Sample records for live fire range

  1. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. (University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  2. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  3. Using Hydro-Cutting to Aid in Remediation of a Firing Range Contaminated with Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Styvaert, Michael S.; Conley, Richard D.; Watters, David J.

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the challenges encountered in decommissioning a firing range that had been used to test fire depleted uranium rounds in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The paper details the operational challenges and innovative solutions involved in remediating and decommissioning a firing range bullet catcher once unexploded ordnance was discovered. It also discusses how the Army dealt with an intertwining web of regulatory and permit issues that arose in treating and disposing of multiple waste streams. The paper will show how the use of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Temporary Authorization allowed the Army to deal with the treatment of a variety of waste streams and how hydro-cutting process was used to demilitarize the potentially unexploded rounds.

  4. Floodplain Assessment for the Proposed Outdoor Fire Range Upgrades at TA-72 in Lower Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathcock, Charles D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is preparing to implement actions in Sandia Canyon at Technical Area (TA) 72. Los Alamos National Security (LANS) biologists conducted a floodplain determination and this project is partially located within a 100-year floodplain. The proposed project is to upgrade the existing outdoor shooting range facilities at TA-72. These upgrades will result in increased safety and efficiencies in the training for Protective Force personnel. In order to remain current on training requirements, the firing ranges at TA-72 will be upgraded which will result in increased safety and efficiencies in the training for Protective Force personnel (Figure 1). These upgrades will allow for an increase in class size and more people to be qualified at the ranges. Some of these upgrades will be built within the 100-year floodplain. The upgrades include: concrete pads for turning target systems and shooting positions, new lighting to illuminate the firing range for night fire, a new speaker system for range operations, canopies at two locations, an impact berm at the far end of the 300-yard mark, and a block wall for road protection.

  5. Full operating range robust hybrid control of a coal-fired boiler/turbine unit - article no. 041011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, K.; Bentsman, J.; Taft, C.W. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. for Engineering Science & Mechanics

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-input-multi-output robust controllers recently designed for the megawatt output/throttle pressure control in a coal-fired power plant boiler/turbine unit have demonstrated performance robustness noticeably superior to that of the currently employed nonlinear PID-based controller. These controllers, however, have been designed only for the range of 150-185 MW around the 185 MW nominal operating point, exhibiting a significant loss of performance in the lower range of 120-150 MW. Through system identification, the reason for this performance loss is demonstrated in the current work to be a pronounced dependence of the boiler/turbine unit steady state gains on the operating point. This problem is addressed via a hybrid control law consisting of two robust controllers and a robust switch between them activated by the set point change. The controllers are designed to cover the corresponding half-ranges of the full operating range. This permits attainment of the desired overall performance as well as reduction of modeling uncertainty induced by the operating point change to approximately 25% of that associated with the previous designs. Robust switching is accomplished through a novel hybrid mode of behavior-robustly controlled discrete transition.

  6. Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne [DRI] [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI] [DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI] [DRI; Cablk, Mary [DRI] [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI] [DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Legacy Management] [DOE Legacy Management

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil hydrophobicity (water repellency) was noted on burned understory soils up to 12 months after the fire, as was the presence of ash on the soil surface. Soil deteriorated from a strong, definable pre-fire structure to a weakly cohesive mass (unstructured soil) immediately after the fire. Surface soil structure was evident 34 months after the fire at both burned and unburned sites, but was rare and weaker at burned sites. The amount of runoff and sediment was highly variable, but runoff occurred more frequently at burned interspace sites compared to burned understory and unburned interspace sites up to 34 months after the burn. No discernible pattern was evident on the amount of sediment transported, but the size of sediment from burned understory sites was almost double that of burned and unburned interspace soils after the fire, and decreased over the monitoring period. Curve numbers, a measure of the runoff potential, did not indicate any obvious runoff response to the fire. However, slight seasonal changes in curve numbers and runoff potential and, therefore, post-fire runoff response may be a function of fire impacts as well as the time of year that precipitation occurs. Site (interspace or understory) differences in soil properties and runoff persisted even after the fire. Vegetation data showed the presence of invasive grasses after the fire. Results from analysis of wind and water coupled with the spatial analysis of vegetation suggest that wind erosion may continue to occur due to the additional exposed soil surface (burned understory sites) until vegetation becomes re-established, and runoff may occur more frequently in interspace sites. The potential for fire-related wind erosion and water erosion may persist beyond three years in this system.

  7. Long-Range Untethered Real-Time Live Gas Main Robotic Inspection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagen Schempf; Daphne D'Zurko

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) developed an untethered, wireless remote controlled inspection robot dubbed Explorer. The project entailed the design and prototyping of a wireless self-powered video-inspection robot capable of accessing live 6- and 8-inch diameter cast-iron and steel mains, while traversing turns and Ts and elbows under real-time control with live video feedback to an operator. The design is that of a segmented actively articulated and wheel-leg powered robot design, with fisheye imaging capability and self-powered battery storage and wireless real-time communication link. The prototype was functionally tested in an above ground pipe-network, in order to debug all mechanical, electrical and software subsystems, and develop the necessary deployment and retrieval, as well as obstacle-handling scripts. A pressurized natural gas test-section was used to certify it for operation in natural gas at up to 60 psig. Two subsequent live-main field-trials in both cast-iron and steel pipe, demonstrated its ability to be safely launched, operated and retrieved under real-world conditions. The system's ability to safely and repeatably exidrecover from angled and vertical launchers, traverse multi-thousand foot long pipe-sections, make T and varied-angle elbow-turns while wirelessly sending live video and handling command and control messages, was clearly demonstrated. Video-inspection was clearly shown to be a viable tool to understand the state of this critical buried infrastructure, irrespective of low- (cast-iron) or high-pressure (steel) conditions. This report covers the different aspects of specifications, requirements, design, prototyping, integration and testing and field-trialing of the Explorer platform.

  8. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  9. Durham Fire Department 51 College Rd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Karsten

    information on what to do during an emergency. Students also receive annual fire drills to ensure hands-on practical traning of fire extinguisher that utilizes live fire exercises is available upon because most fires can be prevented. The best way to avoid fires is to avoid the hazards, which create

  10. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  11. THE MARS HOPPER: AN IMPULSE DRIVEN, LONG RANGE, LONG-LIVED MOBILE PLATFORM UTILIZING IN-SITU MARTIAN RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. O'Brien; Mark McKay; Brian Gross; JOnathan Webb

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements for performance by planetary exploration missions are increasing. Landing at a single location to take data is no longer sufficient. Due to the increasing cost, the missions that provide mobile platforms that can acquire data at displaced locations are becoming more attractive. Landers have also had limited range due to power limitations, limited lifetime of subsystems and the inability to negotiate rough terrain. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has designed an instrumented platform that can acquire detailed data at hundreds of locations during its lifetime - a Mars Hopper. The Mars Hopper concept utilizes energy from radioisotopic decay in a manner different from any existing radioisotopic power sources—as a thermal capacitor. By accumulating the heat from radioisotopic decay for long periods, the power of the source can be dramatically increased for short periods. Thus, a radioisotopic thermal rocket (RTR) is possible. The platform will be able to “hop” from one location to the next every 5-7 days with a separation of 5-10 km per hop. Each platform will weigh around 50 kgs unfueled which is the condition at deployment. Consequently, several platforms may be deployed on a single launch from Earth. With a lifetime estimated at 5-7 years, the entire surface of Mars can be mapped in detail by a couple dozen platforms. In addition, Hoppers can collect samples and deliver them to the Mars Science Laboratory for more detailed analysis. The design and performance of the Mars Hopper will be discussed.

  12. The Mars Hopper: a radioisotope powered, impulse driven, long-range, long-lived mobile platform for exploration of Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Howe; Robert C. O'Brien; William Taitano; Doug Crawford; Nathan Jerred; Spencer Cooley; John Crapeau; Steve Hansen; Andrew Klein; James Werner

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planetary exploration mission requirements are becoming more demanding. Due to the increasing cost, the missions that provide mobile platforms that can acquire data at multiple locations are becoming more attractive. Wheeled vehicles such as the MER rovers have proven extremely capable but have very limited range and cannot traverse rugged terrain. Flying vehicles such as balloons and airplanes have been proposed but are problematic due to the very thin atmospheric pressure and the strong, dusty winds present on Mars. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has designed an instrumented platform that can acquire detailed data at hundreds of locations during its lifetime - a Mars Hopper. The Mars Hopper concept utilizes energy from radioisotopic decay in a manner different from any existing radioisotopic power sources—as a thermal capacitor. By accumulating the heat from radioisotopic decay for long periods, the power of the source can be dramatically increased for short periods. The platform will be able to "hop" from one location to the next every 5-7 days with a separation of 5-10 km per hop. Preliminary designs show a platform that weighs around 52 kgs unfueled which is the condition at deployment. Consequently, several platforms may be deployed on a single launch from Earth. With sufficient lifetime, the entire surface of Mars can be mapped in detail by a couple dozen platforms. In addition, Hoppers can collect samples from all over the planet, including gorges, mountains and crevasses, and deliver them to a central location for eventual pick-up by a Mars Sample Return mission. The status of the Mars Hopper development project at the CSNR is discussed.

  13. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . MCKETTA is an economist with the College of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences, University of Idaho has been developed for determining the cost of Fire Management Inputs (FMls)-the direct frreline costs, economic costs, fire economics, suppression costs, Fire Economics Evaluation System (FEES

  14. Annual Fire Safety Report For Student Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    and electrically wired smoke detectors with battery backups are located in individual living units have battery back-ups. Evacuation Procedures Students must evacuate during a fire alarm and proceed environment, free from known fire hazards. The college's goal is to recognize hazardous conditions and take

  15. Fire-grazing interactions in a mixed grass prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, John Andrew

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ?)............................................................................................. 28 8 Effects (?between subjects?) of fall (October 1998) and spring (February 1999) prescribed fire on aboveground (a) live and (b) standing dead biomass during 1999.........................................................................................................................84 x LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 Fire characteristics for cool season (March 1998, February 1999) and warm season (October 1998) prescribed fires................................................................ 24 2 ANOSIM and SIMPER...

  16. Source Scaling of Single-Fired and Delay-Fired Explosions Constrained by In-Mine and Regional Seismograms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    Source Scaling of Single-Fired and Delay-Fired Explosions Constrained by In-Mine and Regional (simultaneously detonated) explosions observed in the mine and at regional distances. These single-fired (360 km) using a seismic array near Pinedale, Wyoming (PDAR). The single-fired explosions ranged

  17. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  18. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  19. After a Fire, Is the Food Safe? esidential fires are, unfortunately, a common

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to salvage their lives and belongings. Whether it is the whole house involved or just a fire in the kitchen The American Red Cross recommends that you: s Make your home fire-safe by installing battery-powered smoke- guisher in the kitchen. s Plan two emergency escape routes from each room in the house. Have rope or chain

  20. Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.

    1999-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.

  1. FIRE WATCH FORM University Fire Marshal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    FIRE WATCH FORM University Fire Marshal Guidance Document Approved by: R. Flynn Last revised by: R. These are regulations used by the University Fire Marshal and EH&S as guidance to meet compliance pertaining the impairment coordinator (The University Fire Marshal has been identified as the Impairment Coordinator for all

  2. FIRE PROTECTION IMPAIRMENTS University Fire Marshal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    FIRE PROTECTION IMPAIRMENTS University Fire Marshal Guidance Document Approved by: R. Flynn Last system. These are regulations used by the University Fire Marshal and EH&S as guidance to meet compliance, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator (The University Fire Marshal has been identified

  3. CLIMATE-FIRE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Ralph C.

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is meant to explain the fire regime of the southern Appalachian Mountain Range of the southeastern United States by analyzing spatial statistics and climate-fire relationships. The spatial statistics were created by obtaining...

  4. Model Fire Protection Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To facilitate conformance with its fire safety directives and the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program, DOE has developed a number of "model" program documents. These include a comprehensive model fire protection program, model fire hazards analyses and assessments, fire protection system inspection and testing procedures, and related material.

  5. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  6. Planning Rural Fire Protection for Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Jack L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and shall have full authority to carry out the objects of their creation and to that end are authorized to acquire, purchase, hold, lease, manage, occupy and sell real and personal property or any interest therein; to enter into and to perform any and all... to make fire protection feasible, the citizens of the rural area must organize their own fire department to protect their property and their lives. ORGANIZING A FIRE PROTECTION PROGRAM Before planning can begin, a community must determine whether rural...

  7. Prediction of Fire Spread Following Nuclear Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Prediction of Fire Spread Following Nuclear Explosions Craig C. Chandler, Theodore G. Storey of Agriculture #12;Chandler, Craig C., Storey, Theodore G., and Tangren, Charles D. 1963. Prediction of fire spread following nuclear explosions. Berkeley, Calif., Pacific SW. Forest & Range Expt Sta. 110 pp

  8. Fire Safety Training: Fire Modeling- NUREG 1934

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Frederick W. Mowrer, Ph.D., P.E. Director Fire Protection Engineering Programs - Cal Poly – SLO

  9. Large-scale pool fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhaus, Thomas; Welch, Stephen; Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of research into the burning behaviour of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low ...

  10. Living Sustainably

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milbrath, Lester W.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sustainable society does something more than keep people alive; livingsustainable modes of behavior that also lead to quality in living.

  11. Fire Protection Program Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Perry E. D ’Antonio, P.E., Acting Sr. Manager, Fire Protection - Sandia National Laboratories

  12. Bioenergetics: budgeting the fires of life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    1 Bioenergetics: budgeting the fires of life K. Limburg lecture notes Fisheries Science Reading: Adams, S.M., and J.E. Breck. 1990. Bioenergetics. In C.B. Schreck and P.B. Moyle, editors. Methods is bioenergetics? The study of the processing of energy by living systems, at any level of biological organization

  13. Fire Foe: A Glovebox Fire Suppression System | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Envirogel Extinguishing Agent NRTL Qualification Fire Test Proof-of-Concept Testing Seismic Reliability Fire Foe: A Glovebox Fire Suppression System More Documents &...

  14. Fire in Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, G.

    During the lifetime of any building in Canada it is probable that one or more "unwanted" fires will occur. "Fire Loss in Canada, 1959," the report of the Dominion Fire Commissioner, states that for the period 1950-1959 the average number of reported...

  15. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  16. Preventing Laboratory FiresPreventing Laboratory Fires AgendaAgenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    June 2006fire June 2006 #12;Hamilton HallHamilton Hall September 1992September 1992 Explosion Rm. 619Behlen Explosion 2002Explosion 2002 Explosion in ventilationExplosion in ventilation hood, no fire orhood, no firePreventing Laboratory FiresPreventing Laboratory Fires #12;AgendaAgenda Flash over VideoFlash over

  17. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  18. Critical Fire Weather Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Craig

    .1 Sundowner Winds FAT -- 1.1 Southeastern U.S. Fire Weather LIT -- 1.1 East Winds MFR -- 1.1 East Winds OLM

  19. Co-firing biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Tennant, D. [Hunt, Guillot & Associates LLC (United States)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

  20. Model Baseline Fire Department/Fire Protection Engineering Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the document is to comprehensively delineate and rationalize the roles and responsibilities of the Fire Department and Fire Protection (Engineering).

  1. SECURITY AND FIRE SAFETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    ANNUAL SECURITY AND FIRE SAFETY REPORT 2014 #12;2 Boise State University 2014 Annual Security and Fire Safety Report From the Vice President for Campus Operations and General Counsel At Boise State University, we are committed to providing a safe and secure environment for students, staff

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Fire Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and liquid sodium. Download the Fire Science fact sheet. Tagge d with: Cyber Based Vulnerability * Energy * Energy Security * Fire Science * Fuel Cycle * Fukushima * human...

  3. Live Status

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLightingFebruaryandFor Users Live

  4. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  5. Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China Xiangmin Zhang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China Xiangmin Zhang,1 Salomon B. Kroonenberg2 and Cor, the Netherlands Introduction Coal fires are one of the most serious problems for the Chinese coal indus- try. The estimated annual loss of coal by fires in China ranges from about 10­20 million tonnes (Guan et al., 1998

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000 carbon emission from forest fires in China is about 11.31 Tg per year, ranging from a minimum level of 8 of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05313, doi:10

  7. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frickey, Steven J. (Boise, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  8. Multi-story Fire Analysis for High-Rise Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Zhang, Xun; Williams, Paul; Hume, Ben; Heise, Alex; Jowsey, Allan; Lane, Barbara; Torero, Jose L

    This work proposes a novel methodology to determine the design fire of modern buildings that are outside the range of applicability of nominal methods. Structural engineers face the problem of how to characterize the ...

  9. Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public. The network is essentially divided into a production component that hosts the web and network services, and a user component that hosts thirty employee workstations and other end devices. The organization's network is separated from the Internet by a Cisco ASA network security device that both firewalls and detects intrusions. Business sensitive information is stored in various servers. This includes data comprising thousands of internal documents, such as finance and technical designs, email messages for the organization's employees including the CEO, CFO, and CIO, the organization's source code, and Personally Identifiable client data. Release of any of this information to unauthorized parties would have a significant, detrimental impact on the organization's reputation, which would harm earnings. The valuable information stored in these servers pose obvious points of interest for an adversary. We constructed several scenarios around this environment to support studies in cyber SA and cyber FF that may be run in the test range. We describe mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches. Finally, we discuss possible future research directions.

  10. Implementation Guide, Wildland Fire Management Program for Use with DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides a full range of activities and functions to plan, prepare, and respond to potential fires and rehabilitate undeveloped lands following a fire. Canceled by DOE N 251.82.

  11. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  12. Management strategy for fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naylor, C.; Capper, W.; Wilson, C. P.; Harcourt, E.; Voss, B. L. D.; Inger, J.; Murray, K. C.; Carnegie, L.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication describes how fire protection thinking should be applied to a total business, rather than just to the safeguarding of building and contents. The subject is approached from the standpoint of being self-insured. ...

  13. Aerosol size distribution evolution in large area fire plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porch, W.M.; Penner, J.E.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large fires are significant seasonal contributors to western visibility reduction. We have found that the relative concentration of supermicron size particles (assumed to be a mixture of mechanically generated particles by high winds associated with large fires and low density chain aggregates from coagulation in the fire) and high turbulence in fire plumes can radically change the aerosol sizes in the fire plume. This is especially important for aerosols with high visibility reduction and long range transport potential. This calculation was done with a 10 level one dimensional model with parameterized vertical and horizontal diffusion, sedimentation and coagulation. The optical effects of the evolving concentration and size distributions were modeled using Mie scattering and absorption assumptions.

  14. Baseline Combined Fire Hazards Analysis and Fire Protection Facility...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    units. One unit is positioned on the south wall and another on the west wall. A steam heat unit is provided in the ceiling area of the work shop. 2.2 Fire Boundaries Fire...

  15. Flooding and Fire Ants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nester, Paul

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    of debris or in homes and other build- ings until they build new mounds in the soil. During flooding Avoid contact with floating mats of fire ants. If you are in a row boat, do not touch the ants with the oars. If you must work in flood water, try... within the first 15 to 20 minutes. Some people report that the irrita- tion of a fire ant sting can be relieved by applying a 50:50 solution of bleach and water. Other home remedies include ammonia, meat tenderizer, tea tree oil and camphor...

  16. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    that the costs associated with the wildland fires problem and fire management programs are substantial ranging Management in the Wildland/Urban Interface Research and Development Program at the Forest Fire Laboratory-Cabán personal property related expenditures. In the South American continent losses are estimated as high as $1

  17. EHSO TRAINING CLASSES Fire Safety Program Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHSO TRAINING CLASSES Fire Safety Program Training 1. Fire Safety (60 minutes) Instruction includes an actual fire eperience. 2. Fire Extinguisher Training (30 minutes) A practical demonstration on actual burnable liquid fires. This practical extinguisher training is a critical portion of the fire

  18. Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    E-927 Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University in cooperation with USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Oklahoma

  19. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  20. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Living a Sustainable Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solve the energy crisis through biological methods, including genetically engineering algae and cyanobacteria. Create a Sustainable Future: Living Living a Sustainable Future How...

  2. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA); McDermott, Wayne T. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  3. Fire Behavior Modeling - Experiment on Surface Fire Transition to the Elevated Live Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omodan, Sunday

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy conductivity, turbulent kinetic energy L flame height m massgrid size viscous dissipation energy absorption coefficient

  4. Graphite formation in the Hiroshima fire storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, D.E.; Crenshaw, M.; Yalcintas, M.G.; Strehlow, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Cole, L.L. (Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate what might be the composition and optical properties of particles that could lead to a nuclear winter, a search has been made for particles that had been generated in urban fire storms. Deposits containing small amounts of graphite have been found on an artifact from the Hiroshima fire storm. The fire storm was initiated on August 6, 1945, by the atomic bomb detonation. The particles were rained out of the atmosphere in the black rain that commenced following the urban fire storm. Initial studies using electron microscopy have revealed that the particles consist of a mixture of clay and amorphous sooty carbon. Scanning electron photomicrographs have suggested the presence of graphite. Its presence has been confirmed using laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), surface ionization mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and electron scattering for chemical analysis (ESCA). Significant amounts of the sooty material consist of clay, and the graphite is probably present as short-range ordered structure in sooty microspheres. The results of this study are presented with a discussion of conditions that may lead to graphite formation.

  5. Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Nelson, D. L; Diner, D. J; Logan, J. A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indo- nesiasmoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires insmoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in

  6. Early Detection Saves Lives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Former Department of Energy (DOE) workers tell how medical screening helped them lead healthier and longer lives.

  7. Range Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scifres, C.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    July Doc. Fob. April July Fob. Figure 1. Green grass standing crop (kglha) at various dates after burning thicketized savannah on the Aransas National WiWife Refuge near AushveH, Texas. Askdbd means fran burned areas are significantly different... burning thicketized savannah on the a 200 - \\r . Aransas National Wildlife Refuge near Austwell, )v 53 Texas. Askriked means within a date of evalua- '-\\ i tion are significantly different from that of the 0 8 lmg- burned area at the 95-percent...

  8. Thinking beyond the fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pircon, R. [Benetech (United States)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Assuring optimal performance, adaptability and overall coal yard competitiveness means more than just avoiding catastrophe. Increasing use of subbituminous coal requires better understanding of coal transfers, storage and Powder River Basin/bituminous coal blends. Introducing PRB coal increases susceptibility to spontaneous combustion so spillage and dust become larger issues. Coal yard risk overviews, such as Benetech's Risk Index, are emerging. Benetech's steps for evaluating fire and efficiency requires: identifying variables; establishing 'best-in-class' remedies; implementing performance standards; and monitoring progress with reevaluation techniques. The article explains these steps. 2 photos.

  9. BlueFire Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. Corporate

  10. Sandia Energy - Fire Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatingsUltra-High-Voltage SiliconEnergyFailure Mode andFinance HomeFire

  11. FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiser, Gernot

    FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY Delivering Innovation The Future Logistics Living Lab that will provide logistics solutions for the future. The Living Lab is a demonstration, exhibition and work space by a group of logistics companies, research organisations, universities, and IT providers that includes NICTA

  12. Fire Impacts on the Mojave Desert Ecosystem: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenstermaker Lynn

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located within the Mojave Desert, which is the driest region in North America. Precipitation on the NNSS varies from an annual average of 130 millimeters (mm; 5.1 inches) with a minimum of 47 mm (1.9 inches) and maximum of 328 mm (12.9 inches) over the past 15 year period to an annual average of 205 mm (8.1 inches) with an annual minimum of 89 mm (3.5 inches) and maximum of 391 mm (15.4 inches) for the same time period; for a Frenchman Flat location at 970 meters (m; 3182 feet) and a Pahute Mesa location at 1986 m (6516 feet), respectively. The combination of aridity and temperature extremes has resulted in sparsely vegetated basins (desert shrub plant communities) to moderately vegetated mountains (mixed coniferous forest plant communities); both plant density and precipitation increase with increasing elevation. Whereas some plant communities have evolved under fire regimes and are dependent upon fire for seed germination, plant communities within the Mojave Desert are not dependent on a fire regime and therefore are highly impacted by fire (Brown and Minnich, 1986; Brooks, 1999). As noted by Johansen (2003) natural range fires are not prevalent in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts because there is not enough vegetation present (too many shrub interspaces) to sustain a fire. Fire research and hence publications addressing fires in the Southwestern United States (U.S.) have therefore focused on forest, shrub-steppe and grassland fires caused by both natural and anthropogenic ignition sources. In the last few decades, however, invasion of mid-elevation shrublands by non-native Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Bromus tectorum (Hunter, 1991) have been highly correlated with increased fire frequency (Brooks and Berry, 2006; Brooks and Matchett, 2006). Coupled with the impact of climate change, which has already been shown to be playing a role in increased forest fires (Westerling et al., 2006), it is likely that the fire frequency will further increase in the Mojave Desert (Knapp 1998; Smith et al., 1987; Smith et al., 2000).

  13. Research Overview Department of Fire Protection Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    .A. Milke structures, detection, egress S.I. Stoliarov pyrolysis, flammability, fire growth P.B. Sunderland for fire suppression spray interactions with fire plumes (kinematic), flame sheets (cooling and dilution

  14. Fire Safety Committee Meeting Minutes- May 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Fire Safety Committee Meeting Minutes, May, 2014 Topics included discussions on Fire modeling, revisions to DOE regulations and other important items relating to DOE and Fire Safety Community.

  15. ANNUAL SECURITY & FIRE SAFETY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ANNUAL SECURITY & FIRE SAFETY REPORT 2014 A guide to policies, procedures, practices, and programs implemented to keep students, faculty, and staff safe and facilities secure. www.montana.edu/reports/security.pdf #12;Inside this Report 2014 Annual Security and Fire Safety Report for Reporting Year 2013

  16. Test One: The ‘Uncontrolled’ Fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abecassis Empis, Cecilia; Cowlard, Adam; Welch, Stephen; Torero, Jose L

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The first of the Dalmarnock Fire Tests was a post-flashover compartment fire experiment held on July 25th, 2006, in a two-bedroom single-family flat on the 4th floor of the 23- storey reinforced concrete tower in Dalmarnock, ...

  17. WHC fire hazards analysis policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, C.B.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to establish the fire protection policy for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) relative to US Department of Energy (DOE) directives for Fire Hazards Analyses (FHAs) and their relationship to facility Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) as promulgated by the DOE Richland Operations Office.

  18. Fire hazards analysis of central waste complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, R.M.

    1996-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operational the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  19. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Elicson; Bentley Harwood; Jim Bouchard; Heather Lucek

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: • Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), • Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and • Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  20. The War on Terrorism and What We Can Learn from our War with Fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WHITLEY, JOHN B.; YONAS, GEROLD

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The highly leveraged, asymmetric attacks of September 11th have launched the nation on a vast ''War on Terrorism''. Now that our vulnerabilities and the enemies' objectives and determination have been demonstrated, we find ourselves rapidly immersed in a huge, complex problem that is virtually devoid of true understanding while being swamped with resources and proposed technologies for solutions. How do we win this war? How do we make sure that we are making the proper investments? What things or freedoms or rights do we have to give up to win? Where do we even start? In analyzing this problem, many similarities to mankind's battle with uncontrolled fire and the threat it presented to society were noted. Major fires throughout history have destroyed whole cities and caused massive loss of life and property. Solutions were devised that have gradually, over several hundred years, reduced this threat to a level that allows us to co-exist with the threat of fire by applying constant vigilance and investments in fire protection, but without living in constant fear and dread from fire. We have created a multi-pronged approach to fire protection that involves both government and individuals in the prevention, mitigation, and response to fires. Fire protection has become a virtually unnoticed constant in our daily lives; we will have to do the same for terrorism. This paper discusses the history of fire protection and draws analogies to our War on Terrorism. We have, as a society, tackled and successfully conquered a problem as big as terrorism. From this battle, we can learn and take comfort.

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer in Fires: Scaling Laws and their Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L

    Fire is a phenomenon that covers a multiplicity of scales depending on the different processes involved. Length scales range from the nanometres when addressing material flammability to the kilometres when dealing with ...

  2. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  3. Proceedings of the 2002 Fire Conference: Managing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Proceedings of the 2002 Fire Conference: Managing Fire and Fuels in the Remaining Wildlands., technical coordinator. 2008. Proceedings of the 2002 fire conference: managing fire and fuels) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. #12;Proceedings of the 2002

  4. SPECIAL ISSUE PAPER Fire pattern analysis and synthesis using EigenFires and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, WonSook

    ), University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. E-mail: nnikf006@uottawa.ca 1. INTRODUCTION Fire, explosion, and smokeSPECIAL ISSUE PAPER Fire pattern analysis and synthesis using EigenFires and motion transitions-to-use realistic fire animation, starting from real-life fire by image- based techniques and statistical analysis

  5. Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia), Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D08207, doi:10.1029/2010JD015148. 1. Introduction [2] Peat and deforestation fires

  6. Influence of high-temperature firing in vacuum on the structural properties of yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solov'eva, A.E.; Artemova, K.K.; Kipshidze, A.V.; Rudenko, L.A.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents the results of a study of the influence of firing in the range 1900-2300 degrees C in vacuum on the structural properties of yttrium oxide. It was found that in the 1900-2300 degrees C range there are changes in the mass, the phase composition, and the color of the specimens. Increasing of the firing temperature to 2300 degrees C leads to an increase in the mass loss to 50% over a period of 9 h.

  7. Introduction to FireGrid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Stephen; Usmani, Asif; Upadhyay, Rochan; Berry, Dave; Potter, Stephen; Torero, Jose L

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    FireGrid is an ambitious and innovative project, seeking to develop the technology to support a new way of managing emergency response in the modern built environment. Specific novel aspects include the integration of ...

  8. ANNUAL SECURITY FIRE SAFETY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANNUAL SECURITY AND FIRE SAFETY REPORT OCTOBER 1, 2013 DARTMOUTH COLLEGE http://www.dartmouth.edu/~security/ #12;1 Table of Contents MESSAGE FROM THE DIRECTOR OF SAFETY AND SECURITY................................................................................................................................................................... 7 ANNUAL SECURITY REPORT

  9. Fire protection for relocatable structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This standard supersedes DOE/EV-0043, ``Standard on Fire Protection for Portable Structures.`` It was revised to address the numerous types of relocatable structures, such as trailers, tension-supported structures, and tents being used by DOE and contractors.

  10. Test Two: The ‘Controlled Fire’ 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowlard, Adam; Steinhaus, Thomas; Abecassis Empis, Cecilia; Torero, Jose L

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of Test Two was to demonstrate the effectiveness of ventilation changes and smoke management on the growth of a compartment fire and to display the potential for these techniques to be incorporated ...

  11. Unified Fire Recovery Command Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Checking Propane Tanks Checking Home Heating Oil Tanks Miscellaneous Safety Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Removing Debris Heating Fuels or heat penetrated the bark. Where fire has burnt deep into the tree trunk, the tree should be considered

  12. Analysis of large urban fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures.

  13. Hanford fire department FY 99 annual work plan WBS 6.5.7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GOOD, D.E.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing a full range of services at the lowest possible cost to customers. These services include fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, the general public, or interest of the U. S. Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education.

  14. Audit Report, "Fire Protection Deficiencies at Los Alamos National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) maintains some of the Nation's most important national security assets, including nuclear materials. Many of Los Alamos' facilities are located in close proximity to one another, are occupied by large numbers of contract and Federal employees, and support activities ranging from nuclear weapons design to science-related activities. Safeguarding against fires, regardless of origin, is essential to protecting employees, surrounding communities, and national security assets. On June 1, 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), became the managing and operating contractor for Los Alamos, under contract with the Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In preparation for assuming its management responsibilities at Los Alamos, LANS conducted walk-downs of the Laboratory's facilities to identify pre-existing deficiencies that could give rise to liability, obligation, loss or damage. The walk-downs, which identified 812 pre-existing fire protection deficiencies, were conducted by subject matter professionals, including fire protection experts. While the Los Alamos Site Office has overall responsibility for the effectiveness of the fire protection program, LANS, as the Laboratory's operating contractor, has a major, day-to-day role in minimizing fire-related risks. The issue of fire protection at Los Alamos is more than theoretical. In May 2000, the 'Cerro Grande' fire burned about 43,000 acres, including 7,700 acres of Laboratory property. Due to the risk posed by fire to the Laboratory's facilities, workforce, and surrounding communities, we initiated this audit to determine whether pre-existing fire protection deficiencies had been addressed. Our review disclosed that LANS had not resolved many of the fire protection deficiencies that had been identified in early 2006: (1) Of the 296 pre-existing deficiencies we selected for audit, 174 (59 percent) had not been corrected; and, (2) A substantial portion of the uncorrected deficiencies, 86 (49 percent) were considered by the walk-down teams to be significant enough to warrant compensatory actions until the deficiency was corrected or was tracked to closure through implementation of corrective actions. Further, we found that 32 of the significant deficiencies had been closed by the previous Los Alamos contractor, prior to LANS assuming responsibility for operation of the Laboratory, even though the deficiencies had not been corrected. A fire protection expert provided technical support during the audit. As an example of uncorrected problems, LANS had not resolved, by performing periodic tests, a deficiency identified in 2006 regarding a kitchen hood fire suppression system in a facility located within the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Such systems are required to be tested twice a year by the National Fire Protection Association standard, a standard that had been adopted by Department of Energy under DOE Order 420.1B. Yet, in 2006, the LANS walk-down team recognized that this system had not been inspected since May 2004 and noted that deficient suppression systems could result in significantly high levels of property damage and loss. After we brought this issue to management's attention on February 6, 2009, LANS officials stated that the Laboratory would correct this deficiency. As with the problems involving the fire suppression system, we observed that LANS had not always corrected life safety deficiencies involving building exits at one of its primary facilities. This included providing a secondary emergency exit for a building with occupants on multiple floor levels. LANS had removed personnel from the third floor and improved the sprinkler system of the facility, but it had still not provided a secondary exit for personnel on the second floor by the time we completed our review. NNSA has since stated that this fire protection issue will be completely addressed by relocating personnel from the second floor. Perhaps most serious, our testing revealed that a number of deficien

  15. Passive fire protection for ELf`s N`Kossa floating production barge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petit, P.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project to develop Elf`s N`Kossa offshore field called for an original design which included a floating production barge, 220 m long by 46 m wide, supporting six large modules, to provide both production facilities and living quarters. At sea, fire is a major concern and many different systems, both active and passive, have been used on offshore platforms. To provide passive fire protection of five of the six modules on this massive structure, a new high solubility glass fiber product called Insulfrax was used. This product is manufactured in Europe by the Carborundum Co. and is used in chimneys and domestic appliances, as well as for onshore and offshore fire protection. This paper reviews the sound and fire resistant qualities of this material.

  16. The contribution of asphalt road surfaces to fire risk in tunnel fires: Preliminary findings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Most fire experiments carried out in tunnels to date have focussed on the burning behaviour and smoke production of liquid pool fires and vehicle fires. Other combustible surfaces, commonly found in tunnels, have not ...

  17. Incipient fire detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Jr., William K. (Newport News, VA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  18. End-fire injection of guided light into optical microcavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Xiao, Shumin; Lyu, Quan; Song, Qinghai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling light into microdisk plays a key role in a number of applications such as resonant filters and optical sensors. While several approaches have successfully coupled light into microdisk efficiently, most of them suffer from the ultrahigh sensitivity to the environmental vibration. Here we demonstrate a robust mechanism, which is termed as end-fire injection. By connecting an input waveguide to a circular microdisk directly, the mechanism shows that light can be efficiently coupled into optical microcavity. The coupling efficiency can be as high as 0.75 when the input signals are on resonances. Our numerical results reveal that the high coupling efficiency is attributed to the constructive interference between the whispering gallery modes and the input signals. We have also shown that the end-fire injection can be further extended to the long-lived resonances with low refractive index such as n = 1.45. We believe our results will shed light on the applications of optical microcavities.

  19. Fire Danger Fact Sheet The most commonly accepted definition of fire danger is "the resultant descriptor of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire Danger Fact Sheet The most commonly accepted definition of fire danger is "the resultant are combined to assess the daily fire potential on an area. Fire danger is usually expressed in numeric. The fire danger rating of an area gives the fire manager a tool to help with the day-to-day "fire business

  20. Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a Large-Scale Canadian Boreal Forest FireQuebec.Thesemeasurementsindicated significant and highly correlated increases in Hg and CO during the plume event. The Hg:CO emissions ratio emissions and biomass burned to determine a mean area-based Hg emission flux density for boreal forest fires

  1. Users manual for CAFE-3D : a computational fluid dynamics fire code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Imane; Lopez, Carlos; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma (Alion Science and Technology, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Container Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) computer code has been developed to model all relevant fire physics for predicting the thermal response of massive objects engulfed in large fires. It provides realistic fire thermal boundary conditions for use in design of radioactive material packages and in risk-based transportation studies. The CAFE code can be coupled to commercial finite-element codes such as MSC PATRAN/THERMAL and ANSYS. This coupled system of codes can be used to determine the internal thermal response of finite element models of packages to a range of fire environments. This document is a user manual describing how to use the three-dimensional version of CAFE, as well as a description of CAFE input and output parameters. Since this is a user manual, only a brief theoretical description of the equations and physical models is included.

  2. Visualizing a Living Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padget, Steve

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will chronicle the design process of the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia and its objective to accomplish Living BuildingTM certification. In order to accomplish this, the architect (BNIM) and project partners applied...

  3. Next Generation Living 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Caroline Elizabeth

    2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    of mechanical systems, and our perceived outlook of sustainability can collaborate and aid each other toward sustainable architecture. This collaboration will take form through the proposal or a living and learning community for the students and faculty of Texas...

  4. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  5. Fire Ants and Their Control.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamman, Philip J.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fire ant control usually are labeled only for certain treatment sites. The techniques for applying these products also vary with the treatment sites. Care must be taken to select the best combination of control agents and application methods... in each situation to attain optimum results. The Non-Control Option - Why Consider it? In areas where fire ants are not causing a problem, it may be best not to attempt any control measures. The reason is that a unit area, sue as an acre ofland, ill...

  6. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louie, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Haecker, C.F. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  7. Fire precautions in town centre redevelopment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scottish Home & Health Department

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This code of guidance has been prepared by a Home Office working party in consultation with the Joint Fire Prevention Committee of the Central Fire Brigades Advisory Councils for England and Wales and for Scotland.

  8. Fire and the Design of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, J

    Fire is one of the major hazards to life and property in buildings. Regulations in respect of fire safety therefore constitute a major part of every building bylaw. These regulations naturally influence the design of almost every building. Good...

  9. Fire performance of gable frame structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Congyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fire protection engineering and structural engineering are two relevant but separated fields of study. Many experiments conducted by fire protection engineers are under certain ideal boundary conditions, which may not be ...

  10. Independent Oversight Review of the Fire Protection Program at...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (wdata) * System Design Description, Fire Suppression System, Plutonium Facility * Preventive Maintenance Procedures- Plutonium Facility Fire Protection (Various) *...

  11. University Fire Marshal's 2014 Annual Fire InspectionTraining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    of 2000 led to NYS Governor's Task Force on Campus Fire Safety #12;Results of the Governors Task Force inspection of all educational buildings in New York State Enhanced detection/alarms in dorms Install Residential Code Building Code #12;Impacts to Cornell Annual Inspections of all Cornell buildings

  12. Nacogdoches Fire DepartmentNacogdoches Fire Department Service Call Density andService Call Density and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, I-Kuai

    #12;Other ResponsibilitiesOther Responsibilities ·· Building Surveys and PreBuilding Surveys and Pre--Fire PlanningFire Planning ·· Public Education and Safety ClassesPublic Education and Safety Classes a visualization of data for the FireGive a visualization of data for the Fire Chief and city managers to make

  13. UC Fire Engineering Programme Structure The programme awards four qualifications: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    ; quantitative and qualitative risk analysis; ethical issues and risk communication; applications and case: Risk concepts; context and perceptions; risk identification, analysis, evaluation and treatment. Wildland fires, fire investigation, fire-fighting. ENFE601: Fire resistance and the behaviour, analysis

  14. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  15. Fire Protection for Underground Research Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: James Priest, Ph.D., Senior Fire Protection Engineer ES&H, Universities Research Associates ? FNAL

  16. Fire Modeling Examples in a Nuclear World

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Mark Schairer, P.E.,Technical Manager, Fire Protection Engineering Division - Engineering Planning and Management (EPM), Inc.

  17. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Insect-Fire Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Insect-Fire Interactions A thesis presented by Heather Joan Lynch Heather Joan Lynch Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Insect-Fire Interactions Abstract Insect outbreaks on the dynamics and composition of forest ecosystems. Although it has long been speculated that forest fires

  18. Fire and the Compartmentation of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, J

    No building is free from the threat of fire. A designer, however, can ensure that only limited damage will result if fire breaks out by reducing the over-all fire risk. There are various means at his disposal, but the single design feature...

  19. Error-eliminating rapid ultrasonic firing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for producing reliable navigation data for a mobile vehicle, such as a robot, combines multiple range samples to increase the confidence'' of the algorithm in the existence of an obstacle. At higher vehicle speed, it is crucial to sample each sensor quickly and repeatedly to gather multiple samples in time to avoid a collision. Erroneous data is rejected by delaying the issuance of an ultrasonic energy pulse by a predetermined wait-period, which may be different during alternate ultrasonic firing cycles. Consecutive readings are compared, and the corresponding data is rejected if the readings differ by more than a predetermined amount. The rejection rate for the data is monitored and the operating speed of the navigation system is reduced if the data rejection rate is increased. This is useful to distinguish and eliminate noise from the data which truly represents the existence of an article in the field of operation of the vehicle.

  20. Error-eliminating rapid ultrasonic firing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Johann (Ann Arbor, MI); Koren, Yoram (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for producing reliable navigation data for a mobile vehicle, such as a robot, combines multiple range samples to increase the "confidence" of the algorithm in the existence of an obstacle. At higher vehicle speed, it is crucial to sample each sensor quickly and repeatedly to gather multiple samples in time to avoid a collision. Erroneous data is rejected by delaying the issuance of an ultrasonic energy pulse by a predetermined wait-period, which may be different during alternate ultrasonic firing cycles. Consecutive readings are compared, and the corresponding data is rejected if the readings differ by more than a predetermined amount. The rejection rate for the data is monitored and the operating speed of the navigation system is reduced if the data rejection rate is increased. This is useful to distinguish and eliminate noise from the data which truly represents the existence of an article in the field of operation of the vehicle.

  1. Fire and Ice Issue 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , choking the walkway with dust and chunks of metal they had to simply wade through, and by the time they reached the main corridor they were both drenched in sweat. Silence accompanied them, every sound muffled by the blanket of dust. The last of the fires...

  2. Living a Sustainable Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let usNuclear SecurityTechnology |LivingLiving a

  3. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, S.B. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (United States); Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  4. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  5. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  6. Measurement and analysis of heating of paper with gas-fired infrared burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husain, Abdullah Nadir

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Gas-fired IR heaters produce combustion on the burner surface by ignition of a pre-mixed air and fuel streams. The combustion raises the surface temperature to ranges of 800-1,100°C to emit radiation, mainly in the medium IR range, which has a...

  7. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

  8. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  9. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  10. Safety and Security on Campus 2013 Annual Security and Fire Safety Report for the Minneapolis and St. Paul Campuses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Safety and Security on Campus 2013 Annual Security and Fire Safety Report for the Minneapolis, active place. Safety and security are important for the thousands of us who live, work, and study here the Twin Cities. But looking out for our safety and security includes us, too. We all have a role to play

  11. HOUSING: Senior year offers the broadest range of housing options.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    SENIOR HOUSING: Senior year offers the broadest range of housing options. Most seniors live in an apartment or wood frame house with a group of friends, although some choose to live in a residence hall or program house. STUDENT STAFF: Senior areas are staffed by Community Advisors. See previous box

  12. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  13. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  14. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  15. ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY & HEALTH DIVISION Chapter 12: Fire and Life Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    of equipment located in the area The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) categorizes fires into four National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 10, "Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers" (NFPA 10 buildings, located so that a person does not have to travel more than 75 feet to reach one Fire

  16. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberger, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tsiagkouris, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  17. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  18. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  19. Contained Firing Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    information visit the CFF webpage. CFF The containment chamber at LLNL's Contained Firing Facility Related Topics Maintaining the Stockpile stockpile stewardship R&D llnl Related...

  20. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  1. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  2. Living SafeLy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let usNuclear SecurityTechnology |Living SafeLy

  3. Living With Wildfire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let usNuclear SecurityTechnology |Living

  4. No material is "fire proof;" however, proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General No material is "fire proof;" however, proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials can reduce a fire's spread and extend the amount of time it takes for a home to ignite and burn. (Structural assembly is the process of layering materials when building exterior walls and roof.) Your roof

  5. Activate the nearest fire alarm pull station Call 911 to report the fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    as designated by emergency responders, well away from the building. Do not touch or disturb the objectActivate the nearest fire alarm pull station Call 911 to report the fire Notify and assist people not re-enter the building until authorized to do so by emergency personnel. When the fire alarm

  6. (BSET) FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM FOUR YEAR FIRE SAFETY CONCENTRATION CURRICULUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Anita

    (BSET) FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM FOUR YEAR FIRE SAFETY CONCENTRATION CURRICULUM System ETFS 2144 3 Engineering Tech Computer Applic. ETGR 1100 3 Arts and Society3 LBST 110X3 3 21266 3 Hazardous Materials ETFS 2230 3 Fire Behavior & Combustion ETFS 2264 3 Building Construction

  7. Fire Protection Account Request Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOnSTATEMENT OFProvides an overview ofblock inKevinFire Protection

  8. The Influence of Travelling Fires on a Concrete Frame 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Law, Angus; Stern-Gottfried, Jamie; Gillie, Martin; Rein, Guillermo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Current structural fire design methods do not account for these types of fires. This paper applies a novel methodology for defining a family of possible heating regimes to a framed concrete structure using the concept of travelling fires. A finite...

  9. Residential gas-fired sorption heat Test and technology evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps Test and technology evaluation Energiforskningsprogram EFP05 Journal nr: 33031-0054 December 2008 #12;Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps Test.............................................................................................................................................5 1 Residential gas-fired thermally driven heat pumps

  10. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    different types of fire, with peat fires emitting up to fourof carbon released from peat and forest fires in IndonesiaM, Wo¨sten H, Page S (2006) PEAT-CO2: assessment of CO2

  11. Real-time fire detection in low quality video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    True, Nicholas James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivation for a Robust Video-based Fire Detection SystemFigure 3.1: Screen shots of training videos with fire inshots of training videos with no fire in them. . . . . . .

  12. Next Generation Living

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Caroline Elizabeth

    2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea and attempts of sustainable design in architecture is common today. Sustainability as it relates to architecture ranges from small modifications or minute enhancements all the way to full projects. There is no term to differentiate...

  13. 22012 Georgia Tech Campus Fire Safety Report ANNUAL STUDENT HOUSING FIRE SAFETY REPORT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    extinguishers, hoses, horns, bells, conduit sections, alarm-pull trigger devices, fire sprinklers, central-relay fire protection to slow the spread of fire. · Storing bicycles in stairwells or any other location

  14. FireStem2D A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FireStem2D ­ A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires, et al. (2013) FireStem2D ­ A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury

  15. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  16. GREAT PLAINS INTERSTATE FOREST FIRE COOPERATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GREAT PLAINS INTERSTATE FOREST FIRE COMPACT COOPERATIVE ANNUAL OPERATING PLAN 2011 #12;Great Plains are located in Appendices F through K. II. Purpose This cooperative operating plan facilitates assistance ordered through the Compact and used on joint US Federal/State fires will be considered agents

  17. Research Overview Department of Fire Protection Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    J.A. Milke structures, detection, egress S.I. Stoliarov pyrolysis, flammability, fire growth P spray interactions with fire plumes (kinematic), flame sheets (cooling and dilution), and flame: Detailed Experiments and Model Development for Thrust Chamber Film Cooling Sponsor: NASA Marshall

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  19. Risk assessment compatible fire models (RACFMs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, A.R.; Gritzo, L.A.; Sherman, M.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A suite of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs) has been developed to represent the hazard posed by a pool fire to weapon systems transported on the B52-H aircraft. These models represent both stand-off (i.e., the weapon system is outside of the flame zone but exposed to the radiant heat load from fire) and fully-engulfing scenarios (i.e., the object is fully covered by flames). The approach taken in developing the RACFMs for both scenarios was to consolidate, reconcile, and apply data and knowledge from all available resources including: data and correlations from the literature, data from an extensive full-scale fire test program at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) at China Lake, and results from a fire field model (VULCAN). In the past, a single, effective temperature, T{sub f}, was used to represent the fire. The heat flux to an object exposed to a fire was estimated using the relationship for black body radiation, {sigma}T{sub f}{sup 4}. Significant improvements have been made by employing the present approach which accounts for the presence of temperature distributions in fully-engulfing fires, and uses best available correlations to estimate heat fluxes in stand-off scenarios.

  20. Characterisation of Dalmarnock Fire Test One 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abecassis Empis, Cecilia; Reszka, Pedro; Steinhaus, Thomas; Cowlard, Adam; Biteau, Hubert; Welch, Stephen; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dalmarnock Tests comprise a set of fire experiments conducted in a real high-rise building in July 2006. The two main tests took place in identical flats, Test One allowing the fire to develop freely to post-flashover ...

  1. Fire Safety Report 2012 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    complies with this rule by keeping a running log, which is accessible by contacting the office individuals. Estimated U.S. Dollar Loss Related to Fire Incidents: Estimated total U.S. dollar loss of both contents and structure or property destroyed because of a fire incident, not loss of business. Evacuation

  2. Annual Campus Fire Safety Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    housing. Rensselaer complies with this rule by keeping a running log, which is accessible by contacting individuals. Estimated U.S. Dollar Loss Related to Fire Incidents: Estimated total U.S. dollar loss of both contents and structure or property destroyed because of a fire incident, not loss of business. Eva

  3. Fire Department Gets New Trucks, Saves Money

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Last year, the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) set out to replace its aging chemical truck used for metal fires. Originally purchased to respond to potential incidents at the Fast Flux Test Facility, the 31-year-old vehicle was at the end of its lifecycle.

  4. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Fire Regimes and Fuel Treatments Project title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Management course in April 2001. The fire management professionals completed a survey that allowed us results from this meta-analysis were presented at the June 2001 Musgrove Seminar. We are planning dissemination of ours and other recent research related to fuel treatments and fire regimes. We are planning

  6. Microsoft Word - 2010 LASO Fire Protection Oversight at LANL

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the fire flow test method and associated equipment to validate the accuracy of Hydro Flow Products pitotless nozzle for use by the Los Alamos Fire Department. This...

  7. analysis fire simulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 Brookhaven National Laboratory LIGHT SOURCES DIRECTORATE Subject: Building 725 Fire Hazard AnalysisFire Hazard Assessment Physics Websites Summary: Brookhaven National...

  8. adjacent fire disturbed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B. 339 Brookhaven National Laboratory LIGHT SOURCES DIRECTORATE Subject: Building 725 Fire Hazard AnalysisFire Hazard Assessment Physics Websites Summary: Brookhaven National...

  9. Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  10. Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work Planning and Control is Not Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work Planning and Control...

  11. assess fire hazard: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandra 7 Fire Climbing in the Forest: A Semiqualitative, Semiquantitative Approach to Assessing Ladder Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Fire Climbing in the...

  12. A BUCKEYE'S GUIDE TO LIVING OFF-CAMPUS LIVING GUIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    2014­2015 FREE A BUCKEYE'S GUIDE TO LIVING OFF-CAMPUS LIVING GUIDE OFFICE OF STUDENT LIFE@osu.edu offcampus.osu.edu WELCOME TO OFF-CAMPUS LIVING! 3 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS OFFICE OF STUDENT LIFE 9 62 Stay Healthy 66 The Basics 67 Get Involved 68 Moving Out 5 #12;1 Bedrooms: 2262 N. H IG H 49 E. N

  13. Literature Review of Fire Ecology and Effects United States Air Force Academy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....................................14 Fire History, Fire Regimes, and Case Studies for Major Vegetation Zones

  14. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  15. Vulnerability of nuclear power plant structures to large external fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, D.E.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the inherent vulnerability of nuclear power plant structures to the thermal environments arising from large, external fires. The inherent vulnerability is the capacity of the concrete safety-related structures to absorb thermal loads without exceeding the appropriate thermal and structural design criteria. The potential sources of these thermal environments are large, offsite fires arising from accidents involving the transportation or storage of large quantities of flammable gases or liquids. A realistic thermal response analysis of a concrete panel was performed using three limiting criteria: temperature at the first rebar location, erosion and ablation of the front (exterior) surface due to high heat fluxes, and temperature at the back (interior) surface. The results of this analysis yield a relationship between incident heat flux and the maximum allowable exposure duration. Example calculations for the break of a 0.91 m (3') diameter high-pressure natural gas pipeline and a 1 m/sup 2/ hole in a 2-1/2 million gallon gasoline tank show that the resulting fires do not pose a significant hazard for ranges of 500 m or greater.

  16. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  17. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesiaforest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009) G. R. vanin 2004: Importance of peat burn- ing and pyroconvective

  18. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Rige, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  19. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  20. A summary of the Fire Testing Program at the German HDR Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlen, S.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the fire safety experiments performed under the sponsorship of the German government in the containment building of the decommissioned pilot nuclear power plant known as HDR. This structure is a highly complex, multi-compartment, multi-level building which has been used as the test bed for a wide range of nuclear power plant operation safety experiments. These experiments have included numerous fire tests. Test fire fuel sources have included gas burners, wood cribs, oil pools, nozzle release oil fires, and cable in cable trays. A wide range of ventilation conditions including full natural ventilation, full forced ventilation, and combined natural and forced ventilation have been evaluated. During most of the tests, the fire products mixed freely with the full containment volume. Macro-scale building circulation patterns which were very sensitive to such factors as ventilation configuration were observed and characterized. Testing also included the evaluation of selective area pressurization schemes as a means of smoke control for emergency access and evacuation stairwells.

  1. Fire Ecology Volume 10, Issue 3, 2014 doi: 10.4996/fireecology.1003072

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    . Much poten- tial likely exists for acquiring fire his- tory data in the Piney Woods region, the Oak Woods and Prairies region, and the mountain ranges of the Trans RESUMEN La síntesis de múltiples fuentes de regímenes de fuego. La caracterización de es- tos regímenes es crítica para determinar el riesgo

  2. Method of locating underground mines fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laage, Linneas (Eagam, MN); Pomroy, William (St. Paul, MN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method of locating an underground mine fire by comparing the pattern of measured combustion product arrival times at detector locations with a real time computer-generated array of simulated patterns. A number of electronic fire detection devices are linked thru telemetry to a control station on the surface. The mine's ventilation is modeled on a digital computer using network analysis software. The time reguired to locate a fire consists of the time required to model the mines' ventilation, generate the arrival time array, scan the array, and to match measured arrival time patterns to the simulated patterns.

  3. Material Analysis for a Fire Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alexander; Nemer, Martin

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consolidates technical information on several materials and material classes for a fire assessment. The materials include three polymeric materials, wood, and hydraulic oil. The polymers are polystyrene, polyurethane, and melamine- formaldehyde foams. Samples of two of the specific materials were tested for their behavior in a fire - like environment. Test data and the methods used to test the materials are presented. Much of the remaining data are taken from a literature survey. This report serves as a reference source of properties necessary to predict the behavior of these materials in a fire.

  4. ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY & HEALTH DIVISION Chapter 12: Fire and Life Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    -fired heaters 2. Heaters that lack a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) listing sticker 3. Radiant

  5. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  6. Procedure No 400.10 Subject: Fire Protection Impairment Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsai, Istvan

    or testing. OVERVIEW The probability of a fire or explosion causing major damage is increased whenever a fire Procedure No 400.10 Subject: Fire Protection Impairment Program Reference: NFPA (see bottom: To establish procedures to be followed when a fire protection system is taken out of service due

  7. Climate change-induced shifts in fire for Mediterranean ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Max A.

    RESEARCH PAPER Climate change-induced shifts in fire for Mediterranean ecosystems Enric Batllori1 Climate change, climate uncertainty, fire-climate relationship, fire shifts, Mediterranean biome Mediterranean biome and identify potential shifts in fire activity under an ensemble of global climate

  8. The living publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction data allows readers to perform direct calculations of the electron density (using X-rays and electrons as probes) or the nuclear density (using neutrons as probe) on which the molecular models are directly based. This current community practice is described in our first article. There are various ways that these data and tools can be used to further analyze the molecules that have been crystallized. Notably, once a set of results is announced via the publication, the research community can start to interact directly with the data and models. This gives the community the opportunity not only to read about the structure, but to examine it in detail, and even generate subsequent improved models. These improved models could, in principle, be archived along with the original interpretation of the data and can represent a continuously improving set of interpretations of a set of diffraction data. The models could improve both by correction of errors in the original interpretation and by the use of new representations of molecules in crystal structures that more accurately represent the contents of a crystal. These possible developments are described in our second article. A current, significant, thrust for the IUCr is whether it would be advantageous for the crystallographic community to require, rather than only encourage, the archiving of the raw (unprocessed) diffraction data images measured from a crystal, a fibre or a solution. This issue is being evaluated in detail by an IUCr Working Group (see http://forums.iucr.org). Such archived raw data would be linked to and from any associated publications. The archiving of raw diffraction data could allow as yet undeveloped processing methods to have access to the originally measured data. The debate within the community about this much larger proposed archiving effort revolves around the issue of 'cost versus benefit'. Costs can be minimized by preserving the raw data in local repositories, either at centralized synchrotron and neutron research institutes, or at research universities. Archiving raw data is also perceived as bein

  9. Investigation of the fire performance of building insulation in full-scale and laboratory fire tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinfelder, W.A.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-two insulations are exposed to fire tests including the 25 ft Tunnel test, the Attic Floor Radiant Panel test and actual fire conditions of a simulated attic configuration. The insulations consisted of a number of cellulose fiber insulations, utilizing various chemical treatments, glass fiber and mineral fiber insulations. The fire performance characteristics of the insulations were measured in each of the three test scenarios and the report compares their results.

  10. Proton radioactivity half lives with Skyrme interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Routray; Abhishek Mishra; S. K. Tripathy; B. Behera; D. N. Basu

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential barrier impeding the spontaneous emission of protons in the proton radioactive nuclei is calculated as the sum of nuclear, Coulomb and centrifugal contributions. The nuclear part of the proton-nucleus interaction potential is obtained in the energy density formalism using Skyrme effective interaction that results into a simple algebraic expression. The half-lives of the proton emitters are calculated for the different Skyrme sets within the improved WKB framework. The results are found to be in reasonable agreement with the earlier results obtained for more complicated calculations involving finite range interactions.

  11. FUEGO — Fire Urgency Estimator in Geosynchronous Orbit — A Proposed Early-Warning Fire Detection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Maggi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coverage of CONUS, and “mesoscale” sectors will be availableto be produced when “mesoscale” scans are made, so fireAdditionally, the “mesoscale” scan mode will primarily be

  12. Comparison of the KAMELEON fire model to large-scale open pool fire data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Gritzo, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holen, J.; Magnussen, B.F. [SINEF/Norweigian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison of the KAMELEON Fire model to large-scale open pool fire experimental data is presented. The model was used to calculate large-scale JP-4 pool fires with and without wind, and with and without large objects in the fire. The effect of wind and large objects on the fire environment is clearly seen. For the pool fire calculations without any object in the fire, excellent agreement is seen in the location of the oxygen-starved region near the pool center. Calculated flame temperatures are about 200--300 K higher than measured. This results in higher heat fluxes back to the fuel pool and higher fuel evaporation rates (by a factor of 2). Fuel concentrations at lower elevations and peak soot concentrations are in good agreement with data. For pool fire calculations with objects, similar trends in the fire environment are observed. Excellent agreement is seen in the distribution of the heat flux around a cylindrical calorimeter in a rectangular pool with wind effects. The magnitude of the calculated heat flux to the object is high by a factor of 2 relative to the test data, due to the higher temperatures calculated. For the case of a large flat plate adjacent to a circular pool, excellent qualitative agreement is seen in the predicted and measured flame shapes as a function of wind.

  13. ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR FIRE BEHAVIOR For many years now in America we have used the National Fire Danger Rating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danger Rating System (Deeming, et al, 1978) adjective ratings to describe the "fire danger" for a given of descriptive advice of the "danger" of having an ignition based on historic weather data for what kind of fire these ratings meant regarding potential fire behavior. Furthermore, they described "fire danger" which

  14. Simulating Historic Landscape Patterns of Fire in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for Fire History and Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gass, Ellen R

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    fire model, I predicted past fire spread in the western Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Results showed a mean pre-suppression fire size of over an order of magnitude larger than fires on current landscape conditions (567 ha vs. 45 ha...

  15. Fire Brigades costs and organisational arrangements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, W.H.H.

    Basic cost curves for fire brigades in England and Wales are presented. The relationships are used to investigate the financial consequenoes of enlarging present brigade responsibilities in terms of the scope of service ...

  16. Tall building collapse mechanisms initiated by fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usmani, Asif; Roben, Charlotte; Johnston, Louise; Flint, Graeme

    This paper introduces the hypothesis of two possible failure mechanisms for tall buildings in multiple floor fires. This paper extends the previous work done on the WTC towers by investigating more "generic" tall building frames made of standard...

  17. MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

  18. The behaviour of concrete structures in fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Ian A; Welch, Stephen; Torero, Jose L; Carvel, Ricky O; Usmani, Asif

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of concrete-based structures means that they generally perform very well in fire. However, concrete is a complex material and its properties can change dramatically when exposed to high temperatures. This paper provides a ‘state...

  19. Experiments and Observation of Peat Smouldering Fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashton, Clare; Rein, Guillermo; Dios, JD; Torero, Jose L; Legg, C; Davies, M; Gray, A

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    If a subsurface layer of peat is ignited, it smoulders (flameless combustion) slowly but steadily. These fires propagate for long periods of time (days, weeks, even years), are particularly difficult to extinguish and can spread over very extensive...

  20. Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canfield, Jesse

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

  1. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... million BTU ? These levels can be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have...

  2. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    A WOOD-FIRED GAS TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood...-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 50l-k). A...

  3. Jet fire testing of topside pipework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boothby, P.J. [British Gas plc, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The weight saving potential and inherent corrosion resistance of glass reinforced plastics (GRP) make them attractive candidates for offshore topside seawater piping applications. Glass reinforced plastics, however, comprise a combustible organic matrix, and one of the main areas of concern currently restricting the more widespread use of GRP on offshore platforms in the UK sector of the North Sea is the perceived poor fire endurance of this material. On an offshore platform, the most severe fire scenario envisaged is a hydrocarbon jet fire. A series of large-scale jet fire tests has therefore been conducted at the British Gas Research and Technology Spadeadam test facility, on pipe spools representing the ring main and deluge components of an offshore topside firewater system. The purpose of the tests was to assess the jet fire endurance of GRP with and without passive fire protection coatings, and to compare its performance with existing metallic materials used for this application. The paper presents the results obtained in the first stage of the program addressing the start-up period of firewater system operation when the ring main may contain either stagnant or flowing water and the deluge piping is empty.

  4. Environmental survey of the B-3 and Ford's Farm ranges.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Waite, D.A.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Army has been firing depleted-uranium (DU) projectiles into targets on the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. An environmental survey was conducted of two areas known as the B-3 range and the Ford's Farm range to determine the location of DU in their environments. The survey included ground survey measurements and some environmental sampling. Several special studies were also conducted, including analyses of the isotopic composition of uranium in a limited number of samples and a dissolution rate study to estimate the solubility of DU dust in sea and river water.

  5. The Living Culture of Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biobaku, Saburi O.; Aniakor, Chike A.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ImK ~IE.W THE uv:rn:; aJLWRE OF NIGERIA edited by Saburi 0 .Lagos: Thanas Nelson (Nigeria) Ltd. , Color Illustrations,86 The Living Cu'lture of Nigeria edited by Professor Saburi

  6. Blood Banking in Living Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samot, Josh

    Blood banking has a broad public health impact influencing millions of lives daily. It could potentially benefit from emerging biopreservation technologies. However, although vitrification has shown advantages over traditional ...

  7. Global impact of smoke aerosols from landscape fires on climate and the Hadley circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires inforest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997– 2009), Atmos.of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia

  8. FUEGO — Fire Urgency Estimator in Geosynchronous Orbit — A Proposed Early-Warning Fire Detection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Maggi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Proposed Early-Warning Fire Detection System Carlton R.ability of a system to provide early outbreak warnings toearly-warning satellite, and then, using existing archival images of relevant background scenes and fires, have tested our algorithms and systems

  9. The Cerro Grande Fire - From Wildfire Modeling Through the Fire Aftermath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudell, T. M. (Theresa M.); Gille, R. W. (Roland W.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cerro Grande Fire developed from a prescribed burn by the National Park Service at Bandelier National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico. When the burn went out of control and became a wildfire, it attracted worldwide attention because it threatened the birthplace of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Was LANL prepared for a fire? What lessons have been learned?

  10. The Cerro Grande Fire - From Wildlife Modeling Through the Fire Aftermath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudell, T. M. (Theresa M.); Gille, R. W. (Roland W.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cerro Grande Fire developed from a prescribed burn by the National Park Service at Bandelier National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico. When the burn went out of control and became a wildfire, it attracted worldwide attention because it threatened the birthplace of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Was LANL prepared for a fire? What lessons have been learned?

  11. Fuel Treatment, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Restoration: Are the Benefits Worth It?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Fuel Treatment, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Restoration: Are the Benefits Worth It? Chairs: Susan Husari and Melanie Miller #12;Applying Simulation and Optimization to Plan Fuel Treatments at Landscape Scales1 J. Greg Jones,2 Jimmie D. Chew,2 Hans R. Zuuring3 Abstract Fuel treatment activities are analyzed

  12. Fire Department, City of New York Fire SaFety education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salzman, Daniel

    ! Is your family fire safe? Protect yourself, your family and your neighbors. T here are special areas building. Your primary or first exit is your apartment door that leads into either an unenclosed (not sep- jured in a fire in your building. o Maintain your apartment door or doors lead- ing into the public hall

  13. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildlandfire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled “prescribed” fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  14. Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, K.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation`s activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation`s activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0.

  15. Light beam range finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  16. Light beam range finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  17. Suppression of pool fires with HRC-125 in a simulated engine nacelle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, David R. (INS, Inc., Lexington Park, MD); Hewson, John C.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CFD simulations are conducted to predict the distribution of fire suppressant in an engine nacelle and to predict the suppression of pool fires by the application of this suppressant. In the baseline configuration, which is based on an installed system, suppressant is injected through four nozzles at a rate fast enough to suppress all simulated pool fires. Variations that reduce the mass of the suppression system (reducing the impact of the suppression system on meeting mission needs) are considered, including a reduction in the rate of suppressant injection, a reduction in the mass of suppressant and a reduction in the number of nozzles. In general, these variations should work to reduce the effectiveness of the suppression system, but the CFD results point out certain changes that have negligible impact, at least for the range of phenomena considered here. The results are compared with measurements where available. Comparisons with suppressant measurements are reasonable. A series of twenty-three fire suppression tests were conducted to check the predictions. The pre-test predictions were generally successful in identifying the range of successful suppression tests. In two separate cases, each where one nozzle of the suppression system was capped, the simulation results did indicate a failure to suppress for a condition where the tests indicated successful suppression. When the test-suppressant discharge rate was reduced by roughly 25%, the tests were in agreement with the predictions. That is, the simulations predict a failure to suppress slightly before observed in these cases.

  18. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  19. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter disposal problems for the area's poultry farmers.

  20. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  1. Modelling of the Growth Phase of Dalmarnock Fire Test One 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Jahn, Wolfram; Torero, Jose L

    The challenge of modelling a well characterized full-scale fire test using computational fluid dynamics is illustrated in this work comparing a priori and a posteriori simulations. In 2006, The Dalmarnock Fire Tests were ...

  2. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  3. A wildland fire modeling and visualization environment , Jonathan D. Beezley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    : · The wildland fire simulation code SFIRE coupled with a mesoscale atmospheric simulation code, the Weather by the coupling of a mesoscale weather model with a simple 2D fire spread model (Clark et al. 1996a,b, 2004; Coen

  4. PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES Fabien FouiHen, INERIS, Parc initiating event of the fire ball observed. In concrete terms, when a fixed roof storage tank is surrounded

  5. Fire Interactions and Pulsation - Theoretical and Physical Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, Trevor

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for our two-fire heat transfer model. They applied themerging fires. The heat transfer model proposed in Section 5addition, most radiant heat transfer models assume the flame

  6. The FIRE infrared spectrometer at Magellan: construction and commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simcoe, Robert A.

    We describe the construction and commissioning of FIRE, a new 0.8-2.5?m echelle spectrometer for the Magellan/ Baade 6.5 meter telescope. FIRE delivers continuous spectra over its full bandpass with nominal spectral ...

  7. A Method for Evaluating Fire after Earthquake Scenarios for Single...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    data are assumed to represent 73% of the potential fires following an earthquake - J.L. Bryan in the report Smoke as a Determinant of Human Behavior in Fire Situations (1977) *...

  8. Investigation of a Fatal Fire in a Moving Vehicle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvares, Norman; Staggs, Kirk; Rein, Guillermo

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the essentials of an investigation conducted by the authors to test conflicting scenarios regarding the cause and origin of an accidental fire. Fire investigators proposed that an underbody fuel-leak ...

  9. Memorandum, Wildland Fire Safety Enchancements- Jan 19, 2001

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Memorandum to Program Secretarial Officers, DOE Operations Office Managers and DOE Field Office Managers from Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson on wildland fire safety improvements recommended by the Commission on Fire Safety and Preparedness.

  10. Management of Imported Fire Ants in Cattle Production Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Thomas W.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication can help ranch managers develop integrated pest management plans for managing fire ant problems in cattle operations. It covers the specifics of managing fire ants in hay pastures and rangelands, around farm ponds, and near...

  11. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power generating plants contribute approximatelynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

  12. Fire Protection Program Assessment, Building 9116- Y12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This assessment is intended to evaluate the fire hazards, life safety and fire protection features inherent in Building 9116.

  13. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  14. Memorandum, Fire Safety Program Performance Measures- October 10, 1998

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this memorandum is to provide you with a list of recommended fire safety program performance measures.

  15. Atmospheric chemistry effects of the 1998 Mexican/Central American fires measured in central New Mexico USA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popp, C. J.

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric effects from large fires have received a great deal of interest recently, especially when the fires have the potential to effect human health when the plumes are transported long distances over areas of high population density. Examples are the recent large fires in Southeast Asia in 1997 (1) and the wildfires occurring in southern Mexico and Central America that were manifested in decreased visibility and high aerosol concentrations in the United States at distances of 2500-4000 km from the fires. In addition to fine aerosols, these biomass fires have the potential to produce and transport large quantities of oxygenated organic species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfate and nitrate species. Most of the literature reports dealing with products of biomass burning have been related to fireplace and wood burning stove emissions (2,3) and with local effects from forest fires(4). The recent super-large fires occurring in Indonesia and Mexico/Central America also bring about the issue of atmospheric reactivity because long-range transport affords long reaction times for photochemical reactions, wet and dry deposition and surface reactions on the aerosol particles. The smoke/haze conditions prompted considerable concern among the general population in New Mexico regarding health hazards and a large number of calls to the Albuquerque, NM Air Quality Division which reported the PM{sub 10} samples collected showed no significant increase in mass(5). The conclusion was that the particles were very fine and therefore had considerable influence on the visibility but did not violate health standards. In this study, organic and inorganic chemical species in the gaseous and aerosol phases have been identified and quantified under non-smoky and smoky conditions in Central New Mexico approximately 3000 km from the source of the fires.

  16. The Effects of Oxy-firing Conditions on Gas-phase Mercury Oxidation by Chlorine and Bromine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, Paula; Silcox, Geoffrey

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted in a quartz-lined, natural gas-fired reactor with the combustion air replaced with a blend of 27 mole percent oxygen, with the balance carbon dioxide. Quench rates of 210 and 440 K/s were tested. In the absence of sulfur dioxide, the oxy-firing environment caused a remarkable increase in oxidation of mercury by chlorine. At 400 ppm chlorine (as HCl equivalent), air-firing results in roughly 5 percent oxidation. At the same conditions with oxy-firing, oxidation levels are roughly 80 percent. Oxidation levels with bromine at 25 and 50 ppm (as HBr equivalent) ranged from 80 to 95 percent and were roughly the same for oxy- and air-firing conditions. Kinetic calculations of levels of oxidation at air- and oxy-conditions captured the essential features of the experimental results but have not revealed a mechanistic basis for the oxidative benefits of oxy-firing conditions. Mixtures of 25 ppm bromine and 100 and 400 ppm chlorine gave more than 90 percent oxidation. At all conditions, the effects of quench rate were not significant. The presence of 500 ppm SO2 caused a dramatic decline in the levels of oxidation at all oxy-fired conditions examined. This effect suggests that SO2 may be preventing oxidation in the gas phase or preventing oxidation in the wetconditioning system that was used in quantifying oxidized and elemental mercury concentrations. Similar effects of SO2 have been noted with air-firing. The addition of sodium thiosulfate to the hydroxide impingers that are part of wet conditioning systems may prevent liquid-phase oxidation from occurring.

  17. Wildland fires and nuclear winters. Selected reconstruction of historic large fires. Technical report, 1 March 1985-28 February 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyne, S.J.; Omi, P.N.

    1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the nuclear winter scenario, large wildland fires are expected to contribute to a general smoke plume and are considered potential analogues for the behavior of gigantic palls. As a means of testing the reasonableness of current estimates of a wildland fire contribution, the authors reconstructed from the historic record two major events; the Tillamook Burn of August 1933 and the 1910 fire complex in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Both events are near the upper limit for wildland fires - the Tillamook Burn for a single fire. For the 1910 fires, for which environmental data are skimpy, a modern analogue, the Sundance fire (1967), was used for certain extrapolations. Reconstructed fire behavior and estimated smoke production suggest that current nuclear winter models overestimate the magnitude of a wildland component.

  18. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  19. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  20. Guidance for the Quality Assurance of Fire Protection Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This quality assurance document is intended to provide guidance for the DOE fire protection community in the continuing effort to ensure the reliability of fire protection systems. This guidance document applies the concepts of DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, to the management of fire protection systems.

  1. Game-Method Model for Field Fires Nina Dobrinkova1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fidanova, Stefka

    to the environment through heat and mass transfer feedbacks. In this work we will focus on game-method principle to understand wildland fire fundamentals is even more pressing than it was in the past. In earlier times begin with the basic principles and mechanisms of the combustion process -- fire fundamentals. Fire

  2. FEASIBILITY OF SOLAR-FIRED, COMPRESSOR-ASSISTED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEASIBILITY OF SOLAR-FIRED, COMPRESSOR-ASSISTED ABSORPTION CHILLERS Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) FEASIBILITY OF SOLAR FIRED, COMPRESSOR ASSISTED ABSORPTION CHILLERS EISG AWARDEE Bergquam 1 Feasibility Of Solar Fired, Compressor Assisted Absorption Chillers EISG Grant # 99-15 Awardee

  3. WILDLAND FIRE SERVICES CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is already in place. Fire Management Planning CEMML provides high quality fire management planning adviceWILDLAND FIRE SERVICES CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS CEMML | 1490 Campus installations present a serious risk to people, infrastructure, quality training areas, and important protected

  4. Accounting for Fire Injection Height in Climate Charlie Zender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Power Satellites retrievals use a Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA) method to determine the (broadband) Fire E = R + H + L + G + C (1) Controlled experiments show that Fire Radiative Energy R is proportional Radiative Power (FRP): FRP [W m-2 ] = dR dt (2) The MODIS FTA Giglio et al. (2003), e.g., inverts

  5. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  6. Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane HIMR, UoB 13th January 2014 #12 and James Martin at the University of Oxford. Edward Crane (HIMR, UoB) Forest fires, explosions, and random process and the Brownian CRT. Edward Crane (HIMR, UoB) Forest fires, explosions, and random trees 13th

  7. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  8. Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on Basement Level Evacuation Route Exit Restroom Fire Extinguisher Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Control Panel Symbol. · Assist persons with disabilities. · Exit the building using the nearest exit. DO NOT USE ELEVATORS 110 106 108 C B 101A L-D 101 103 101B BR 116 B C A Evacuation Assembly Point: S1 Lower Level Entry

  9. Grid Computing for Fire Evolution Simulation Diploma Thesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    - p. 1/41 Grid Computing for Fire Evolution Simulation Diploma Thesis Thomas Diamantis University of Thessaly July 15, 2005 #12;Outline Grid computing overview Middleware overview Fire Dynamics Simulator Experiments and Results - p. 2/41 Outline Fire Dynamics Simulatior (FDS) and Grid Computing s Grid computing

  10. Grid cell firing patterns signal environmental novelty by expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgess, Neil

    Grid cell firing patterns signal environmental novelty by expansion Caswell Barrya,b,c,1 , Lin Lin novelty causes the spatial firing patterns of grid cells to expand in scale and reduce in regularity firing fields remapped and showed a smaller, temporary expansion. Grid expansion provides a potential

  11. Range of Glaciers: The Exploration of the Northern Cascade Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hook, Robert D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Range of Glaciers: The Exploration of the NorthernUSA Fred Beckey. Range of Glaciers: The Exploration of thewill find that Range of Glaciers is a must read. The book

  12. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

  13. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel. The BNL Fire Department is the lead on wildfire suppression. However, the BNL Natural Resource Manager will be assigned to all wildland fires as technical resource advisor.

  14. Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Nelson, D. L; Diner, D. J; Logan, J. A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960, Nat. Geosci. , 2,and deforestation fires in Indonesia M. G. Tosca, 1 J. T.unnatural disasters in Indonesia, Geogr. Rev. , 94, 55–79,

  15. Unbonded Post Tensioned Concrete in Fire: A Review of Data from Furnace Tests and Real Fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gales, John; Bisby, Luke; Gillie, Martin

    The fire-safe design of concrete structures which incorporate post-tensioned prestressing tendons has recently been the subject of debate within the structural engineering community, particularly when unbonded post-tensioned ...

  16. Fire Size and Fire Spread in Tunnels with Longitudinal Ventilation Systems. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O; Beard, Alan; Jowitt, P W; Drysdale, Dougal

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results and findings of three previous research projects are combined with new research to estimate the overall influence of longitudinal ventilation on fire size and spread in tunnels. Each of the three previous projects is briefly described...

  17. Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

  18. FIRE Fiscal Year 2000 Status Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fueling system that would require minimum change in the progression from FIRE to ITER or a fusion) for divertor plasma radiative cooling and wall conditioning. Finally, the plasma fueling system provides the density profile for high fusion power. Conventional pellet injectors coupled with a guide tube system

  19. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  20. Fire Induced Collapse of Tall Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flint, Graeme

    This research was designed to investigate possible mechanisms that fires could initiate that might lead to collapse of a tall building of similar design to the WTC Towers. It was not designed to be a forensic study and no initial damage was applied...

  1. Posteriori Modelling of Fire Test One 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahn, Wolfram; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2007-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This work shows that reproducing fire behaviour of a full-scale enclosure on a detailed level using CFD simulations is possible to certain degree but is a very challenging task. A posteriori (ie after the test) numerical simulations of the growth...

  2. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T...

  3. UF{sub 6} cylinder fire test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S.H. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increasing number of nuclear reactors for power generation, there is a comparable increase in the amount of UF{sub 6} being transported. Likewise, the probability of having an accident involving UF{sub 6}-filled cylinders also increases. Accident scenarios which have been difficult to assess are those involving a filled UF{sub 6} cylinder subjected to fire. A study is underway at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, as part of the US DOE Enrichment Program, to provide empirical data and a computer model that can be used to evaluate various cylinder-in-fire scenarios. It is expected that the results will provide information leading to better handling of possible fire accidents as well as show whether changes should be made to provide different physical protection during shipment. The computer model being developed will be capable of predicting the rupture of various cylinder sizes and designs as well as the amount of UF{sub 6}, its distribution in the cylinder, and the conditions of the fire.

  4. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  5. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  6. Environmental Health & Safety Fire Safety Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portman, Douglas

    materials (gas, lighter fluid, charcoal, propane, solvents, etc.) All items powered by combustible fuels heat to start a fire if used improperly). Including but not limited to: George Foreman grills portable heating devices (space heaters of any type) What other items are not allowed in my room? Non

  7. No material is "fire proof." However, the proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General No material is "fire proof." However, the proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials can reduce a fire's spread and lengthen the amount of time it takes for a home to ignite and burn. Structural assembly is the process of layering materials when building exterior walls and roof. Your home

  8. No material is "fire proof." However, the proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General No material is "fire proof." However, the proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials can reduce a fire's spread, and extend the amount of time it takes for a home to ignite and burn your home. However, radiant energy can eventually ignite materials behind the window even with glass

  9. Though no material is "fire proof," the proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General Though no material is "fire proof," the proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials can reduce a fire's spread, and lengthen the amount of time it takes for a home to ignite and burn. Structural assembly is the layering of building materials. Decks are a very popular, well-used feature

  10. The Successful Design Construction and 'Live-ability' of an Energy Efficient Home in a Hot and Humid Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J. C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clothes washer null Energy Star Hunter ceiling fans null 90% of the lighting is fluorescent null Gas fired water heater with solar assist For those ten really cold days in winter we have a wood burning stove with catalytic converter to supplement...The Successful Design, Construction and “Live-ability” of an Energy Efficient Home in a Hot and Humid Climate John C. Gardner, PE Hockley, Texas 77447 ABSTRACT This paper will present a case study of an energy efficient home...

  11. Is the situation and immediate threat to life and health? Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Chemical Odor? Possible Fire / Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? Possible Fire / Natural Gas (including chemicals and bio agents") (not including chemicals or bio agents Fire or Flammable Gas Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Chemical Odor

  12. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  13. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  14. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  15. Airborne infrared observations and analyses of a large forest fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stearns, J.R.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E.; Sanford, B.P.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive IR spatial images and spectral signatures were gathered from an active large brush and forest fire by the Flying Infrared Signatures Technology Aircraft of the U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Infrared images give the apparent temperatures of actively burning and burned over regions and aid in identifying the type and intensity of the fire. Spectral signatures of hot regions from interferometer and spatial data can also be used to determine apparent fire temperatures. Gasesous combustion products in the fire plume are quantitatively identified by the IR absorption spectra at 1-cm/sup -1/ resolution using the hot fire emission as the radiation source. Concentrations of CO were measured at 50 times higher than ambient levels. The applicability of these techniques to gathering data relevant to important environmental and military problems, including atmospheric pollution from fires and possible short-term climatic effects due to fires ignited in a nuclear exchange, is discussed.

  16. FIREPLUME model for plume dispersion from fires: Application to uranium hexafluoride cylinder fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.F.; Dunn, W.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Policastro, A.J.; Maloney, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides basic documentation of the FIREPLUME model and discusses its application to the prediction of health impacts resulting from releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in fires. The model application outlined in this report was conducted for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted UF{sub 6}. The FIREPLUME model is an advanced stochastic model for atmospheric plume dispersion that predicts the downwind consequences of a release of toxic materials from an explosion or a fire. The model is based on the nonbuoyant atmospheric dispersion model MCLDM (Monte Carlo Lagrangian Dispersion Model), which has been shown to be consistent with available laboratory and field data. The inclusion of buoyancy and the addition of a postprocessor to evaluate time-varying concentrations lead to the current model. The FIREPLUME model, as applied to fire-related UF{sub 6} cylinder releases, accounts for three phases of release and dispersion. The first phase of release involves the hydraulic rupture of the cylinder due to heating of the UF{sub 6} in the fire. The second phase involves the emission of material into the burning fire, and the third phase involves the emission of material after the fire has died during the cool-down period. The model predicts the downwind concentration of the material as a function of time at any point downwind at or above the ground. All together, five fire-related release scenarios are examined in this report. For each scenario, downwind concentrations of the UF{sub 6} reaction products, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride, are provided for two meteorological conditions: (1) D stability with a 4-m/s wind speed, and (2) F stability with a 1-m/s wind speed.

  17. Solo living across the adult lifecourse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Adam; Wasoff, Fran; Jamieson, Lynn

    This study has created snapshots of solo living in contemporary society and developed an understanding of the social and economic factors involved in transitions in and out of solo living.

  18. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and implementing prescribed burns and fuel reduction projects in the Upton Reserve. Prescribed fire and fuel reduction in locations outside the Upton Reserve will be coordinated through the Natural Resource Management Program at BNL, and done in consultation with FWS. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the entire BNL site including the Upton Reserve and has been reviewed by FWS, The Nature Conservancy, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Forest Rangers, and DOE, as well as appropriate BNL emergency services personnel.

  19. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis

  20. Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

    COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION COGENERATION Cabot Thunem, P.E Norm Smith, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT The availability of an environmentally accep table multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed... combustion, has encouraged many steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However...

  1. California State Fire Marshal Information Bulletin

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouse GasCalifornia State Fire Marshal

  2. Memorandum Request for Concurrence on firee Temporary Variance Applications Regarding Fire Protection and Pressure Safety at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Memorandum Request for Concurrence on firee Temporary Variance Applications Regarding Fire Protection and Pressure Safety at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  3. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  4. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G.Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial testing campaign was carried out during the summer of 2000 to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NOx emissions. Extensive data had been collected during the Fall of 1999 and Spring of 2000 using a single pulverized-coal (PC) burner, and this data collection was funded by a separate Department of Energy program, the Combustion 2000 Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) project under the direction of DB Riley. This single-burner data was thus available for comparison with NOx emissions obtained while firing three burners at the same overall load and operating conditions. A range of operating conditions were explored that were compatible with single-burner data, and thus the emission trends as a function of air staging, burner swirl and other parameters will be described below. In addition, a number of burner-to-burner operational variations were explored that provided interesing insight on their potential impact on NOx emissions. Some of these variations include: running one burner very fuel rich while running the others fuel lean; varying the swirl of a single burner while holding others constant; increasing the firing rate of a single burner while decreasing the others. In general, the results to date indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NOx emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. At very fuel rich burner stoichiometries (SR < 0.75), the difference between multiple and single burners became indistinguishable. This result is consistent with previous single-burner data that showed that at very rich stoichiometries the NOx emissions became independent of burner settings such as air distributions, velocities and burner swirl.

  5. Living in Germany. Studying at FAU.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiebig, Peter

    Welcome. Living in Germany. Studying at FAU. www.fau.eu/international #12;Welcome. Living in Germany. Studying at FAU. 2 Welcome. Living in Germany. Studying at FAU. Contents Vice President`s welcome...................................................... 5 1. What you will find in this brochure .............................. 6 2. Welcome to Germany

  6. Live Streaming with Gossip Maxime Monod

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    Live Streaming with Gossip Maxime Monod June 30, 2010 #12;Regular TV: everything HD Live streaming A source produces multimedia content n viewers (n large) broadcasting ... ... ... IP TV, Web TV, P2P TV environment ·HEAP Heterogeneous environment ·LiFT Presence of freeriders Live Streaming with Gossip 25 #12

  7. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  8. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  9. The effects of re-firing process under oxidizing atmosphere and temperatures on the properties of strontium aluminate phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karacaoglu, Erkul, E-mail: erkaracaoglu@gmail.com [Anadolu University, Graduate School of Sciences, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Eskisehir (Turkey); Fosfortek Phosphor Technologies Co., Eskisehir (Turkey); Karasu, Bekir [Anadolu University, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The comparative emission spectra of standard and re-fired Phosphor A under oxidizing atmosphere at various temperatures. The colour of Phosphor A re-fired at higher temperatures above 900 °C shifted from yellowish-green to bluish-green in the dark. But, the bluish-green emission could only be seen when it was exposed to UV and disappeared as soon as the light source was removed. Moreover, the emission intensities decreased as the re-firing temperatures increased. This could be attributed to the oxidation of Eu{sup 2+} during the re-firing process. It is well known fact from the literature that the reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in appropriate host materials needs an annealing process in a reducing atmosphere such as H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture or CO. Up to now, the reduction phenomena of Eu{sup 3+} ? Eu{sup 2+} in air have been found in phosphates (Ba{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu), sulphates (BaSO{sub 4}:Eu), borates (SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Eu, SrB{sub 6}O{sub 10}:Eu and BaB{sub 8}O{sub 13}:Eu) and aluminates (Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25}:Eu). Interestingly, an apparent blue shift in the phosphorescence spectrum was observed in the samples re-fired at 1000 °C and above, indicating a minimal effect on the oxidation state or the electronic energy levels of the co-doped Dy{sup 3+} ions, which were thought to act as long-lived hole traps resulting in long afterglow. - Highlights: • This study examines the effects re-firing at oxidizing atmosphere of photoluminescence of three different commercial SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+}-phosphors. • All the commercial SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+}-phosphors completely lost their phosphorescence after being re-fired at 1300 °C. • Oxidizing environment and re-firing temperature naturally affecting the valance of Eu{sup 2+} may cause the basic lattice structure to be modified and also limit their applications at higher temperatures, such as third firing vetrosa décor or glaze applications in ceramic industry. • It was thought that this kind of study may be promising to provide many outcome studies, may act to encourage additional efforts along these lines. - Abstract: Inorganic phosphorescent pigments have a very wide application, consisting of ceramic decoration and glazes. Therefore, in the present study 3 different commercially available strontium aluminate phosphors (coded Phosphor A, B and C) emitting yellowish-green light were investigated to determine their behaviour when re-fired under oxidizing atmosphere. The phosphors were re-fired at 10 different temperatures and consequent effects were studied. All the samples were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and fluorescence spectrometer analysis. It was found that firing them under oxidizing atmosphere strongly affected their phosphorescence abilities especially over 800–900 °C, because doped europium ions (Eu{sup 2+}) in their structures are oxidized to Eu{sup 3+}. It was also concluded that the phosphor powders clumped as the temperature rose, leading to their particle size distributions to change.

  10. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  11. SF State | Residential Life Community Living Standards Page 1 COMMUNITY LIVING STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SF State | Residential Life Community Living Standards Page 1 COMMUNITY LIVING STANDARDS A How-To Guide to Living in the SF State Residential Community 2014-2015 #12;SF State | Residential Life Community Philosophy Residential Life Staff Campus Resources One Stop Your Roommate Your Living Space

  12. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

  13. Characterization of liquefied natural gas tanker steel from cryogenic to fire temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, J. Franklin (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wellman, Gerald William (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Kalan, Robert J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increased demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel source in the U.S. has prompted a study to improve our capability to predict cascading damage to LNG tankers from cryogenic spills and subsequent fire. To support this large modeling and simulation effort, a suite of experiments were conducted on two tanker steels, ABS Grade A steel and ABS Grade EH steel. A thorough and complete understanding of the mechanical behavior of the tanker steels was developed that was heretofore unavailable for the span of temperatures of interest encompassing cryogenic to fire temperatures. This was accomplished by conducting several types of experiments, including tension, notched tension and Charpy impact tests at fourteen temperatures over the range of -191 C to 800 C. Several custom fixtures and special techniques were developed for testing at the various temperatures. The experimental techniques developed and the resulting data will be presented, along with a complete description of the material behavior over the temperature span.

  14. Configuration and performance of the indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural gas, indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) is introduced as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20--200 megawatt (MW) size range. The novel indirect-fired carbonate fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFCFC) power plant system configures the ambient pressure carbonate fuel cell with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations from ASPEN simulations present material and energy balances with expected power output. The results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed carbonate fuel cell steam bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components.

  15. Old growth ponderosa pine and western larch stand structures: Influences of pre-1900 fires and fire exclusion. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arno, S.F.; Smith, H.Y.; Krebs, M.A.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present data from two old growth stands on Lolo National Forest representing habitats that contrast with larch stand. One of the stands is a mixture of pine and larch on a steep upland slope and the other is larch dominated in a frost-prone valley bottom evidently at the cold limits of ponderosa pine. We also synthesize and compare age-class data, basal areas (BA), and Stand Density Indexes (SDI) for the entire range of old growth stands that we have sampled to represent the historical frequent fire types in western Montana.

  16. An assessment of fire vulnerability for aged electrical relays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nowlen, S.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been some concern that, as nuclear power plants age, protective measures taken to control and minimize the impact of fire may become ineffective, or significantly less effective, and hence result in an increased fire risk. One objective of the Fire Vulnerability of Aged Electrical Components Program is to assess the effects of aging and service wear on the fire vulnerability of electrical equipment. An increased fire vulnerability of components may lead to an overall increase in fire risk to the plant. Because of their widespread use in various electrical safety systems, electromechanical relays were chosen to be the initial components for evaluation. This test program assessed the impact of operational and thermal aging on the vulnerability of these relays to fire-induced damage. Only thermal effects of a fire were examined in this test program. The impact of smoke, corrosive materials, or fire suppression effects on relay performance were not addressed in this test program. The purpose of this test program was to assess whether the fire vulnerability of electrical relays increased with aging. The sequence followed for the test program was to: identify specific relay types, develop three fire scenarios, artificially age several relays, test the unaged and aged relays in the fire exposure scenarios, and compare the results. The relays tested were Agastat GPI, General Electric (GE) HMA, HGA, and HFA. At least two relays of each type were artificially aged and at least two relays of each type were new. Relays were operationally aged by cycling the relay under rated load for 2,000 operations. These relays were then thermally aged for 60 days with their coil energized.

  17. adolescent population living: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that adolescents assign (more) Amos, Taryn 2009-01-01 94 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  18. actual living liver: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Liver EQA slides' 2. Electronic submissions Magee, Derek 67 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  19. active living logan: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kenong Wu; David Gauthier; Martin D. Levine 1993-01-01 126 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  20. abortus live vaccine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    healthcare needs. TheVirginia Tech Virginia Tech 183 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  1. active living principles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    theory of generalized functions. Vernaeve, Hans 2011-01-01 235 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  2. african americans living: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT Schnaufer, Achim 375 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  3. american indians living: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    positive correlations with the Indian Chang, Chih-Pei 262 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  4. advanced cancer living: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct and (more) Duberow, Jr, David Paul 2009-01-01 100 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  5. attenuated live vaccine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    healthcare needs. TheVirginia Tech Virginia Tech 211 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  6. adult living donor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to extending our successes in childhood unknown authors 116 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  7. american women living: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    introduces teachers to Maya culture from Saldin, Dilano 295 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  8. admixed population lived: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    population in urban United Nations; Nations Unies 1999-01-01 67 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  9. acomys cahirinus living: Topics by E-print Network

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    Kenong Wu; David Gauthier; Martin D. Levine 1993-01-01 18 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  10. active living projects: Topics by E-print Network

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    Brian Meyers; John Krumm; A Kern; Steven Shafer 2000-01-01 236 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  11. attenuated live infectious: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R. Matyas; Victoria R. Polonis; Mangala Rao; Carl R. Alving 169 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  12. analysis reveals living: Topics by E-print Network

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    Oleg V. Gradov; Margaret A. Gradova 2015-01-18 184 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  13. arab americans living: Topics by E-print Network

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    and Syria. The three countries show different Shavitt, Yuval 380 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  14. adolescent girls living: Topics by E-print Network

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    that adolescents assign (more) Amos, Taryn 2009-01-01 139 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  15. african women living: Topics by E-print Network

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    and Siegal 1991). Marvin P. Dawkins; Mary M. Williams 273 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  16. active living environment: Topics by E-print Network

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    and physical activity environment audit tools Keinan, Alon 146 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  17. asthmatic children living: Topics by E-print Network

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    Texas; Kevin Purcell; Jaime Fergie; Kevin Richman; Lisa Rocha 84 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  18. active living study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Epstein, and Li Deng) and a computational Snider, Barry B. 215 Developing solutions for sustainable living-the Urban Living Laboratory: The world's largest 'living laboratory'...

  19. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  20. Thermal response of process equipment to hydrocarbon fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solberg, D.M.; Borgnes, O.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Requirements for active fire-fighting equipment such as fixed and portable powder extinguishers, foam generators, water guns, and deluge systems, are given in various codes and standards. However, very little is to be found about fire design conditions and passive fire protection. For safety verification of process plants and for designing adequate passive fire protection it is necessary to know the total incident heat fluxes which can occur under realistic conditions and the effects that such heat fluxes may have on process equipment and structures. During the last few years, Det Norske Veritas has been invloved in investigations aimed at estimating realistic fire loads from different types of hydrocarbon fires and the thermal response of process equipment and structures exposed to such fires. These investigations are still in progress and are especially focused on the conditions on off-shore oil and gas production platforms. However, many fire problems will be the same in the land-based process industry. The present paper concentrates on the thermal response of pipes and vessels exposed to a severe hydrocarbon fire with a defined thermal load. (JMT)

  1. Memorandum, Managed Phase Out of Halon Fixed Fire Suppression...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the management of the reduction and potential elimination of Halon fire extinguishing systems within the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum supplements the joint Office...

  2. Site fire protection projects review board engineering evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been safely operated since its beginning in the early 1950`s with an effective, highly successful program of fire prevention. However, in the mid 1980`s the Department of Energy directed the site to identify and install fire protection measure in addition to the reliance on prevention. To address the site needs, independent fire protection surveys were conducted by Factory Mutual Research Corporation and Professional Loss Control, Inc. in 1986 and 1987. The results of these surveys identified 1400 fire protection improvements needed in existing facilities to comply with DOE Orders and NFPA Codes and Standards.

  3. active fire detection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in North America from long-term records of the advanced very high resolution radiometer Geosciences Websites Summary: Interannual changes of active fire detectability in...

  4. Sandia Energy - Sandia Study Shows Large LNG Fires Hotter but...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Shows Large LNG Fires Hotter but Smaller Than Expected Home Infrastructure Security News News & Events Energy Assurance Modeling Modeling & Analysis Analysis Sandia Study...

  5. active fire management: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ecosystems requires an understanding Standiford, Richard B. 28 Fire Management Today ost mature lodgepole pine Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: (Collins et...

  6. If a fire should occur... CLOSE the doors to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    · National Electrical Manufacturers Association · National Fire Sprinkler Association · NFPA International lighting in power outages, not candles. Keep plenty of fresh batteries on hand during thunderstorm seasons

  7. advanced coal fired: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a possible co-firing fuel with coal. Cofiring of DB offers a technique of utilizing dairy manure for powersteam generation, reducing greenhouse gas concerns, and increasing...

  8. Gas Turbine Fired Heater Integration: Achieve Significant Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iaquaniello, G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Faster payout will result if gas turbine exhaust is used as combustion air for fired heaters. Here are economic examples and system design considerations....

  9. Estimated Global Mortality Attributable to Smoke from Landscape Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fine matter Phys shape peat Epidemiol cigarette episode.of carbon Forest, pollution peat approximately grasslandin Southeast Asia in and peat fires Estimated annual La Niña

  10. anthropogenic vegetation fires: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    types of input needed in the development of fire management programs for mediterranean climate on the vegetation in the mediterranean region of France. Vlez carries this...

  11. Chestnuts roasting on an open fire | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    use mass spectrometry to confirm similarity of transgenic leaves, stems and nuts to wild-type American chestnut American chestnuts could once again be roasting on open fires...

  12. A Method for Evaluating Fire After Earthquake Scenarios for Single...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with fire after earthquake evaluations. One approach is to develop a site specific seismic hazard curve in accordance with DOE orders, standards and guides, along with the...

  13. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  14. A REVIEW OF LARGE-SCALE FIRE TESTING FOCUSING ON THE FIRE BEHAVIOUR OF CHEMICALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and toxic combustion products in well ventilated conditions. Some aspects of the implication of lab in ventilated conditions in accordance with ISO TR 9122 fire classification4 , since such conditions were typical of French industrial premises. Chemicals investigated thus far have been most of the time

  15. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and potential application to fire and fuels management for the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurth, Laurie; Hollingsworth, LaWen; Shea, Dan

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for the Savannah River Site in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. using three data sources: FCCS, LANDFIRE, and SWRA. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the U.S. using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern U.S. using satellite imagery.

  16. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    use and burning of agricultural waste in the developingsa- vanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires toex- tratropics, 15%), agricultural waste burning (3%), and

  17. Very long transients, irregular firing, and chaotic dynamics in networks of randomly connected inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunel, Nicolas

    inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons Rüdiger Zillmer,1,2,3 Nicolas Brunel,1,2 and David Hansel1,2 1

  18. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. G. : Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires,O. , and Merlet, P. : Emission of trace gases and aerosolsEstimating direct carbon emissions from Canadian wildland

  19. Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, Central Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho: U­1273 Prepared in cooperation with Blaine County, Idaho #12;#12;Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment

  20. Fire and Life Safety Information - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall ATours, Programs and EventsFiberFire

  1. Fire Protection Engineering Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOnSTATEMENT OFProvides an overview ofblock inKevinFire

  2. Fire Safety Committee | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers New Training on Energy6 FederalofE:FinancingFinding a CareerFireSafety

  3. Contained Firing Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTubahq.na.gov Office of theNuclearNanotechnologies |MarchContained Firing

  4. Fire Protection Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Departmentof Ohio EnvironmentalEnergyFinancingFire Protection Program

  5. Fire Standards Codes and Prevention in IBRs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy June 6-7, 2013 MeetingEA #February 2, 2009Safety Committee Fire5,

  6. Fire victim helped by area programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget »TraveleBooks Find eBooks ManyFionaFire victim

  7. Experimental study of the combustion regimes of a compartment fire under conditions of underventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, Anthony E.

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite advances in the understanding of fire over the past decades [Quintiere 2001] and despite the advances in computing capacity, our ability to predict the behaviour of fires in general and building fires in particular ...

  8. EPRI/NRC-RES fire human reliability analysis guidelines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Stuart R. (Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC); Cooper, Susan E. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD); Najafi, Bijan (SAIC, Campbell, CA); Collins, Erin (SAIC, Campbell, CA); Hannaman, Bill (SAIC, Campbell, CA); Kohlhepp, Kaydee (Scientech, Tukwila, WA); Grobbelaar, Jan (Scientech, Tukwila, WA); Hill, Kendra (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Forester, John Alan; Julius, Jeff (Scientech, Tukwila, WA)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1990s, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed methods for fire risk analysis to support its utility members in the preparation of responses to Generic Letter 88-20, Supplement 4, 'Individual Plant Examination - External Events' (IPEEE). This effort produced a Fire Risk Assessment methodology for operations at power that was used by the majority of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs) in support of the IPEEE program and several NPPs overseas. Although these methods were acceptable for accomplishing the objectives of the IPEEE, EPRI and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recognized that they required upgrades to support current requirements for risk-informed, performance-based (RI/PB) applications. In 2001, EPRI and the USNRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) embarked on a cooperative project to improve the state-of-the-art in fire risk assessment to support a new risk-informed environment in fire protection. This project produced a consensus document, NUREG/CR-6850 (EPRI 1011989), entitled 'Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities' which addressed fire risk for at power operations. NUREG/CR-6850 developed high level guidance on the process for identification and inclusion of human failure events (HFEs) into the fire PRA (FPRA), and a methodology for assigning quantitative screening values to these HFEs. It outlined the initial considerations of performance shaping factors (PSFs) and related fire effects that may need to be addressed in developing best-estimate human error probabilities (HEPs). However, NUREG/CR-6850 did not describe a methodology to develop best-estimate HEPs given the PSFs and the fire-related effects. In 2007, EPRI and RES embarked on another cooperative project to develop explicit guidance for estimating HEPs for human failure events under fire generated conditions, building upon existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This document provides a methodology and guidance for conducting a fire HRA. This process includes identification and definition of post-fire human failure events, qualitative analysis, quantification, recovery, dependency, and uncertainty. This document provides three approaches to quantification: screening, scoping, and detailed HRA. Screening is based on the guidance in NUREG/CR-6850, with some additional guidance for scenarios with long time windows. Scoping is a new approach to quantification developed specifically to support the iterative nature of fire PRA quantification. Scoping is intended to provide less conservative HEPs than screening, but requires fewer resources than a detailed HRA analysis. For detailed HRA quantification, guidance has been developed on how to apply existing methods to assess post-fire fire HEPs.

  9. Meso-scale turbulence in living fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henricus H. Wensink; Jörn Dunkel; Sebastian Heidenreich; Knut Drescher; Raymond E. Goldstein; Hartmut Löwen; Julia M. Yeomans

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulence is ubiquitous, from oceanic currents to small-scale biological and quantum systems. Self-sustained turbulent motion in microbial suspensions presents an intriguing example of collective dynamical behavior amongst the simplest forms of life, and is important for fluid mixing and molecular transport on the microscale. The mathematical characterization of turbulence phenomena in active non-equilibrium fluids proves even more difficult than for conventional liquids or gases. It is not known which features of turbulent phases in living matter are universal or system-specific, or which generalizations of the Navier-Stokes equations are able to describe them adequately. Here, we combine experiments, particle simulations, and continuum theory to identify the statistical properties of self-sustained meso-scale turbulence in active systems. To study how dimensionality and boundary conditions affect collective bacterial dynamics, we measured energy spectra and structure functions in dense Bacillus subtilis suspensions in quasi-2D and 3D geometries. Our experimental results for the bacterial flow statistics agree well with predictions from a minimal model for self-propelled rods, suggesting that at high concentrations the collective motion of the bacteria is dominated by short-range interactions. To provide a basis for future theoretical studies, we propose a minimal continuum model for incompressible bacterial flow. A detailed numerical analysis of the 2D case shows that this theory can reproduce many of the experimentally observed features of self-sustained active turbulence.

  10. The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) hazards include LNG flammable vapor dispersion and LNG pool fire thermal radiation. A large LNG pool fire emits high thermal radiation thus preventing fire fighters from approaching and extinguishing the fire. One...

  11. 324 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggen, C.D.

    1998-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 1998, the 324 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWHC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in six areas and provided 20 recommendations to bring the 324 Building into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A. Additionally, one observation was provided. To date, four of the recommendations and the one observation have been completed. Actions identified for seven of the recommendations are currently in progress. Exemption requests will be transmitted to DOE-RL for three of the recommendations. Six of the recommendations are related to future shut down activities of the facility and the corrective actions are not being addressed as part of this plan. The actions for recommendations associated with the safety related part of the 324 Building and operation of the cells and support areas were evaluated using the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process. Major Life Safety Code concerns have been corrected. The status of the recommendations and actions was confirmed during the July 1998 Fire Protection Assessment. BVMC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 324 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and RLID 5480.7.

  12. High-Sensitivity Delayed-Coincidence Spectrometer to Search for Short-Lived Nuclear States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morozov, V A; Norseev, Yu V; Sereeter, Z; Zlokazov, V B

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-sensitivity four-dimensional triple-coincidence spectrometer with two detectors is developed on the basis of an autocorrelation single-crystal scintillation time 4{\\pi} spectrometer and a semiconductor HPGe detector. The delayed-coincidence spectrometer is designed for searching for isomeric nano- and microsecond states in short-lived nuclei and for their related gamma-rays. Half-lives of short-lived states are measured in the range from 4 ns to 4 {\\mu}s. The sufficient activity of the monoisotopic source for the investigations does not exceed 0.01 {\\mu}Ci.

  13. DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY Fire Protection Design Guidelines Nov 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY Fire Protection Design Guidelines Nov 2013 Department of Facilities Management for fire water backflow preventers are Cold, Ames, Conbraco and Watts. 2. Sprinkler System Addition (Table F): Pipe material for over 2" inside sprinkler water to be Sch10, thin wall. New Section: Standpipes

  14. Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies Fire and Emergency Services Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies ­ Fire and Emergency Services Administration ­ Bachelor Updated: 5-Apr-13/LNHD This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major;Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies ­ Fire and Emergency Services Administration ­ Bachelor

  15. Termites, elephants and fire are key drivers of tree mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mortality: 2 dominated by elephant damage, 2 by termite attack and 1 by fire. Wind and human activity wereTermites, elephants and fire are key drivers of tree mortality 5 plots suffered substantial tree not major causes of tree mortality. Sample sizes are too small to reasonably determine the most significant

  16. The Walter W. Maybee Award for Fire Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Awarded to those whom the Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Safety Committee concludes to be a personification of the ideals of this community and who has achieved a significant degree of accomplishment within the realms of fire protection engineering and emergency services.

  17. Why Does the Sun Shine? Is the Sun on Fire?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    protons + 6 neutrons) MO = 16 x mp (8 protons + 8 neutrons mp = 1.6 x 10-24 gm (mass of the proton) MCO2 = (12 + 32) * mp N = M / MCO2 = 2.6 X 1055 (number of reactions possible) #12;Is the Sun on Fire? Fire

  18. FireWise Construction: Site Design & Building Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FireWise Construction: Site Design & Building Materials Based on the 2009 International Wildland for Testing and Materials (ASTM) committees that develop standards on the performance of materials in fire and water consumption, and the use of appropriate, resource-conserving materials. Peter developed the first

  19. UNCORRECTED Effects of fire and spruce beetle outbreak legacies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veblen, Thomas T.

    between fire and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirkby) disturbances in a Colorado sub- alpine influenced by the interactions between fire and insect disturbances. Keywords dendrochronology, Dendroctonus and outbreaks of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus J B I 9 1 2 B Dispatch: 19.5.03 Journal: JBI CE: Hari Journal Name

  20. ROOF CHARACTERISATION RELATED TO FIRE PROPAGATION RISK BY A NUMERICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ROOF CHARACTERISATION RELATED TO FIRE PROPAGATION RISK BY A NUMERICAL APPROACH L. Fournier1 , A by thé roof: - one is thé use of intumescent strips on thé roof, - thé other consists of extending thé fire walls (typically 70 cm or 1 m) above thé roof levé1 in order to prevent thé flame from being blown

  1. firestarter A Real-Time Fire Simulator Marc de Kruijf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    + 11O2 9H2O + 5CO2 + 5CO + 8C + 9H2 This equation should give just about the right impression: we to graphically render physical phenomena that are highly fluid and ostensibly chaotic in nature. Fire is a prime) visualization are explored. Section 3 discusses important physical properties of fire that need to be considered

  2. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  3. Dynamics of Synaptically Interacting Integrate-and-Fire Neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coombes, Stephen

    Dynamics of Synaptically Interacting Integrate-and-Fire Neurons by Matthew Philip James A DOCTORAL evidence which suggests that the response of a neuron is strongly dependent upon its previous activity of integrate-and-fire neurons. Self-consistent speeds and periods are determined from integro

  4. Altered Fire Regimes Affect Landscape Patterns of Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    , average parameters can be hard to define as the frequency of the disturbance is of the same order of magni of disturbance and plant succession, to examine the resilience of dominant plant species, representing different disturbance response strate- gies, to the effect of varying fire rotation intervals (FRI). The simulated fire

  5. Fire Feedbacks with Vegetation and Alternative Stable States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckage, Brian

    landscape composition and that (ii) hurricane disturbances can mediate the frequency of fire that leads frequency. Our results indicate that gradual changes in global climate that influence disturbance frequency.Beckage@uvm.edu Positive feedbacks between vegetation and fire disturbance may lead to nonlinear ecosystem responses

  6. (BSET) -FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM Effective Fall 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Anita

    (BSET) - FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM Effective Fall 2003 Updated - Fall 2009csd: In addition to University and College of Engineering requirements, an AAS transfer student who is admitted Advisor: Notes Engineering Economics Building Fire Safety Risk Mgmt. for Emerg. Services Professional

  7. Sustainable Living Guide This sustainable living guide is the product of a class project for Geography 6250 at Memorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyet, Alwell

    St. John's Sustainable Living Guide #12;This sustainable living guide is the product of a class's Sustainable Living Guide. Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, 40 p. Any...........................................................................................................2-4 Sustainable Home Living

  8. Variable community responses to herbivory in fire-altered landscapes of northern Patagonia, Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veblen, Thomas T.

    Variable community responses to herbivory in fire-altered landscapes of northern Patagonia 2003, accepted 6 April 2005 Landscapes in northern Patagonia have undergone dramatic changes in fire

  9. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionsto atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversionthe major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

  10. Fire Protection Program Assessment, Building 9203 & 9203A Complex- Y12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This assessment is intended to evaluate the fire hazards, life safety and fire protection features inherent in the Building 9203 and 9203A complex.

  11. advanced coal-fired gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal-fired unit at Hawthorn Station. Ultimately, KCPL decided to replace the destroyed steam generator with another coal-fired unit, and repower the existing turbinegenerator...

  12. Live with the Energy Innovation Hub Directors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tune in today, Tuesday, March 6, 2012, at 2:15pm EST for a live discussion with our three Energy Innovation Hubs directors.

  13. Nuclear Physics Technology Saves Lives | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Saves Lives January 11, 2006 Listen to this story Ribbon With early detection, breast cancer can often be treated successfully. There are over two million breast cancer survivors...

  14. Extending the Operating Lives of Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paul Jablonski

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallurgist Paul Jablonski discusses his role in developing processes that extend the operating temperatures and operating lives of materials used in energy applications.

  15. Extending the Operating Lives of Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Jablonski

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallurgist Paul Jablonski discusses his role in developing processes that extend the operating temperatures and operating lives of materials used in energy applications.

  16. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

  17. NUCLEAR HALF-LIVES FOR ALPHA RADIOACTIVITY OF ELEMENTS WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Roy Chowdhury A; C. Samanta A

    Theoretical estimates for the half lives of about 1700 isotopes of heavy elements with 100 ? Z ? 130 are tabulated using theoretical Q-values. The quantum mechanical tunneling probabilities are calculated within a WKB framework using microscopic nuclear potentials. The microscopic nucleus- nucleus potentials are obtained by folding the densities of interacting nuclei with a density dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective nucleon- nucleon interaction. The ?-decay half lives calculated in this formalism using the experimental Q-values were found to be in good agreement over a wide range of experimental data spanning about twenty orders of magnitude. The theoretical Q-values used for the present calculations are extracted from three different mass estimates viz. Myers-Swiatecki [MS], Muntian-Hofmann-Patyk-

  18. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  19. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  20. HAZARDS OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR RADIOLOGICAL CONTAINER ENGULFED IN FIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fire accidents pose a serious threat to nuclear facilities. It is imperative that transport casks or shielded containers designed to transport/contain radiological materials have the ability to withstand a hypothetical fire. A numerical simulation was performed for a shielded container constructed of stainless steel and lead engulfed in a hypothetical fire as outlined by 10 CFR §71.73. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the thermal response of the container during and after the fire. The thermal model shows that after 30 minutes of fire, the stainless steel will maintain its integrity and not melt. However, the lead shielding will melt since its temperature exceeds the melting point. Due to the method of construction of the container under consideration, ample void space must be provided to allow for thermal expansion of the lead upon heating and melting, so as to not overstress the weldment.

  1. Study on eliminating fire dampers to maintain process confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walling, R.C.; Patel, J.B.; Strunk, A.J.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE General Design Criteria for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) requires the NFPA National Fire Codes to be incorporated into the design and simultaneously maintain process confinement integrity to prevent the release of radioactivity. Although the NFPA Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems, NFPA 90, requires fire dampers (FD) in HVAC duct penetrations of two hour rated fire barriers, closure of fire dampers at DWPF may compromise the integrity of the process confinement system. This leads to the need for an overall risk assessment to determine the value of 39 fire dampers that are identified later in the study as capable of a confinement system upset.

  2. Study on eliminating fire dampers to maintain process confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walling, R.C.; Patel, J.B.; Strunk, A.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE General Design Criteria for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) requires the NFPA National Fire Codes to be incorporated into the design and simultaneously maintain process confinement integrity to prevent the release of radioactivity. Although the NFPA Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems, NFPA 90, requires fire dampers (FD) in HVAC duct penetrations of two hour rated fire barriers, closure of fire dampers at DWPF may compromise the integrity of the process confinement system. This leads to the need for an overall risk assessment to determine the value of 39 fire dampers that are identified later in the study as capable of a confinement system upset.

  3. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  4. Fire initiation and spread in urban areas due to nuclear attack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.; Kang, S.W.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculation of fire development in urban areas is a critical step in estimating the global effects of nuclear warfare with regard to smoke production and transport. As part of the first phase of a program to improve our ability to calculate fire starts and spread in urban areas, we have performed a parameter sensitivity analysis using the three codes originally developed for civil defense planning by the IIT Research Institute. We have added graphics and made slight improvements to the codes and applied them to the representation of the San Jose urban area used in the Five-City Study of the late 1960s. For a chosen reference attack scenario, we have varied parameters and compared the results to those of a representative baseline case. The parameters varied included: atmospheric visibility, lowest of the various critical ignition energies of window coverings, shading of windows by trees and awnings, extent of blast extinguishment of fires, secondary ignitions, window glass transmittance, specific firebrand generation rate, firebrand distribution range, windspeed, building densities, specific fuel loadings, and window sizes. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Time and length scales within a fire and implications for numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

    2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial non-dimensionalization of the Navier-Stokes equations is used to obtain order of magnitude estimates of the rate-controlling transport processes in the reacting portion of a fire plume as a function of length scale. Over continuum length scales, buoyant times scales vary as the square root of the length scale; advection time scales vary as the length scale, and diffusion time scales vary as the square of the length scale. Due to the variation with length scale, each process is dominant over a given range. The relationship of buoyancy and baroclinc vorticity generation is highlighted. For numerical simulation, first principles solution for fire problems is not possible with foreseeable computational hardware in the near future. Filtered transport equations with subgrid modeling will be required as two to three decades of length scale are captured by solution of discretized conservation equations. By whatever filtering process one employs, one must have humble expectations for the accuracy obtainable by numerical simulation for practical fire problems that contain important multi-physics/multi-length-scale coupling with up to 10 orders of magnitude in length scale.

  6. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  7. Remote sensing data of biomass and fire history were used to characterise woodland degradation across the landscape (fig. 2). Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remote sensing data of biomass and fire history were used to characterise woodland degradation. Results MODEL OUTPUT There is potential for considerable biomass variation as a result of fire (fig. 3 biomass woodlands are particularly vulnerable to degradation, though were also found to be capable

  8. Assessment of simulation predictions of hydrocarbon pool fire tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is performed on the fuel regression rate model within SIERRA/Fuego by comparing to a series of hydrocarbon tests performed in the Thermal Test Complex. The fuels used for comparison for the fuel regression rate model include methanol, ethanol, JP8, and heptane. The recently implemented flamelet combustion model is also assessed with a limited comparison to data involving measurements of temperature and relative mole fractions within a 2-m diameter methanol pool fire. The comparison of the current fuel regression rate model to data without UQ indicates that the model over predicts the fuel regression rate by 65% for methanol, 63% for ethanol, 95% for JP8, and 15% for heptane. If a UQ analysis is performed incorporating a range of values for transmittance, reflectance, and heat flux at the surface the current model predicts fuel regression rates within 50% of measured values. An alternative model which uses specific heats at inlet and boiling temperatures respectively and does not approximate the sensible heat is also compared to data. The alternative model with UQ significantly improves the comparison to within 25% for all fuels except heptane. Even though the proposed alternative model provides better agreement to data, particularly for JP8 and ethanol (within 15%), there are still outstanding issues regarding significant uncertainties which include heat flux gauge measurement and placement, boiling at the fuel surface, large scale convective motion within the liquid, and semi-transparent behavior.

  9. s Earth and environment s Living resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4 s Earth and environment s Living resources s Societies and health s Expertise and consulting of this trend is the acquisition, on a joint proposal from the Earth and Environment department and the Living phenomena so as to improve forecasting of the attendant hazards. The earth's crust: processes and natural

  10. INVEST IN YOUR BONES Living with Osteoporosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVEST IN YOUR BONES Living with Osteoporosis Leaflet 5 Living with osteoporosis can be done environment safe to avoid falls. Early detection of bone loss or osteoporosis is now possible with bone to be most effective in reducing bone loss during the five to ten years following menopause, when bone loss

  11. Living Village Kioni Village, Ithaca, Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    University | 2010 #12;Living | Village Kioni Village Ithaca, Greece A X A A Sustainable Ithaca ProgramLiving Village Kioni Village, Ithaca, Greece A X A A Nicholas Zaferatos Western Washington Zaferatos, Sustainable Ithaca Faculty Program Director, at nicholas.zaferatos@wwu.edu #12;Table of Contents

  12. 1 | P a g e Living a Digital Life Camp Camp: Living a Digital Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    , captchas, social media, MMORPG -- this camp explores the digital world from both the user1 | P a g e Living a Digital Life Camp Camp: Living a Digital Life August 11- 15 for participants 11 - 13 years old General description: We live in a digital world, where the ground shifts faster

  13. 327 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARILO, N.F.

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 1998, the 327 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-E) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in five areas and provided nine recommendations (11 items) to bring the 327 Building into compliance. A status is provided for each recommendation in this document. BWHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 327 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and IUD 5480.7.

  14. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  15. Constant power speed range extension of surface mounted PM motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawler, Jack Steward (Knoxville, TN); Bailey, John Milton (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A circuit and method for controlling a rotating machine (11) in the constant horsepower range above base speed uses an inverter (15) having SCR's (T1-T6) connected in series with the primary commutation switches (Q1-Q6) to control turn off of the primary commutation switches and to protect the primary commutation switches from faults. The primary commutation switches (Q1-Q6) are controlled by a controller (14), to fire in advance or after a time when the back emf equals the applied voltage, and then to turn off after a precise dwell time, such that suitable power is developed at speeds up to at least six times base speed.

  16. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  17. Investigation of UF/sub 6/ behavior in a fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, W.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactions between UF/sub 6/ and combustible gases and the potential for UF/sub 6/-filled cylinders to rupture when exposed to fire are addressed. Although the absence of kinetic data prevents specific identification and quantification of the chemical species formed, potential reaction products resulting from the release of UF/sub 6/ into a fire include UF/sub 4/, UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/, HF, C, CF/sub 4/,COF/sub 2/, and short chain, fluorinated or partially fluorinated hydrocarbons. Such a release adds energy to a fire relative to normal combustion reactions. Time intervals to an assumed point of rupture for UF/sub 6/-filled cylinders exposed to fire are estimated conservatively. Several related studies are also summarized, including a test series in which small UF/sub 6/-filled cylinders were immersed in fire resulting in valve failures and explosive ruptures. It is concluded that all sizes of UF/sub 6/ cylinders currently in use may rupture within 30 minutes when totally immersed in a fire. For cylinders adjacent to fires, rupture of the larger cylinders appears much less likely.

  18. Results of gas-fired flash-smelting tests. Phase 1-3. Topical technical report, November 1987-April 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusateri, J.F.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A natural gas-fired burner for the HRD FLAME REACTOR Process was designed and successfully tested on over 450 tons of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust, and over a wide range of operating conditions. The coal/coke-fired FLAME REACTOR Process has already been demonstrated as an efficient and economic means of recovering zinc from EAF dust as a salable oxide product, and a salable nonhazardous, iron-rich slag product. The results of the work indicate that the natural gas-fired process has a higher zinc capacity for a given reactor size, with zinc recoveries 5-10 percentage points higher than coal/coke processing at high throughputs. Gas-fired capital costs are about 15% less than coal for a 20,000 STPY EAF dust plant. Smaller plants show even higher break-even costs. Net processing costs are about $100/ton of EAF dust, which is extremely competitive with land-filling and other recycling options.

  19. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  20. Storage tank insulation panels that offer fire protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancroff, M. [Pittsburgh Corning Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many fluids require storage temperatures of over several hundred degrees above ambient. As a result of these elevated storage temperatures many storage tanks require insulation to help in both energy conservation and in maintaining a uniform fluid temperature distribution. Since these fluids are typically flammable these storage tanks also often require some sort of fire protection. One of the most commonly used methods of fire protection is a deluge system. Actively operated deluge systems, although effective when working properly, have several drawbacks. A cellular glass insulation panel system can provide not only excellent insulation value but also passive fire protection without the concern of an active system failure.

  1. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF LOCOMOTIVE FIRES IN THE LYON-TURIN TUNNEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    conducted on coach fires but few results are published on locomotive fires and their consequences (3 not participate to the fire. Fire resisting wall Cabin Block : -polycarbonate -polyurethane epoxy Motor Block : -polyurethane -polyester -epoxy -wood Auxiliary Block : -polyurethane -polycarbonate -polyester -epoxy -wood

  3. Edinburgh Research Explorer The Dalmarnock Fire Tests on a Cast Insitu Concrete Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer The Dalmarnock Fire Tests on a Cast Insitu Concrete Structure Citation Fire Tests on a Cast Insitu Concrete Structure'. in Proceedings of the international Workshop Fire THE DALMARNOCK FIRE TESTS ON A CAST INSITU CONCRETE STRUCTURE Susan Deeny PhD Student University of Edinburgh, UK

  4. Born of Fire--Restoring Sagebrush Steppe reversing the presence of invasive species,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    displace native species, but can fuel fires that favor invasion and yet more fires. Restoring a healthy and present use of native and nonnative plants in revegetation projects. Invasive Species Influenced by Fire between 1988 and 1999 indicated that there was a doubling of fires in the last 12 years, mostly between

  5. Smokes from the oil fires following the Gulf War: A review and new perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radke, L.F.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions resulting from the oil fires in Kuwait and environmental effects from those emissions are described.

  6. Estimation of Fire Danger in Hawai`i Using Limited Weather Data and Simulation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Scott L.

    199 Estimation of Fire Danger in Hawai`i Using Limited Weather Data and Simulation1 David R. Weise: The presence of fire in Hawai`i has increased with introduction of nonnative grasses. Fire danger estimation using the National Fire Danger Rat- ing System (NFDRS) typically requires 5 to 10 yr of data

  7. The 1D Iterative Model for Predicting Thermal Radiation from a Jet Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    manuscript, published in "6. International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (FEH), Leeds : UnitedThe 1D Iterative Model for Predicting Thermal Radiation from a Jet Fire Leroy, G.* and Duplantier of the current jet fire models used in the accidental fire risks department are semi- empirical. They depend

  8. RISK ASSESSMENT OF A FIRE INVOLVING COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS IN A WAREHOUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in "4. International seminar on fire and explosion hazards, Londonderry : Ireland (2003)" #12;SeRISK ASSESSMENT OF A FIRE INVOLVING COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS IN A WAREHOUSE Wang, H.Y. ', Russo, P modeling into a rack fire in warehouse, and an identifi- cation of the visible flame shape when a fire

  9. DYNAMICS OF CURRENT-BASED, POISSON DRIVEN, INTEGRATE-AND-FIRE NEURONAL NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Peter

    DYNAMICS OF CURRENT-BASED, POISSON DRIVEN, INTEGRATE-AND-FIRE NEURONAL NETWORKS KATHERINE A-based, integrate-and-fire (I&F) neurons with delta-impulse coupling currents and Poisson spike-train external drive are studied. Repeating synchronous total firing events, during which all the neurons fire simultaneously

  10. Range Condition: Key to Sustained Ranch Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; White, Larry D.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Range condition, or a rangeland's "state of health," is an ecological measurement of the current condition of a range. Range condition is evaluated by the plant species composition. This leaflet explains the importance of range condition, how range...

  11. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  12. Contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, J.B.; Gonzalez-Caban, A.; Gregory, R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to esimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon residents ranges from $49.6 to $99 million. In terms of old-growth forests protected from fire, the value is $28 per acre.

  13. Asbestos, Environment, Fire, Health, Safety, and Security Policy 1. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    Asbestos, Environment, Fire, Health, Safety, and Security Policy 1. INTRODUCTION This document to prevent and control the impact of accidents and incidents involving students, staff, faculty of their missions. 2. PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Overall responsibility for administration of this program resides

  14. Fire Ecology Special Issue Vol. 5, No. 1, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - boniferous Period (307 to 359 million years before the present) contain evidence of char- coal from post-fire ash slurry flows (Scott 2000). As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs

  15. Six Sigma process improvements and sourcing strategies following factory fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egan, Sarah (Sarah J.)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses Six Sigma process improvements and the supplier management issues resulting from the shift to external suppliers in the aftermath of a fire. Originally, this thesis was to address a lean implementation ...

  16. Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, opacity...

  17. Global Installed Capacity of Coal Fired Power Generation to Reach...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Installed Capacity of Coal Fired Power Generation to Reach 2,057.6 GW by 2019 Home > Groups > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency John55364's picture Submitted by...

  18. Heat Transfer to the Structure during the Fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jowsey, Allan; Torero, Jose L; Lane, Barbara

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The post-flashover Fire Test One of a furnished room in Dalmarnock provides a wealth of information including measurements in both the gas phase and on compartment boundaries (Chapter 3). Total heat fluxes at a number ...

  19. Multiscale Modelling of Tunnel Ventilation Flows and Fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco

    Tunnels represent a key part of world transportation system with a role both in people and freight transport. Past events show that fire poses a severe threat to safety in tunnels. Indeed in the past decades over four ...

  20. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) Dale M. Meade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Boeing Company University of Illinois University of Wisconsin #12;Laboratories are Needed to Explore the world have logged on to the FIRE web site since the site was initiated in July, 1999. #12;Attractive MFE

  1. Baseline Fire Protection Facility Assessment for Building 9116...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    this building exceeds both NFPA and DOE criteria. The detection and alarm system sends a signal to the fire station and to the Plant Shift Superintendent's control center, but...

  2. Evaluation of Human Performance Issues for Fire Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bley, Dennis C.; Cooper, Susan E.; Forester, John A.; Kolaczkowski, Alan M.; Ramey-Smith, Ann; Thompson, Catherine M.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Wreathall, John

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the current status of the treatment of human reliability in fire risk analyses for nuclear power plants and identifies areas that need to be addressed. A new approach is suggested to improve the modeling.

  3. fire & fuels management Spruce Beetle-Induced Changes to Engelmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    engelmannii Parry ex Engelm) stands affected by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) represent agents of distur- bance in spruce-fir forests are fire and the spruce beetle (Dendrocto- nus rufipennis

  4. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  5. Large scale testing in the INERIS fire gallery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and the stack allows controlled Ventilation of the fire zone at flowrates comparable to those observed in industrial premises Of course, both the horizontal and upward vertical sections walla comprises refractory

  6. A Method for Evaluating Fire after Earthquake Scenarios for Single...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOENNSA LANS Company Sensitive - unauthorized release or dissemination prohibited U N C L A S S I F I E D A Method for Evaluating Fire After Earthquake Scenarios for Single...

  7. Environmental Health and Safety Fire and Life Safety Laboratory Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Health and Safety Fire and Life Safety Laboratory Assessment PI or environmental concerns were identified. B. Items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. C. Uncorrected repeated safety or environmental items were identified. Safety Equipment # Compliance Items

  8. HEPTANE FIRE TESTS WITH FORCED VENTILATION Eric CASALE Guy MARLAIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    approximation to a real fire scenario occuring in a road tunnel, involving petrol combustion from one or several petrol tanks after a crash. 2.1 The scientific background Pool buming has been studied extensively

  9. Vulnerability assessment of water supply systems for insufficient fire flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanta, Lufthansa Rahman

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    supply systems are vulnerable to many forms of terrorist acts, most of the vulnerability analysis studies on these systems have been for chemical and biological threats. Because of the interdependency of water supply infrastructure and emergency fire...

  10. Applications of Computer Modelling to Fire Safety Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L; Steinhaus, Thomas

    Tools in support of fire safety engineering design have proliferated in the last few years due to the increased performance of computers. These tools are currently being used in a generalized manner in areas such as egress, ...

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  12. FIRE Actions in Response to Next Step Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FIRE Actions in Response to Next Step Options Program Advisory Committee Report NSO-PAC CHARGES #1. The chairman will take responsibility for insuring this activity is completed prior to the next PAC meeting. 1

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Fire frequency and tree canopy structure influence plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    composition (Huston 1994). Ecological theory predicts important linkages between disturbance frequency frequencies and severities that minimize species losses due to competitive exclusion and direct disturbanceORIGINAL PAPER Fire frequency and tree canopy structure influence plant species diversity

  14. assess fire effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid smoke increased P. barbatus emergence to as high as 63%, 44% greater than controls, and enhanced Abella, Scott R. 93 SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FIRE IN GRAND...

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  16. Longevity effects on the performance of fire detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dedear, Timothy Keith

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Smoke detectors, a critical part of any fire detection system, are employed as safety devices to warn building inhabitants of life threatening particles resulting from combustion. Two types of detectors are currently on the market: ionization...

  17. Job Position Description Job Title: Fire Safety Assistant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Paul A.

    Job Position Description Job Title: Fire Safety Assistant A. Main purpose of the job: To assist equipment. B. Primary responsibilities or key duties of the job (tasks performed regularly): 1. Perform

  18. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  19. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  20. Exxon Chemical's Coal-Fired Combined Cycle Power Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide, J. J.

    EXXON CHEMICAL'S COAL-FIRED COMBINED CYCLE POWER TECHNOLOGY John J. Guide, P.E. Exxon Chemical Company Florham Park, New Jersey ABSTRACT Exxon Chemical's Central Engineering Divi sion has recently developed and patented CAT...-PAC for Industrial Cogeneration and Utility Power Plants. It involves the marriage of a conven tional direct pulverized coal-fired boiler radiant section with a convection section adapted ~rom our furnace experience. In particular, it 1S an open-cycle, hot air...

  1. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Six, D E

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described.

  2. Projection of Plasma Performance for FIRE Presented to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Based on tokamak data base (IPBDB4) n20 0.80 nGW = 0.80 Ip/a2 Beta Limit - theory and tokamak data base-mode data base of FIRE-like shots (55) 1.7, N > 1.7, 2.7 3.5, Zeff -Mode Data Selected for FIRE-like Parameters JET Data > 1.7, 2.7 3.5, N > 1.7, Zeff

  3. Gas Turbine Fired Heater Integration: Achieve Significant Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iaquaniello, G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    GAS TURBINE FIRED HEATER INTEGRATION: ACHIEVE SIGNIFICANT ENERGY SAVINGS G. Iaquaniello**, P. Pietrogrande* *KTI Corp., Research and Development Division, Monrovia, California **KTI SpA, Rome, Italy ABSTRAer Faster payout will result if gas... turbine exhaust is used as combustion air for fired heaters. Here are economic examples and system design considera-, tions. INTRODUCT ION Heat and power cogeneration is a potentially rewarding tecnique for achieving savings when applied to process...

  4. campus as living laboratory institutional Sustainability Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    operations campus as living laboratory diversity campus waste institutional Sustainability Plan eliminate priorities energy research 35%ofwastedivertedSTARSSilver 275 sustainability courses investment 60 accessibility faculty leadership 100+ sustainability research projects over $3.8 million in bursaries Calgary

  5. Adapting Your Home for More Accessible Living

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Janie

    2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is important for people to live comfortably and independently in their homes. Homes can be adapted to aid people with various disabilities. This publication explains how to make such adaptations for people with vision loss, hearing loss, problems...

  6. Living With Roommates a practical guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    /Cleaning (personal living area) y Mail pick-up y Pet peeves y Smoking y Food (sharing/cooking) y Room temperature y Decorations y Alcohol (consumption values & practices) y Telephone/payment/usage/messages Suggested Topics

  7. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong; Pak C. (Richland, WA), Wong; Kwong K. (Sugar Land, TX), Foote; Harlan P. (Richland, WA)

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  8. The Live Room : transducing resonant architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bain, Mark, 1966-

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Live Room is a temporary site specific installation presented in building N 51, room 117 on the MIT campus on May 7, 1998 and concluded on June 10, 1998. Using small acoustic intensifying equipment which mount directly ...

  9. Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in Thessaloniki, sending thick black

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site to break. This led to sludge flowing into some nearby houses. Authorities are due to begin the cleanup

  10. Dynamical real numbers and living systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhurjati Prasad Datta

    2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently uncovered second derivative discontinuous solutions of the simplest linear ordinary differential equation define not only an nonstandard extension of the framework of the ordinary calculus, but also provide a dynamical representation of the ordinary real number system. Every real number can be visualized as a living cell -like structure, endowed with a definite evolutionary arrow. We discuss the relevance of this extended calculus in the study of living systems. We also present an intelligent version of the Newton's first law of motion.

  11. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1Tracking Living Cells as(data

  12. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1Tracking Living Cells as(data

  13. An experimental study of water deluge on compartment fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, G.A. [Shell Research Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom). Thornton Research Centre

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A standard water deluge of the type in use on offshore platforms for general area coverage, nominal rate 10 liters/m{sup 2}/min, has been applied to 13MW propane jet fires and diesel pool fires in a 135 m{sup 3} steel compartment. In all cases the jet fires were fully extinguished within seconds of the deluge being activated, whereas pool fires continued to burn albeit at a reduced rate. An explanation is sought for the flame extinction that occurred with jet fires. The favored mechanism involves inerting the fuel/air mixture in the diffusion flame by entrainment of water vapor generated by evaporation at the compartment boundaries or within the flame. In less confined geometries there may be insufficient evaporation of water droplets and/or reduced entrainment and the jet fire would continue to burn. The results should be treated with caution as it remains unknown to what extent the observations are generally applicable, and definitive engineering guidance cannot be given at present. However, the results do warn of an additional explosion hazard if a jet flame is extinguished by deluge and the released gas is not isolated quickly. Further research will be aimed at improved understanding of the extinction mechanism and the development of safety guidance.

  14. Memorandum, Request for Concurrence on fire Temporary Variance Applications Regarding Fire Protection and Pressure Safety at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Request for Concurrence on Three Temporary Variance Applications Regarding Fire Protection and Pressure Safety at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  15. Current Fire Extinguisher Colour Codes (UK) Fire extinguishers meeting BS EN3 are manufactured with a red body and have a band of a second colour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    , Straw, Textiles, Coal etc. Class B Fires Flammable Liquids i.e.: Petrol, Diesel, Oils, Paraffin etc

  16. 324 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARILO, N.F.

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 1998, the 324 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the U S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWHC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in six areas and provided 20 recommendations to bring the 324 Building into compliance with DOE Order 5480 7A. Additionally, one observation was provided. A status is provided for each recommendation in this document. The actions for recommendations associated with the safety related part of the 324 Building and operation of the cells and support areas were evaluated using the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process BWHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 324 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480 7A and RLID 5480.7.

  17. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  18. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  19. Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 14 CHANGE AS A FACTOR IN ADVANCING FIRE-MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 14 embraced or easily implemented. #12;Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions the increasing complexity of wildland fire management and the need for change during a fire conference

  20. In Situ Live Cell Sensing of Multiple Nucleotides Exploiting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ Live Cell Sensing of Multiple Nucleotides Exploiting DNARNA Aptamers and Graphene Oxide Nanosheets. In Situ Live Cell Sensing of Multiple Nucleotides Exploiting DNARNA...

  1. Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable Energy Innovation and Deployment Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable Energy Innovation and...

  2. Fire hazards analysis for the uranium oxide (UO{sub 3}) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) documents the deactivation end-point status of the UO{sub 3} complex fire hazards, fire protection and life safety systems. This FHA has been prepared for the Uranium Oxide Facility by Westinghouse Hanford Company in accordance with the criteria established in DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection and RLID 5480.7, Fire Protection. The purpose of the Fire Hazards Analysis is to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the risk from a fire within individual fire areas in a Department of Energy facility so as to ascertain whether the objectives stated in DOE Order 5480.7, paragraph 4 are met. Particular attention has been paid to RLID 5480.7, Section 8.3, which specifies the criteria for deactivating fire protection in decommission and demolition facilities.

  3. DynCorp Tricities Services, Inc. Hanford fire department FY 1998 annual work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Good, D.E.

    1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the U.S. Department of Energy operated Hanford site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. This fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This plan provides a program overview, program baselines, and schedule baseline.

  4. Health-Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-150-1767, Warwick Fire Department, Warwick, Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenlyside, R.A.; House, L.A.; Kent, G.; Durand, J.M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In answer to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), an evaluation was made of health complaints noted by fire fighters exposed to plastic products and pesticides during two separate fires attended to by the Warwick Fire Department, located in Warwick, Rhode Island. Questionnaires were administered to 43 persons who were only present at the plastics fire and 46 who were only present at the pesticide fire and to 13 present at both fires. The men who fought the plastic products fire and the pesticide fire apparently experienced acute symptoms related to smoke and chemical inhalation during the fires, including headache, cough, sore throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, rash, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, and numbness. The authors conclude that fire fighters at these two fires experienced acute irritant symptoms from smoke and chemical inhalation. The authors recommend use of protective clothing, use of protective equipment, prefire planning, implementation of medical surveillance for all fire fighters, and the proper cleanup of protective clothing and equipment after fires.

  5. Analysis of vehicle fuel release resulting in waste tank fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the calculation documented here is to support in-tank vehicle fuel fire accident frequencies in the Documented Safety Analysis. This analysis demonstrates that the frequency of the pool fire and deflagration scenarios of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident are ''extremely unlikely'' to ''unlikely.'' The chains of events that result in each scenario are presented in this document and are the same as used in previous analyses of this accident. Probabilities and frequencies are developed for each event, using wherever possible, information from RPP-13121, Tables B-1 and B-2, and from the River Protection Project ORPS. The estimated probabilities are considered reasonably conservative, but do not necessarily assume the worst possible outcomes or the most conservative possible cases. A sensitivity analysis performed in Section 4.2 shows that if the probability of either the ignition of fuel event or the fuel flows into riser event were underestimated by an order of magnitude, the accident frequency for a pool fire could increase and shift into the ''unlikely'' category. If the probability of an increase in riser strikes, or an increase in broken risers, unignited fuel entering a riser, or a fuel ignition source being present in a tank were underestimated by an order of magnitude, the accident frequency for a deflagration would remain in the ''unlikely'' category. When the likelihood of a broken riser is increased by an order of magnitude, a pool fire remains in the ''extremely unlikely'' category. The DSA accident analysis indicates that an unmitigated flammable gas deflagration resulting from an induced gas release event or an organic solvent fire occurring in either an SST or a DST is an anticipated event (> 10{sup -2}). Deflagration in a DST annulus is considered unlikely (> 10{sup -4} to {le}10{sup -2}). These frequencies clearly bound those of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire family of accidents.

  6. Extended-range tiltable micromirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wiens, Gloria J. (Newberry, FL); Bronson, Jessica R. (Gainesville, FL)

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A tiltable micromirror device is disclosed in which a micromirror is suspended by a progressive linkage with an electrostatic actuator (e.g. a vertical comb actuator or a capacitive plate electrostatic actuator) being located beneath the micromirror. The progressive linkage includes a pair of torsion springs which are connected together to operate similar to a four-bar linkage with spring joints. The progressive linkage provides a non-linear spring constant which can allow the micromirror to be tilted at any angle within its range substantially free from any electrostatic instability or hysteretic behavior.

  7. Range Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form History Facebook iconQuito,Jump to:Radiant ElectricRamkyRange Fuels

  8. Fire Clay coal and sandstone washouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fire Clay coal bed has been studied in a portion of southeastern Kentucky. This seam is easily recognizable by a distinctive flint clay parting. Mine maps, field descriptions, and laboratory investigations were used to investigate this coal bed. Several elongate sandstone bodies cut the seam in the study area. These sandstone bodies are subparallel roughly east-west, and are typically 10[sup 1] to 10[sup 2] m wide, and 10[sup 2] m to tens of kilometers long. These sandstone washouts occur in areas overlain by a larger channel sandstone, which usually is found associated with the thickest areas of the coal seam. In south-central Perry County, a cross section of one washout area was well exposed. North of the washout, a 4 to 7 cm thick cannel coal was present at the base of the sequence. The coal on the north side of the cutout gradually thins from 2 m to 1.5 m away from the washout. On the south side of the washout, the coal thins abruptly from over 1.5 m to 1.25 m within 30 m of the channel. An island of slumped and slickensided coal is present within the washout region. Postdepositional differential compaction of the peat is inferred to be the control on placement of the channel system. The areas of thickest peat compacted the most, creating topographic lows through which the stream moved. The regions of thick coal were probably the result of several controlling factors. Predepositional differential compaction and erosion may have produced relief which influenced peat development. Lithologic and geochemical continuity across the channel is good, supporting postdepositional emplacement of the sandstone bodies.

  9. NICKEL SPECIES EMISSION INVENTORY FOR OIL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Richard L. Schulz; Donald L. Toman; Carolyn M. Nyberg

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400-MW and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned .0.9 and 0.3 wt% S residual oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for nickel (Ni) concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a water-soluble Ni extraction method. ROFA water extraction residues were also analyzed for Ni speciation using XAFS and XRD. Total Ni concentrations in the ROFAs were similar, ranging from 1.3 to 1.5 wt%; however, stack gas Ni concentrations in the Unit A were {approx}990 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} compared to {approx}620 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} for Unit B because of the greater residual oil feed rates employed at Unit A to attain higher load (i.e., MW) conditions with a lower heating value oil. Ni speciation analysis results indicate that ROFAs from Unit A contain about 3 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O (where x is assumed to be 6 for calculation purposes) and a Ni-containing spinel compound, similar in composition to (Mg,Ni)(Al,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 4}. ROFAs from Unit B contain on average 2.0 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and 1.1 wt% NiO. XAFS and XRD analyses did not detect any nickel sulfide compounds, including nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (XAFS detection limit is 5% of the total Ni concentration). In addition, XAFS measurements indicated that inorganic sulfate and organic thiophene species account for >97% of the total sulfur in the ROFAs. The presence of NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O and nickel oxide compound mixtures and lack of carcinogenic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} or nickel sulfide compounds (e.g., NiS, NiS{sub 2}) in ROFAs stack-sampled from 400- and 385-MW boilers are contrary to EPA's Ni inhalation cancer risk assessment (''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress'', February 1998), where it is assumed that the Ni compound mixture emitted from oil-fired utilities is 50% as carcinogenic as Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}. Apparently, this assumption greatly overestimates the Ni inhalation cancer risk from oil-fired utilities.

  10. Energetics of active fluctuations in living cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Étienne Fodor; Kiyoshi Kanazawa; Hisao Hayakawa; Paolo Visco; Frédéric van Wijland

    2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonequilibrium activity taking place in a living cell can be monitored with a tracer embedded in the medium. While microrheology experiments based on optical manipulation of such probes have become increasingly standard, we put forward a number of experiments with alternative protocols that, we claim, will provide new insight into the energetics of active fluctuations. These are based on either performing thermodynamic--like cycles in control-parameter space, or on determining response to external perturbations of the confining trap beyond simple translation. We illustrate our proposals on an active itinerant Brownian oscillator modeling the dynamics of a probe embedded in a living medium.

  11. Live Webinar on Better Buildings Challenge: Public-Sector Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Better Buildings Challenge: Public-Sector Update."

  12. housing.ucdavis.edu Living at UC Davis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernes, Peter J.

    housing.ucdavis.edu Living at UC Davis Residence Halls Living at UC Davis STUDENT HOUSING #12;2 Every year, Student Housing is home to over 6000 UC Davis students, most of whom are first-year freshmen and transfer students who live in the residence halls. Living in Student Housing is not required; however, most

  13. 24.01.01.Q0.08 Fire and Life Safety Page 1 of 3 STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .4 Regular inspection and review of facilities and activities; and 1.5 Preventive maintenance of all fire Foundation performs preventive maintenance and testing of building fire extinguishers and fire hydrants; 2

  14. Modelling the spreading of large-scale wildland fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drissi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present study is twofold. First, the last developments and validation results of a hybrid model designed to simulate fire patterns in heterogeneous landscapes are presented. The model combines the features of a stochastic small-world network model with those of a deterministic semi-physical model of the interaction between burning and non-burning cells that strongly depends on local conditions of wind, topography, and vegetation. Radiation and convection from the flaming zone, and radiative heat loss to the ambient are considered in the preheating process of unburned cells. Second, the model is applied to an Australian grassland fire experiment as well as to a real fire that took place in Corsica in 2009. Predictions compare favorably to experiments in terms of rate of spread, area and shape of the burn. Finally, the sensitivity of the model outcomes (here the rate of spread) to six input parameters is studied using a two-level full factorial design.

  15. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, Task 3, Preliminary R&D and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under Contract AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le}25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. A survey of currently available high temperature alloys has been completed and some of their high temperature properties are shown for comparison. Several of the most promising candidates will be selected for testing to determine corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. The corrosion resistance testing of candidate refractory coatings is continuing and some of the recent results are presented. This effort will provide important design information that will ultimately establish the operating ranges of the HITAF.

  16. Solar-Augment Potential of U.S. Fossil-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.; Langle, N.; Bedilion, R.; Libby, C.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems utilize solar thermal energy for the generation of electric power. This attribute makes it relatively easy to integrate CSP systems with fossil-fired power plants. The 'solar-augment' of fossil power plants offers a lower cost and lower risk alternative to stand-alone solar plant construction. This study ranked the potential to add solar thermal energy to coal-fired and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants found throughout 16 states in the southeast and southwest United States. Each generating unit was ranked in six categories to create an overall score ranging from Excellent to Not Considered. Separate analysis was performed for parabolic trough and power tower technologies due to the difference in the steam temperatures that each can generate. The study found a potential for over 11 GWe of parabolic trough and over 21 GWe of power tower capacity. Power towers offer more capacity and higher quality integration due to the greater steam temperatures that can be achieved. The best sites were in the sunny southwest, but all states had at least one site that ranked Good for augmentation.

  17. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  18. Simulated combined abnormal environment fire calculations for aviation impacts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alexander L.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aircraft impacts at flight speeds are relevant environments for aircraft safety studies. This type of environment pertains to normal environments such as wildlife impacts and rough landings, but also the abnormal environment that has more recently been evidenced in cases such as the Pentagon and World Trade Center events of September 11, 2001, and the FBI building impact in Austin. For more severe impacts, the environment is combined because it involves not just the structural mechanics, but also the release of the fuel and the subsequent fire. Impacts normally last on the order of milliseconds to seconds, whereas the fire dynamics may last for minutes to hours, or longer. This presents a serious challenge for physical models that employ discrete time stepping to model the dynamics with accuracy. Another challenge is that the capabilities to model the fire and structural impact are seldom found in a common simulation tool. Sandia National Labs maintains two codes under a common architecture that have been used to model the dynamics of aircraft impact and fire scenarios. Only recently have these codes been coupled directly to provide a fire prediction that is better informed on the basis of a detailed structural calculation. To enable this technology, several facilitating models are necessary, as is a methodology for determining and executing the transfer of information from the structural code to the fire code. A methodology has been developed and implemented. Previous test programs at the Sandia National Labs sled track provide unique data for the dynamic response of an aluminum tank of liquid water impacting a barricade at flight speeds. These data are used to validate the modeling effort, and suggest reasonable accuracy for the dispersion of a non-combustible fluid in an impact environment. The capability is also demonstrated with a notional impact of a fuel-filled container at flight speed. Both of these scenarios are used to evaluate numeric approximations, and help provide an understanding of the quantitative accuracy of the modeling methods.

  19. Live Streaming with Gossip Maxime Monod

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    ;2 TV ordinaire: tout en HD Live streaming Une source produit du contenu multimédia (un flux) n clients (n large) broadcasting diffusion ... ... ... IP TV, Web TV, P2P TV, ... vs 192K requêtes/jour 78K que le premier #12;·Gossip++Environment contraint ·HEAPEnvironnement hétérogène ·LiFT

  20. Quality health plans & benefits Healthier living

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the Affordable Care Act, also known as the health care reform law, will comply with requirements for WomenQuality health plans & benefits Healthier living Financial well-being Intelligent solutions 05's Preventive Health Services. This means that for women with reproductive capacity, certain women

  1. Hermeneutics by the Living Anton Markos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markos, Anton

    EDITORIAL Hermeneutics by the Living Anton Markos Received: 20 January 2010 /Accepted: 22 March by introducing hermeneutics? After all, semiotics has already colonized the field, and biosemioticians of different "denominations" flourish at their annual meetings.1 Is not, after all, hermeneutics but an older

  2. living and learning Department of Residential Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Missouri-Columbia, University of

    living and learning Accessible housing at Mizzou Department of Residential Life University is important to us. The Department of Residential Life at MU is committed to providing and improving accessible spaces for students with disabilities. Residential Life will help provide appropriate housing

  3. Developing SCBA mechanical stress resistance tests for fire fighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouch, K.G.; Abedin, S.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NIOSH have carried out a field study to determine the vibration and impact levels to which self-contained breathing apparatus are subjected in simulated fire-fighting use. The forces that facemask retaining straps experience in simulated fire-fighting use were also measured. Representative cut and puncture hazards were also reproduced under laboratory conditions. Using vibration and impact information from the field study, realistic test methods and performance criteria have also been suggested for the facemask retaining straps against facemask removal forces.

  4. Case studies on recent fossil-fired plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The article summarises the findings of case studies on fossil-fired power plants carried out by the IEA Clean Coal Centre for the IEA at the request of world leaders at the Gleneagles G8 Summit in July 2005. The studies compared the cost, efficiency and emissions of eight recently constructed coal-fired plants using pulverized coal combustion with subcritical, supercritical or ultra-supercritical steam turbine cycles. Also included was a review of IGCC developments. A case study of a natural gas combined-cycle plant was included for comparison. The full report has been published by the IEA. 1 tab.

  5. Application of digital computer programming for evaluating building fire safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benalikhoudja, Nadir

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , B. S . Il lino1s Institute of Technology Cha1rman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Waymon L. Johnston Th1s paper describes and ut1lizes the latest probabi 11st1c fire safety evaluation methodology. The United States General Services Admin1stration.../ human interaction. ENERGY I G H I T I 0 N- INITIATION INITIAL- ITEM EVELOPMENT INTRA-ROOM ilHTRA-SPACIALi DEVELOPMENT INTERSPACIAL IIHTRA- COMPARTMEHT) DEVELOPMENT INTERCOMPARTMEHT DEVELOPMENT E N Y I R 0 N M E H I Figure 3 . Fire...

  6. Thermal measurements in the nuclear winter fire test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, M.E.; Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March, 1987, a large open pool fire test was performed to provide test measurements to help define the thermal characteristics of large open pool fires and estimates of the smoke source term for the nuclear winter (global effects) scenario. This report will present the results of the thermal measurements as well as comparisons with previous test results. These measurements included flame temperatures, heat fluxes to a variety of calorimeters, and gas velocities in the lower flame regions. 13 refs., 76 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

  8. Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember 15Rotary Firing in Ring-ShapedRotary Firing

  9. Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember 15Rotary Firing inRotary Firing in

  10. 120 years of structural fire testing: Moving away from the status quo 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maluk, Cristian; Bisby, Luke

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the late 19th Century, stakeholders from the building construction industry were in need of rational, quantified, and repeatable assessment of building materials and structures subject to heating during fire; thus the standard fire resistance...

  11. Advanced Development Of The Coal Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2 Separation ADECOS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Development Of The Coal-Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2 Separation (ADECOS) Place:...

  12. Understanding forest fire dynamics is becoming increasingly important as scientists, policy makers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    to some fire events and some ecosystems, but natural fire regimes and human impacts on those regimes may potentially be as important as the direct effects of global warming on forests (Dale et al. 2001

  13. Mapping surface fuels using LIDAR and multispectral data fusion for fire behavior modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutlu, Muge

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fires have become intense and more frequent in the United States. Improving the accuracy of mapping fuel models is essential for fuel management decisions and explicit fire behavior prediction for real-time support of suppression tactics...

  14. Tall concrete buildings subject to vertically moving fires: A case study approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Ian A

    regarded as safe in a fire situation as concrete is non-flammable and exhibits highly insulating material properties. The majority of current research relating to the impact of fire on structures examines other forms of construction. Research of concrete...

  15. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  16. Fire Safety in High-rise Buildings, Lessons Learned from the WTC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L; Quintiere, James Q; Steinhaus, Thomas

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the tragic events of September 11th, 2001. Provides a brief background on the philosophy of fire protection for high-rise buildings and the behavior of a fire within a compartment. It further describes ...

  17. The Suppression and Extinction of Class A Fires Using Water Sprays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, G. B.; Drysdale, Dougal D.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water has long been the agent of choice for fighting Class' A' fires In fact the thermal characteristics of water make it ideally suitable as an extinguishing agent for most types of fire, whether it is used to extract ...

  18. The effects of moisture and particle size of feedlot biomass on co-firing burner performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chen-Jung

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass (conventional and non-conventional) fuels co-fired with coal for power and steam generation are being tested and evaluated at several generation stations in the United States. The co-firing technology is expected to reduce landfill...

  19. Fire Hazards Analysis for Building 9203 & 9203A Complex at Y...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    units. One unit is positioned on the south wall and another on the west wall. A steam heat unit is provided in the ceiling area of the work shop. 2.2 Fire Boundaries Fire...

  20. The Effect of Thermoplastics Melt Flow Behaviour on the Dynamics of Fire Growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherratt, Jo

    -scale tests and several medium-scale experiments have been undertaken at both Edinburgh University and the HSE's Fire & Explosion Laboratory, Buxton. The experiments have confirmed the main parameters governing pool fire development are molecular weight...