Stillman, C. R.; Padalino, S. J. [Physics Department, SUNY Geneseo, Geneseo, New York 14454 (United States); Fiksel, G.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Measuring Regional Changes in the Diastolic Deformation of the Left Ventricle of SHR Rats Using microPET Technology and Hyperelastic Warping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

slice taken from (A) the template image data set and (B) themid- diastolic image data set (target) and the (end-diastolic image data set (target) used in the validation

VERESS, ALEXANDER I.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Ecology of Norway Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) in relation to conservation and management of seabirds on Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 2005-2006.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Bibliography: leaves 76-93. Historical invasions by introduced species into formerly pristine ecosystems present a case where damage and change must often be measured indirectly. Long-term (more)

Eggleston, Cari

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Developmental toxicity of clarified slurry oil, syntower bottoms, and distillate aromatic extract administered as a single oral dose to pregnant rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clarified slurry oil (CSO), syntower bottoms (STB), and distillate aromatic extract (DAE) are refinery streams produced by processing crude oil. Available data indicate that some refinery streams are developmentally toxic by the dermal route of exposure. However, there is no conclusive evidence for their being teratogenic. The present studies were designed to further explore the suspected teratogenic potency of refinery streams while at the same time limiting embryolethality. In general, evidence of maternal toxicity (i.e., decreased body weight gain, decreased thymus weight) was observed at doses greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg. For each refinery stream tested, the incidence of resorption was greatest on GD 11. A common pattern of fetal malformations was observed for all of the refinery streams tested and included cleft palate, diaphragmatic hernia, and paw and tail defects. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidences of external and skeletal malformations were greatest on GD 11 and 12 for fetuses exposed to CSO; on GD 13 and 14, the incidence of malformation was comparable for CSO- and STB-exposed fetuses. The incidence of visceral anomalies was greatest on GD 11-13 for fetuses exposed to CSO and STB; on Gestation D 14, the incidence was comparable for each of the refinery streams tested. In general, the ability to produce adverse effects on development was greatest for CSO and least for DAE. Effects produced by STB were comparable to or less severe than those observed for CSO. 24 refs., 11 tabs.

Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R. [Stonybrook Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Evidence for a genetic mechanism of the chromogranin A and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase genes in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chga: chromogranin A Comt: catechol-O-methyltransferase Dbh:chromogranin B; Comt catechol-O- methyltransferase; Drd1ain BPH. An increase in catechol- amine synthesis would tend

Friese, Ryan Scott

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Co-localization and regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and arginine vasopressin in neuroendocrine cells of the rat and human brain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AII: angiotensin II; ANP: atrial natriuretic peptide; AVP:atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) maintain plasma volume andthe neuropeptides AVP, AII and ANP affect fluid homeostasis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Co-localization and regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and arginine vasopressin in neuroendocrine cells of the rat and human brain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of AVP, large number of positive Herring bodies was observedthe lobe, while fewer Herring bodies were intensely stainedto Fig 6A). Scattered Herring bodies also displayed FGF2

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Imaging the internal structure of the rat cochlea using optical coherence tomography at 0.827 m and 1.3 m  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This study used 2 OCT systems with different light sources: 1) a semiconductor optical amplifier operating in integration of the backscattered light signal over long time intervals. In contrast, the present system used of using fast fiberoptic-based OCT imaging systems for determining cochlea microanatomy with resolu- tion

Chen, Zhongping

312

Proteomic analysis of the nuclear matrix in the early stages of rat liver carcinogenesis: Identification of differentially expressed and MAR-binding proteins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tumor progression is characterized by definite changes in the protein composition of the nuclear matrix (NM). The interactions of chromatin with the NM occur via specific DNA sequences called MARs (matrix attachment regions). In the present study, we applied a proteomic approach along with a Southwestern assay to detect both differentially expressed and MAR-binding NM proteins, in persistent hepatocyte nodules (PHN) in respect with normal hepatocytes (NH). In PHN, the NM undergoes changes both in morphology and in protein composition. We detected over 500 protein spots in each two dimensional map and 44 spots were identified. Twenty-three proteins were differentially expressed; among these, 15 spots were under-expressed and 8 spots were over-expressed in PHN compared to NH. These changes were synchronous with several modifications in both NM morphology and the ability of NM proteins to bind nuclear RNA and/or DNA containing MARs sequences. In PHN, we observed a general decrease in the expression of the basic proteins that bound nuclear RNA and the over-expression of two species of Mw 135 kDa and 81 kDa and pI 6.7-7.0 and 6.2-7.4, respectively, which exclusively bind to MARs. These results suggest that the deregulated expression of these species might be related to large-scale chromatin reorganization observed in the process of carcinogenesis by modulating the interaction between MARs and the scaffold structure.

Barboro, Paola [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10 - 16132 Genova (Italy); D'Arrigo, Cristina [C.N.R., Istituto per lo Studio delle Macromolecole, ISMAC, Sezione di Genova, Via De Marini, 6 - 16149 Genova (Italy); Repaci, Erica [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10 - 16132 Genova (Italy); Bagnasco, Luca [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10 - 16132 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Oncologia, Biologia e Genetica, Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi, 10 - 16132 Genova (Italy); Orecchia, Paola; Carnemolla, Barbara [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10 - 16132 Genova (Italy); Patrone, Eligio [C.N.R., Istituto per lo Studio delle Macromolecole, ISMAC, Sezione di Genova, Via De Marini, 6 - 16149 Genova (Italy); Balbi, Cecilia [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10 - 16132 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.balbi@istge.it

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011-A attenuates ethanol consumption in ethanol preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Park Building, Room 150 Neuropharmacology Lab, Medical Department, Building 490, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973

Homes, Christopher C.

314

Uncoupling at the GABA(A) receptor with chronic ethanol in the rat medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DB)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Functional tolerance to ethanol and physical dependence are thought to involve central nervous system (CNS) adaptive changes in the function of neurotransmitter systems which resist the initial intoxicating actions of ethanol. Increasing evidence suggests that the y-aminobutyric acid typeA(GABA,) receptor is one target of ethanol where such adaptive changes by the CNS may occur. Adaptation could occur by downregulation of GABAAreceptor number or uncoupling of the GABAAreceptor sensitivity to ethanol and related CNS depressants. These agents which show cross-tolerance and dependence with ethanol are allosteric modulators at the GABAAreceptor. Uncoupling is the decrease in the activity of an allosteric modulator at the receptor without a change in receptor number after prolonged exposure to either the agonist or allosteric modulator. Varying results have been obtained when looking at uncoupling at the GABAAreceptor with chronic drug treatment. The goal of this project was to determine-tine whether allosteric potentiation of GABAAreceptors by a benzodiazepine, a novel anticonvulsant or a neurosteroid is uncoupled by chronic ethanol treatment which may contribute to functional tolerance and physical dependence. Chronic ethanol was not found to induce an uncoupling of the potentiation seen with rnidazolam (0. I and 1. 0 liM), loreclezole (10 [uM), or allopregnanolone (0. I uM) to 3 uM GABA. However, the higher concentration of allopregnanolone (1.0 [uM) did show potentiation of the 3 uM GABA response in the chronically ethanol treated cells. In contrast, an increased potentiation was seen with midazolam (0. I uM) and GABA (0. I uM) in the ethanol treated cells. No potentiation was seen of 30 liM GABA response with any of the allosteric modulators tested. Therefore, it does not appear that chronic ethanol uncoupled potentiation of loreciezole or 0. I [uM allopregnanolone acting by general allosteric mechanisms. However, the higher (1 [uM concentration of allopregnanolone, which is thought to be capable of directly activating the GABAAreceptor, did show uncoupling of potentiation with cells chronically exposed to ethanol; this finding is consistent with an adaptive change in GABAAreceptor function.

Wallace, Kathleen Allison

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Effects of bone marrow cell transplant on thyroid function in an I131-induced low T4 and elevated TSH rat model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

Biomed Central; Gustavo E Guajardo-salinas; Juan A Carvajal; ngel A Gaytan-ramos; Luis Arroyo; Alberto G Lpez-reyes; Jos F Islas; Beiman G Cano; Netzahualcoytl Arroyo-currs; Alfredo Dvalos; Gloria Madrid; Jorge E Moreno-cuevas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Alterations in the vimentin cytoskeleton in response to single impact load in an in vitromodel of cartilage damage in the rat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the metal plate. The load was applied to the flat cut bone surface and the carti- lage received load that had been transmitted through the bone to the cartilage that was adjacent to the metal plate. Single impact load was performed using a drop tower... ). Chondrocytes with a normal cytoskeletal appearance i.e. lattice throughout the cell were scored as 0 (Figure 1a), cells with a slight increase in immunofluorescent intensity of stain around the nucleus were scored as 1 (Figure 1b), with a moderate intensity...

Henson, Frances M D; Vincent, Thea A

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

317

REVIEW Most Effective Colon Cancer Chemopreventive Agents in Rats: A Systematic Review of Aberrant Crypt Foci and Tumor Data, Ranked by Potency.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Potential chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer are assessed in rodents. We speculated that the magnitude of the effect is meaningful, and ranked all published agents according to their potency. Data were gathered systematically from 137 articles with the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) endpoint, and 146 articles with the tumor endpoint. A table was built containing potency of each agent to reduce the number of ACF. Another table was built with potency of each agent to reduce the tumor incidence. Both tables are shown in the present paper, and on a website with sorting abilities

Denis E. Corpet; Sylviane Tach

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Low level light therapy by Red---Green---Blue LEDs improves healing in an excision model of Sprague---Dawley rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many methods of healing wounds. Among these, light therapy is reported to be beneficial, as beams assist the human body in treating, sterilizing, and regenerating cells. Both Laser and LED irradiation with specific wavelengths induce proliferation ... Keywords: Epithelialization, Light emitting diode, Light therapy, Photobiomodulation, Photostimulation

Min Woo Cheon, Tae Gon Kim, Yang Sun Lee, Seong Hwan Kim

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Key role of the NO-pathway and MMP-9 in high blood flow-induced remodeling of rat resistance arteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.henrion@univ-angers.fr Abbreviations: Angiotensin converting enzyme: ACE; Doxycycline: DOX; L-NAME (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl perindopril or the MMPs inhibitor doxycycline. After 14 days, outward hypertrophic remodeling occurred in HF-remodeling was prevented by L-NAME, eNOS gene knockout and doxycycline. L-NAME prevented eNOS overexpression and MMPs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Interactions between Heterotypic Stressors and Corticosterone Reveal Integrative Mechanisms for Controlling Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene Expression in the Rat Paraventricular Nucleus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the convergence of neural and humoral afferent information onto paraventricular neuroendocrine corticotropinreleasing hormone (CRH) neurons is a major determinant for adaptive stress responses, the underlying integrative mechanisms are poorly understood. To dissect the relative contributions made by neural afferents and corticosterone to these processes, we determined how the concurrent application of two heterotypic physiological stressors, chronic dehydration (produced by drinking hypertonic saline) and sustained hypovolemia (produced by subcutaneous injections of polyethylene glycol), is interpreted by the synthetic and secretory activity of CRH neurons using in situ hybridization and plasma ACTH measurements. These two stressors are encoded by relatively simple, distinct, and well defined sets of neural afferents to CRH neurons. Both increase plasma corticosterone, but they have

Alan G. Watts; Graciela Sanchez-watts

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Neither in vivo MRI nor behavioural assessment indicate a therapeutic efficacy for a novel 5HT1A agonist in rat models of ischaemic stroke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Michel Bernanos1, Andrew McCreary3, Michel M Modo1 and Steve CR Williams1 Address: 1Neuroimaging Research Group, Clinical Neuroscience PO42, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK, 2... lo gi ca l s co re Plac MK-801 Plac MK-801 Plac MK-801 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Ne u ro lo gi ca l S co re 1 3 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 DU123015 Placebo Time-points (days) % in fa rc t v o lu m e 1 3 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 MK-801 Placebo Time...

Ashioti, Maria; Beech, John S; Lowe, Andrew S; Bernanos, Michel; McCreary, Andrew; Modo, Michel M; Williams, Steve C R

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

322

Cholinergic interneurons around the central canal in adult intact and spinal cord transected rats are activated in response to load-bearing stepping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lamina X have bilateral projections [44]. Partition neuronsin lamina VII with projections from the central canal to thelabel muscle-specific sensory projections and motoneurons as

Duru, Paul Okwudiri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Amelioration of motor/sensory dysfunction and spasticity in a rat model of acute lumbar spinal cord injury by human neural stem cell transplantation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MD, Ramsay DA, Dekaban GA, Marcillo AE, Saenz AD, Pasquale-Puckett WR, Becerra JL, Marcillo A, Quencer RM: Observations

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Collagen Scaffolds Incorporating Select Therapeutic Agents to Facilitate a Reparative Response in a Standardized Hemiresection Defect in the Rat Spinal Cord  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A multifaceted therapeutic approach involving biomaterial scaffolds, neurotrophic factors, exogenous cells, and antagonists to axon growth inhibitors may ultimately prove necessary for the treatment of defects resulting ...

Cholas, Rahmatullah

325

Combustion-derived flame generated ultrafine soot generates reactive oxygen species and activates Nrf2 antioxidants differently in neonatal and adult rat lungs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. : Combustion-derived flame generated ultrafine sootacute inhalation of diffusion flame soot particles: cellularAccess Combustion-derived flame generated ultrafine soot

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Neural correlates underlying motor map plasticity and skilled motor behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of neurons within the motor cortex. Physiol Rev, 1975. 55(and S.P. Wise, The motor cortex of the rat: cytoarchitecturedelayed changes of rat motor cortical output representation

Ramanathan, Dhakshin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sexes after 2 years of treatment. Also reported was an increased incidence of mammary gland fibroadenomas in low-dose male rats and in mid-dose rats of both sexes, and of...

328

The Metabolic Properties of the Fission Products and Actinide Elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

directly from nuclear fission. Radioactive substances canfree Fission Prodl,wts in the Rat" Natl Nuclear Energy

Hamilton M.D., J.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

SCAP for Inter-networking devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... system? RAT Perl script TCL ? DISA STIG/XCCDF ? Leverage existing standards for consistent authoritative results Page 9. ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

330

Impurities in a Homogeneous Electron Gas Jung-Hwan Song  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thankful to my friends and office-mates, especially Jae-Hyuk Lee, Porn- rat Wattanakasiwich, and David

Jansen, Henri J. F.

331

Conceptual Design - Polar Drive Ignition Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester is proposing a collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and General Atomics (GA) with the goal of developing a cryogenic polar drive (PD) ignition platform on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The scope of this proposed project requires close discourse among theorists, experimentalists, and laser and system engineers. This document describes how this proposed project can be broken into a series of parallel independent activities that, if implemented, could deliver this goal in the 2017 timeframe. This Conceptual Design document is arranged into two sections: mission need and design requirements. Design requirements are divided into four subsystems: (1) A point design that details the necessary target specifications and laser pulse requirements; (2) The beam smoothing subsystem that describes the MultiFM 1D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD); (3) New optical elements that include continuous phase plates (CPP's) and distributed polarization rotators (DPR's); and (4) The cryogenic target handling and insertion subsystem, which includes the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a dedicated PD ignition target insertion cryostat (PD-ITIC). This document includes appendices covering: the primary criteria and functional requirements, the system design requirements, the work breakdown structure, the target point design, the experimental implementation plan, the theoretical unknowns and technical implementation risks, the estimated cost and schedule, the development plan for the DPR's, the development plan for MultiFM 1D SSD, and a list of acronym definitions. While work on the facility modifications required for PD ignition has been in progress for some time, some of the technical details required to define the specific modifications for a Conceptual Design Review (CDR) remain to be defined. In all cases, the facility modifications represent functional changes to existing systems or capabilities. The bulk of the scope yet to be identified is associated with the DPR's and MultiFM beam smoothing. Detailed development plans for these two subsystems are provided in Appendices H and I; additional discussion of subsystem requirements based on the physics of PD ignition is given in Section 3. Accordingly, LLE will work closely with LLNL to develop detailed conceptual designs for the PD-specific facility modifications, including assessments of the operational impact of implementation (e.g., changing optics for direct rather than indirect-drive illumination and swapping from a hohlraum-based ITIC to one that supports PD). Furthermore, the experimental implementation plan represents the current best understanding of the experimental campaigns required to achieve PD ignition. This plan will evolve based on the lessons learned from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) and ongoing indirect-drive ignition experiments. The plan does not take the operational realities of the PD configuration into account; configuration planning for the proposed PD experiments is beyond the scope of this document.

Hansen, R

2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

332

Conceptual Design - Polar Drive Ignition Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester is proposing a collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and General Atomics (GA) with the goal of developing a cryogenic polar drive (PD) ignition platform on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The scope of this proposed project requires close discourse among theorists, experimentalists, and laser and system engineers. This document describes how this proposed project can be broken into a series of parallel independent activities that, if implemented, could deliver this goal in the 2017 timeframe. This Conceptual Design document is arranged into two sections: mission need and design requirements. Design requirements are divided into four subsystems: (1) A point design that details the necessary target specifications and laser pulse requirements; (2) The beam smoothing subsystem that describes the MultiFM 1D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD); (3) New optical elements that include continuous phase plates (CPP's) and distributed polarization rotators (DPR's); and (4) The cryogenic target handling and insertion subsystem, which includes the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a dedicated PD ignition target insertion cryostat (PD-ITIC). This document includes appendices covering: the primary criteria and functional requirements, the system design requirements, the work breakdown structure, the target point design, the experimental implementation plan, the theoretical unknowns and technical implementation risks, the estimated cost and schedule, the development plan for the DPR's, the development plan for MultiFM 1D SSD, and a list of acronym definitions. While work on the facility modifications required for PD ignition has been in progress for some time, some of the technical details required to define the specific modifications for a Conceptual Design Review (CDR) remain to be defined. In all cases, the facility modifications represent functional changes to existing systems or capabilities. The bulk of the scope yet to be identified is associated with the DPR's and MultiFM beam smoothing. Detailed development plans for these two subsystems are provided in Appendices H and I; additional discussion of subsystem requirements based on the physics of PD ignition is given in Section 3. Accordingly, LLE will work closely with LLNL to develop detailed conceptual designs for the PD-specific facility modifications, including assessments of the operational impact of implementation (e.g., changing optics for direct rather than indirect-drive illumination and swapping from a hohlraum-based ITIC to one that supports PD). Furthermore, the experimental implementation plan represents the current best understanding of the experimental campaigns required to achieve PD ignition. This plan will evolve based on the lessons learned from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) and ongoing indirect-drive ignition experiments. The plan does not take the operational realities of the PD configuration into account; configuration planning for the proposed PD experiments is beyond the scope of this document.

Hansen, R

2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

333

Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ``Capabilities Activation`` and ``Capabilities Demonstration`` to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ``Small Glass Shell Deliveries`` and ``Composite Polymer Capsules`` for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ``Onsite Support`` at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ``Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats`` and established ``Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities`` at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ``Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.`` We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

Steinman, D. [ed.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Numerical simulatin of supernova-relevant laser-driven hydro experiments on OMEGA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In ongoing experiments performed on the OMEGA laser [J. M. Soures et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2108 (1996)] at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), nanosecond laser pulses are used to drive strong blast waves into two-layer targets. Perturbations on the interface between the two materials are unstable to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability as a result of shock transit and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability during the deceleration-phase behind the shock front. These experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. The authors are, at present, particularly interested in the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability through the late nonlinear stage, the transition to turbulence, and the subsequent transport of material within the turbulent region. In this paper, the results of numerical simulations of 2D single and multimode experiments are presented. These simulations are run using the 2D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) radiation hydrodynamics code CALE [R. T. Barton, Numerical Astrophysics (Jones and Bartlett, Boston, 1985)]. The simulation results are shown to compare well with experimental radiography. A buoyancy-drag model captures the behavior of the single-mode interface, but gives only partial agreement in the multi-mode cases. The Richtmyer-Meshkov and target decompression contributions to the perturbation growth are both estimated and shown to be significant. Significant dependence of the simulation results on the material equation of state (EOS) is demonstrated, and the prospect of continuing the experiments to conclusively demonstrate the transition to turbulence is discussed.

Leibrandt, D; Robey, H F; Edwards, M J; Braun, D G; Miles, A R; Drake, R P

2004-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

335

THE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS GENOME PROJECT Sean R. Eddy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, PLASMA (ACTIN­DEPOL... C02C2.3 458 350 20.3% ACHG?RAT ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR PROTEIN, GAMMA C... C02C2

Eddy, Sean

336
337

Corrosion Products of Iron Wire Arterial Implants from In Vivo and In ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study, iron wire was implanted into either the abdominal rat aortic wall or ... Fabrication of a Cellulosic Nanocomposite Scaffold with Improved...

338

The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rat strain differences in catechol carcinogenicity to theAcrylonitrile Hydroquinone Catechol NNN Benzo[a]pyrene 2-Butyraldehyde Isoprene Catechol Pyridine 3-Aminobiphenyl

World Health Organization

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Genes order and phylogenetic reconstruction ... - ResearchGate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

criterion, based on the least-squared error. We have used the retree .... of ancestral mammals: lessons from human, mouse and rat genomes. Genome Res .,.

340

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ulcers, chronic inflammation of the lungs, and squamous metaplasia of the prostate gland also were seen in male rats. The inflammatory changes in the lungs may have been...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Sustained Attention in Adult Mice is Modulated by Prenatal Choline Availability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. K. (1998). Prenatal availability of choline modifiesS. H. (1999). Choline availability to the developing ratto prenatal choline availability in mature and aged rats.

Mohler, Eric G.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Four and half LIM Domain-1 protein and its role in passive mechanics and hypertrophic signaling of the heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and ANP 51 2.4.4.increase in rat ventricular ANP gene expression correlates48 Figure 2.6: ANP Gene Expression in RV Papillary Muscles

Raskin, Anna Maria

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Communication no. 14 Fatty acid metabolism in liver slices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a conventional milk diet containing 22.4 % of DM as beef tallow. Three 6-week-old rats were given a standard

Recanati, Catherine

344

THE USE OF CHELATING AGENTS FOR ACCELERATING EXCRETION OF RADIOELEMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lived elements, such as plutonium with a biological half-of radioyttrium and plutonium into rats, he was able tochelates. Fortunately, plutonium and many of the elements

Foreman, Harry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The role of caveolin-associated microdomains in adult cardiac myocytes : cAMP and cytoskeletal assembly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AC adult cardiac fibroblast, ACF ?-adrenergic receptor, ?-ARCM) and fibroblasts (ACF), and coronary artery smooth muscleadult rat cardiac fibroblasts (ACF) and CM following sucrose

Head, Brian P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Development of novel emission tomography system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In recent years, small animals, such as mice and rats, have been widely used as subjects of study in biomedical research while molecular biology and (more)

Fu, Geng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Edited by:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

doi: 10.3389/fphys.2010.00145 Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition restored endothelium-mediated relaxation in old obese Zucker rat mesenteric arteries

Emilie Vessires; Eric J. Belin De Chantemle; Anne-laure Guihot; Alain Jardel; Laurent Loufrani; Daniel Henrion; Michael A. Hill; Issy Laher

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Clarification of the Mechanism of Acylation Reaction and Origin of Substrate Specificity of the Serine-Carboxyl Peptidase Sedolisin through QM/MM Free Energy Simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy simulations are applied for understanding the mechanism of the acylation reaction catalyzed by sedolisin, a representative serine-carboxyl peptidase, leading to the acyl-enzyme (AE) and first product from the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. One of the interesting questions to be addressed in this work is the origin of the substrate specificity of sedolisin that shows a relatively high activity on the substrates with Glu at P1 site. It is shown that the bond making and breaking events of the acylation reaction involving a peptide substrate (LLE*FL) seem to be accompanied by local conformational changes, proton transfers as well as the formation of alternative hydrogen bonds. The results of the simulations indicate that the conformational change of Glu at P1 site and its formation of a low barrier hydrogen bond with Asp-170 (along with the transient proton transfer) during the acylation reaction might play a role in the relatively high specificity for the substrate with Glu at P1 site. The role of some key residues in the catalysis is confirmed through free energy simulations. Glu-80 is found to act as a general base to accept a proton from Ser-287 during the nucleophilic attack and then as a general acid to protonate the leaving group (N H of P1 -Phe) during the cleavage of the scissile peptide bond. Another acidic residue, Asp-170, acts as a general acid catalyst to protonate the carbonyl of P1-Glu during the formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and as a general base for the formation of the acyl-enzyme. The energetic results from the free energy simulations support the importance of proton transfer from Asp-170 to the carbonyl of P1-Glu in the stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate and the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond between the carboxyl group of P1-Glu and Asp-170 in the lowering of the free energy barrier for the cleavage of the peptide bond. Detailed analyses of the proton transfers during acylation are also given.

Xu, Qin [ORNL; Yao, Jianzhuang [ORNL; Wiodawer, Alexander [SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD; Guo, Hong [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Effects of estrogen and gender on cataractogenesis induced by high-LET radiation  

SciTech Connect

Planning for long-duration manned lunar and interplanetary missions requires an understanding of radiation-induced cataractogenesis. Previously, it was demonstrated that low-linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation with 10 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays resulted in an increased incidence of cataracts in male rats compared to female rats. This gender difference was not due to differences in estrogen, since male rats treated with the major secreted estrogen 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) showed an identical increase compared to untreated males. We now compare the incidence and rate of progression of cataracts induced by high-LET radiation in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received a single dose of 1 Gy of 600 MeV {sup 56}Fe ions. Lens opacification was measured at 2-4 week intervals with a slit lamp. The incidence and rate of progression of radiation-induced cataracts was significantly increased in the animals in which estrogen was available from endogenous or exogenous sources. Male rats with E2 capsules implanted had significantly higher rates of progression compared to male rats with empty capsules implanted (P = 0.025) but not compared to the intact female rats. These results contrast with data obtained after low-LET irradiation and suggest the possibility that the different types of damage caused by high- and low-LET radiation may be influenced differentially by steroid sex hormones.

Henderson, M.A.; Rusek, A.; Valluri, S.; Garrett, J.; Lopez, J.; Caperell-Grant, A.; Mendonca, M.; Bigsby, R.; Dynlacht, J.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

NUTRITION AND CANCER, 38(1), 74---80 Author's Version -1 Endogenous N-Nitroso Compounds, and Their Precursors,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rats, whose diets contained 7, 14 or 28% fat. Tested meats were bacon, pork, chicken and beef. Fecal of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of rats, 45 days after the start of a high-fat bacon-based diet a diet based on beef, pork or chicken meat had less fecal NOC than controls (most p

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Recent acquisition of imprinting at the rodent Sfmbt2 locus correlates with insertion of a large block of miRNAs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in this region. These transcripts represent a very narrow imprinted gene locus. We also demonstrate that rat Sfmbt2 is imprinted in extraembryonic tissues. An interesting feature of both mouse and rat Sfmbt2 genes is the presence of a large block of mi...

Wang, Qianwei; Chow, Jacqueline; Hong, Jenny; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Moreno, Carol; Seaby, Peter; Vrana, Paul; Miri, Kamelia; Tak, Joon; Chung, Eu Ddeum; Mastromonaco, Gabriela; Cannigia, Isabella; Varmuza, Susannah

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

352

Bio-Med Variable Field MRI Project | Superconducting Magnet Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bio-Med Variable Field MRI Project Bio-Med Variable Field MRI Project One of the Research and Development projects currently underway is the Bio-Med magnet. Destined for use within the solenoidal field of an MRI, it is designed for use where the subject, in this case a rat, must be tracked in order to obtain an image. Typical MRIs require the subject to remain stationary, and a rat will not normally oblige when it is awake. By moving the composite field (MRI Solenoid plus Bio-Med dipole) to track the rat, it is possible to allow the rat some freedom of motion, while still imaging the brain functions. For the rapid movement typical of a rat, the Bio-Med coil magnet must be capable of very rapid changes in field. Superconducting magnets are typically not designed to allow rapid field variations. To do so typically

353

Orexin-1 receptor antagonism decreases ethanol consumption and preference selectively in high-ethanolepreferring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Work from our laboratory has shown that orexin (ORX; or hypocretin) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus are involved in preference for morphine, cocaine, and food. Other groups have demonstrated a connection between the ORX system and ethanol-related behaviors. Here, we extended those results to investigate, in outbred SpragueeDawley rats, the relationship between ethanol preference and the ORX system. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to drink 10 % ethanol using the intermittent access (IA) technique. In Experiment 2, different groups of rats were trained to drink 10 % ethanol using either IA or the sucrose-fade (SF) technique. Following ethanol-drinking acquisition, ethanol preference was assessed using two-bottle-choice tests. The rats were then tested for changes in preference with additional two-bottle-choice tests following administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB; 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Differences in ethanol preference were observed across individuals, with a significantly higher ethanol preference observed in rats trained to drink using IA compared with SF. In both Experiments 1 and 2, SB reduced ethanol preference selectively in rats with high ethanol preference. These results demonstrate a strong, causal relationship between the ORX system and ethanol preference in outbred rats. These findings provide additional evidence that the ORX system provides opportunities to develop novel treatments for alcohol abuse. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Spragueedawley Rats; David E. Moorman

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

IRRADIATION BY X RAYS AND AWUEOUS DIURESIS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of x radiation on the renal functioning in the rat, rabbit. and dog was studied to determine if irradiation can modify significantly the yield of aqueous diuresis. The techniques used in the three cases are described. Results show that x radiation does noi cause constant and significant polyuria in the rat, rabbit, or dog. Whereas the rat is characterized by a variable urinary elimination, the rabbit regularly exhibits oliguria. The dog, in acute experiments, shows a rise in diuresis. (J.S.R.)

Beaumariage, M.L.; Barac, G.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

SynchroPET LLC | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SynchroPET SynchroPET LLC America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 665 likes SynchroPET LLC Brookhaven National Laboratory Two of our devices have pre-clinical applications that can be very useful for drug development and research The RatCAP is a miniature PET scanner allows whole brain imaging in fully conscious rats for the first time. By far the world's smallest and lightest PET scanner, it is the only PET system able to be mounted on the head of a lab rat, allowing for the first-time functional images of the whole brain during the rat's typical behavior. Research PET centers will be eager to acquire this unique tool, and pharmaceutical companies will be interested in using it in drug development, especially for neurological applications in which anesthesia can interfere with the results. Even universities

356

SynchroPET LLC | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SynchroPET SynchroPET LLC America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 665 likes SynchroPET LLC Brookhaven National Laboratory Two of our devices have pre-clinical applications that can be very useful for drug development and research The RatCAP is a miniature PET scanner allows whole brain imaging in fully conscious rats for the first time. By far the world's smallest and lightest PET scanner, it is the only PET system able to be mounted on the head of a lab rat, allowing for the first-time functional images of the whole brain during the rat's typical behavior. Research PET centers will be eager to acquire this unique tool, and pharmaceutical companies will be interested in using it in drug development, especially for neurological applications in which anesthesia can interfere with the results. Even universities

357

Catestatin in heart and brain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

secretorygranulesofratheart. JHistochemCytochem38:of chromograninAinhumanheart:anewregulatorypeptidecardiac function. EurHeartJ28:1117?1127. Kim,T. ,

Curello, Erica L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Conserved expression and functions of PDE4 in rodent and human heart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cAMP early repressor in the heart. Circ Res 100(4):489501.PDE4 subtypes in rodent and human heart. Detergent extractsfrom mouse, rat or failing human hearts were subjected to

Richter, Wito; Xie, Moses; Scheitrum, Colleen; Krall, Judith; Movsesian, Matthew A.; Conti, Marco

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Cheese  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cheese factory in this country. It became widely known as "store", "rat trap", or "Yankee" cheese. It is a mild firm cheese made from cow's milk. The flavor depends upon how...

360

The Spider Effect: Morphological and Orienting Classification of Microglia in Response to Stimuli in Vivo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The different morphological stages of microglial activation have not yet been described in detail. We transected the olfactory bulb of rats and examined the activation of the microglial system histologically. Six stages ...

Jonas, Rahul A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ppm, with frequent metastases to the lungs and lymph nodes. Also reported were Zymbal's gland tumors and brain tumors in rats and lung tumors in mice. Lung tumors were the primary...

362

Biomaterials Engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2011 ... Developing Specific Fluorescent Chemo-Sensors for Detecting Nitric ... fold increase in fatigue life compared to HA powder in high density polyethylene. ... led on rats, strongly presuming its biocompatibility and resorbability.

363

The Cylinder: Kinematics of the Nineteenth Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

facilitated by mate- rials (tallow, vegetable oil, grease)Plymouth. Rats ate the tubes tallow- overed leather seals,substances such as lard and tallow and used leather rings as

Mller-Sievers, Helmut

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY RARAF -Table of Contents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; you don't have to worry about traffic lights. BRAT: Short for bratwurst, rhymes with "rot" not "rat, with the most widespread usage in Wisconsin and northern Illinois. CAPITOL SQUARE: The four streets

365

S I M O N F RASE R U N I V ERS I T Y E N V I R O N M E N T A L H E A L T H & S A F E T Y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with. Rodents can transmit diseases such as Salmonellosis, Murin Typhus, Lyme Disease, Hantavirus etc, such as Salmonellosis, Murin Typhus, Lyme Disease, Hantavirus etc. Mice and rats can be found almost everywhere

366

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pp. 42-106. Jacobs, R., J. Humphreys, K. S. Dodgson, and R. J. Richards. 1978a. Light and electron microscope studies of the rat digestive tract following prolonged and short-term...

367

The accessory optic system: basic organization with an update on connectivity, neurochemistry, and function.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neurol. , 465: 234-49. Fukushima, K. , Kaneko, C.R.S. andmu opioid receptor (rat, Fukushima et al. , 1992; German etand Loughlin, 1995; but see Fukushima et al. , 1992), and a

Giolli, Roland A; Blanks, Robert H I; Lui, Fausta

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Behavioural Brain Research 231 (2012) 266271 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the importance of converging lines of evidence in testing hypotheses has proven useful in fields distant from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 2.2. Exploring social biasing of rats' food choices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 2.4. Social transmission of information concerning distant foods

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

369

AIR FORCE APPROACH TO TOXICOLOGY OF HALON ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... including a thorough investigation of historical tumor data in naive rats and ... and [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2- py~imidinylthio]acetic acid (Wy-14,643 ...

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

370

SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE ON THE CARBON-HYDROGEN SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

one temperature and analyzed for propane for corr- osion-ratThe pyrolysis of ethane and propane at 2000 to 5000 0 K wasproduct was methane. Propane and The tempera- ethane

Krakowski, R.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Progress Report No. 69. Dec. 15, 1948 to Jan. 15, 1949  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

completed. Cancer and Medical Research at u. C. Hospit~ (48-junction of the rat. Medical Research at Donner LaboratoryUCRL 282 Cancer and Medical Research at u. Co Hospital (48-

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201100033 Chemical Synthesis and Expression of the HIV-1 Rev  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the sequence). Met1 was replaced with Nle to avoid oxidation during synthesis and handling. a) NCL, b) Thz, rat anti- Rev Ab (1:50, kindly donated by Dr. Brack-Werner, German Re- search Center for Environmental

Lebendiker, Mario

373

Neurobiologically-motivated treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in an animal model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis demonstrates that chronic immobilization stress administered to rats enhances fear learning and increases plasma acylated ghrelin. This effect is independent of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis ...

Meyer, Retsina Michele

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

THE CHEMISTRY OF 1,4-DEHYDROBENZENES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

isolated by bulb to bulb distillation at torr Pr rat of 1,4-dried over Mgso 4 ; distillation through a Ta wire column atcru er as eluent (7:3 distillation ( 03 torr) ev e alcohol

Lockhart, Thomas P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Improving the Notch-Rupture Strength of Low-Expansion Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

523 microstructures as out1 ined below: Anneal. Grain Structure. Notch-Rupture. Rat i ng. 845Y. (155OF)/l h, WQ. Unrecrystal. I1 zed. 885C (1625F)/l h, WQ.

376

THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF SELENIUM METABOLITES IN THE ANIMAL  

SciTech Connect

Although the toxicity of selenium has been known for several decades and its essentiality has been established for over one decade, very little is known concerning the organic forms of selenium occurring within animals and their functions. Dimethyl selenide has been shown to be an exhalation product from rats injected with selenate or selenite. Recently trimethylselenonium ion has been shown to be excreted in the urine of rats receiving selenite. The work reported here concerns the biological activity and metabolism of trimethylselenonium ion.

Halverson, A W; Palmer, I S; Whitehead, E I

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450  

SciTech Connect

The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and increased reliability. The high-level requirements on the semiconductor lasers involve reliability, price points on a price-per-Watt basis, and a set of technical requirements. The technical requirements for the amplifier design in reference 1 are discussed in detail and are summarized in Table 1. These values are still subject to changes as the overall laser system continues to be optimized. Since pump costs can be a significant fraction of the overall laser system cost, it is important to achieve sufficiently low price points for these components. At this time, the price target for tenth-of-akind IFE plant is $0.007/Watt for packaged devices. At this target level, the pumps account for approximately one third of the laser cost. The pump lasers should last for the life of the power plant, leading to a target component lifetime requirement of roughly 14 Ghosts, corresponding to a 30 year plant life and 15 Hz repetition rate. An attractive path forward involes pump operation at high output power levels, on a Watts-per-bar (Watts/chip) basis. This reduces the cost of pump power (price-per-Watt), since to first order the unit price does not increase with power/bar. The industry has seen a continual improvement in power output, with current 1 cm-wide bars emitting up to 500 W QCW (quasi-continuous wave). Increased power/bar also facilitates achieving high irradiance in the array plane. On the other hand, increased power implies greater heat loads and (possibly) higher current drive, which will require increased attention to thermal management and parasitic series resistance. Diode chips containing multiple p-n junctions and quantum wells (also called nanostack structures) may provide an additional approach to reduce the peak current.

Deri, R J

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

379

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF construction was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 27, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility, will ultimately produce 1.8-MJ, 500-TW of 351-nm third-harmonic, ultraviolet light. On March 10, 2009, total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began in August 2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments includes diagnostics, a cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational, integrated into the facility, and ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and will likely focus the world's attention on the possibility of an ICF energy option. NIF experiments to demonstrate ignition and gain will use central-hot-spot (CHS) ignition, where a spherical fuel capsule is simultaneously compressed and ignited. The scientific basis for CHS has been intensively developed. Achieving ignition with CHS will open the door for other advanced concepts, such as the use of high-yield pulses of visible wavelength rather than ultraviolet and Fast Ignition concepts. Moreover, NIF will have important scientific applications in such diverse fields as astrophysics, nuclear physics and materials science. The NIC will develop the full set of capabilities required to operate NIF as a major national and international user facility. A solicitation for NIF frontier science experiments is planned for summer 2009. This paper summarizes the design, performance, and status of NIF and plans for the NIF ignition experimental program. A brief summary of the overall NIF experimental program is also presented.

Moses, E

2009-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

380

IGNITION AND FRONTIER SCIENCE ON THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF construction Project was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 30, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. On March 10, 2009, a total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect drive ignition will begin in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a 1.7 billion dollar national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments include diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility and be ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and will likely focus the world's attention on the possibility of an ICF energy option. NIF experiments to demonstrate ignition and gain will use central-hot-spot (CHS) ignition, where a spherical fuel capsule is simultaneously compressed and ignited. The scientific basis for CHS has been intensively developed and has high probability of success. Achieving ignition with CHS will open the door for other advanced concepts, such as the use of high-yield pulses of visible wavelength rather than ultraviolet and Fast Ignition concepts. Moreover, NIF will have important scientific applications in such diverse fields as astrophysics, nuclear physics and materials science. The NIC will develop the full set of capabilities required to operate NIF as a major national and international user facility. A solicitation for NIF frontier science experiments to be conducted by the academic community is planned for summer 2009. This paper summarizes the design, performance, and status of NIF, experimental plans for NIC, and will present a brief discussion of the unparalleled opportunities to explore frontier basic science that will be available on the NIF.

Moses, E

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Effects of bran from sorghum grains containing different classes and levels of bioactive compounds in colon carcinogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to test the dietary effects of bioactive compounds present in whole grains, we decided to observe the effect of varying types of sorghum bran on colon cancer promotion. We used 40 rats consuming diets containing 6% fiber from either cellulose or bran from white (contains phenolic acids), brown (contains tannins), or black (contains anthocyanins) sorghum (n=10). Diets were fed for 10 wk, during which two azoxymethane (AOM) injections (15 mg/kg BW) were administered in wk 3 and 4. We observed that the total number of aberrant crypts (AC) and high multiplicity aberrant crypt foci (HMACF) were lower in rats consuming black (p sorghum diets when compared to the cellulose diet, and that these decreases were an inverse function of diet antioxidant activity (ABTS). These observations led us to evaluate the effect of these diets on endogenous enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), redox status as measured by reduced and oxidized glutathione, and cell cycle processes, proliferation and apoptosis, in the rat colon. Total SOD activity was higher (p sorghum when compared to all other diets. A similar, but not significant, trend occurred in mitochondrial SOD. The white sorghum diet had enhanced (p sorghum diets were intermediate. Finally, all sorghum diets suppressed GPx activity relative to cellulose (p sorghum fed rats had a lower proliferative index (p sorghum rats were intermediate. Apoptotic index was highest in brown sorghum rats compared to cellulose (p sorghum diets were intermediate. These data suggest that the suppression of AC and HMACF formation in rats consuming sorghum bran may have resulted through the differential actions of the sorghum brans on endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which may affect colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis.

Lewis, Jayme Beth

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Bioavailability of TNT residues in composts of TNT-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

Composting is being explored as a means to remediate 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soils. This process appears to modify TNT and to bind it to organic matter. The health hazards associated with dusts generated from such materials cannot be predicted without knowing if the association between TNT residues and compost particulate is stable in biological systems. To address this question, single doses of [{sup 14}C]-TNT, soil spiked with [{sup 14C]-TNT, or compost generated with [{sup 14}C]-TNT-spiked soils were administered to rats by intratracheal instillation. The appearance of {sup 14}C in urine and tissues was taken as an indication of the bioavailability of TNT residues from compost particles. In rats instilled with neat [{sup 14}C]-TNT, about 35% of the {sup 14}C dose appeared in urine within 3 d. The {sup 14}C excreted in urine by these rats decreased rapidly thereafter, and was undetectable by 4 wk after treatment. Similar results were obtained with soil-treated rats. In contrast, after treatment with [{sup 14}C]-TNT-labeled compost, only 2.3% of the total {sup 14}C dose appeared in urine during the first 3 d. Low levels of {sup 14}C continued to be excreted in urine from compost-treated rats for more than 6 mo, and the total amount of {sup 14}C in urine was comparable to that in TNT-treated animals. Determination of the radiolabel in tissues showed that {sup 14}C accumulated in the kidneys of rats treated with labeled compost but not in rats treated with [{sup 14}C]-TNT or [{sup 14}C]-TNT-spiked soil. These results indicate that the association between TNT and particulate matter in compost is not stable when introduced into the lungs. Accumulation of {sup 14}C in kidneys suggests the presence of a unique TNT residue in compost-treated rats. The rate of excretion and tissue disposition of {sup 14}}C in rats treated with TNT-spiked soil indicate that TNT in soil is freely available in the lungs. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Palmer, W.G. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Beaman, J.R. [Geo-centers, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (United States); Walters, D.M.; Creasia, D.A. [Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

LMS-AMC-S01980-0-0.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Historical Earthquake Information Historical Earthquake Information Amchitka, Alaska, Site This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Amchitka, Alaska, LTS&M Plan Rev. 0 Doc. No. S0198000 Rev. Date: September 17, 2008 Page B-3 Historical Earthquake Data 1940-2005 Magnitude > 5.0: Rat Island Quadrangle There were 106 seismic events in the Rat Island Quadrangle between 1940 and 2005 with a magnitude > 5.0. This information has not been detailed. For further information go to: http://giseis.alaska.edu/Seis/html_docs/db2catalog.html This database allows the input of parameters into a search field that returns results such as the number, location, depth, and magnitude of seismic events in the input area. Table B-1 lists the events with magnitude > 6.0 in the Rat Island Quadrangle.

384

Comparison of the response of bacterial luminescence and mitochondrial respiration to the effluent of an oil refinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of oil refinery effluents on rat mitochondrial respiration and on the luminescence of the bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum were compared. Mitochondria from male Wistar rat livers were exposed to different concentrations of refinery effluents in a semiclosed 3-ml reaction vessel. Respiration was measured polarographically with an oxygen electrode. Effects on P. phosphoreum were measured by the standard test developed by Microbics. The mitochondrial method showed EC50s in the range from 1 to 7.5%, while Microtox gave EC50 in the range from 30 to 42%. The higher sensitivity of mitochondria may be exploited in the development of a sensitive biosensor for toxicity of oil refinery effluents.

Riisberg, M.; Bratlie, E.; Stenersen, J. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Exp Brain Res (2003) 153:461466 DOI 10.1007/s00221-003-1604-4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in seven rats by injecting either Diamidino yellow (DiY) or Fast blue (FB) into the IC and injecting and DiY were injected into the CN and SOC, respectively. Combined with the distinct laminar distribution. In several animals, the retrograde tracer Diamidino yellow (DiY) or Fast blue (FB) was injected into the IC

Ryugo, David K.

386

Cellular/Molecular Spine Neck Plasticity Controls Postsynaptic Calcium Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.42 s B = 0.41 s mouse cortex rat hippocampus C FRAPYFP[s] 0 1 2 3 in vivo naïve depol. slice hippocampal slices (naive/depol.), we replotted the data from Figure 1D scaled by the experimentally

Oertner, Thomas

387

Engineered Heart Tissue Enables Study of Residual Undifferentiated Embryonic Stem Cell Activity in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLE Engineered Heart Tissue Enables Study of Residual Undifferentiated Embryonic Stem Cell, Canada, M5S 3G9 6 Heart and Stroke/Richard Lewar Centre of Excellence, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3G9 cell survival. As an alternative, we have used an engineered heart tissue (EHT) based on neonatal rat

Zandstra, Peter W.

388

doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00032.2002 283:H540-H548, 2002. First published 18 April 2002;Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heart Circ Physiol and C. D. Moyes S. C. Leary, D. Michaud, C. N. Lyons, T. M. Hale, T. L. Bushfield, M. A. Adams spontaneously hypertensive rats with enalapril Bioenergetic remodeling of heart during][Abstract] , November 1, 2004; 287 (5): H2122-H2131.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Foisy, Denis deBlois and Christine

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

389

Available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on doi:10.1006/bulm.2001.0249  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

receptor protein (ORP) in their dendritic membranes (Lancet et al., 1993b,a). Over the past decade $35.00/0 c 2001 Society for Mathematical Biology #12;886 P. L´ansk´y and W. M. Getz ORPs (Buck% of genes in rats and mice code for ORPs, which appears to be even more diverse than genes coding for ligand

Getz, Wayne M.

390

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology (2008) 35, 12221226 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.04982.x Blackwell Publishing AsiaMorphine affects latency of LGN neuronsZ Long et al.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui and State Key, China SUMMARY 1. Chronic morphine exposure results in degradation of the functional properties-like drugs can alter visual discrimination performance in rats,7 evoke cortical potentials in cats8

Zhou, Yi-Feng

391

LiDAR Data Applications Monitoring Illinois Prehistoric Burial Mounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kangaroo rat mounds. The ants may have benefited from altered soil texture and seed composition and reduced mounds and selectively harvesting seeds (Brown and Heske 1990, Valone and Brown 1995, Whitford and Kay mounds within each treatment type in order to control for rodent activity (i.e. densities) across

Frank, Thomas D.

392

Accepted by Z.-Q. Zhang: 20 May 2011; published: 28 May 2011 ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kangaroo rat mounds. The ants may have benefited from altered soil texture and seed composition and reduced species composition and ecosystem processes by constructing large mounds and selectively harvesting seeds mounds within each treatment type in order to control for rodent activity (i.e. densities) across

Hoddle, Mark S.

393

Biomedical studies on solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquefaction materials: a status report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report summarizes the results of biomedical research effort on solvent refined coal (SRC) materials. The samples, described in the text, as well as samples of raw shale oil, crude petroleum, and some SRC-I materials were evaluated for biological activity in several different systems: (1) microbial mutagenesis (Ames assay), coupled to chemical characterization efforts, (2) in vitro mammalian cell toxicity and transformation, (3) epidermal carcinogenesis (skin painting) in mice, (4) acute and subchronic oral toxicity in rats, (5) developmental toxicity in rats, and (6) dosimetry and metabolism in rats. High boiling point materials (identified) showed significant mutagenic activity while lower boiling fractions from both processes were inactive; crude petroleum was also inactive, while raw shale oil showed only a low level of activity. Chemical characterization studies suggested that 3- and 4-ring primary aromatic amines are responsible for a large fraction of the mutagenic activity. Cultured mammalian cell studies showed that materials exhibiting a positive effect in the Ames system also caused mammalian cell transformation. The results of skin carcinogenesis studies in the mouse were generally consistent with those of the cellular studies. Light distillates were found to be moderately toxic after oral administration to rats. Fuel upgrading, process modification, and appropriate occupational/environmental controls may ameliorate some of the biological effects of SRC materials and other coal liquids of high boiling point. Low-boiling SRC liquids appear to have little biological effects in the assays employed. (LTN)

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

A Cell Based Dynamic Spectrum Management Scheme with Interference Mitigation for Cognitive Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future wireless systems are expected to be characterized by the coexistence of different radio access technologies (RATs) resulting in complex heterogeneous wireless environments. In parallel with this, the tremendous demand for spectrum has ... Keywords: Bargaining patience, Cognitive networks, Dynamic spectrum management, Game theory, Inter-system interference, Profit

Vanbien Le; Zhiyong Feng; Didier Bourse; Ping Zhang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

THE EXCHANGE OF RADIOACTIVE MAGNESIUM IN ERYTHROCYTES OF SEVERAL SPECIES  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from in vivo and in vitro studies on the exchange of Mg/sup 2/ in erythrocytes of rats, dogs, cats, cattle, and man. Data are presented graphically. Results indicate that erythrocytes contain less Mg than other tissues and that Mg is very slowly exchanged. Possible mechanisms involved in Mg exchange are discussed. (C.H.)

Rogers, T.A.

1961-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Multi-Fiber Reconstruction from DW-MRI using a Continuous Mixture of von Mises-Fisher Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-Fiber Reconstruction from DW-MRI using a Continuous Mixture of von Mises-Fisher Distributions the Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance (DW-MR) signal at each lattice point using a novel continuous mixture real DW-MRI data from rat brain and optic chiasm. 1. Introduction Since the first publication

Kumar, Ritwik

397

Atrial natriuretic peptide in the locus coeruleus and its possible role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis  

SciTech Connect

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANP) is present in neuronal cells of the locus coeruleus and its vicinity in the pontine tegmentum and moderate amount of ANP is detectable in this area by radioimmunoassay. The ANP is known as a neuropeptide which may influence the body salt and water homeostasis and blood pressure by targeting both central and peripheral regulatory mechanisms. Whether this pontine ANP cell group is involved in any of these regulatory mechanisms, the effect of various types of hypertension and experimental alterations in the salt and water balance on ANP levels was measured by radioimmunoassay in the locus coeruleus of rats. Adrenalectomy, as well as aldosterone and dexamethasone treatments failed to alter ANP levels in the locus coeruleus. Reduced ANP levels were measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and in diabetes insipidus rats with vasopressin replacement. In contrast to these situations, elevated ANP levels were found in rats with DOCA-salt or 1-Kidney-1-clip hypertension. These data suggest a link between ANP levels in the locus coeruleus and fluid volume homeostasis. Whether this link is causal and connected with the major activity of locus coeruleus neurons needs further information.

Geiger, H.; Sterzel, R.B. (Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (West Germany)); Bahner, U.; Heidland, A. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (West Germany)); Palkovits, M. (Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Signal transduction mechanisms involved in in vitro ram sperm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process of capacitation (Yanagimachi 1994). First described by Austin (1951, 1952) and Chang (1951, 1955 and ranges from 1­2 h in sheep and rat to 10­12 h in ferret (Austin 1970). The physiological, biochemical- cally, capacitation media contain energy substrates (e.g. pyruvate, lactate and glucose), a cholesterol

Zaragoza, Universidad de

399

Fiber-Optic Stethoscope: A Cardiac Monitoring and Gating System for Magnetic Resonance Microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fiber-Optic Stethoscope: A Cardiac Monitoring and Gating System for Magnetic Resonance Microscopy monitoring and gating purposes. The fiber-optic stethoscope system offers a novel approach to measuring) small enough for use on rats and mice. METHODS Fiber-Optic Stethoscope System Design As shown in the MR

400

Original article Relationship between lipid parameters and the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the incidence or severity of lesions in hearts of rats fed various dietary fats. Gudbjarnason and Oskardottir- hexaenoic acid (22:6 n―3), and hypo- thesized that this rendered the organ more susceptible acid rapeseed (LEAR) oil vs a fat mixture of lard and corn oil (3/1, w/w), coincided with an increased

Recanati, Catherine

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lle democ rat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

What Do Aging, Exercise, Swallowing Problems, and Nerve Growth Factors Have in Common?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What Do Aging, Exercise, Swallowing Problems, and Nerve Growth Factors Have in Common? Allison J. Schaser, M.S., Kyle Stang, Nadine P. Connor, PhD & Mary Behan, PhD Methods 48 rats in 3 age groups were ages. We studied one possible mechanism that might be responsible for improvement: a change in levels

Sheridan, Jennifer

402

Resolving arthropod relationships: Present and future insights from evo-devo studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AF domain in the N-terminus of PR-B (Sartorius et al., 1994). PR-A and PR-B appear to have distinct160s are expressed in primary cultures of rat astrocytes (Grenier et al., 2006). Interestingly of the Golgi apparatus (Grenier et al., 2006). Over-expression and siRNA knockdown experiments using

Popadic', Aleksandar

403

Original article: Design of a medium voltage power converter-storage devices embedded in a hybrid emergency network for more electrical aircraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to present and describe a hybrid electrical network for an aircraft in emergency operation. The principle of this network is to hybridize, through a bidirectional DC/DC converter, a high speed turbine (Ram Air turbine - RAT) ... Keywords: Electrical network, Electrochemical storage, Energy management, Hybridization, Power converter design

R. Rigo Mariani, F. Lacressonniere, G. Fontes, X. Roboam

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Simulated annealing implementation with shorter Markov chain length to reduce computational burden and its application to the analysis of pulmonary airway architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new way to implement the Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm was developed and tested that improves computation performance by using shorter Markov chain length (inner iterations) and repeating the entire SA process until the final function value meets ... Keywords: CT image, Computational speed, Markov chain length, Pulmonary airway structure, Simulated annealing, Sprague Dawley rats

DongYoub Lee; Anthony S. Wexler

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Summary of research of the section on pharmacology. Progress report for December 1944  

SciTech Connect

Various studies relating the biological and behavioral effect of several uranium fluorides and chlorides as well as fluorine and oxyflourides are related. Most of these studies involved rats, guinea pigs, rabbits or dogs. Route of administration included inhalation, ingestion, or application to the skin.

Hodge, H.C.

1944-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Fifth Biennial Conference New Directions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or competitive relationships; the sudden removal of a top predator, or of a superior competitor, can release of the superior competitor (the rat) would lead to an increase in the inferior competitor (the mice), as pressure). This increase may be sudden and dramatic if the superior competitor was eradicated and could also occur

Bushman, Frederic

407

Quantified symmetry for entorhinal spatial maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General navigation requires a spatial map that is not anchored to one environment. The firing fields of the ''grid cells'' found in the rat dorsolateral medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC) could be such a map. dMEC firing fields are also thought to be modeled ... Keywords: Hippocampus, Neural coding, Spatial cognition, Symmetry

Erick Chastain; Yanxi Liu

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Harnack Inequalities for NonNegative Solutions to Degenerate and Singular Parabolic Partial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Harnack Inequalities for Non­Negative Solutions to Degenerate and Singular Parabolic Partial, Local Behaviour of Solutions of Quasi­linear Parabolic Equations, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal 25, (1967), 81 Parabolic Equations with Measurable Coefficients, Arch. Rational. Mech. Anal. 118, (1992), 257­271. [4] E

Gianazza, Ugo

409

Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population.

Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L. [eds.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Radiation inhibition of intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To demonstrate the effect of {gamma} radiation on proliferating smooth muscle cells in vivo, a standardized bilateral carotid balloon catheter arterial injury was produced in 45 rats and doses from 0-20 Gy were delivered to the right carotid artery at 24 h after injury. At 20 days after injury, cross-sectional area of intima was determined from axial histological sections. Compared to contralateral, nonirradiated balloon-injured arteries, radiation produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in intimal cross-sectional area, with a 50% decrease at 5-7.5 Gy. To determine the effect of timing of irradiation on intimal hyperplasia, 30 rats with bilateral carotid injury received unilateral cervical irradiation at doses of 1,5 or 10 Gy administered at either 1,3 or 5 days after injury. The radiation dose, timing of irradiation and an interaction between timing and dose were significantly associated with reduction in neointimal cross-sectional area. To determine the effects of radiation on intimal hyperplasia at later intervals, rats irradiated with 15 or 20 Gy were euthanized at 3 months after injury. A significant persistent reduction in intimal cross-sectional area for irradiated arteries at 3 months was associated with minimal apparent radiation effects upon adjacent tissue. These data suggest that external {gamma} irradiation at the single doses used effectively inhibits smooth muscle proliferation and intimal hyperlasia in the rat balloon catheter injury model in a time- and dose-dependent manner. 54 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Mayberg, M.R.; Luo, Z.; London, S.; Gajdusek, C.; Rasey, J.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

90Route6ASandwich,MA02563 Phone-508-833-6600Fax-508-833-3150www.horsleywitten.com  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WD Water Disposal WF Waterflood ZEI Zone of Endangering Influence #12;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY California of the following types: gas storage (GS), pressure maintenance (PM), cyclic steam (CS), steamflood (SF), waterflood (RAT) surveys are required annually in water disposal wells, every two years in waterflood wells

412

Adaptive Thermal Management for High-Performance Microprocessors David Brooks and Margaret Martonosi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Martonosi Dept. of Electrical Engineering Princeton University fdbrooks,mrmg@ee.princeton.edu Abstract. With the increasing usage of clock gating tech- niques, the average power dissipation typically seen by common dynamic thermal management, the CPU can be designed for a much lower maximum power rat- ing with minimal

Martonosi, Margaret

413

2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 COS Pivot Profile Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

if you want to search By text (default) or By faculty name. b. Choose your preference and enter your term(s or select both options. By default, Faculty within my institution is selected. Search Terms: Enter a term of the search terms entered occurs within the same faculty profile. Example: Entering 'rat OR mouse

Chinnam, Ratna Babu

414

Filtering Heart Related Activity from Vagus Nerve Recordings in G. de Lannoy1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Filtering Heart Related Activity from Vagus Nerve Recordings in Rats G. de Lannoy1 , J. Marin2 , M understanding of such situations. Due to the proximity of the recording site to the heart itself and beating in this field. Due to the proximity of the recording sites to the heart and beating arteries, the vagus nerve

Verleysen, Michel

415

Investigation of determinism in heart rate variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article searches for the possible presence of determinism in heart rate variability (HRV) signals by using a new approach based on NARMA (nonlinear autoregressive moving average) modeling and free-run prediction. Thirty-three 256-point HRV time series obtained from Wistar rats submitted to different autonomic blockade protocols are considered

M. E. D. Gomes; A. V. P. Souza; H. N. Guimares; L. A. Aguirre

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple rat peritoneal model where enhanced peritoneal fluid neutrophil infiltration was noted in rats injected OPN intraperitoneally. Taken together these data indicate that OPN expression induced during ASH may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ASH by stimulating neutrophil transmigration.

Apte, Udayan M. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Banerjee, Atrayee [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); McRee, Rachel [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Wellberg, Elizabeth [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Ramaiah, Shashi K. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States)]. E-mail: sramaiah@cvm.tamu.edu

2005-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

417

TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Progress Toward Ignition on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The principal approach to ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is indirect drive. A schematic of an ignition target is shown in Figure 1. The laser beams are focused through laser entrance holes at each end of a high-Z cylindrical case, or hohlraum. The lasers irradiate the hohlraum walls producing x-rays that ablate and compress the fuel capsule in the center of the hohlraum. The hohlraum is made of Au, U, or other high-Z material. For ignition targets, the hohlraum is {approx}0.5 cm diameter by {approx}1 cm in length. The hohlraum absorbs the incident laser energy producing x-rays for symmetrically imploding the capsule. The fuel capsule is a {approx}2-mm-diameter spherical shell of CH, Be, or C filled with DT fuel. The DT fuel is in the form of a cryogenic layer on the inside of the capsule. X-rays ablate the outside of the capsule, producing a spherical implosion. The imploding shell stagnates in the center, igniting the DT fuel. NIC has overseen installation of all of the hardware for performing ignition experiments, including commissioning of approximately 50 diagnostic systems in NIF. The diagnostics measure scattered optical light, x-rays from the hohlraum over the energy range from 100 eV to 500 keV, and x-rays, neutrons, and charged particles from the implosion. An example of a diagnostic is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) built by a collaboration of scientists from MIT, UR-LLE, and LLNL shown in Figure 2. MRS measures the neutron spectrum from the implosion, providing information on the neutron yield and areal density that are metrics of the quality of the implosion. Experiments on NIF extend ICF research to unexplored regimes in target physics. NIF can produce more than 50 times the laser energy and more than 20 times the power of any previous ICF facility. Ignition scale hohlraum targets are three to four times larger than targets used at smaller facilities, and the ignition drive pulses are two to five times longer. The larger targets and longer pulse lengths produce unique plasma conditions for laser-plasma instabilities that could reduce hohlraum coupling efficiency. Initial experiments have demonstrated efficient coupling of laser energy to x-rays. X-ray drive greater than 300 eV has been measured in gas-filled ignition hohlraum and shows the expected scaling with laser energy and hohlraum scale size. Experiments are now optimizing capsule implosions for ignition. Ignition conditions require assembling the fuel with sufficient density and temperature for thermonuclear burn. X-rays ablate the outside of the capsule, accelerating and spherically compressing the capsule for assembling the fuel. The implosion stagnates, heating the central core and producing a hot spot that ignites and burns the surrounding fuel. The four main characteristics of the implosion are shell velocity, central hot spot shape, fuel adiabat, and mix. Experiments studying these four characteristics of implosions are used to optimize the implosion. Integrated experiments using cryogenic fuel layer experiments demonstrate the quality of the implosion as the optimization experiments progress. The final compressed fuel conditions are diagnosed by measuring the x-ray emission from the hot core and the neutrons and charged particles produced in the fusion reactions. Metrics of the quality of the implosion are the neutron yield and the shell areal density, as well as the size and shape of the core. The yield depends on the amount of fuel in the hot core and its temperature and is a gauge of the energy coupling to the fuel. The areal density, the density of the fuel times its thickness, diagnoses the fuel assembly, which is measured using the fraction of neutrons that are down scattered passing through the dense shell. The yield and fraction of down scattered neutrons, or shell rho-r, from the cryogenic layered implosions are shown in Figure 3. The different sets of data represent results after a series of implosion optimization experiments. Both yield and areal density show significant increases as a result of the optimiza

Kauffman, R L

2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

419

A G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K + channel (GIRK4) from human hippocampus associates with other GIRK channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

protein and shows high structural similarity to other subfamily members of G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K channels (GIRK) have been identified in the human hippocampus. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, GIRK4 yielded functional GIRK channels with activity that was enhanced by the stimulation of coexpressed serotonin 1A receptors. GIRK4 potentiated basal and agonist-induced currents mediated by other GIRK channels, possibly because of channel heteromerization. Despite the structural similarity to a putative rat KATp channel, no ATP sensitivity or K,,,-typical pharmacology was observed for GIRK4 alone or GIRK4 transfected in conjunction with other GIRK channels in COS-7 cells. In rat brain, GIRK4 is expressed together with three other subfamily members, GIRKI-3, most likely in identical hippocampal neurons. Thus, heteromerization or an unknown molecular interaction may cause the physiological diversity observed

Er Spauschus; Klaus-ulrich Lentes; Erhard Wischmeyer; Elke Diomann; Christine Karschin; Andreas Karschinl

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

BMC Pharmacology BioMed Central Poster presentation Blockade of CNG channels abrogates urethral relaxation induced by soluble guanylate cyclase activation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009 Triguero et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. In the present study, we have characterized the presence and distribution of cGMP-gated cationic channels (CNG) in the rat urethra as well as its putative role in the mediation of the nitrergic relaxation. Previous studies have shown the inhibition of the sheep urethral nitrergic relaxations by the CNG's inhibitor L-cis-diltiazem [1]. Also in the rat urethra, L-cis-diltiazem (50 ?M) inhibited nitrergic relaxations elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) of arginine-vasopresin (AVP)-precontracted urethral preparations (Figure 1A). Immunofluorescence studies were performed to analyze the distribution of CNG immunoreactivity (-ir) in sections of the urethral wall. As can be seen in Figure 2, a strong CNG-ir was present in a subpopulation of vimentin-ir

Domingo Triguero; Maria Sancho; Marta Garca-flores; ngeles Garca

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Activation of cardiac progenitor cells through paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation has been proved to be promising strategy to treat the failing heart. The effect of MSC transplantation is thought to be mediated mainly in a paracrine manner. Recent reports have suggested that cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) reside in the heart. In this study, we investigated whether MSC had paracrine effects on CPC in vitro. CPC were isolated from the neonatal rat heart using an explant method. MSC were isolated from the adult rat bone marrow. MSC-derived conditioned medium promoted proliferation of CPC and inhibited apoptosis of CPC induced by hypoxia and serum starvation. Chemotaxis chamber assay demonstrated that MSC-derived conditioned medium enhanced migration of CPC. Furthermore, MSC-derived conditioned medium upregulated expression of cardiomyocyte-related genes in CPC such as {beta}-myosin heavy chain ({beta}-MHC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In conclusion, MSC-derived conditioned medium had protective effects on CPC and enhanced their migration and differentiation.

Nakanishi, Chiaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamagishi, Masakazu [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamahara, Kenichi [Department of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Hagino, Ikuo [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Hidezo [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Sawa, Yoshiki [Department of Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Kitamura, Soichiro [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan); Nagaya, Noritoshi [Department of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)], E-mail: myamagi@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

422

An Intelligent Network Selection Strategy Based on MADM Methods in Heterogeneous Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Providing service continuity to the end users with best quality is a very important issue in the next generation wireless communications. With the evolution of the mobile devices towards a multimode architecture and the coexistence of multitude of radio access technologies (RAT's), the users are able to benefit simultaneously from these RAT's. However, the major issue in heterogeneous wireless communications is how to choose the most suitable access network for mobile's user which can be used as long as possible for communication. To achieve this issue, this paper proposes an intelligent network selection strategy which combines two multi attribute decision making (MADM) methods such as analytic network process (ANP) and the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. The ANP method is used to find the differentiate weights of available networks by considering each criterion and the TOPSIS method is applied to rank the alternatives. Our new strategy for network selection...

Lahby, Mohamed; Adib, Abdellah; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4106

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.;