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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

2

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

3

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

4

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

types of mask defects recorded in several state-of-the-art tools: the AIT, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a commercial deep ultraviolet (DUV) mask inspection tool....

5

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

La Fontaine, A. Tchikoulaeva, and C. Holfeld, "Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask," Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361A (2010). ALS Science Highlight 213...

6

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tchikoulaeva, and C. Holfeld, "Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask," Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361A (2010). ALS Science Highlight 213 ALSNews Vol. 311...

7

Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

Nguyen, Khanh Bao

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Inspection of lithographic mask blanks for defects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visible light method for detecting sub-100 nm size defects on mask blanks used for lithography. By using optical heterodyne techniques, detection of the scattered light can be significantly enhanced as compared to standard intensity detection methods. The invention is useful in the inspection of super-polished surfaces for isolated surface defects or particulate contamination and in the inspection of lithographic mask or reticle blanks for surface defects or bulk defects or for surface particulate contamination.

Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection  

SciTech Connect

The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects  

SciTech Connect

An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

11

Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

Aigeldinger, Georg (Livermore, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA); Griffiths, Stewart K. (Livermore, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA); Losey, Matthew W. (Livermore, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter (Dublin, CA)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

12

Atom Nano-lithography with Multi-layer Light Masks: Particle Optics Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the focusing of atoms by multiple layers of standing light waves in the context of atom lithography. In particular, atomic localization by a double-layer light mask is examined using the optimal squeezing approach. Operation of the focusing setup is analyzed both in the paraxial approximation and in the regime of nonlinear spatial squeezing for the thin-thin as well as thin-thick atom lens combinations. It is shown that the optimized double light mask may considerably reduce the imaging problems, improve the quality of focusing and enhance the contrast ratio of the deposited structures.

R. Arun; I. Sh. Averbukh; T. Pfau

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Context-based automated defect classification system using multiple morphological masks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Automatic detection of defects during the fabrication of semiconductor wafers is largely automated, but the classification of those defects is still performed manually by technicians. This invention includes novel digital image analysis techniques that generate unique feature vector descriptions of semiconductor defects as well as classifiers that use these descriptions to automatically categorize the defects into one of a set of pre-defined classes. Feature extraction techniques based on multiple-focus images, multiple-defect mask images, and segmented semiconductor wafer images are used to create unique feature-based descriptions of the semiconductor defects. These feature-based defect descriptions are subsequently classified by a defect classifier into categories that depend on defect characteristics and defect contextual information, that is, the semiconductor process layer(s) with which the defect comes in contact. At the heart of the system is a knowledge database that stores and distributes historical semiconductor wafer and defect data to guide the feature extraction and classification processes. In summary, this invention takes as its input a set of images containing semiconductor defect information, and generates as its output a classification for the defect that describes not only the defect itself, but also the location of that defect with respect to the semiconductor process layers.

Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Hunt, Martin A. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Lubbock, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

VUV lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Deep uv projection lithography can be performed using an e-beam pumped solid excimer uv source, a mask, and a uv reduction camera. The uv source produces deep uv radiation in the range 1700--1300A using xenon, krypton or argon; shorter wavelengths of 850--650A can be obtained using neon or helium. A thin solid layer of the gas is formed on a cryogenically cooled plate and bombarded with an e-beam to cause fluorescence. The uv reduction camera utilizes multilayer mirrors having high reflectivity at the uv wavelength and images the mask onto a resist coated substrate at a preselected demagnification. The mask can be formed integrally with the source as an emitting mask. 5 figs.

George, E.V.; Oster, Y.; Mundinger, D.C.

1990-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

15

VUV lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Deep UV projection lithography can be performed using an e-beam pumped solid excimer UV source, a mask, and a UV reduction camera. The UV source produces deep UV radiation in the range 1,700--1,300A using xenon, krypton or argon; shorter wavelengths of 850--650A can be obtained using neon or helium. A thin solid layer of the gas is formed on a cryogenically cooled plate and bombarded with an e-beam to cause fluorescence. The UV reduction camera utilizes multilayer mirrors having high reflectivity at the UV wavelength and images the mask onto a resist coated substrate at a preselected demagnification. The mask can be formed integrally with the source as an emitting mask. 6 figs.

George, E.V.; Oster, Y.; Mundinger, D.C.

1990-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

16

Wavelength-specific reflections: A decade of EUV actinic mask inspection research  

SciTech Connect

Mask inspection is essential for the success of any pattern-transfer lithography technology, and EUV Lithography in particular faces unique challenges. EUV masks resonant-reflective multilayer coatings have a narrow, wavelength-specific response that dramatically affects the way that defects appear, or disappear, at various illuminating wavelengths. Furthermore, the ever-shrinking size of 'critical' defects limits the potential effectiveness of DUV inspection techniques over time. Researchers pursuing numerous ways of finding and characterizing defects on EUV masks and have met with varying degrees of success. Their lessons inform the current, urgent exploration to select the most effective techniques for high-volume manufacturing. Ranging from basic research and demonstration experiments to commercial inspection tool prototypes, we survey the recent history of work in this area, including sixteen projects in Europe, Asia, and America. Solutions range from scanning beams to microscopy, dark field imaging to pattern transfer.

Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopo

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

Polarization effects in plasmonic masks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the implementation of most resolution enhancement techniques for optical lithography, full 3D simulation of effects such as topography imbalance in phase masks can be successfully modeled. However, these simulators do not appear to capture the full ... Keywords: DDM, FDTD, Lithography, OPC, Photomask, Plasmon, Polarization, RET, Reticle, SRAF

Frank Schellenberg; Kostas Adam; Liying Sun; Joe Matteo; Lambertus Hesselink

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Review of technology for 157-nm lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper outlines the critical issues facing the implementation of 157-nm lithography as a sub-100-nm technology. The status of the present technology for mask materials, pellicles, optical materials, coatings, and resists is presented.

A. K. Bates; M. Rothschild; T. M. Bloomstein; T. H. Fedynyshyn; R. R. Kunz; V. Liberman; M. Switkes

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

An ice lithography instrument  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Chervinsky, John [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Branton, Daniel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Golovchenko, J. A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Plasma formed ion beam projection lithography system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plasma-formed ion-beam projection lithography (IPL) system eliminates the acceleration stage between the ion source and stencil mask of a conventional IPL system. Instead a much thicker mask is used as a beam forming or extraction electrode, positioned next to the plasma in the ion source. Thus the entire beam forming electrode or mask is illuminated uniformly with the source plasma. The extracted beam passes through an acceleration and reduction stage onto the resist coated wafer. Low energy ions, about 30 eV, pass through the mask, minimizing heating, scattering, and sputtering.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA); Ngo, Vinh (San Jose, CA); Zahir, Nastaran (Greenbrae, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

157-nm lithography with high numerical aperture lens for sub-70 nm node  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For sub-70 nm semiconductor devices, 157 nm lithography using F2 lasers is one of the most important technologies. Several candidates for critical components of 157 nm lithography, such as the exposure tool, resist materials and processing ... Keywords: 157 nm lithography, F2 laser, fluoropolymer resist, phase-shifting mask

Toshiro Itani; Wataru Wakamiya; Julian Cashmore; Malcolm Gower

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Microfield exposure tool enables advances in EUV lithography development  

SciTech Connect

With demonstrated resist resolution of 20 nm half pitch, the SEMATECH Berkeley BUV microfield exposure tool continues to push crucial advances in the areas of BUY resists and masks. The ever progressing shrink in computer chip feature sizes has been fueled over the years by a continual reduction in the wavelength of light used to pattern the chips. Recently, this trend has been threatened by unavailability of lens materials suitable for wavelengths shorter than 193 nm. To circumvent this roadblock, a reflective technology utilizing a significantly shorter extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength (13.5 nm) has been under development for the past decade. The dramatic wavelength shrink was required to compensate for optical design limitations intrinsic in mirror-based systems compared to refractive lens systems. With this significant reduction in wavelength comes a variety of new challenges including developing sources of adequate power, photoresists with suitable resolution, sensitivity, and line-edge roughness characteristics, as well as the fabrication of reflection masks with zero defects. While source development can proceed in the absence of available exposure tools, in order for progress to be made in the areas of resists and masks it is crucial to have access to advanced exposure tools with resolutions equal to or better than that expected from initial production tools. These advanced development tools, however, need not be full field tools. Also, implementing such tools at synchrotron facilities allows them to be developed independent of the availability of reliable stand-alone BUY sources. One such tool is the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool (MET). The most unique attribute of the SEMA TECH Berkeley MET is its use of a custom-coherence illuminator made possible by its implementation on a synchrotron beamline. With only conventional illumination and conventional binary masks, the resolution limit of the 0.3-NA optic is approximately 25 nm, however, with EUV not expected in production before the 22-nm half pitch node even finer resolution capabilities are now required from development tools. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET's custom-coherence illuminator allows it to be used with aggressive modified illumination enabling kJ factors as low as 0.25. Noting that the lithographic resolution of an exposure tool is defined as k{sub 1}{lambda}/NA, yielding an ultimate resolution limit of 11 nm. To achieve sub-20-nm aerial-image resolution while avoiding forbidden pitches on Manhattan-geometry features with the centrally-obscured MET optic, a 45-degree oriented dipole pupil fill is used. Figure 1 shows the computed aerial-image contrast as a function of half pitch for a dipole pupil fill optimized to print down to the 19-nm half pitch level. This is achieved with relatively uniform performance at larger dimensions. Using this illumination, printing down to the 20-nm half pitch level has been demonstrated in chemically amplified resists as shown in Fig. 2. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool plays a crucial role in the advancement of EUV resists. The unique programmable coherence properties of this tool enable it to achieve higher resolution than other EUV projection tools. As presented here, over the past year the tool has been used to demonstrate resist resolutions of 20 half pitch. Although not discussed here, because the Berkeley MET tool is a true projection lithography tool, it also plays a crucial role in advanced EUV mask research. Examples of the work done in this area include defect printability, mask architecture, and phase shift masks.

Naulleau, Patrick

2009-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

Contact thermal lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

COMPLETED: Polymers for Next-Generation Lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Metrology for Immersion Lithography: Next-generation lithography will use an ... edge roughness which causes excess chip power consumption and ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

25

Thorough characterization of a EUV mask  

SciTech Connect

We reported that we were successful in our 45nm technology node device demonstration in February 2008 and 22nm node technology node device patterning in February 2009 using ASML's Alpha Demo Tool (ADT). In order to insert extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at the 15nm technology node and beyond, we have thoroughly characterized one EUV mask, a so-called NOVACD mask. In this paper, we report on three topics, The first topic is an analysis of line edge roughness (LER) using a mask Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) to compare resist images printed with the ASML ADT. The results of the analysis show a good correlation between the mask AFM and the mask SEM measurements, However, the resist printing results for the isolated space patterns are slightly different. The cause ofthis discrepancy may be resist blur, image log slope and SEM image quality and so on. The second topic is an analysis of mask topography using an AFM and relative reflectivity of mirror and absorber surface using the AIT, The AFM data show 6 and 7 angstrom rms roughness for mirror and absorber, respectively. The reflectivity measurements show that the mirror reflects EUV light about 20 times higher than absorber. The last topic is an analysis of a 32nm technology node SRAM cell which includes a comparison of mask SEM image, AIT image, resist image and simulation results. The ADT images of the SRAM pattern were of high quality even though the mask patters were not corrected for OPC or any EUV-specific effects. Image simulation results were in good agreement with the printing results.

Mizuno, H.; McIntyre, G.; Koay, C.-W.; Burkhardt, M.; He, L.; Hartley, J.; Johnson, C.; Raghunathan, S.; Goldberg, K.; Mochi, I.; La Fontaine, B.; Wood, O.

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electron caustic lithography  

SciTech Connect

A maskless method of electron beam lithography is described which uses the reflection of an electron beam from an electrostatic mirror to produce caustics in the demagnified image projected onto a resist-coated wafer. By varying the electron optics, e.g. via objective lens defocus, both the morphology and dimensions of the caustic features may be controlled, producing a range of bright and tightly focused projected features. The method is illustrated for line and fold caustics and is complementary to other methods of reflective electron beam lithography.

Kennedy, S. M.; Zheng, C. X.; Tang, W. X.; Paganin, D. M.; Jesson, D. E. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Fu, J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Plating/Lithography-new  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plating/Lithography Plating/Lithography Manufacturing Technologies The Plating capabilities in the Thin Film, Vacuum and Packaging department include both electroless and electro plating. These processes support Multi-Chip Module, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), Weapons Systems (Neutron Tubes) and other miscellaneous projects. Photo-processing facilities provide pattern- ing and circuitry on a variety of substrate materials. The department's capabilities include dry film, liquid, and electrophoreti- cally deposited resist application, exposure, development and patterning. Capabilities * Electroplate large areas using cyanide and non-cyanide based chemistries * Routinely plate copper, nickel and gold * Expertise in developing plating process- es for unusual applications and metals

28

Nano-Scale Multilayer Mask for EUV Lithography Applications and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Initial Microstructure on the Processing of Titanium Using Equal Channel ... Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Silica/Epoxy Nano-Composites by ... of Ferroelectric Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-Trifluoroethylene) Copolymer Films ... Sonochemistry as a Tool for Synthesis of Ion-Substituted Calcium Phosphate ...

29

M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

Brueck, Steven R.J. (Albuquerque, NM); Chen, Xiaolan (Albuquerque, NM); Zaidi, Saleem (Albuquerque, NM); Devine, Daniel J. (Los Gatos, CA)

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

30

Compiler assisted masking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attacks find a statistical correlation between the power consumption of a cryptographic device and intermediate values within the computation. Randomization via (Boolean) masking of intermediate values breaks this statistical ... Keywords: DPA, compiler assisted cryptography, masking

Andrew Moss; Elisabeth Oswald; Dan Page; Michael Tunstall

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Automatic detection of photoresist residual layer in lithography using a neural classification approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photolithography is a fundamental process in the semiconductor industry and it is considered as the key element towards extreme nanoscale integration. In this technique, a polymer photo sensitive mask with the desired patterns is created on the substrate ... Keywords: Ellipsometry, Lithography, Neural network, Nondestructive testing

Issam Gereige; StéPhane Robert; Jessica Eid

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Investigation on LIGA-like process based on multilevel imprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low-cost quasi-LIGA process is proposed, in which, instead of using thick resist technique, micro-structure with large structural height is achieved by multilevel imprinting and through-mask plating. To achieve precise alignment between individual ... Keywords: Imprint lithography, LIGA-like, Layered fabrication, Microstructure

Quandai Wang; Yugang Duan; Yucheng Ding; Bingheng Lu; Jiawei Xiang; Lianfa Yang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) Portfolio  

Abstract Fees; Passivating Overcoat Bilayer for Multilayer Reflective Coatings for Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography. 5,958,605. A passivating overcoat bilayer is ...

34

XUV free-electron laser-based projection lithography systems  

SciTech Connect

Free-electron laser sources, driven by rf-linear accelerators, have the potential to operate in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range with more than sufficient average power for high-volume projection lithography. For XUV wavelengths from 100 nm to 4 nm, such sources will enable the resolution limit of optical projection lithography to be extended from 0.25 {mu}m to 0.05{mu}m and with an adequate total depth of focus (1 to 2 {mu}m). Recent developments of a photoinjector of very bright electron beams, high-precision magnetic undulators, and ring-resonator cavities raise our confidence that FEL operation below 100 nm is ready for prototype demonstration. We address the motivation for an XUV FEL source for commercial microcircuit production and its integration into a lithographic system, include reflecting reduction masks, reflecting XUV projection optics and alignment systems, and surface-imaging photoresists. 52 refs., 7 figs.

Newnam, B.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Decal transfer lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a microstructure includes selectively activating a portion of a surface of a silicon-containing elastomer, contacting the activated portion with a substance, and bonding the activated portion and the substance, such that the activated portion of the surface and the substance in contact with the activated portion are irreversibly attached. The selective activation may be accomplished by positioning a mask on the surface of the silicon-containing elastomer, and irradiating the exposed portion with UV radiation.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Childs, William R. (Champaign, IL); Motala, Michael J. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Savoy, IL)

2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

36

Programmable imprint lithography template  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA); Talin, Albert A. (Livermore, CA)

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

Mask Attribute - Deprecate or Fix?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Overlap with the OVAL Results Directives ... Does anyone use the mask attribute in their content ... Do vendors support the mask attribute in their tools ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

38

Key masking using biometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct an abstract model based on a fundamental similarity property, which takes into account parametric dependencies and reflects a specific collection of requirements. We consider a method for masking a cryptographic key using biometry, which ...

A. L. Chmora

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Optics, mask and resist implications on contact CDU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mask Summary • Mask and condenser roughness plays importantto Gregg Gallatin Outline Condenser flare Mask CDU Maskaberrations up to 1 nm Outline Condenser flare Mask CDU Mask

Naulleau, Patrick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

Cohen, Simon J. (Pleasanton, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Masked multichannel analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An analytical instrument and particularly a time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for processing a large number of analog signals irregularly spaced over a spectrum, with programmable masking of portions of the spectrum where signals are unlikely in order to reduce memory requirements and/or with a signal capturing assembly having a plurality of signal capturing devices fewer in number than the analog signals for use in repeated cycles within the data processing time period.

Winiecki, Alan L. (Downers Grove, IL); Kroop, David C. (Columbia, MD); McGee, Marilyn K. (Colorado Springs, CO); Lenkszus, Frank R. (Woodridge, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

X-ray lithography source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Nano-Imprint Lithography: Nanonex NX-2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nano-Imprint Lithography: Nanonex NX-2000. Description: ... Nanoscale patterning; Polymer or Sol-gel nano device fabrication; Polymer property study ...

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

Index of /images/whole.frog/data/masks/animations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Index of imageswhole.frogdatamasksanimations Parent Directory animatedBloodMasks.gif animatedBrainMasks.gif animatedDuodenumMasks.gif animatedEyeMasks.gif...

47

Making a Good Impression: Nanoimprint Lithography Tests at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Making a Good Impression: Nanoimprint Lithography Tests at NIST. For Immediate Release: April 29, 2008. ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

48

Extreme-UV lithography system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photolithography system that employs a condenser that includes a series of aspheric mirrors on one side of a small, incoherent source of radiation producing a series of beams is provided. Each aspheric mirror images the quasi point source into a curved line segment. A relatively small arc of the ring image is needed by the camera; all of the beams are so manipulated that they all fall onto this same arc needed by the camera. Also, all of the beams are aimed through the camera's virtual entrance pupil. The condenser includes a correcting mirror for reshaping a beam segment which improves the overall system efficiency. The condenser efficiently fills the larger radius ringfield created by today's advanced camera designs. The system further includes (i) means for adjusting the intensity profile at the camera's entrance pupil or (ii) means for partially shielding the illumination imaging onto the mask or wafer. The adjusting means can, for example, change at least one of: (i) partial coherence of the photolithography system, (ii) mask image illumination uniformity on the wafer or (iii) centroid position of the illumination flux in the entrance pupil. A particularly preferred adjusting means includes at least one vignetting mask that covers at least a portion of the at least two substantially equal radial segments of the parent aspheric mirror.

Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Laser Lithography: Heidelberg DWL-66FS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... High resolution pattern generator for low volume mask ... photomask blanks as well as direct patterning of ... gov Address: 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 6201 ...

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

Extreme-UV lithography condenser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David (Fairfield, CT); McGuire, James (Pasadena, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

NGL comparable to 193-nm lithography in cost, footprint, and power consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison of ArF immersion single exposure, double patterning, extreme UV, and multi-e-beam maskless lithography (MEB ML2) systems, is made on their special characteristics, then in footprint, cost, and raw energy consumption. Only the MEB ML2 system ... Keywords: Direct-write lithography, E-beam lithography, EUV lithography, Maskless lithography, Microlithography, Next-generation lithography

Burn J. Lin

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

The ending of optical lithography and the prospects of its successors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation starts from recounting the history of optical lithography since its >2@mm days until the sub-100nm era. To increase resolution and keep depth of focus in check, the wavelength has been shortened from 436, to 365, 248, and 193nm, numerical ... Keywords: Direct write lithography, E-beam lithography, EUV lithography, Immersion lithography, Microlithography, Optical lithography

Burn J. Lin

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Sub-10-nm lithography with light-ion beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scanning-electron-beam lithography (SEBL) is the workhorse of nanoscale lithography in part because of the high brightness of the Schottky source of electrons, but also benefiting from decades of incremental innovation and ...

Winston, Donald, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Three dimensional silicon photonic crystals fabricated by two photon phase mask lithography.  

SciTech Connect

We describe the fabrication of silicon three dimensional photonic crystals using polymer templates defined by a single step, two-photon exposure through a layer of photopolymer with relief molded on its surface. The resulting crystals exhibit high structural quality over large areas, displaying geometries consistent with calculation. Spectroscopic measurements of transmission and reflection through the silicon and polymer structures reveal excellent optical properties, approaching properties predicted by simulations that assume ideal layouts.

Wiltzius, P. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Braun, P. V. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Liao, H. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Brzezinski, A. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Chen, Y. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Nelson, E. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Shir, D. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Rogers, J. A. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Periodic Materials and Interference Lithography for Photonics ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

02/28/2011 - Periodic Materials and Interference Lithography for Photonics, ... photonic crystals (electromagnetic wave propagation) and phononic crystals ...

56

Role of Surface Tension in Nano Imprint Lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ROLE OF SURFACE TENSION IN NANO IMPRINT LITHOGRAPHY. Kyle J. Alvine, Yifu Ding, Hyun Wook Ro, Brian Okerburg ...

57

Direct e-beam lithography of PDMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the viability of directly exposing thin films of liquid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to electron beam (e-beam) irradiation using e-beam lithographic methods for the purpose of creating permanent micro-scale components has been investigated. ... Keywords: Lithography, PDMS, Poly(dimethylsiloxane), e-Beam

J. Bowen; D. Cheneler; A. P. G. Robinson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Biomimetic soft lithography on curved nanostructured surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a nano-molding process using a nature-created master is demonstrated. The eye of night moth Agotis exclamationis having 100nm-scale structures on a curved surface is used as biomimetic master mold from which nanostructures are replicated ... Keywords: Antireflective, Biomimetic, Nanostructures, Replication, Soft lithography

V. Auzelyte; V. Flauraud; V. J. Cadarso; T. Kiefer; J. Brugger

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

EUV lithography cost of ownership analysis  

SciTech Connect

The cost of fabricating state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) has been increasing and it will likely be economic rather than technical factors that ultimately limit the progress of ICs toward smaller devices. It is estimated that lithography currently accounts for approximately one-third the total cost of fabricating modem ICs({sup 1}). It is expected that this factor will be fairly stable for the forseeable future, and as a result, any lithographic process must be cost-effective before it can be considered for production. Additionally, the capital equipment cost for a new fabrication facility is growing at an exponential rate (2); it will soon require a multibillion dollar investment in capital equipment alone to build a manufacturing facility. In this regard, it is vital that any advanced lithography candidate justify itself on the basis of cost effectiveness. EUV lithography is no exception and close attention to issues of wafer fabrication costs have been a hallmark of its early history. To date, two prior cost analyses have been conducted for EUV lithography (formerly called {open_quotes}Soft X-ray Projection Lithography{close_quotes}). The analysis by Ceglio, et. al., provided a preliminary system design, set performance specifications and identified critical technical issues for cost control. A follow-on analysis by Early, et.al., studied the impact of issues such as step time, stepper overhead, tool utilization, escalating photoresist costs and limited reticle usage on wafer exposure costs. This current study provides updated system designs and specifications and their impact on wafer exposure costs. In addition, it takes a first cut at a preliminary schematic of an EUVL fabrication facility along with an estimate of the capital equipment costs for such a facility.

Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

1995-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

60

Magnetic nanostructures patterned by block copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this research was twofold: understanding the methods of patterning magnetic films using self-assembled block copolymer masks and examining the magnetic reversal mechanisms of as deposited and patterned magnetic ...

Ilievski, Filip, 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Shape Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...There are six major shape defects in coiled sheet, strip, or plate (Fig. 1): coil set; cross bow; camber;

62

Condenser for ring-field deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated or converging beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a flat or curved plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Nugent, Keith A. (North Fitzroy, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Condenser for ring-field deep-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Nugent, Keith A. (North Fitzroy, AU)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From Interfacial Studies to Practical Applications Speaker(s): Robert Kostecki Date: January 11, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Satkartar K. Kinney The constantly growing power requirements of portable electronic devices and the need for high-power batteries for electric vehicles have created a strong demand for new batteries or substantial improvements of existing ones. Fundamental problems associated with complex interfacial processes in batteries must be resolved to enhance battery performance and lifetime. An overview of the principles of electrode-electrolyte interfacial studies, experimental methods, recent results, and potential applications will be presented. Advanced instrumental techniques and

65

Multilevel interference lithography--fabricating sub-wavelength periodic nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Periodic nanostructures have many exciting applications, including high-energy spectroscopy, patterned magnetic media, photonic crystals, and templates for self-assembly. Interference lithography (IL) is an attractive ...

Chang, Chih-Hao, 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

High-resolution lithography based on selective removal of atoms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of high-resolution lithography based on selective removal of atoms is described. Drawbacks of lift-off lithography in comparison with the method proposed are pointed out and test structures of metal (Mo) stripes with a thickness of 50 nm are obtained.

Domantovskii, A. G.; Gurovich, B. A.; Maslakov, K. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Electron beam lithography using plasma polymerized hexane as resist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present electron beam lithography using thin layers of plasma polymerized hexane as resist, as an alternative for conventional spincoated resists. Hexane is chosen due to the possible bioapplications, as well as the relatively simple polymerization ... Keywords: Electron beam lithography, Hexane, Plasma polymerization, Resist

R. H. Pedersen; M. Hamzah; S. Thoms; P. Roach; M. R. Alexander; N. Gadegaard

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Two methods of realising 10nm T-gate lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents two separate methods for the fabrication of 10nm footprint T-gates using a two-step gate process. We examine the limits of lithographic and pattern transfer processes using the exposure of ZEP520A resist by electron beam lithography, ... Keywords: Electron beam lithography, HEMT, ICP, RIE, Reactive ion etching, T-gate

S. Bentley; X. Li; D. A. J. Moran; I. G. Thayne

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Imprint lithography enabling ultra-low loss coaxial interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing techniques have been demonstrated to fabricate a novel structure with smooth transitions, metallic shielding, and encapsulated air dielectric layers using sacrificial polymers and the three-dimensional patterning capabilities of imprint lithography. ... Keywords: Air dielectrics, Imprint lithography, Interconnects, Sacrificial polymers

Venmathy Rajarathinam; Nathan Fritz; Sue Ann Bidstrup Allen; Paul A. Kohl

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Silated acidic copolymers for nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new silated acidic polymer was developed as the resist for nanoimprint lithography on flexible substrates. This polymer was synthesized from methylmethacrylate, n-butylacrylate, methacrylic acid and 3-[tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl]propyl methacrylate ... Keywords: Flexible plastic substrate, Nanoimprint lithography, Reactive ion etching resistability, Silated acidic polymer

Wen-chang Liao; Steve Lien-Chung Hsu; Jui-Chen Lin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Optics, mask and resist implications on contact CDU  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mask and condenser roughness plays important in contact CDU. Resist blur drives both dose requirements and mask specs. Correlation methods can be used to measure mask contributions to CDU.

Naulleau, Patrick

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Achieving sub-10-nm resolution using scanning electron beam lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Achieving the highest possible resolution using scanning-electron-beam lithography (SEBL) has become an increasingly urgent problem in recent years, as advances in various nanotechnology applications have driven demand for ...

Cord, Bryan M. (Bryan Michael), 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Two-dimensional Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the process parameters of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for the fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals. The nickel mould with 2-D photonic crystal patterns covering the area up to 20mm² is ...

Chen, A.

74

Free electron laser with masked chicane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free electron laser (FEL) is provided with an accelerator for outputting electron beam pulses; a buncher for modulating each one of the electron beam pulses to form each pulse into longitudinally dispersed bunches of electrons; and a wiggler for generating coherent light from the longitudinally dispersed bunches of electrons. The electron beam buncher is a chicane having a mask for physically modulating the electron beam pulses to form a series of electron beam bunches for input to the wiggler. In a preferred embodiment, the mask is located in the chicane at a position where each electron beam pulse has a maximum dispersion.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Black hole masking and black hole thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Masking of black holes means that, for given total mass and Hawking temperatures, these data may correspond to either "pure" black hole or a black hole of a lesser mass surrounded by a massive shell. It is shown that there is one-to one correspondence between this phenomenon and thermodynamics of a black hole in a finite size cavity: masking of black holes is possible if and only if there exists at least one locally unstable black hole solution in the corresponding canonical ensemble.

Zaslavskii, Oleg B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Immersion nanoimprint lithography using perfluoroalkyl liquid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When an attempt is made to thermal-imprint on a thin film of thermoplastic coated on a hard-surface, e.g., an Si wafer, very often the amount of the fluidic resin is not found to be enough. In such cases any air trapped between the mold pattern, and ... Keywords: Bubble defect, Hot embossing, Immersion, Nanoimprint, PMMA, Perfluorotributylamine

Harutaka Mekaru; Hiroshi Hiroshima

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Design and prototype : a manufacturing system for the soft lithography technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ever since 1998 when the term "soft lithography" was first created, soft lithography techniques have drawn close attention of the academia and the industry. Micro contact printing is by far the most widely used soft ...

Cao, Arthur Y. (Arthur Yao)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Lithographic performance evaluation of a contaminated EUV mask after cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The effect of surface contamination and subsequent mask surface cleaning on the lithographic performance of a EUV mask is investigated. SEMATECH's Berkeley micro-field exposure tool (MET) printed 40 nm and 50 nm line and space (L/S) patterns are evaluated to compare the performance of a contaminated and cleaned mask to an uncontaminated mask. Since the two EUV masks have distinct absorber architectures, optical imaging models and aerial image calculations were completed to determine any expected differences in performance. Measured and calculated Bossung curves, process windows, and exposure latitudes for the two sets of L/S patterns are compared to determine how the contamination and cleaning impacts the lithographic performance of EUV masks. The observed differences in mask performance are shown to be insignificant, indicating that the cleaning process did not appreciably affect mask performance.

George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Dittmar, Kornelia; Holfeld, Christian; Wuest, Andrea

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

79

Argonne CNM Highlight: Block copolymer lithography approach to nanoscale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Block copolymer lithography approach to nanoscale self-assembly Block copolymer lithography approach to nanoscale self-assembly hybrid organic-organomemtalliic block copolymer thin film cast on a silicon nitride membrane substrate This image created by Seth Darling and Nathan Ramanathan was selected for the September 2009 cover of Materials Today. Block copolymer lithography represents a promising next-generation alternative to traditional top-down methodologies. The figure shows an optical micrograph of a hybrid organic-organometallic block copolymer thin film cast on a silicon nitride membrane substrate, which reveals thickness-induced coloring effects reminiscent of art glass. This polymer self-assembles into an ordered nanoscale cylindrical morphology, the orientation of which can be controlled with film thickness. Cylinders

80

Nanoimprint Lithography for Functional Polymer Patterning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic semiconductors have generated huge interested in recent years for low-cost and flexible electronics. Current and future device applications for semiconducting polymers include light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, photovoltaic cells, chemical and biological sensors, photodetectors, lasers, and memories. The performance of conjugated polymer devices depends on two major factors: the chain conformation in polymer film and the device architecture. Highly ordered chain structure usually leads to much improved performance by enhancing interchain interaction to facilitate carrier transport. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of organic devices with the nanoimprint lithography. The work begins with the controlling of polymer chain orientation in patterned nanostructures through nanoimprint mold design and process parameter manipulation, and studying the effect of chain ordering on material properties. After that, step-and-repeat thermal nanoimprint technique for large-scale continuous manufacturing of conjugated polymer nanostructures is developed. The actual chain orientation of molecular groups in polymer micro- and nanostructures patterning by nanoimprint is complicated. However, this information is crucial for intelligently controlling the electrical and photophysical properties of conjugated polymers by nanoimprint. Systematic investigation of polymer chain configuration by Raman spectroscopy is carried out to understand how nanoimprint process parameters, such as mold pattern size, temperature, and polymer molecular weight, affects polymer chain configuration. The results indicate that chain orientation in nanoimprinted polymer micro- and nanostructures is highly related to the nanoimprint temperature and the dimensions of the mold structures. The ability to create nanoscale polymer micro- and nanostructures and manipulate their internal chain conformation establishes an original experimental platform that enables studying the properties of functional polymers at the micro- and nanoscale and understanding their fundamental structure-property relationships. In addition to the impact on basic research, the techniques developed in this work are important in applied research and development. Large-area conjugated polymer micro- and nanostructures can be easily fabricated by thermal step-and-repeat nanoimprint for organic flat-panel displays, organic circuits and organic solar panels. The ability to manipulate chain orientation through nanoimprint presents a new route to fine-tune the electrical and photophysical properties of conjugated polymers, which can lead to improved performance for all organic electronics. The techniques developed here also allow for easy incorporation of other micro- and nanoscale soft functional polymers in miniaturized devices and systems for new applications in electronics, photonics, sensors and bioengineering.

Cui, Dehu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Lithography scaling issues associated with III-V MOSFETs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we investigate fabrication issues associated with scaling down the gate length and source drain contact separation of a III-V MOSFET. We used high resolution electron-beam lithography and lift-off for gate and ohmic contact patterning to ... Keywords: E-beam, GaAs, Lift-off, MOSFET, PMMA, Resist thickness variation

O. Ignatova; S. Thoms; W. Jansen; D. S. Macintyre; I. Thayne

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Photonic crystal fibre-based light source for STED lithography  

SciTech Connect

A light source having a relative noise level in the order of 10{sup -6} and sufficient stability for application in STED lithography has been obtained using the generation of Cherenkov peaks in a supercontinuum spectrum. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Glubokov, D A; Sychev, V V; Vitukhnovsky, Alexey G; Korol'kov, A E

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Contact Guidance Based on the Nanostructures Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contact Guidance is an important phenomenon in the bio field. However it is complex and time-consuming to fabricate the micro/nano morphology used to guide cell growth behavior. Nover method of employing nanoimprint lithography to mass-produce nanostructures ...

Hongwen Sun; Jingquan Liu

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Removable pellicle for lithographic mask protection and handling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A removable pellicle for a lithographic mask that provides active and robust particle protection, and which utilizes a traditional pellicle and two deployments of thermophoretic protection to keep particles off the mask. The removable pellicle is removably attached via a retaining structure to the mask substrate by magnetic attraction with either contacting or non-contacting magnetic capture mechanisms. The pellicle retaining structural is composed of an anchor piece secured to the mask substrate and a frame member containing a pellicle. The anchor piece and the frame member are in removable contact or non-contact by the magnetic capture or latching mechanism. In one embodiment, the frame member is retained in a floating (non-contact) relation to the anchor piece by magnetic levitation. The frame member and the anchor piece are provided with thermophoretic fins which are interdigitated to prevent particles from reaching the patterned area of the mask. Also, the anchor piece and mask are maintained at a higher temperature than the frame member and pellicle which also prevents particles from reaching the patterned mask area by thermophoresis. The pellicle can be positioned over the mask to provide particle protection during mask handling, inspection, and pumpdown, but which can be removed manually or robotically for lithographic use of the mask.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA); Nguyen, Khanh B. (Sunnyvale, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

EUV Dark-Field Microscopy for Defect Inspection  

SciTech Connect

An actinic EUV microscope for defect detection on mask blanks for operation in dark field using a table-top discharge-produced plasma source has been developed. Several test structures (pits and bumps) on multilayer mirrors were investigated by our Schwarzschild objective-based EUV microscope at 13.5-nm wavelength and then characterized with an atomic force microscope. Possible defect-detection limits with large field of view and moderate magnification are discussed in terms of required irradiation dose and system performance.

Juschkin, L.; Maryasov, A.; Herbert, S. [Chair for Technology of Optical Systems (TOS), RWTH Aachen University and JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Steinbachstr. 15, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Aretz, A. [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH Aachen University and JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Ahornstrasse 52074 Aachen (Germany); Bergmann, K. [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, Steinbachstr. 15, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lebert, R. [Bruker Advanced Supercon GmbH, Friedrich-Ebert-Strasse 1, 51429 Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

87

The joint NIST-AGA workshop on odor masking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the making, resulting from the increasing incidence of natural gas that cannot ... the phenomena of masking so that the fuel gas industry can address ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

88

Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Large-Area Zone Plate Fabrication with Optical Lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zone plates as condenser optics for x-ray microscopes offer simple optical designs for both illumination and spectral resolution when used as a linear monochromator. However, due to the long write times for electron beam lithography, both the availability and the size of zone plates for condensers have been limited. Since the resolution provided by the linear monochromator scales almost linearly with the diameter of the zone plate, the full potential for zone plate monochromators as illumination systems for x-ray microscopes has not been achieved. For example, the 10-mm-diameter zone plate has demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/{Delta}E = 700[1], but with a 26-mm-diameter zone plate, the calculated spectral resolution is higher than E/{Delta}E = 3000. These large-area zone plates are possible to fabricate with the leading edge semiconductor lithography tools such as those available at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany. One of the lithography tools available is the ASML TWINSCAN XT: 1950i with 37-nm resolution [2]. A single 300-mm wafer can contain more than 60 fields, each with a large area condenser, and the throughput of the tool can be more than one wafer every minute.

Denbeaux, G. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

91

Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

Creating bio-inspired hierarchical 3D-2D photonic stacks via planar lithography on self-assembled inverse opals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural hierarchy and complex 3D architecture are characteristics of biological photonic designs that are challenging to reproduce in synthetic materials. Top-down lithography allows for designer patterning of arbitrary shapes, but is largely restricted to planar 2D structures. Self-assembly techniques facilitate easy fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, but controllable defect-integration is difficult. In this paper we combine the advantages of top-down and bottom-up fabrication, developing two techniques to deposit 2D-lithographically-patterned planar layers on top of or in between inverse-opal 3D photonic crystals and creating hierarchical structures that resemble the architecture of the bright green wing scales of the butterfly, Parides sesostris. These fabrication procedures, combining advantages of both top-down and bottom-up fabrication, may prove useful in the development of omnidirectional coloration elements and 3D-2D photonic crystal devices.

Ian B. Burgess; Joanna Aizenberg; Marko Loncar

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

93

Sub-5keV electron-beam lithography in hydrogen silsesquioxane resist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We fabricated 9-30nm half-pitch nested Ls and 13-15nm half-pitch dot arrays, using 2keV electron-beam lithography with hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) as the resist. All structures with 15nm half-pitch and above were fully resolved. We observed that the ... Keywords: High resolution, Hydrogen silsesquioxane, Low-energy electron-beam lithography, Low-voltage electron-beam lithography, Proximity effect

Vitor R. Manfrinato; Lin Lee Cheong; Huigao Duan; Donald Winston; Henry I. Smith; Karl K. Berggren

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Superconducting x-ray lithography source Phase 1 (XLS) safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses safety aspects associated with the superconducting x-ray lithography source. The policy, building systems safety and storage ring systems safety are specifically addressed. (LSP)

Blumberg, L. (ed.)

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Resolution limits and process latitude of comformable contact nano-lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conformable Contact Lithography enables researchers to attain high-resolution lithographic patterning at manageable cost. This thesis characterizes the minimum resolvable feature size and process latitude of Conformable ...

Fucetola, Corey Patrick

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Gray scale x-ray mask  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Gonzales, Marcela (Seattle, WA)

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

97

Bunch Profiling Using a Rotating Mask  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current method for measuring profiles of proton bunches in accelerators is severely lacking. One must dedicate a great deal of time and expensive equipment to achieve meaningful results. A new method to complete this task uses a rotating mask with slots of three different orientations to collect this data. By scanning over the beam in three different directions, a complete profile for each bunch is built in just seconds, compared to the hours necessary for the previous method. This design was successfully tested using synchrotron radiation emitted by SPEAR3. The profile of the beam was measured in each of the three desired directions. Due to scheduled beam maintenance, only one set of data was completed and more are necessary to solve any remaining issues. The data collected was processed and all of the RMS sizes along the major and minor axes, as well as the tilt of the beam ellipse were measured.

Miller, Mitchell; /SLAC /IIT, Chicago

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

98

Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer mask designs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, different image-plane mask designs can improve the operation of the interferometer. By keeping the test beam window of the mask small compared to the separation distance between the beams, the problem of energy from the reference beam leaking through the test beam window is reduced. By rotating the grating and mask 45.degree., only a single one-dimensional translation stage is required for phase-shifting. By keeping two reference pinholes in the same orientation about the test beam window, only a single grating orientation, and thus a single one-dimensional translation stage, is required. The use of a two-dimensional grating allows for a multiplicity of pinholes to be used about the pattern of diffracted orders of the grating at the mask. Orientation marks on the mask can be used to orient the device and indicate the position of the reference pinholes.

Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (Berkeley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

High resolution e-beam lithography using a thin titanium layer to promote resist adhesion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes improvements in high resolution large area e-beam lithography when a thin titanium layer is applied to substrates prior to the application of resist. The technique is particularly useful when there is a requirement to pattern long ... Keywords: Lithography, Resist adhesi

D. S. Macintyre; I. Young; A. Glidle; X. Cao; J. M. R. Weaver; S. Thoms

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Selective growth experiments on gallium arsenide (100) surfaces patterned using UV-nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process and subsequent solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE) growth of III-V semiconductors on patterned substrates. In particular, growth of GaAs, GaInAs, and GaInP, and effects of growth temperature ... Keywords: Molecular beam epitaxy, Nanoimprint lithography, Patterned substrates, Selective growth

A. Tukiainen; J. Viheriälä; T. Niemi; T. Rytkönen; J. Kontio; M. Pessa

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

High resolution and high density ion beam lithography employing HSQ resist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the early stages of focused ion beam (FIB) development, ion beam lithography (IBL) employing organic resists showed potential advantages over electron beam lithography (EBL) (most notably less proximity effects and higher sensitivity [1,2]). However, ... Keywords: FIB, HSQ, IBL, LMIS, Nano patterning, Resist

L. Bruchhaus; S. Bauerdick; L. Peto; U. Barth; A. Rudzinski; J. Mussmann; J. Klingfus; J. Gierak; H. HöVel

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Origination of nano- and microstructures on large areas by interference lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many markets require large area surface relief micro- and nanostructures. Important examples are light management structures for display applications or the radiation power management in solar systems. Structuring techniques with both up-scaling and ... Keywords: Display technology, Interference lithography, Nanoimprint lithography, Replication, Solar cells

Andreas J. Wolf; Hubert Hauser; Volker KüBler; Christian Walk; Oliver HöHn; Benedikt BläSi

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

High density phase change data on flexible substrates by thermal curing type nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, high density phase change nano-pillar device (Tera-bit per inch^2 data density) was fabricated on flexible substrates by thermal curing type nanoimprint lithography with high throughput at a relatively low temperature (120^oC). Phase change ... Keywords: Flexible nano-device, Nanoimprint lithography, Phase change memory, Phase change nano-pillar device, Tera-bit record

Sung-Hoon Hong; Jun-Ho Jeong; Kang-In Kim; Heon Lee

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

A method for in situ measurement of residual layer thickness in nano-imprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoimprint lithography has the advantages of high throughput, sub-10-nm fabrication process, and low cost. However, residual layer encountered in the imprinting process requires removal through reactive ion etching to maintain pattern fidelity. This ... Keywords: Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), Non-destructive measurement, Residual layer, Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

Wei-Hsuan Hsu, Hong Hocheng, Jow-Tsong Shy

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Time efficient fabrication of ultra large scale nano dot arrays using electron beam lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An astonishingly simple yet versatile alternative method for the creation of ultra large scale nano dot arrays [1-3] utilising the fact that exposure in electron beam lithography (EBL) is performed by addressing single pixels with defined distances is ... Keywords: Electron beam lithography, Nano dot, Patterning, Photonic crystal, Plasmonics

Jochen Grebing; JüRgen FaíBender; Artur Erbe

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering (CNSE) in Albany, New York, using the ASML AlphaTool (ADT) at CNSE in Albany [ I], New York, the reticle and

Mochi, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

108

A Bayesian Cloud Mask for Sea Surface Temperature Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian methods are used to develop a cloud mask classification algorithm for use in an operational sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval processing system for Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) local area coverage (LAC) ...

Michael J. Uddstrom; Warren R. Gray; Richard Murphy; Niles A. Oien; Talbot Murray

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser`s wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known ``feature masks`` of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects. 29 figs.

Ellingson, W.A.; Brada, M.P.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser's wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known "feature masks" of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects.

Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL); Brada, Mark P. (Goleta, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.  

SciTech Connect

Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is induced-typically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gaps-bubbles-propagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Rectangular-Mask Coronagraphs for High-Contrast Imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present yet another new family of masks for high-contrast imaging as required for the to-be-built terrestrial planet finder space telescope. The ``best'' design involves a square entrance pupil having a 4-vane spider, a square image-plane mask containing a plus-sign shaped occulter to block the starlight inside 0.6 lambda/D, and a Lyot-plane mask consisting of a rectangular array of rectangular opennings. Using Fraunhofer analysis, we show that the optical system can image a planet 10^{-10} times as bright as an on-axis star in four rectangular regions given by {(xi,zeta): 1.4 stripes of opaque material with the stripes oriented at right angles to each other. We call these striped masks barcode masks. We show that it is sufficient for the barcode masks by themselves to provide 10^{-5} contrast. This then guarantees that the full system will provide the required 10^{-10} contrast.

Robert J. Vanderbei; N. Jeremy Kasdin; David N. Spergel

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

Development of a microfluidic device for patterning multiple species by scanning probe lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scanning Probe Lithography (SPL) is a versatile nanofabrication platform that leverages microfluidic “ink” delivery systems with Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) for generating surface-patterned chemical functionality on the sub-100 nm length scale. One of the prolific SPL techniques is Dip Pen Nanolithography™ (DPN™). High resolution, multiplexed registration and parallel direct-write capabilities make DPN (and other SPL techniques) a power tool for applications that are envisioned in micro/nano-electronics, molecular electronics, catalysis, cryptography (brand protection), combinatorial synthesis (nano-materials discovery and characterization), biological recognition, genomics, and proteomics. One of the greatest challenges for the successful performance of the DPN process is the delivery of multiple inks to the scanning probe tips for nano-patterning. The purpose of the present work is to fabricate a microfluidic ink delivery device (called “Centiwell”) for DPN (and other SPL) applications. The device described in this study maximizes the number of chemical species (inks) for nanofabrication that can be patterned simultaneously by DPN to conform the industrial standards for fluid handling for biochemical assays (e.g., genomic and proteomic). Alternate applications of Centiwell are also feasible for the various envisioned applications of DPN (and other SPL techniques) that were listed above. The Centiwell consists of a two-dimensional array of 96 microwells that are bulk micromachined on a silicon substrate. A thermoelectric module is attached to the back side of the silicon substrate and is used to cool the silicon substrate to temperatures below the dew point. By reducing the temperature of the substrate to below the dew point, water droplets are condensed in the microwell array. Microbeads of a hygroscopic material (e.g., poly-ethylene glycol) are dispensed into the microwells to prevent evaporation of the condensed water. Furthermore, since poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) is water soluble, it forms a solution inside the microwells which is subsequently used as the ink for the DPN process. The delivery of the ink to the scanning probe tip is performed by dipping the tip (or multiple tips in an array) into the microwells containing the PEG solution. This thesis describes the various development steps for the Centiwell. These steps include the mask design, the bulk micromachining processes explored for the micro-fabrication of the microwell array, the thermal design calculations performed for the selection of the commercially available thermoelectric coolers, the techniques explored for the synthesis of the PEG microbeads, and the assembly of all the components for integration into a functional Centiwell. Finally, the successful implementation of the Centiwell for nanolithography of PEG solutions is also demonstrated.

Rivas Cardona, Juan Alberto

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Swords to plowshares: Shock wave applications to advanced lithography  

SciTech Connect

Extreme UltraViolet Lithography (EUVL) seeks to apply radiation in a wavelength region centered near 13 nm to produce microcircuits having features sizes 0.1 micron or less. A critical requirement for the commercial application of this technology is the development of an economical, compact source of this radiation which is suitable for lithographic applications. A good candidate is a laser-plasma source, which is generated by the interaction of an intermediate intensity laser pulse (up to 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}) with a metallic target. While such a source has radiative characteristics which satisfy the needs of an EUVL source, the debris generated during the laser-target interaction strikes at the economy of the source. Here, the authors review the use of concepts and computer modeling, originally developed for hypervelocity impact analysis, to study this problem.

Trucano, T.G.; Grady, D.E.; Kubiak, G.D.; Kipp, M.E.; Olson, R.E.; Farnsworth, A.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Sequential Infiltration Synthesis Advances Lithography (IN-10-017, 10-106)  

Lithography is widely used for defining patterns with high spatial resolution. In most applications of this technique, a thin-film polymeric resist material coating the substrate is patterned using light, electrons, or self-assembly. This resist film ...

116

Report of the workshop on transferring X-ray Lithography Synchrotron (XLS) technology to industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on plans to develop an x-ray synchrotron for use in lithography. The primary concern of the present paper is technology transfer from national laboratories to private industry. (JDH)

Marcuse, W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Contact region fidelity, sensitivity, and control in roll-based soft lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soft lithography is a printing process that uses small features on an elastomeric stamp to transfer micron and sub-micron patterns to a substrate. Translating this lab scale process to a roll-based manufacturing platform ...

Petrzelka, Joseph E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

A Study on Carbon-Nanotube Local Oxidation Lithography Using an Atomic Force Microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, nanoscale anodic oxidation lithography using an atomic force microscope (AFM) is systematically studied on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Trends between the produced feature size and the corresponding process parameters, such as applied voltage, ...

K. Kumar; O. Sul; S. Strauf; D. S. Choi; F. Fisher; M. G. Prasad; E. Yang

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Ultra-high precision scanning beam interference lithography and its application : spatial frequency multiplication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scanning beam interference lithography (SBIL) is a technique developed at MIT in 2003. The SBIL system, referred to as the Nanoruler, could fabricate grating patterns with around ten-nanometer phase repeatability. There ...

Zhao, Yong, 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Advanced 0.3-NA EUV lithography capabilities at the ALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

micro-exposure capabilities at the ALS using the 0.3-NA METEUV Microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET Optic,”EUV lithography capabilities at the ALS Patrick Naulleau 1 ,

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified.

S. P. Li; A. Lebib; D. Peyrade; M. Natali; Y. Chen; W. S. Lew; J. A. C. Bland

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Real-time spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability of electron-beam lithography (EBL) to create sub-10-nm features with arbitrary geometry makes it a critical tool in many important applications in nanoscale science and technology. The conventional EBL system ...

Zhang, Feng, 1973-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

Schiek, Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fabrication of ZnO photonic crystals by nanosphere lithography using inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etching with CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasma on the ZnO/GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

This article reports fabrication of n-ZnO photonic crystal/p-GaN light emitting diode (LED) by nanosphere lithography to further booster the light efficiency. In this article, the fabrication of ZnO photonic crystals is carried out by nanosphere lithography using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching with CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasma on the n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs. The CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar mixed gas gives high etching rate of n-ZnO film, which yields a better surface morphology and results less plasma-induced damages of the n-ZnO film. Optimal ZnO lattice parameters of 200 nm and air fill factor from 0.35 to 0.65 were obtained from fitting the spectrum of n-ZnO/p-GaN LED using a MATLAB code. In this article, we will show our recent result that a ZnO photonic crystal cylinder has been fabricated using polystyrene nanosphere mask with lattice parameter of 200 nm and radius of hole around 70 nm. Surface morphology of ZnO photonic crystal was examined by scanning electron microscope.

Chen, Shr-Jia; Chang, Chun-Ming; Kao, Jiann-Shiun; Chen, Fu-Rong; Tsai, Chuen-Horng [Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China); Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

The Image Navigation Cloud Mask for the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed a cloud mask technique that may be applied to the efficient selection of “clear enough” scenes for image navigation. While the mask can be applied generally, the motivation for its development comes from its intended ...

Larry Di Girolamo; Roger Davies

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Automated real-time detection of defects during machining of ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for the automated real-time detection and classification of defects during the machining of ceramic components employs an elastic optical scattering technique using polarized laser light. A ceramic specimen is continuously moved while being machined. Polarized laser light is directed onto the ceramic specimen surface at a fixed position just aft of the machining tool for examination of the newly machined surface. Any foreign material near the location of the laser light on the ceramic specimen is cleared by an air blast. As the specimen is moved, its surface is continuously scanned by the polarized laser light beam to provide a two-dimensional image presented in real-time on a video display unit, with the motion of the ceramic specimen synchronized with the data acquisition speed. By storing known "feature masks" representing various surface and sub-surface defects and comparing measured defects with the stored feature masks, detected defects may be automatically characterized. Using multiple detectors, various types of defects may be detected and classified.

Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL); Sun, Jiangang (Westmont, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Automated real-time detection of defects during machining of ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for the automated real-time detection and classification of defects during the machining of ceramic components employs an elastic optical scattering technique using polarized laser light. A ceramic specimen is continuously moved while being machined. Polarized laser light is directed onto the ceramic specimen surface at a fixed position just aft of the machining tool for examination of the newly machined surface. Any foreign material near the location of the laser light on the ceramic specimen is cleared by an air blast. As the specimen is moved, its surface is continuously scanned by the polarized laser light beam to provide a two-dimensional image presented in real-time on a video display unit, with the motion of the ceramic specimen synchronized with the data acquisition speed. By storing known ``feature masks`` representing various surface and sub-surface defects and comparing measured defects with the stored feature masks, detected defects may be automatically characterized. Using multiple detectors, various types of defects may be detected and classified. 14 figs.

Ellingson, W.A.; Sun, J.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

128

Fundamentals of embossing nanoimprint lithography in polymer substrates.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The convergence of micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and biomedical industries is creating a need for innovation and discovery around materials, particularly in miniaturized systems that use polymers as the primary substrate. Polymers are ubiquitous in the microelectronics industry and are used as sensing materials, lithography tools, replication molds, microfluidics, nanofluidics, and biomedical devices. This diverse set of operational requirements dictates that the materials employed must possess different properties in order to reduce the cost of production, decrease the scale of devices to the appropriate degree, and generate engineered devices with new functional properties at cost-competitive levels of production. Nanoscale control of polymer deformation at a massive scale would enable breakthroughs in all of the aforementioned applications, but is currently beyond the current capabilities of mass manufacturing. This project was focused on developing a fundamental understanding of how polymers behave under different loads and environments at the nanoscale in terms of performance and fidelity in order to fill the most critical gaps in our current knowledgebase on this topic.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; King, William P. (University of Illinois, Urbana IL)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Optimization of a short-range proximity effect correction algorithm in e-beam lithography using GPGPUs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The e-beam lithography is used to provide high resolution circuit patterning for circuit fabrication processes. However, due to electron scattering in resist and substrate it occurs an undesired exposure of regions which are adjacent to the actual exposed ... Keywords: GPGPUs, PEC, e-beam lithography, proximity effect correction, short-range proximity effect

Max Schneider; Nikola Belic; Christoph Sambale; Ulrich Hofmann; Dietmar Fey

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Fabrication of nano-hole array patterns on transparent conducting oxide layer using thermally curable nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, periodic array of nano-sized holes was fabricated in an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, deposited onto a glass substrate with nanoimprint lithography. As a result of a thermally curing imprint process, hole array patterns with a diameter ... Keywords: Indium tin oxide (ITO), Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), Patterned transparent electrode, Photonic crystals, Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer

Kyeong-Jae Byeon; Seon-Yong Hwang; Heon Lee

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

The use of high glass temperature polymers in the production of transparent, structured surfaces using nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymers with high glass transition temperatures, fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), have been used in imprint lithography as a protective support layer and as a secondary mould, to imprint superficial ... Keywords: Embossing, Nanoimprint lithography, Polymer Engineering

Christopher A. Mills; Javier G. Fernandez; Abdelhamid Errachid; Josep Samitier

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Adhesion effect of interface layers on pattern fabrication with GeSbTe as laser thermal lithography film  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adhesion of pattern structures is a very important issue in laser thermal lithography. In this paper, Si"3N"4 and ZnS-SiO"2 were investigated as interface layers to improve patterns' adhesion to substrate on pattern fabrication with Ge"2Sb"2Te"5 as laser ... Keywords: Adhesion, GeSbTe, Interface layers, Thermal lithography, Thin films, Wet etching

Changmeng Deng; Yongyou Geng; Yiqun Wu; Yang Wang; Jinsong Wei

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Value-Added Product Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lidar backscattered signal is a useful tool for identifying vertical cloud structure in the atmosphere in optically thin clouds. Cloud boundaries derived from lidar signals are a necessary input for popular ARM data products, such as the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product. An operational cloud boundary algorithm (Wang and Sassen 2001) has been implemented for use with the ARM Micropulse Lidar (MPL) systems. In addition to retrieving cloud boundaries above 500 m, the value-added product (VAP) named Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask (MPLCMASK) applies lidar-specific corrections (i.e., range-square, background, deadtime, and overlap) as described in Campbell et al. (2002) to the measured backscattered lidar. Depolarization ratio is computed using the methodology developed by Flynn et al. (2007) for polarization-capable MPL systems. The cloud boundaries output from MPLCMASK will be the primary lidar cloud mask for input to the ARSCL product and will be applied to all MPL systems, including historical data sets.

Sivaraman, C; Comstock, J

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

135

Influence of Process Induced Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials, Processes and Applications for Additive ... Process induced defects were characterized by computer tomography (CT), ...

136

Nested Domain Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An example of a supersymmetric model involving two interacting chiral superfields is presented here which allows for solutions describing string-like ``domain ribbon'' defects embedded within a domain wall. It is energetically favorable for the fermions within the wall to populate the domain ribbons, and an explicit solution is found for the fermion zero modes. The Fermi gas within ribbons can allow them to stabilize in the form of small loops.

J. R. Morris

1997-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

The role of plasma evolution and photon transport in optimizing future advanced lithography sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of plasma evolution and photon transport in optimizing future advanced lithography sources and plasma, ioniza- tion, plasma radiation, and details of photon transport in these media. We studied, photons generation, and their transport and distribution. One of the most important processes

Harilal, S. S.

139

Electron beam lithography at 10keV using an epoxy based high resolution negative resist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behaviour of a new epoxy based resist (mr-EBL 6000.1 XP) as a negative resist for e-beam lithography is presented. We demonstrate that it is possible to define sub-100nm patterns when irradiating thin (120nm) layers of resist with a 10keV electron ... Keywords: EBL, Nanopatterning, Negative resist, Polymer technology

C. Martin; G. Rius; A. Llobera; A. Voigt; G. Gruetzner; F. Pérez-Murano

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Electron tomography of defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

semiconductor specimens with sufficiently low amounts of damage as to give some area with defect structure typical of the material before sample preparation. A similar study in brass [18] (more ductile, with more damage expected) found the maximum depth... for these samples [19]. As seen by comparing silicon and brass, subjecting a ductile material to abrasion causes much deeper disruption than in a brittle material, as energy is diverted to plastic deformation. 1.3.2 Non-mechanical shaping methods Spark cutting may...

Sharp, Joanne

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THE2011] METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAS RECOVERY methane, and 64%

Di Camillo, Nicole G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

NIST Manuscript Publication Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... EUV lithography masks. Citation: SPIE Newsroom Article. Website: www.spie.org. Research Areas: Nanotechnology, Characterization ...

2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

143

Design and analysis of a scanning beam interference lithography system for patterning gratings with nanometer-level distortions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the design and analysis of a system for patterning large-area gratings with nanometer level phase distortions. The novel patterning method, termed scanning beam interference lithography (SBIL), uses ...

Konkola, Paul Thomas, 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

IC defect sensitivity for footprint-type spot defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While it is important to exhaustively verify IC designs for their functional performance, it is equally important to verify their robustness against spot defects, that is, to foresee what will happen to the design when it is exposed to defect conditions ...

J. Pineda de Gyvez; C. Di

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

CHARGED POINT DEFECT IN RUTILE TIO2:FROM DEFECT CHARGE DISTRIBUTION TO DEFECT PHONON FREE ENERGY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dominant charged point defects in transition metal oxides can change with temperature (T) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) to control the electrical properties of… (more)

Li, Xin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

148

"A Novel Objective for EUV Microscopy and EUV Lithography" Inventors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Novel Objective for EUV Microscopy and EUV Lithography" Inventors A Novel Objective for EUV Microscopy and EUV Lithography" Inventors ..--.. Manfred Bitter, Kenneth Hill, Philip Efthimion. This invention is a new x-ray scheme for stigmatic imaging. The scheme consists of one convex spherically bent crystal and one concave spherically bent crystal. The radii of curvature and Bragg reflecting lattice planes of the two crystals are properly matched to eliminate the astigmatism, so that the conditions for stigmatic imaging are met for a particular wavelength. The magnification is adjustable and solely a function of the two Bragg angles or angles of incidence. Although the choice of Bragg angles is constrained by the availability of crystals, this is not a severe limitation for the imaging of plasmas, since a particular wavelength can be

149

Development of metal etch mask by single layer lift-off for silicon nitride photonic crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a method for fabrication of nanoscale patterns in silicon nitride (SiN) using a hard chrome mask formed by metal liftoff with a negative ebeam resists (maN-2401). This approach enables fabrication of a robust etch mask without the need for ... Keywords: Metal liftoff, Nanofabrication, Nanophotonics, Photonic crystals (PC), Silicon nitride (SiN)

Kang-mook Lim; Shilpi Gupta; Chad Ropp; Edo Waks

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Masking and Dual-rail Logic Don't Add Up Patrick Schaumont1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-consumption pattern and can be exploited in power analysis attacks. Third, the loading imbalance of dual-rail circuits is that the circuit switches between two complementary states with a different power profile. Earlier work has shown that the mask-bit value can be estimated from the power con- sumption profile, and that masked logic remains

Schaumont, Patrick

151

Spectral Mask Compliance and Amplifier Nonlinearity in Single Carrier and OFDM Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we investige the comparative merits of two transmission techniques, OFDM and single carrier, with respect to spectral mask compliance when a nonlinear amplifier is utilized in transmission. Two different nonlinear power amplifier models ... Keywords: OFDM, Power amplifier nonlinearity, Single carrier, Spectral mask

Erman Köken; A. Özgür Y?lmaz

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Commissioning of soft and deep X-ray lithography beamline on Indus-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soft and Deep x-ray lithography (SDXRL) beamline is commissioned on Indus-2. The beamline can be operated between 1.5 to 20 keV and in white beam mode. Beamline consists of two x-ray mirrors, slits, Be-windows, beam diagnostics and filters assemblies and radiation safety systems. A custom built X-ray scanner is used to create 3-D high aspect ratio micro structures. The paper reports the commissioning results of this beamline.

Dhamgaye, V. P.; Sankar, B. Gowri; Garg, C. K.; Lodha, G. S. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

153

Optical Synchrotron Radiation Beam Imaging with a Digital Mask  

SciTech Connect

We have applied a new imaging/optical masking technique, which employs a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), to perform high dynamic range (DR) beam imaging at the JLAB Energy Recovery Linac and the SLAC/SPEAR3 Synchrotron Light Source. The OSR from the beam is first focused onto the DMD to produce a primary image; selected areas of this image are spatially filtered by controlling the state of individual micro-mirrors; and finally, the filtered image is refocused onto a CCD camera. At JLAB this technique has been used successfully to view the beam halo with a DR ~ 105. At SPEAR3 the DMD was used to filter out the bright core of the stored beam to study the turn-by-turn dynamics of the 10-3 weaker injected beam. We describe the optical performance, present limitations and our plans to improve the DR of both experimental systems.

Fiorito, R B; Zhang, H D; Corbett, W J; Fisher, A S; Mok, W Y; Tian, K; Douglas, D; Wilson, F G; Zhang, S

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC  

SciTech Connect

Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

Shengbai Zhang

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

155

Sequential detection of web defects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for detecting defects on a moving web having a sequential series of identical frames uses an imaging device to form a real-time camera image of a frame and a comparitor to comparing elements of the camera image with corresponding elements of an image of an exemplar frame. The comparitor provides an acceptable indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically identical; and a defective indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically not identical. If the pair of elements is neither acceptable nor defective, the comparitor recursively compares the element of said exemplar frame with corresponding elements of other frames on said web until one of the acceptable or defective indications occur.

Eichel, Paul H. (Albuquerque, NM); Sleefe, Gerard E. (Cedar Crest, NM); Stalker, K. Terry (Albuquerque, NM); Yee, Amy A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fabrication and characterization of sub-500nm channel organic field effect transistor using UV nanoimprint lithography with cheap Si-mold  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P-type poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with channel length down to 500nm were fabricated. The gold source and drain electrodes were patterned using UV-based nanoimprint lithography and a lift-off process. To reduce ... Keywords: Lift-off process, Opaque Si-mold, Organic transistor, Short channel effect, UV-nanoimprint lithography

Lichao Teng; Robert Kirchner; Matthias PlöTner; Alexander TüRke; Andreas Jahn; Jian He; Falk Hagemann; Wolf-Joachim Fischer

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Defect Structures and Electronic Properties of Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defect Structures and Electronic Properties of Graphene. Summary: Graphene and related materials have remarkable physical ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Iterative aperture mask design in phase space using a rank constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an iterative camera aperture design procedure, which determines an optimal mask pattern based on a sparse set of desired intensity distributions at different focal depths. This iterative method uses the ambiguity ...

Horstmeyer, Roarke William

159

Comparison of Satellite Cloud Masks with Ceilometer Sky Conditions in Southern Finland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cloud mask is an essential product derived from satellite data. Whereas cloud analysis applications typically make use of information from cloudy pixels, many other applications require cloud-free conditions. For this reason many ...

Sauli Joro; Otto Hyvärinen; Janne Kotro

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-098 Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Value-Added Product...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Value-Added Product Technical Report C Sivaraman J Comstock July 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Diffraction spectral filter for use in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A condenser system for generating a beam of radiation includes a source of radiation light that generates a continuous spectrum of radiation light; a condenser comprising one or more first optical elements for collecting radiation from the source of radiation light and for generating a beam of radiation; and a diffractive spectral filter for separating first radiation light having a particular wavelength from the continuous spectrum of radiation light. Cooling devices can be employed to remove heat generated. The condenser system can be used with a ringfield camera in projection lithography.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Bernardez, Luis J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

163

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

164

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

165

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

166

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Thursday, 20 June 2013 10:41 Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

167

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

168

Soft holographic interference lithography microlens for enhanced organic light emitting diode light extraction  

SciTech Connect

Very uniform 2 {micro}m-pitch square microlens arrays ({micro}LAs), embossed on the blank glass side of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated 1.1 mm-thick glass, are used to enhance light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by {approx}100%, significantly higher than enhancements reported previously. The array design and size relative to the OLED pixel size appear to be responsible for this enhancement. The arrays are fabricated by very economical soft lithography imprinting of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold (itself obtained from a Ni master stamp that is generated from holographic interference lithography of a photoresist) on a UV-curable polyurethane drop placed on the glass. Green and blue OLEDs are then fabricated on the ITO to complete the device. When the {mu}LA is {approx}15 x 15 mm{sup 2}, i.e., much larger than the {approx}3 x 3 mm{sup 2} OLED pixel, the electroluminescence (EL) in the forward direction is enhanced by {approx}100%. Similarly, a 19 x 25 mm{sup 2} {mu}LA enhances the EL extracted from a 3 x 3 array of 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} OLED pixels by 96%. Simulations that include the effects of absorption in the organic and ITO layers are in accordance with the experimental results and indicate that a thinner 0.7 mm thick glass would yield a {approx}140% enhancement.

Park, Joong-Mok; Gan, Zhengqing; Leung, Wai Y.; Liu, Rui; Ye, Zhuo; Constant, Kristen; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Ho, Kai-Ming

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

169

Tracking defect warnings across versions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various static analysis tools will analyze a software artifact in order to identify potential defects, such as misused APIs, race conditions and deadlocks, and security vulnerabilities. For a number of reasons, it is important to be able to track the ... Keywords: FindBugs, Java, bug histories, bug tracking, static analysis

Jaime Spacco; David Hovemeyer; William Pugh

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Causes of Paint Film Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 9   Common causes of paint film defects...Dip, flow, roller, spray Improper applicator/metering roll speeds Roller Undesirable pattern Swelling of roll Roller Roll improperly ground Roller Foreign material on roll Roller Poor spray gun technique Spray Runs (curtains, sags) Too much solvent Dip, flow, spray Paint surface or drying atmosphere...

171

Quantum fields with topological defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Domain walls, strings and monopoles are extended objects, or defects, of quantum origin with topologically non--trivial properties and macroscopic behavior. They are described in Quantum Field Theory in terms of inhomogeneous condensates. We review the related formalism in the framework of the spontaneous breakdown of symmetry.

M. Blasone; P. Jizba; G. Vitiello

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

172

Design and fabrication of densely integrated silicon quantum dots using a VLSI compatible hydrogen silsesquioxane electron beam lithography process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) is a high resolution negative-tone electron beam resist allowing for direct transfer of nanostructures into silicon-on-insulator. Using this resist for electron beam lithography, we fabricate high density lithographically ... Keywords: Electron beam resist, HSQ, High-resolution, Nanolithography, SET, SOI

Y. P. Lin; M. K. Husain; F. M. Alkhalil; N. Lambert; J. Perez-Barraza; Y. Tsuchiya; A. J. Ferguson; H. M. H. Chong; H. Mizuta

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Ultra-lightweight nanorelief networks : photopatterned microframes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lightweight nano-network structures in polymers have been fabricated and investigated for their mechanical properties. Fabrication techniques via holographic interference lithography and phase mask lithography were implemented ...

Choi, Taeyi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

EUV lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... This animation shows how the researchers measure contamination that results when EUV photons (green and purple lines) strike a photoresist on ...

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

175

Quantum lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The edge definition and the interior filling of pattern features are commonly performed using the same exposing beam regardless of the feature size. Separating the two processes

Nadim I. Maluf; R. Fabian W. Pease

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

INTERPOLATING MASKED WEAK-LENSING SIGNAL WITH KARHUNEN-LOEVE ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

We explore the utility of Karhunen-Loeve (KL) analysis in solving practical problems in the analysis of gravitational shear surveys. Shear catalogs from large-field weak-lensing surveys will be subject to many systematic limitations, notably incomplete coverage and pixel-level masking due to foreground sources. We develop a method to use two-dimensional KL eigenmodes of shear to interpolate noisy shear measurements across masked regions. We explore the results of this method with simulated shear catalogs, using statistics of high-convergence regions in the resulting map. We find that the KL procedure not only minimizes the bias due to masked regions in the field, it also reduces spurious peak counts from shape noise by a factor of {approx}3 in the cosmologically sensitive regime. This indicates that KL reconstructions of masked shear are not only useful for creating robust convergence maps from masked shear catalogs, but also offer promise of improved parameter constraints within studies of shear peak statistics.

VanderPlas, J. T.; Connolly, A. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Jain, B.; Jarvis, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

177

Understanding Defect Behavior in Nuclear Energy Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related Phenomena.

178

Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

1991-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

180

Performance of the Phase 1 superconducting x-ray lithography source (SXLS) at BNL  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I SXLS electron storage ring has a circumference of 8.5 meters, it uses conventional dipole magnets, B {le} 1.1 T and p = 60 cm, and it is capable of operating in the range of 50--250 MeV. It is the forerunner of the Phase II SXLS ring which will operate at 700 MeV and will make use of superconducting dipoles, B{sub o} = 3.87 Tesla, as a source of {lambda}{sub c} = 10 angstrom x-rays for proximity printing lithography. The Phase I storage ring has been successfully commissioned; stored currents in excess of one ampere have been achieved. A report on the performance of the machine is presented.

Murphy, J.B.; Biscardi, R.; Halama, H.; Heese, R.; Kramer, S.; Nawrocky, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Krishnaswamy, J. [Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Performance of the Phase 1 superconducting x-ray lithography source (SXLS) at BNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Phase I SXLS electron storage ring has a circumference of 8.5 meters, it uses conventional dipole magnets, B {le} 1.1 T and p = 60 cm, and it is capable of operating in the range of 50--250 MeV. It is the forerunner of the Phase II SXLS ring which will operate at 700 MeV and will make use of superconducting dipoles, B{sub o} = 3.87 Tesla, as a source of {lambda}{sub c} = 10 angstrom x-rays for proximity printing lithography. The Phase I storage ring has been successfully commissioned; stored currents in excess of one ampere have been achieved. A report on the performance of the machine is presented.

Murphy, J.B.; Biscardi, R.; Halama, H.; Heese, R.; Kramer, S.; Nawrocky, R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Krishnaswamy, J. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

UV Spectra of Amino Acid Immobilized at Nanoparticles Formation through Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) by Plasma Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modifying of nanospheres structures by plasma treatments to the fabricated nanoparticles arrays by Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) techniques to create Periodic Particles Arrays (PPAs) with different size, shape and orientation. Spectra of amino acid that immobilized to the nanoparticles arrays under Ultra Violet (UV) spectrums were studied. The PPAs with different sizes, shapes and orientation were fabricated by plasma treatment of 5 sec, 7 sec and 10 sec to the Polystyrene Nanosphere (PSN). Plasma treatment will effect to the PSN including etching part of the PSN to produce a much bigger channel to the single layer template of the PSN. Metal was deposited at interstitial sites between of the polymer balls and later removed by dissolving them in organic solvent, leaving a hexagonal pattern of metal structures at the interstitial sites. The nanoparticles immobilized with the standard amino acid, which later investigated under UV spectrums. The spectrums shows the possibilities use as biosensor devices.

Mohamad, Farizan [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (Malaysia); Agam, Mohd Arif [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Arts and Heritage, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Nur, Hadi [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre, Faculty Sciences, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai (Malaysia)

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

183

Top-surface imaging resists for lithography with strongly attenuated radiation  

SciTech Connect

Strong resist photoabsorption at wavelengths below 248 nm necessitates the use of a thin layer imaging (TLI) scheme for microlithography using 193 nm, 157 nm, or 13.4 nm radiation. Previous to this work, a TLI process commonly known as silylated top surface imaging (TSI) was developed by a Sandia/AT and T team for use in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) at 13.4 nm. Using this bilayer process, 0.13 {micro}m resolution with 87{degree} sidewalls in 0.7 {micro}m of resist was achieved for EUV exposures. New imaging layer polymers, silylation reagents and crosslinkers, and process conditions were screened for improvement in this TSI process with the ultimate goal of demonstrating a resist technology capable of 0.10 {micro}m critical dimension (CD). The results of these attempted improvements to the TSI process are described in this report.

Ray-Chaudhuri, A.; Kubiak, G.; Henderson, C.; Wheeler, D.; Pollagi, T.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Soft magnetic lithography and giant magnetoresistance in superconducting/ferromagnetic hybrids.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate an approach to create a tunable pinning potential in a superconducting/ferromagnetic (SC/FM) hybrid, allowing the switching of their electronic properties through the application of a small magnetic field. Using direct magneto-optical imaging, macroscopic transport, and magnetic measurements, we show that the alignment of stripe domains in the ferromagnet provides a remarkable directionality for the superconducting vortex motion. An analysis of the anisotropic flux motion demonstrates a substantial critical current anisotropy in the superconductor. The possibility of aligning stable lattices of stripe domains in select directions using in-plane magnetic fields allows the realization of soft magnetic lithography for efficient manipulation of supercurrent flow in SC/FM bilayers. Furthermore, in our samples we observed a pronounced magnetoresistance effect yielding 4 orders of magnitude resistivity change in a few millitesla in-plane field.

Vlasko-Vlasov, V.; Welp, U.; Imre, A.; Rosenmann, D.; Pearson, J.; Kwok, W. K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Beamline and exposure station for deep x-ray lithography at the Advanced Photon Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

APS is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source. With an x-ray energy of 19.5 keV and highly collimated beam ( 1 mm) using deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The 2-BM beamline was constructed and will be used for DXRL at APS. Selection of appropriate x-ray energy range is done through a variable-angle mirror and various filters in the beamline. At the exposure station, the beam size will be 100(H) x 5(V) mm{sup 2}. Uniform exposure will be achieved by a high-speed (100 mm/sec) vertical scanner, which allows precise angular ({approximately}0.1 mrad) and positional (conicals and other profiles. For 1-mm-thick PMMA, a 100 x 25 mm{sup 2} area can be fully exposed in about 1/2 hr, while even 10-mm-thick PMMA will require only 2-3 hours.

Lai, B.; Mancini, D.C.; Yun, W.; Gluskin, E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

Second workshop role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device fabrication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Abstracts are presented of 24 papers, arranged under the following session/panel headings: defects and impurities in commercial photovoltaic Si substrates, point defects and point defect processes, impurity gettering for Si solar cells, gettering in Si solar cells, and passivation of impurities and defects.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Second workshop role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device fabrication. Book of abstracts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Abstracts are presented of 24 papers, arranged under the following session/panel headings: defects and impurities in commercial photovoltaic Si substrates, point defects and point defect processes, impurity gettering for Si solar cells, gettering in Si solar cells, and passivation of impurities and defects.

Not Available

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Reflection and Transmission for Conformal Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider conformal defects joining two conformal field theories along a line. We define two new quantities associated to such defects in terms of expectation values of the stress tensors and we propose them as measures of the reflectivity and transmissivity of the defect. Their properties are investigated and they are computed in a number of examples. We obtain a complete answer for all defects in the Ising model and between certain pairs of minimal models. In the case of two conformal field theories with an enhanced symmetry we restrict ourselves to non-trivial defects that can be obtained by a coset construction.

Thomas Quella; Ingo Runkel; Gerard M. T. Watts

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

189

Superconformal defects in the tricritical Ising model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study superconformal defect lines in the tricritical Ising model in 2 dimensions. By the folding trick, a superconformal defect is mapped to a superconformal boundary of the N=1 superconformal unitary minimal model of c=7/5 with D_6-E_6 modular invariant. It turns out that the complete set of the boundary states of c=7/5 D_6-E_6 model cannot be interpreted as the consistent set of the superconformal defects in the tricritical Ising model since it does not contain the ``no defect'' boundary state. Instead, we find a set of 18 consistent superconformal defects including ``no defect'' and satisfying the Cardy condition. This set also includes some defects which are not purely transmissive or purely reflective.

Gang, Dongmin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Superconformal defects in the tricritical Ising model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study superconformal defect lines in the tricritical Ising model in 2 dimensions. By the folding trick, a superconformal defect is mapped to a superconformal boundary of the N=1 superconformal unitary minimal model of c=7/5 with D_6-E_6 modular invariant. It turns out that the complete set of the boundary states of c=7/5 D_6-E_6 model cannot be interpreted as the consistent set of superconformal defects in the tricritical Ising model since it does not contain the "no defect" boundary state. Instead, we find a set of 18 consistent superconformal defects including "no defect" and satisfying the Cardy condition. This set also includes some defects which are not purely transmissive or purely reflective.

Dongmin Gang; Satoshi Yamaguchi

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Conformal nets III: fusion of defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conformal nets provides a mathematical model for conformal field theory. We define a notion of defect between conformal nets, formalizing the idea of an interaction between two conformal field theories. We introduce an operation of fusion of defects, and prove that the fusion of two defects is again a defect, provided the fusion occurs over a conformal net of finite index. There is a notion of sector (or bimodule) between two defects, and operations of horizontal and vertical fusion of such sectors. Our most difficult technical result is that the horizontal fusion of the vacuum sectors of two defects is isomorphic to the vacuum sector of the fused defect. Equipped with this isomorphism, we construct the basic interchange isomorphism between the horizontal fusion of two vertical fusions and the vertical fusion of two horizontal fusions of sectors.

Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Fabrication of Si nano-pillar array through Ni nano-dot mask using inductively coupled plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication of Si nano-pillar array through Ni nano-dot mask using inductively coupled plasma Mun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon, 440-746, South Korea Available online 9 September 2004 Abstract We formed Si nano-pillar array using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of Si with Ni nano-dot mask. For the formation

Yeom, Geun Young

193

Audio watermarking based on quantization index modulation using combined perceptual masking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a robust audio watermarking scheme for MPEG-1/ Audio Layer II compressed domain is proposed. The scheme is implemented by modifying the subband coefficients using adaptive quantization index modulation. The watermarking procedure exploits ... Keywords: Digital audio watermarking, Masking threshold, Quantization index modulation, Subbands

Jyotsna Singh; Parul Garg; Alok Nath De

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks.

Hubbell, Earl A. (Mt. View, CA); Lipshutz, Robert J. (Palo Alto, CA); Morris, Macdonald S. (San Jose, CA); Winkler, James L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

ATJDITORY MASKING BASED ACOUSTIC FRONT-END FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the mismatched conditions [15]. Adding white noise to the signal results in an constant addition to the log power the effect of additive noise distortion, white Gaussian noise is added to the speech signal and speech.Paliwal@me.gu.edu.au ABSTRACT This paper presents an acoustic front-end which uses the properties of auditory masking

196

Multi-Color Coronagraph Experiment in a Vacuum Testbed with a Binary Shaped Pupil Mask  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We conducted a number of multi-band coronagraph experiments using a vacuum chamber and a binary-shaped pupil mask which in principle should work at all wavelengths, in the context of the research and development on a coronagraph to observe extra-solar planets (exoplanets) directly. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that subtraction of Point Spread Function (PSF) and multi-band experiments using a binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph would help improve the contrast in the observation of exoplanets. A checkerboard mask, a kind of binary-shaped pupil mask, was used. We improved the temperature stability by installing the coronagraph optics in a vacuum chamber, controlling the temperature of the optical bench, and covering the vacuum chamber with thermal insulation layers. We evaluated how much the PSF subtraction contributes to the high contrast observation by subtracting the images obtained through the coronagraph. We also carried out multi- band experiments in order to demonstrate a more realistic observa...

Haze, Kanae; Abe, Lyu; Kotani, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Takao; Sato, Toshimichi; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Suspect/Counterfeit and Defective Items  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Items Home SuspectCounterfeit Items Defective Items Safety Advisories Safety Alerts Safety Bulletins SCI Points of Contact SCI Studies References Topical Search SCI-DI...

198

Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Radiation Effects in Ceramic Oxide and Novel LWR Fuels: Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation Sponsored by: The ...

199

Improved, Defect-Free Electrode Materials - Energy ...  

The present invention provides simple, cost effective methods for the preparation of lithium iron phosphate material that is defect-free and therefore ...

200

Quantifying Edge Defects in Drilled FRP Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drilling of Aramid and Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites”,the Exit Defects in Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Plateswith a High Modulus CFRP (Carbon- Fiber Reinforced Polymer)

Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David; Dharan, C. K. Hari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Improved, Defect-Free Electrode Materials  

The present invention provides simple, cost effective methods for the preparation of lithium iron phosphate material that is defect-free and therefore ...

202

Defects and Properties of Cast Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conference Tools for 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition ... In many instances the mechanism for the generation of the defects arises from a combination of ...

203

Structure, Defects, and Scattering in Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure, Defects, and Scattering in Graphene. ... (b) STM image of a complex moiré pattern observed in multilayer graphene grown on SiC. ...

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

204

International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure, including point and other defects in crystalline ceramic and amorphous ceramic solids, different types of in-situ and spectroscopic studies (NMR, EPR, ...

205

MASKING VERSUS REMOVING POINT SOURCES IN CMB DATA: THE SOURCE-CORRECTED WMAP POWER SPECTRUM FROM NEW EXTENDED CATALOG  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Scodeller et al., a new and extended point source catalog obtained from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data was presented. It includes most of the sources included in the standard WMAP seven-year point source catalogs as well as a large number of new detections. Here, we study the effects on the estimated CMB power spectrum when taking the newly detected point sources into consideration. We create point source masks for all the 2102 sources that we detected as well as a smaller one for the 665 sources detected in the Q, V, and W bands. We also create WMAP7 maps with point sources subtracted in order to compare with the spectrum obtained with source masks. The extended point source masks and point source cleaned WMAP7 maps are made publicly available. Using the proper residual correction, we find that the CMB power spectrum obtained from the point source cleaned map without any source mask is fully consistent with the spectrum obtained from the masked map. We further find that the spectrum obtained masking all 2102 sources is consistent with the results obtained using the standard WMAP seven-year point source mask (KQ85y7). We also verify that the removal of point sources does not introduce any skewness.

Scodeller, Sandro; Hansen, Frode K., E-mail: sandro.scodeller@astro.uio.no, E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

206

Beamline and exposure station for deep x-ray lithography at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

APS is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source. With an x-ray energy of 19.5 keV and highly collimated beam (<0.1 mrad), APS is well suited for producing high-aspect-ratio microstructures in thick resist films (> 1 mm) using deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The 2-BM beamline was constructed and will be used for DXRL at APS. Selection of appropriate x-ray energy range is done through a variable-angle mirror and various filters in the beamline. At the exposure station, the beam size will be 100(H) x 5(V) mm{sup 2}. Uniform exposure will be achieved by a high-speed (100 mm/sec) vertical scanner, which allows precise angular ({approximately}0.1 mrad) and positional (< 1 {mu}m) control of the sample, allowing full use of the highly collimated beam for lateral accuracy and control of sidewall slopes during exposure of thick resists, as well as generation of conicals and other profiles. For 1-mm-thick PMMA, a 100 x 25 mm{sup 2} area can be fully exposed in about 1/2 hr, while even 10-mm-thick PMMA will require only 2-3 hours.

Lai, B.; Mancini, D.C.; Yun, W.; Gluskin, E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Geographic variation in breeding seasonality and primary moult parameters in Cape Weavers, Southern Masked  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cape, while MacDonald (1990) investigated its expansion westwards through the Karoo. Oschadleus et al species in the arid regions, i.e. the Karoo (2.7­6.5 months) and Northern Cape (1.4­4.6). Peak egg and Southern Masked Weavers in the Eastern Cape, Karoo, KwaZulu-Natal and former Transvaal, with the maximum

de Villiers, Marienne

208

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

Hubbell, Earl A. (Mt. View, CA); Morris, MacDonald S. (San Jose, CA); Winkler, James L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

Hubbell, Earl A. (Mt. View, CA); Morris, MacDonald S. (San Jose, CA); Winkler, James L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

210

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

211

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

213

The role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report and papers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is the summary of the third workshop on the role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. The workshop was organized: (1) to discuss recent progress in the material quality produced by photovoltaic Si manufacturers, (2) to foster the understanding of point defect issues in Si device processing, (3) to review the effects of inhomogeneities on large- area solar cell performance, (4) to discuss how to improve Si solar cell processing, and (5) to develop a new understanding of gettering, defect passivation, and defect annihilation. Separate abstract were prepared for the individual papers, for the database.

Sopori, B.; Tan, T.Y.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Bunch by Bunch Profiling with a Rotating X-ray Mask  

SciTech Connect

It is desirable to monitor the cross sections of each positron bunch in the Low Energy Ring (LER) storage rings of the Positron Electron Project II (PEP-II) located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. One method is to pass the x-rays given off by each bunch through a scintillator, thereby studying a visible image. A rotating x-ray mask with three slots scans the beam image in three different orientations, allowing us to mechanically collect data to characterize and profile each image. Progress was made in designing the x-ray mask, researching and procuring parts, as well as advancing project plans. However, due to time constraints and difficulties in procuring special parts, the full system was not completed. A simpler setup was built to test the hardware as well as the feasibility of characterizing a circular image with a rotating mask. A blinking green light emitting diode (LED) simulated a single positron bunch stored in the LER ring. The selected hardware handled this simulation setup well and produced data that led to a reasonable estimation of the LED image diameter.

Lee, Christopher J.; /UC, San Diego

2007-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

215

Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye Florian Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturma)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion Florian Pschenitzka of Physics. S0003-6951 99 02913-7 Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs have demon- strated a remarkable

216

Enhancing extreme ultraviolet photons emission in laser produced plasmas for advanced lithography  

SciTech Connect

Current challenges in the development of efficient laser produced plasma sources for the next generation extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are increasing EUV power and maximizing lifetime and therefore, reducing cost of devices. Mass-limited targets such as small tin droplets are considered among the best choices for cleaner operation of the optical system because of lower mass of atomic debris produced by the laser beam. The small diameter of droplets, however, decreases the conversion efficiency (CE) of EUV photons emission, especially in the case of CO{sub 2} laser, where laser wavelength has high reflectivity from the tin surface. We investigated ways of improving CE in mass-limited targets. We considered in our modeling various possible target phases and lasers configurations: from solid/liquid droplets subjected to laser beam energy with different intensities and laser wavelength to dual-beam lasers, i.e., a pre-pulse followed by a main pulse with adjusted delay time in between. We studied the dependence of vapor expansion rate, which can be produced as a result of droplet heating by pre-pulse laser energy, on target configuration, size, and laser beam parameters. As a consequence, we studied the influence of these conditions and parameters on the CE and debris mass accumulation. For better understanding and more accurate modeling of all physical processes occurred during various phases of laser beam/target interactions, plasma plume formation and evolution, EUV photons emission and collection, we have implemented in our heights package state-of-the art models and methods, verified, and benchmarked against laboratory experiments in our CMUXE center as well as various worldwide experimental results.

Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Defect aggregation kinetics in calcium fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defects in solid materials are responsible for many of their most interesting and critical properties. The authors have developed a site-selective laser technique that allows us to monitor the aggregation of rare earth ion defects in solids on the microscopic scale. This excitation absorption laser method enables us to derive kinetic rate information and thermodynamic parameters for the distribution of defects in solids. For doped materials, various types of defects arise when the dopant ions have ionic charges that differ from the charges of host crystal ions. In model systems such as alkaline earth fluorides doped with trivalent rare earth ions, some defect sites consist of a single dopant ion, while others consist of clusters of dopant cations and interstitial anions. Heat treatment of doped samples leads to a distribution of the various types of defect sites that is characteristic of the temperature and length of heat treatment and the total dopant ion concentration. The results from a study of the formation of trivalent europium ion defect aggregates in calcium fluoride indicate that our method successfully monitors changes in individual site concentrations resulting from heat treatment. The results of this study are consistent with the formation of negatively charged dimer and trimer defects in Eu{sup 3+}:CaF{sub 2} crystals from isolated europium ion and (Eu:F{sub i}) single pair defects. In addition, he presents evidence for rapid equilibrium between the isolated ion and the single pair. Other work presented in this thesis includes the development of a high-temperature fluorine oxidation apparatus that was used to convert divalent europium ions to the trivalent state in calcium fluoride single crystals. This apparatus was also used to increase the superconducting {Tc}'s of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} through modification of copper-oxygen oxidation states.

Cirillo, K.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Polymers in anisotropic environment with extended defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conformational properties of flexible polymers in d dimensions in environments with extended defects are analyzed both analytically and numerically. We consider the case, when structural defects are correlated in \\varepsilon_d dimensions and randomly distributed in the remaining d-\\varepsilon_d. Within the lattice model of self-avoiding random walks (SAW), we apply the pruned enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) and find the estimates for scaling exponents and universal shape parameters of polymers in environment with parallel rod-like defects (\\varepsilon_d=1). An analytical description of the model is developed within the des Cloizeaux direct polymer renormalization scheme.

V. Blavatska; K. Haydukivska

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

219

International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure, including point and other defects in crystalline ceramic and ... Compositional Stability and Oxygen Exchange Kinetics of Oxide Hetero-Junction Electrodes ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

220

Generalized quantum defect methods in quantum chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reaction matrix of multichannel quantum defect theory, K, gives a complete picture of the electronic structure and the electron - nuclear dynamics for a molecule. The reaction matrix can be used to examine both bound ...

Altunata, Serhan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Supersymmetric K field theories and defect structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct supersymmetric K field theories (i.e., theories with a non-standard kinetic term) in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions such that the bosonic sector just consists of a nonstandard kinetic term plus a potential. Further, we study the possibility of topological defect formation in these supersymmetric models. Finally, we consider more general supersymmetric K field theories where, again, topological defects exist in some cases.

Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paving the Way to Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print Wednesday, 30 March 2011 00:00 As the nanoelectronics industry pushes towards feature sizes of 22 nm and smaller, conventional single-exposure refractive lithography systems used to print circuit patterns onto computer chips will no longer be feasible. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, utilizing reflective optics and 13-nm-wavelength light to print chips, is the leading candidate to meet the industry's future needs. Despite strong progress in EUV lithography over the past decade, significant challenges remain, including defect-free mask fabrication (see Science Highlight Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects), and the development of ultrahigh-resolution photoresist-a light-sensitive material used to form a patterned coating-that simultaneously supports low line-edge roughness (LER), high sensitivity, and sub-22-nm resolution. Using the SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (MET) at ALS Beamline 12.0.1.3, advanced EUV photoresist research can be performed while high-power stand-alone light sources are still being developed. High-quality 16-nm lines and spaces have been printed using the MET, representing the highest resolution ever achieved from a single-exposure projection optical lithography tool.

223

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print As the nanoelectronics industry pushes towards feature sizes of 22 nm and smaller, conventional single-exposure refractive lithography systems used to print circuit patterns onto computer chips will no longer be feasible. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, utilizing reflective optics and 13-nm-wavelength light to print chips, is the leading candidate to meet the industry's future needs. Despite strong progress in EUV lithography over the past decade, significant challenges remain, including defect-free mask fabrication (see Science Highlight Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects), and the development of ultrahigh-resolution photoresist-a light-sensitive material used to form a patterned coating-that simultaneously supports low line-edge roughness (LER), high sensitivity, and sub-22-nm resolution. Using the SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (MET) at ALS Beamline 12.0.1.3, advanced EUV photoresist research can be performed while high-power stand-alone light sources are still being developed. High-quality 16-nm lines and spaces have been printed using the MET, representing the highest resolution ever achieved from a single-exposure projection optical lithography tool.

224

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller Print As the nanoelectronics industry pushes towards feature sizes of 22 nm and smaller, conventional single-exposure refractive lithography systems used to print circuit patterns onto computer chips will no longer be feasible. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, utilizing reflective optics and 13-nm-wavelength light to print chips, is the leading candidate to meet the industry's future needs. Despite strong progress in EUV lithography over the past decade, significant challenges remain, including defect-free mask fabrication (see Science Highlight Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects), and the development of ultrahigh-resolution photoresist-a light-sensitive material used to form a patterned coating-that simultaneously supports low line-edge roughness (LER), high sensitivity, and sub-22-nm resolution. Using the SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (MET) at ALS Beamline 12.0.1.3, advanced EUV photoresist research can be performed while high-power stand-alone light sources are still being developed. High-quality 16-nm lines and spaces have been printed using the MET, representing the highest resolution ever achieved from a single-exposure projection optical lithography tool.

225

Wavelet-Smoothed Interpolation of Masked Scientific Data for JPEG 2000 Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How should we manage scientific data with 'holes'? Some applications, like JPEG 2000, expect logically rectangular data, but some sources, like the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), generate data that isn't defined on certain subsets. We refer to grid points that lack well-defined, scientifically meaningful sample values as 'masked' samples. Wavelet-smoothing is a highly scalable interpolation scheme for regions with complex boundaries on logically rectangular grids. Computation is based on forward/inverse discrete wavelet transforms, so runtime complexity and memory scale linearly with respect to sample count. Efficient state-of-the-art minimal realizations yield small constants (O(10)) for arithmetic complexity scaling, and in-situ implementation techniques make optimal use of memory. Implementation in two dimensions using tensor product filter banks is straighsorward and should generalize routinely to higher dimensions. No hand-tuning required when the interpolation mask changes, making the method aeractive for problems with time-varying masks. Well-suited for interpolating undefined samples prior to JPEG 2000 encoding. The method outperforms global mean interpolation, as judged by both SNR rate-distortion performance and low-rate artifact mitigation, for data distributions whose histograms do not take the form of sharply peaked, symmetric, unimodal probability density functions. These performance advantages can hold even for data whose distribution differs only moderately from the peaked unimodal case, as demonstrated by POP salinity data. The interpolation method is very general and is not tied to any particular class of applications, could be used for more generic smooth interpolation.

Brislawn, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

226

Giving and Thanksgiving: Gratitude and Adiaphora in A Mask and Paradise Regained  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

John Milton begins his Second Defence of the English People by stressing the universal importance of gratitude: "In the whole life and estate of man the first duty is to be grateful to God." Peter Medine has shown the prominence of gratitude in Paradise Lost, but scholars have not fully appreciated the role of this virtue elsewhere in Milton's writing. This thesis is an attempt to redress that oversight with reference to A Mask and Paradise Regained, while also answering a question that Medine raises but does not satisfactorily resolve: Why gratitude? Both texts have been read as responses to the early modern debate about the doctrine of things indifferent, or adiaphora, and I argue that this context helps explain Milton's interest in gratitude. The first section of this thesis accordingly reviews the historical and theological context of the adiaphora controversy, while the second examines Milton's more direct treatment of things indifferent and gratitude, primarily in De Doctrina Christiana. In the remaining sections, historical and literary analysis of A Mask and Paradise Regained illuminates how Milton addresses tensions in the doctrine of things indifferent by emphasizing gratitude. Of the commonly recognized criteria for directing the use of adiaphora—the rule of faith, the rule of charity, and the glorification of God, often through gratitude—gratitude toward God frequently receives less thorough attention, yet Milton gives it a prominent role in A Mask and allows it to overshadow the other guidelines in Paradise Regained. Although gratitude is itself sometimes subject to manipulation in these texts, both A Mask and Paradise Regained suggest that the requirement of God-ward gratitude can serve as a check against subtle distortions of the other guidelines. The effectiveness of this strategy stems from the fact that the vices gratitude guards against—self-indulgent ingratitude, stoical ingratitude, and idolatry—are the vices that underlie licentiousness and superstition, the primary abuses of the doctrine of things indifferent. Milton's privileging of gratitude thus provides a way of cross-checking appeals to the more contested criteria of faith and love, protecting the doctrine of things indifferent from perversions that would undermine Christian liberty.

Newberry, Julie Nicole

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Two-dimensional defect modes in optically induced photonic lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, localized linear defect modes due to band gap guidance in two-dimensional photonic lattices with localized or nonlocalized defects are investigated theoretically. First, when the defect is localized and weak, eigenvalues of defect modes bifurcated from edges of Bloch bands are derived analytically. It is shown that in an attractive (repulsive) defect, defect modes bifurcate out from Bloch-band edges with normal (anomalous) diffraction coefficients. Furthermore, distances between defect-mode eigenvalues and Bloch-band edges decrease exponentially with the defect strength, which is very different from the one-dimensional case where such distances decrease quadratically with the defect strength. It is also found that some defect-mode branches bifurcate not from Bloch-band edges, but from quasiedge points within Bloch bands, which is very unusual. Second, when the defect is localized but strong, defect modes are determined numerically. It is shown that both the repulsive and attractive defects can support various types of defect modes such as fundamental, dipole, quadrupole, and vortex modes. These modes reside in various band gaps of the photonic lattice. As the defect strength increases, defect modes move from lower band gaps to higher ones when the defect is repulsive, but remain within each band gap when the defect is attractive, similar to the one-dimensional case. The same phenomena are observed when the defect is held fixed while the applied dc field (which controls the lattice potential) increases. Lastly, if the defect is nonlocalized (i.e., it persists at large distances in the lattice), it is shown that defect modes can be embedded inside the continuous spectrum, and they can bifurcate out from edges of the continuous spectrum algebraically rather than exponentially.

Wang Jiandong; Yang Jianke; Chen Zhigang [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Pattern formation from defect chaos—a theory of chevrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Turing patterns, coupled amplitude equations, defect chaos, electronconvection in liquid crystals

A. G. Rossberg; L. Kramer

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Manufacturing Defects Common to Composite Wind Turbine Blades: Effects of Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Manufacturing Defects Common to Composite Wind Turbine Blades: Effects of Defects Jared W. Nelson The Blade Reliability Collaborative has been formed to perform comprehensive studies to improve wind turbine uni-directional wind turbine fiber-reinforced composite material with an epoxy resin were utilized

230

Role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device processing. Book of abstracts, fourth workshop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 41 abstracts are arranged into 6 sessions: impurities and defects in commercial substrates: their sources, effects on material yield, and material quality; impurity gettering in silicon: limits and manufacturability of impurity gettering and in silicon solar cells; impurity/defect passivation; new concepts in silicon growth: improved initial quality and thin films; and silicon solar cell design opportunities.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Extended Defects in Cdznte Radiation Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-volume CdZnTe (CZT) single crystals with electron lifetime exceeding 10 mus have recently become commercially available. This opened the opportunity for making room temperature CZT gamma-ray detectors with extended thicknesses and larger effective areas. However, the extended defects that are present even in the highest-quality material remain a major drawback which affects the availability and cost of large CZT detectors. In contrast to the point defects that control electron lifetime and whose effects on the charge collection can be electronically corrected, the extended defects introduce significant fluctuations in the collected charge, which increase with a crystal's thickness. The extended defects limit the uniformity in the electrons' drift distance in CZT crystals, above which electron trapping cannot effectively be corrected. In this paper, we illustrate the roles of the extended defects in CZT detectors with different geometries. We emphasize that the crystallinity of commercial CZT materials remains a major obstacle on the path to developing thick, large-volume CZT detectors for gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy.

Bolotnikov, A.; Babalola, S; Camarda, G; Chen, H; Awadalla, S; Cui, Y; Egarievwe, S; Fochuk, P; Hawrami, R; et. al.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

The Effect of Obstacles Close to the Anemometer Mask located on a Building  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Effect of Obstacles Close to the Anemometer Mask located on a Building The Effect of Obstacles Close to the Anemometer Mask located on a Building on Wind Flow in the WAsP Model Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a powerful software package which is used for wind energy assessment for any location using the data of a nearby location under the same climatic condition. In this work WAsP has been used to predict potential areas of Kutubdia, an Island of Bangladesh, for installation of wind generators. As the mast is on the roof of Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) station the hill effect has been introduced. If full heights of obstacles are used the predicted speed for another location becomes high and therefore the height parameter of the obstacles has been adjusted. It appears that those with height below or equal to the slope should not be considered and an obstacle with height greater then the slope should be taken as around h/2 where h is the height above the slope towards the wind direction. The computation shows that the speed difference for one year period between the measured and predicted annual values is 0.3m/s.

233

GaN: Defect and Device Issues  

SciTech Connect

The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

234

Fuzzy Logic Connectivity in Semiconductor Defect Clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In joining defects on semiconductor wafer maps into clusters, it is common for defects caused by different sources to overlap. Simple morphological image processing tends to either join too many unrelated defects together or not enough together. Expert semiconductor fabrication engineers have demonstrated that they can easily group clusters of defects from a common manufacturing problem source into a single signature. Capturing this thought process is ideally suited for fuzzy logic. A system of rules was developed to join disconnected clusters based on properties such as elongation, orientation, and distance. The clusters are evaluated on a pair-wise basis using the fuzzy rules and are joined or not joined based on a defuzzification and threshold. The system continuously re-evaluates the clusters under consideration as their fuzzy memberships change with each joining action. The fuzzy membership functions for each pair-wise feature, the techniques used to measure the features, and methods for improving the speed of the system are all developed. Examples of the process are shown using real-world semiconductor wafer maps obtained from chip manufacturers. The algorithm is utilized in the Spatial Signature Analyzer (SSA) software, a joint development project between Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) and SEMATECH.

Gleason, S.S.; Kamowski, T.P.; Tobin, K.W.

1999-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

235

Design and defect tolerance beyond CMOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well recognized that novel computational models, devices and technologies are needed in order to sustain the remarkable advancement of CMOS-based VLSI circuits and systems. Regardless of the models, devices and technologies, any enhancement/replacement ... Keywords: cmol, defect tolerance, nanotechnology, qca, spin wave

Xiaobo Sharon Hu; Alexander Khitun; Konstantin K. Likharev; Michael T. Niemier; Mingqiang Bao; Kang Wang

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A NEW ALGORITHM FOR RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM/RDD MATERIALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detection and identification of shielded and masked nuclear materials is crucial to national security, but vast borders and high volumes of traffic impose stringent requirements for practical detection systems. Such tools must be be mobile, and hence low power, provide a low false alarm rate, and be sufficiently robust to be operable by non-technical personnel. Currently fielded systems have not achieved all of these requirements simultaneously. Transport modeling such as that done in GADRAS is able to predict observed spectra to a high degree of fidelity; our research is focusing on a radionuclide identification algorithm that inverts this modeling within the constraints imposed by a handheld device. Key components of this work include incorporation of uncertainty as a function of both the background radiation estimate and the hypothesized sources, dimensionality reduction, and nonnegative matrix factorization. We have partially evaluated performance of our algorithm on a third-party data collection made with two different sodium iodide detection devices. Initial results indicate, with caveats, that our algorithm performs as good as or better than the on-board identification algorithms. The system developed was based on a probabilistic approach with an improved approach to variance modeling relative to past work. This system was chosen based on technical innovation and system performance over algorithms developed at two competing research institutions. One key outcome of this probabilistic approach was the development of an intuitive measure of confidence which was indeed useful enough that a classification algorithm was developed based around alarming on high confidence targets. This paper will present and discuss results of this novel approach to accurately identifying shielded or masked radioisotopes with radiation detection systems.

Jeffcoat, R.

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

238

Session AA: Oxide Defects, Localized States, and Nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 24, 2010 ... 1:30 PM AA1, Vacancy Defect and Defect Cluster Energetics in ... to correlate the commonly observed 1.9-2.1 eV “red” and 2.3-2.5 eV “green” ...

239

Controlling Defect Density in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlling Defect Density in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Optimizing ... Engineering Carbon Nanomaterials for Energy Application.

240

Thermodynamic Control of Stoichiometry-Induced Defects in ...  

Thermodynamic Control of Stoichiometry-Induced Defects in Photovoltaic Materials Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Enhanced Lattice Defect Formation Associated with Hydrogen and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Enhanced Lattice Defect Formation Associated with Hydrogen and Hydrogen Embrittlement under Elastic Stress of High-Strength Steel.

242

Impurities and defects in photovoltaic Si devices: A review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of commercial photovoltaic Si devices is strongly controlled by the impurities and defects present in the substrates. A well-designed solar cell processing sequence can mitigate their effects to yield high efficiency devices. Such a process-design requires a comprehensive knowledge of the properties of defects, impurities, and impurity-defect interactions that can occur during device processing. This paper reviews the recent understanding of the impurity and defect issues in Si-photovoltaics.

Sopori, B.

1999-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

243

Metrics of Risk Associated with Defects Rediscovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software defects rediscovered by a large number of customers affect various stakeholders and may: 1) hint at gaps in a software manufacturer's Quality Assurance (QA) processes, 2) lead to an over-load of a software manufacturer's support and maintenance teams, and 3) consume customers' resources, leading to a loss of reputation and a decrease in sales. Quantifying risk associated with the rediscovery of defects can help all of these stake-holders. In this chapter we present a set of metrics needed to quantify the risks. The metrics are designed to help: 1) the QA team to assess their processes; 2) the support and maintenance teams to allocate their resources; and 3) the customers to assess the risk associated with using the software product. The paper includes a validation case study which applies the risk metrics to industrial data. To calculate the metrics we use mathematical instruments like the heavy-tailed Kappa distribution and the G/M/k queuing model.

Miranskyy, Andriy V; Reesor, Mark

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Point defects in silicon crystals studied via complexes with hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We studied the properties of irradiation-induced point defects and thermal equilibrium vacancies in Si by detecting hydrogen interacting with these point defects. First, we show the irradiation temperature dependence of the point defect concentration. ... Keywords: Frenkel pairs, hydrogen, migration energy, self-interstitials, silicon, vacancies

M. Suezawa; N. Fukata; Y. Takada; R. Taniguchi; F. Hori; R. Oshima

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Defect structure of web silicon ribbon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Web silicon ribbon has recently emerged as a material for the production of high efficiency solar cells. Since defects introduced during growth may influence locally minority carrier recombination rates, there is now a need to examine the defect structure in detail and to correlate it with electrical activity. This work describes initial observations made on web material by EBIC and HVEM. Although EBIC investigations have shown that dislocations emerging at the web surface enhance minority carrier recombination rates, their density is low enough (typically 10/sup 5/cm/sup -2/) to have only a small effect on the efficiency of the material as a solar cell. Since a condition for dendritic web growth is that the dendrites contain at least two twin boundaries it is usual to find that some of these boundaries extend into the web. These boundaries are formed parallel to the (111) growth surface and are found to be sites of strong electrical activity. HVEM has been used to study the defect structure at the twin boundary. Two types of dislocation networks lying on different (111) planes have been observed, presumably corresponding to two adjacent twin boundaries.

Cunningham, B.; Strunk, H.; Ast, D.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

ALSNews Vol. 311  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Print 1 Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior The role irradiation plays in high-exposure bone fracturing experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not fully understood. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers must understand the role of sustained irradiation damage at different size scales within bone. Using synchrotron radiation microtomography at ALS Beamline 8.3.2, researchers investigated changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that this can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness. Read more... Contact: Robert O. Ritchie Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Printing computer chips using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography will enable the production of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized, curved-mirror lenses to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, Berkeley Lab scientists worked with an international semiconductor industry consortium to create a unique Fresnel zoneplate microscope on ALS Beamline 11.3.2: The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT). Read more...

247

ALSNews Vol. 311  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Print 1 Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior The role irradiation plays in high-exposure bone fracturing experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not fully understood. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers must understand the role of sustained irradiation damage at different size scales within bone. Using synchrotron radiation microtomography at ALS Beamline 8.3.2, researchers investigated changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that this can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness. Read more... Contact: Robert O. Ritchie Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Printing computer chips using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography will enable the production of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized, curved-mirror lenses to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, Berkeley Lab scientists worked with an international semiconductor industry consortium to create a unique Fresnel zoneplate microscope on ALS Beamline 11.3.2: The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT). Read more...

248

The role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report and papers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a summary of a workshop hold on August 24--26, 1992. Session 1 of the conference discussed characteristics of various commercial photovoltaic silicon substrates, the nature of impurities and defects in them, and how they are related to the material growth. Session 2 on point defects reviewed the capabilities of theoretical approaches to determine equilibrium structure of defects in the silicon lattice arising from transitional metal impurities and hydrogen. Session 3 was devoted to a discussion of the surface photovoltaic method for characterizing bulk wafer lifetimes, and to detailed studies on the effectiveness of various gettering operations on reducing the deleterious effects of transition metals. Papers presented at the conference are also included in this summary report.

Sopori, B.; Tan, T.Y.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application  

SciTech Connect

The progress in development of commercial system for next generation EUV lithography requires, among other factors, significant improvement in EUV photon sources such as discharge produced plasma (DPP) and laser produced plasma (LPP) devices. There are still many uncertainties in determining the optimum device since there are many parameters for the suitable and efficient energy source and target configuration and size. Complex devices with trigger lasers in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency (CE) and components lifetime. We considered in our analysis a promising LPP source configuration using 10-30 {mu}m tin droplet targets, and predicted conditions for the most efficient EUV radiation output and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual-beam lasers and their relationship to target size. We used our HEIGHTS comprehensive and integrated full 3D simulation package to study and optimize LPP processes with various target sizes to maximize the CE of the system.

Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Masking a CCD camera allows multichord charge exchange spectroscopy measurements at high speed on the DIII-D tokamak  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Charge exchange spectroscopy is one of the standard plasma diagnostic techniques used in tokamak research to determine ion temperature, rotation speed, particle density, and radial electric field. Configuring a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to serve as a detector in such a system requires a trade-off between the competing desires to detect light from as many independent spatial views as possible while still obtaining the best possible time resolution. High time resolution is essential, for example, for studying transient phenomena such as edge localized modes. By installing a mask in front of a camera with a 1024 x 1024 pixel CCD chip, we are able to acquire spectra from eight separate views while still achieving a minimum time resolution of 0.2 ms. The mask separates the light from the eight spectra, preventing spatial and temporal cross talk. A key part of the design was devising a compact translation stage which attaches to the front of the camera and allows adjustment of the position of the mask openings relative to the CCD surface. The stage is thin enough to fit into the restricted space between the CCD camera and the spectrometer endplate.

Meyer, O. [Euratom-CEA Association, DSM-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Burrell, K. H.; Chavez, J. A.; Kaplan, D. H. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Chrystal, C.; Pablant, N. A. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Volume 2, Chapter 12: Eliminating Defects and Knowing the Reasons Behind Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

down to the surface.] One should gradually sand (or rasp) the bridge down, checking the results it tight. The defects of the nut and yin­t'o; that is, striking noises, shadow sounds, striking fingers fasteners should not be too tight or too loose. If too tight, then tuning the strings will be difficult

Binkley, Jim

252

SPARSE APERTURE MASKING OBSERVATIONS OF THE FL Cha PRE-TRANSITIONAL DISK  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present deep Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) observations obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope of the pre-transitional disk object FL Cha (SpT = K8, d = 160 pc), the disk of which is known to have a wide optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. We find non-zero closure phases, indicating a significant flux asymmetry in the K{sub S} -band emission (e.g., a departure from a single point source detection). We also present radiative transfer modeling of the spectral energy distribution of the FL Cha system and find that the gap extends from 0.06{sup +0.05}{sub -0.01} AU to 8.3 {+-} 1.3 AU. We demonstrate that the non-zero closure phases can be explained almost equally well by starlight scattered off the inner edge of the outer disk or by a (sub)stellar companion. Single-epoch, single-wavelength SAM observations of transitional disks with large cavities that could become resolved should thus be interpreted with caution, taking the disk and its properties into consideration. In the context of a binary model, the signal is most consistent with a high-contrast ({Delta}K{sub S} {approx} 4.8 mag) source at a {approx}40 mas (6 AU) projected separation. However, the flux ratio and separation parameters remain highly degenerate and a much brighter source ({Delta}K{sub S} {approx} 1 mag) at 15 mas (2.4 AU) can also reproduce the signal. Second-epoch, multi-wavelength observations are needed to establish the nature of the SAM detection in FL Cha.

Cieza, Lucas A.; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Lacour, Sylvestre [LESIA, CNRS/UMR-8109, Observatoire de Paris, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195, Meudon (France); Schreiber, Matthias R.; Canovas, Hector [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Casassus, Simon; Jordan, Andres; Menard, Francois [Millenium Nucleus 'Protoplanetary Disks in ALMA Early Science', Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Perez, Sebastian [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Tuthill, Peter [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ireland, Michael J., E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A holographic perspective on non-relativistic conformal defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study defects in non-relativistic conformal field theories. As in the well-studied case of relativistic conformal defects, we find that a useful tool to organize correlation functions is the defect operator expansion (dOPE). We analyze how the dOPE is implemented in theories with a holographic dual, highlighting some interesting aspects of the operator/state mapping in non-relativistic holography.

Andreas Karch; Piotr Surowka; Ethan G. Thompson

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

254

Defect in Graphene May Present Bouquet of Possibilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... rigid lattice already is stronger than steel, but the defects might allow it a little flexibility, making it even more resilient to tearing or fracturing. ...

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

255

Defect Chemistry and Kinetics of Electrons in Ion Conducting Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Defect Chemistry and Kinetics of Electrons in Ion Conducting Materials – Recent Results and Applications. Author(s), Hans D. Wiemhöfer.

256

Defective Carbon Nanomaterials as the Cathodes for High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defective carbon nanotubes used as the cathodes for lithium batteries show capacitance of ~580 F/g, which can store lithium ions up to an energy density of ...

257

Imaging and Spectroscopy of Chemical and Structural Defects in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present annular dark-field images and electron energy-loss spectra from graphene, and carbon nanotubes with and without structural and chemical defects.

258

Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.  

SciTech Connect

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Theoretical Investigation on Interplay of Defect Clusters and Fission ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prominent effect of the self-defect clusters in bulk matrix on the thermodynamic behavior of fission gases is found, a thermodynamic competition between the ...

260

Hydrogen-Defect Interactions in the Framework of the Defactant ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Multiscale Approaches to Hydrogen-assisted Degradation of Metals. Presentation Title, Hydrogen-Defect Interactions in the Framework of the ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Atomic Scale Modeling of Point Defects in Materials: Coupling Ab ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Atomic Scale Modeling of Point Defects in Materials: Coupling Ab Initio and Elasticity ... Electrochemical Shock of Lithium Battery Materials.

262

Modeling the Effect of Stress on Defect Migration and Void ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The internal stress, in turn, affects the defect dynamic within the material. In this work, we ... Effect of Neutron Radiation Exposure on Low Cycle Fatigue of 304SS

263

Defect in Graphene May Present Bouquet of Possibilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A class of decorative, flower-like defects in the nanomaterial graphene could have potentially important effects on the material's already unique ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

264

Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (US). Center for Solid State Electronics Research

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Defect detection effectiveness and product quality in global software development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global software development (GSD) has become a common practice in the software development industry. The main challenge organizations have to overcome is to minimize the effect of organizational diversity on the effectiveness of their GSD collaboration. ... Keywords: defect density, defect detection effectiveness, global software development, software quality

Tihana Galinac Grbac; Darko Huljeni?

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A self-organizing defect tolerant SIMD architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continual decrease in transistor size (through either scaled CMOS or emerging nanotechnologies) promises to usher in an era of tera to peta-scale integration but with increasing defects. Regardless of fabrication methodology (top-down or bottom-up), ... Keywords: DNA, SIMD, Self-organizing, bit-serial, data parallel, defect tolerance, nanocomputing

Jaidev Patwardhan; Chris Dwyer; Alvin R. Lebeck

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Understanding of Defect Physics in Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Materials: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of thin-film solar cells is influenced by the quality of interfaces and formation of defects such as point defects, stacking faults, twins, dislocations, and grain boundaries. It is important to understand the defect physics so that appropriate methods may be developed to suppress the formation of harmful defects. Here, we review our understanding of defect physics in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials such as Si, CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), Cu2ZnSnSe2 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSnS2 (CZTS) using the combination of nanoscale electron microscopy characterization and density-functional theory (DFT). Although these thin-film PV materials share the same basic structural feature - diamond structure based - the defect physics in them could be very different. Some defects, such as stacking faults and special twins, have similar electronic properties in these thin-film materials. However, some other defects, such as grain boundaries and interfaces, have very different electronic properties in these materials. For example, grain boundaries produce harmful deep levels in Si and CdTe, but they do not produce significant deep levels in CIGS, CZTSe, and CZTS. These explain why passivation is critical for Si and CdTe solar cells, but is less important in CIS and CZTS solar cells. We further provide understanding of the effects of interfaces on the performance of solar cells made of these PV materials.

Yan, Y.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

ULTRASONIC DETECTION OF SURFACE-BREAKING RAILHEAD DEFECTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We recently presented measurements of defects on the railhead, using a novel pitch-catch ultrasonic system comprising of two electro-magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) generating and detecting Rayleigh waves. Current systems used on the UK rail network for detecting surface breaking defects are limited in speed (5 mm). The non-contact EMAT system has the potential to operate at higher line speed, improving network inspection coverage. The current system detects signals and performs an FFT in less than 1 ms, and changes in the detected signal amplitude and frequency content are used to characterise defects. A new set of simulated defects on sections of rail have been produced, including half-face slots machined normal to the railhead surface, clusters of angled slots, and pocket defects more typical of real defects. The smallest pocket defects are difficult to detect, with changes in signal amplitude and cut-off falling close to the noise level. However, at chosen higher frequencies a drop in FFT magnitude indicates the presence of a defect, and this indicator can be logically combined with amplitude and cut-off measurements to provide a more reliable result. Preparation for testing on a rotating rail rig at high speeds is ongoing.

Edwards, R. S.; Fan, Y.; Dixon, S. [University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Papaelias, M.; Davis, C. L.; Roberts, C. [University of Birmingham, School of Engineering, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

269

Eddy Current Testing for Detecting Small Defects in Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Presented here is a technique of using Eddy Current based Giant Magneto-Resistance sensor (GMR) to detect surface and sub-layered minute defects in thin films. For surface crack detection, a measurement was performed on a copper metallization of 5-10 microns thick. It was done by scanning the GMR sensor on the surface of the wafer that had two scratches of 0.2 mm, and 2.5 mm in length respectively. In another experiment, metal coatings were deposited over the layers containing five defects with known lengths such that the defects were invisible from the surface. The limit of detection (resolution), in terms of defect size, of the GMR high-resolution Eddy Current probe was studied using this sample. Applications of Eddy Current testing include detecting defects in thin film metallic layers, and quality control of metallization layers on silicon wafers for integrated circuits manufacturing.

Obeid, Simon; Tranjan, Farid M. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, UNCC (United States); Dogaru, Teodor [Albany Instruments, 426-O Barton Creek, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

Nonlinear beam deflection in photonic lattices with negative defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that a nonlinear beam can be reflected by a negative defect in a photonic lattice if the incident angle is below a threshold value. Above this threshold angle, the beam simply passes through the defect. This phenomenon occurs in both one- and two-dimensional photonic lattices, and it provides a way to use the incident angle to control beam propagation in a lattice network. If the defect is absent or positive, no evident transition from reflection to transmission occurs. These nonlinear phenomena are also compared with linear nondiffracting-beam propagation in a photonic lattice with a defect, and both similarities and differences are observed. In addition, some important features in linear and nonlinear beam propagations are explained analytically by using a linear model with a delta-function defect.

Wang Jiandong [College of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Ye Zhuoyi; Lou Cibo [TEDA Applied Physical School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Miller, Alexandra; Zhang Peng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States); Hu Yi; Chen Zhigang [TEDA Applied Physical School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States); Yang Jianke [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Science & Technology Review September/October 2008  

SciTech Connect

This issue has the following articles: (1) Answering Scientists Most Audacious Questions--Commentary by Dona Crawford; (2) Testing the Accuracy of the Supernova Yardstick--High-resolution simulations are advancing understanding of Type Ia supernovae to help uncover the mysteries of dark energy; (3) Developing New Drugs and Personalized Medical Treatment--Accelerator mass spectrometry is emerging as an essential tool for assessing the effects of drugs in humans; (4) Triage in a Patch--A painless skin patch and accompanying detector can quickly indicate human exposure to biological pathogens, chemicals, explosives, or radiation; and (5) Smoothing Out Defects for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography--A process for smoothing mask defects helps move extreme ultraviolet lithography one step closer to creating smaller, more powerful computer chips.

Bearinger, J P

2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Coding-error based defects in enterprise resource planning software: Prevention, discovery, elimination and mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software defects due to coding errors continue to plague the industry with disastrous impact, especially in the enterprise application software category. Identifying how much of these defects are specifically due to coding errors is a challenging problem. ... Keywords: Code auditing, Coding defects, Defect density, Defect reduction, ERP, Software development, Software testing, Static code analysis

Isaac Woungang; Felix O. Akinladejo; David W. White; Mohammad S. Obaidat

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Do the Defects Make It Work? Defect Engineering in Pi-Conjugated Polymers and Their Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The charged defect density in common pi-conjugated polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, is around 1018 cm-3. Despite, or perhaps because of, this huge defect density, bulk heterojunction solar cells made from these polymers and a C60 derivative such as PCBM exhibit some of the highest efficiencies (~5%) yet obtained in solid state organic photovoltaic cells. We discuss defects in molecular organic semiconductors and in pi-conjugated polymers. These defects can be grouped in two categories, covalent and noncovalent. Somewhat analogous to treating amorphous silicon with hydrogen, we introduce chemical methods to modify the density and charge of the covalent defects in P3HT by treating it with electrophiles such as dimethyl sulfate and nucleophiles such as sodium methoxide. The effects of these treatments on the electrical and photovoltaic properties and stability of organic PV cells is discussed in terms of the change in the number and chemical properties of the defects. Finally, we address the question of whether the efficiency of OPV cells requires the presence of these defects which function as adventitious p-type dopants. Their presence relieves the resistance limitations usually encountered in cleaner organic semiconductors and can create built-in electric fields at junctions.

Wang, D.; Reese, M.; Kopidakis N.; Gregg, B. A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Impact and Control of Defects in III-V/Si Heterostructures for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerated Light Induced Degradation, ALID, for Monitoring of Defects in PV Silicon Wafers and Solar Cells · Analysis of Defect Formation in 4H-SiC Epitaxial

276

Maskless nanolithography and imaging with diffractive optical arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semiconductor lithography is at a crossroads. With mask set costs in excess of one million dollars, long mask turn-around times, and tools that are characterized by their inflexibility and skyrocketing costs, there is a ...

Gil, Darío, 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Group velocity dependence of propagation losses in single-line-defect photonic crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 7, an additional loss is found to be only 5 dB=mm, thus proving a feasible usage of low vg by electron-beam lithography, and transferred into the core surface by reactive-ion-beam etching. The lower of the TE-like mode (electric field in slab plane). There is a singlemode below the light line, as indicated

278

Metrology for Nanoimprint Lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Intense R&D activities are currently centered on CMOS logic devices, bit patterned data storage media, high brightness LEDs, patterned biological ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

279

Do the Defects Make it Work? Defect Engineering in ..pi.. - Conjugated Polymer Films and Their Solar Cells (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The summaries of this report are: (1) charged defects produce 10{sup 15}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} free carriers; (2) treatment with nucleophiles decreases p{sub f} and {sigma} while treatment with electrophiles does not change p{sub f} but increases {sigma}; (3) both treatments increase {mu}{sub p}, L{sub ex} and stability against photo-degradation; (4) charged defects can improve OPV by increasing conductivity and creating interfacial electric fields but they hurt {mu}{sub p}, L{sub ex} and chemical stability; and (5) a better way--synthesize materials without covalent defects and dope with purposely added, bound dopants.

Gregg, B. A.; Wang, D.; Reese, M. O.; Kopidakis, N.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

NHTSA's Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) - Technical Service Bulletins  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NHTSA's Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) - Technical Service Bulletins NHTSA's Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) - Technical Service Bulletins System (TSBS) - Downloadable file Manufacturing Data/Tools Research/Tech Services Apps Challenges Blogs Let's Talk Manufacturing You are here Data.gov » Communities » Manufacturing » Data NHTSA's Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) - Technical Service Bulletins System (TSBS) - Downloadable file Dataset Summary Description The Technical Service Bulletins data contains summaries of the Manufacturers' Technical Service Bulletins by single year, make and model. An optional item of Vehicle Component may be also available. (The data does not contain all the service bulletins generated by a manufacturer. Bulletins for safety recalls in general are not included, and also bulletins which may not pertain to a defect may not be included.)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Defect modes in one-dimensional granular crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the vibrational spectra of one-dimensional statically compressed granular crystals (arrays of elastic particles in contact) containing light-mass defects. We focus on the prototypical settings of one or two spherical ...

Boechler, Nicholas Sebastian

283

Role of defects in III-nitride based electronics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The LDRD entitled ``Role of Defects in III-Nitride Based Devices'' is aimed to place Sandia National Laboratory at the forefront of the field of GaN materials and devices by establishing a scientific foundation in areas such as material growth, defect characterization/modeling, and processing (metalization and etching) chemistry. In this SAND report the authors summarize their studies such as (1) the MOCVD growth and doping of GaN and AlGaN, (2) the characterization and modeling of hydrogen in GaN, including its bonding, diffusion, and activation behaviors, (3) the calculation of energetic of various defects including planar stacking faults, threading dislocations, and point defects in GaN, and (4) dry etching (plasma etching) of GaN (n- and p-types) and AlGaN. The result of the first AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistor is also presented.

HAN,JUNG; MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; FOLLSTAEDT,DAVID M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; LEE,STEPHEN R.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; SHUL,RANDY J.; BACA,ALBERT G.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Quality improvement and control based on defect reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis addresses the quality improvement in a printing process at a food packaging company now experiencing hundreds of printing defects. Methodologies of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC), and ...

Dai, Qi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder A China Paper on Type 4 Cylinder, translated and presented by J. P. Hsu, PhD, Smart Chemistry Reason for Defect Analysis of CNG Composite Cylinder * Safety Issue - Four explosion accidents of auto used CNG composite material cylinders resulting huge personnel and vehicles loss. * Low Compliance Rate - Inspect 12119 Auto used CNG composite cylinders and only 3868 are qualified with compliance rate of 32%. Plastic CNG Composite Cylinder Process Fitting Internal Plastic Liner External Composite Layer Metal Fitting HDPE Cylinder Liner * HDPE has a high density, great stiffness, good anti-permeability and high melting point, but poor environmental stress cracking Resistance (ESCR). * The defects of cylinder liner quality can be

286

Automated defect spatial signature analysis for semiconductor manufacturing process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for performing automated defect spatial signature alysis on a data set representing defect coordinates and wafer processing information includes categorizing data from the data set into a plurality of high level categories, classifying the categorized data contained in each high level category into user-labeled signature events, and correlating the categorized, classified signature events to a present or incipient anomalous process condition.

Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Karnowski, Thomas P. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

Kung, Harold H; Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M; Kung, Mayfair C

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

288

Defect reaction network in Si-doped InP : numerical predictions.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Report characterizes the defects in the defect reaction network in silicon-doped, n-type InP deduced from first principles density functional theory. The reaction network is deduced by following exothermic defect reactions starting with the initially mobile interstitial defects reacting with common displacement damage defects in Si-doped InP until culminating in immobile reaction products. The defect reactions and reaction energies are tabulated, along with the properties of all the silicon-related defects in the reaction network. This Report serves to extend the results for intrinsic defects in SAND 2012-3313: %E2%80%9CSimple intrinsic defects in InP: Numerical predictions%E2%80%9D to include Si-containing simple defects likely to be present in a radiation-induced defect reaction sequence.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Limitation of the Open-Circuit Voltage Due to Metastable Intrinsic Defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Strategies to Avoid These Defects: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper summarizes using first-principles defect theory to investigate the role of intrinsic point defects in the limitation of the open-circuit voltage (VOC) in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells.

Lany, S.; Zunger, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V.sub.DD, to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V.sub.DDT, signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V.sub.DDT signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V.sub.DDT signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Soden, Jerry M. (Placitas, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Ultrasonic imaging system for in-process fabric defect detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic method and system are provided for monitoring a fabric to identify a defect. A plurality of ultrasonic transmitters generate ultrasonic waves relative to the fabric. An ultrasonic receiver means responsive to the generated ultrasonic waves from the transmitters receives ultrasonic waves coupled through the fabric and generates a signal. An integrated peak value of the generated signal is applied to a digital signal processor and is digitized. The digitized signal is processed to identify a defect in the fabric. The digitized signal processing includes a median value filtering step to filter out high frequency noise. Then a mean value and standard deviation of the median value filtered signal is calculated. The calculated mean value and standard deviation are compared with predetermined threshold values to identify a defect in the fabric.

Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Lawrence, William P. (Downers Grove, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Collision Energy Dependence of Defect Formation in Graphene  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations are performed using an empirical potential to simulate the collision process of an energetic carbon atom hitting a graphene sheet. According to the different impact locations within the graphene sheet, the incident threshold energies of different defects caused by the collision are determined to be 22 eV for a single vacancy, 36 eV for a divacancy, 60 eV for a Stone-Wales defect, and 65 eV for a hexavacancy. Study of the evolution and stability of the defects formed by these collisions suggests that the single vacancy reconstructs into a pentagon pair and the divacancy transforms into a pentagon-octagon-pentagon configuration. The displacement threshold energy in graphene is investigated by using the dynamical method, and a reasonable value 22.42 eV is clarified by eliminating the heating effect induced by the collision.

Mao, Fei [Beijing Normal University; Zhang, Chao [Beijing Normal University; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Zhang, Fenf-Shou [Beijing Normal University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Positive muon and the positron as probes of defects  

SciTech Connect

The positive muon and the positron are each being used nowadays to investigate defects in condensed matter. A brief summary of the experimental methods employed with each particle is given in this paper. Similarities and differences between the behavior of the two leptons when implanted in consensed matter are pointed out, and by means of a comparison between muon and positron data in Al it is shown that the combination of muon and positron experiments can serve as a useful new probe of defects in solids.

Lynn, K G

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Multi-level scanning method for defect inspection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for performing scanned defect inspection of a collection of contiguous areas using a specified false-alarm-rate and capture-rate within an inspection system that has characteristic seek times between inspection locations. The multi-stage method involves setting an increased false-alarm-rate for a first stage of scanning, wherein subsequent stages of scanning inspect only the detected areas of probable defects at lowered values for the false-alarm-rate. For scanning inspection operations wherein the seek time and area uncertainty is favorable, the method can substantially increase inspection throughput.

Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Jeong, Seongtae (Richmond, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

The Graphene/Graphane Interface Energy and Implications for Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent theoretical work has shown that electronic properties of graphene sheets can be systematically modified by the partial hydrogenation of the sheets. Two possible perfect and distinct graphene/graphane interfaces (called zig-zag and armchair) have very different but potentially useful electronic properties which are nevertheless likely to be affected by the presence of defects. In an effort to evaluate their relative energetics and their potential for defects, the structure and energies of the zig-zag and armchair interfaces have been computed for infinite sheets of periodically alternating stripes of graphene and graphane ribbons of various widths. The presence of an interface causes significant strains in both the graphene and graphane regions, with both shear strains and area strains typically close to 1%. The associated large strain energies may lead to defects that relieve the strain but disrupt the lattice. The energies per unit length associated with the interfaces alone are approximately 0.12 eV/ for the zig-zag interface and 0.11 eV/ for the armchair. The large misfit strains and energies suggest that formation of strain-relieving defects at the interface should be highly favorable.

Averill, Frank [ORNL; Morris, James R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Local vs. global models for effort estimation and defect prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data miners can infer rules showing how to improve either (a) the effort estimates of a project or (b) the defect predictions of a software module. Such studies often exhibit conclusion instability regarding what is the most effective action for different ...

Tim Menzies; Andrew Butcher; Andrian Marcus; Thomas Zimmermann; David Cok

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Defect-induced magnetism and transport phenomena in epitaxial oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

observed in certain two-dimensionally conducting samples in limited temperature regimes. By optimising the (defect) structure at the interface, i.e. by introducing a single unit cell of (La0.5,Sr0.5)TiO3 or SnTiO3, it is shown that the sheet carrier density...

Schoofs, Frank

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

298

Convergence properties of the local defect correction method for parabolic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Convergence properties of the local defect correction method for parabolic problems R. Minero , H for parabolic problems presented in [14]. We derive a general expression for the iteration matrix of the method, domain decomposition and regridding. In [14] LDC is generalized to solve parabolic partial differential

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

299

Defects detection of cylindrical object's surface using vision system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research is aimed to accomplish an automatic visual inspection for the lateral surface of cylindrical objects using cameras and image processing technique. In this paper, the main concern is on the hardware tools that are needed to test the defects ... Keywords: conical mirror, image processing in MATLAB, line scan camera, matrix camera, multiple flat mirrors

M. Ali; M. Mailah; S. Kazi; H. H. Tang

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Removal of Defect Clusters by Twin Boundaries in Nanotwinned ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of SFTs in irradiated nanotwinned Ag is much lower than that in its bulk counterpart. ... Characterization of Irradiation Induced Defects in T91 Steel ... Exploring Fission Enhanced Diffusion of Uranium in Uranium Dioxide Using Classical ... Ion-induced Swelling of Yttrium Oxide Dispersion-strengthened 0Cr18Ni10Ti Steel.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Defects and Related Phenomena I - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal oxides added to UO2 to improve material performance during irradiation, ... The oxygen and uranium Frenkel pairs and the uranium-oxygen Schottky ... Using the law of mass action to the Frenkel and Schottky defects in doped UO2, ... migration in the fluorite-structured oxide CeO2 is investigated at the atomistic level.

302

Automatic target defect identification for TFT-LCD array process inspection using kernel FCM-based fuzzy SVDD ensemble  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inline defect inspection plays a critical role in yield improvement for thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing. In array process, some defects are critical to the quality of LCD panels (target defects), while some are not ... Keywords: Fuzzy c-means (FCM), Inline defect inspection, Support vector data description (SVDD), Support vector machine (SVM), TFT-LCD, Target defect identification

Yi-Hung Liu; Szu-Hsien Lin; Yi-Ling Hsueh; Ming-Jiu Lee

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

First-Principles Study of Point Defects in LaAlO?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, the native point defects including oxygen vacancy and interstitial, metal (La, Al) vacancy and interstitial, and metal antisite in perovskite LAO are studied. Defect formation energies are studied as a ...

Zheng, J.X.

304

Performance Limitations of mc-Si Solar Cells Caused by Defect Clusters: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a combination of numerical and experimental methods used to characterize defect clusters in multicrystalline silicon solar cells.

Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Mehta, V.; Budhraja, V.; Johnston, S.; Call, N.; Moutinho, H.; Al-Jassim, M.; Shaikh, A /; Seacrist, M.; Carlson, D.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Defect Based Spin Mediation in Delta-Phase Plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We earlier reported the measured decrease of electrical resistivity during isochronal-annealing of ion irradiation damage that was accumulated at low-temperature (10 or 20K), and the temperature dependence of the resistance of defect-populations produced by low-temperature damage-accumulation and annealing in a stabilized {delta}-phase plutonium alloy, Pu(3.3 at%Ga)[1]. We noted that the temperature dependence of the resistance of defects resulting from low-temperature damage accumulation and subsequent annealing exhibits a -ln(T) temperature dependence suggestive of a Kondo impurity. A discussion of a possible ''structure-property'' effect, as it might relate to the nature of the {delta}-phase of Pu, is presented.

Fluss, M J; Wirth, B D; Wall, M; Felter, T E; Caturla, M J; Kubota, A; Diaz de la Rubia, T

2003-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fault Modeling and Analysis for Resistive Bridging Defects in a Synchronizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents fault modeling and analysis for bridging defects in a synchronizer that is implemented by two D flip-flops. Bridging defects are injected into any two nodes of the synchronizer, and HSPICE is used to perform circuit analysis. The ... Keywords: Bridging defect, Fault modeling, Synchronizer

Hyoung-Kook Kim; Wen-Ben Jone; Laung-Terng Wang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Analysis of defects at the interface between high-k thin films and (100) silicon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paramagnetic defects in atomic layer deposition grown aluminium oxide thin films have been studied using electron paramagnetic resonance. Initial spectra indicate the presence of Si-db, P"b"0 and P"b"1 defects, previously observed in Si/SiO"2 structures. ... Keywords: Aluminium oxide, Defects, EPR, High-k, Interfaces, Thin films

B. J. Jones; R. C. Barklie

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Chromatin dynamics: Nucleosomes go mobile through twist defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the spontaneous ''sliding'' of histone spools (nucleosomes) along DNA as a result of thermally activated single base pair twist defects. To this end we map the system onto a suitably extended Frenkel-Kontorova model. Combining results from several recent experiments we are able to estimate the nucleosome mobility without adjustable parameters. Our model shows also how the local mobility is intimately linked to the underlying base pair sequence.

I. M. Kulic; H. Schiessel

2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

309

Understanding the defect structure of solution grown zinc oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconducting oxide with many potential applications in various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Much effort has been made to understand the ZnO structure and its defects. However, one major issue in determining whether it is Zn or O deficiency that provides ZnO its unique properties remains. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an ideal, atom specific characterization technique that is able to probe defect structure in many materials, including ZnO. In this paper, comparative studies of bulk and aqueous solution grown ({lighting and other optoelectronic device applications. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO powders have been synthesized through an aqueous solution method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect structure studied using XAS and XPDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn-Zn correlations are less in the ZnO powders synthesized in solution than bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn vacancies are present in the powders synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS and XPDF, when used complementary, are useful characterization techniques.

Liew, Laura-Lynn [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sankar, Gopinathan, E-mail: g.sankar@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Handoko, Albertus D. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Goh, Gregory K.L., E-mail: g-goh@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Fourth workshop on the role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 4th Point Defect Workshop was aimed at reviewing recent new understanding of the defect engineering techniques that can improve the performance of solar cells fabricated on low-cost silicon substrates. The theme of the workshop was to identify approaches that can lead to 18% commercial silicon solar cells in the near future. These approaches also define the research tasks for the forthcoming new DOE/NREL silicon materials research program. It was a consensus of the workshop attendees that the goal of 18%-efficient multicrystalline silicon solar cells is right on target, and the payoff for the investment by DOE will manifest itself in the next few years as reduced costs for high-efficiency cell fabrication.

Tan, T.; Jastrzebski, L.; Sopori, B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules  

SciTech Connect

In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.  

SciTech Connect

The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Defects in germanium: new results and novel methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent results obtained from quenching experiments, electron, gamma-ray, neutron and proton irradiation of germanium are reviewed. Major emphasis is given to the introduction of novel techniques for the study of shallow and deep levels. Explicitly introduced are Photothermal Ionization Spectroscopy (also called Photoelectric Spectroscopy), Deep level Transient Spectroscopy and High-Q Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. Using as examples the recently discovered hydrogen-related centers and the lithium/lithium-oxygen system in germanium it is shown that a combination of techniques can yield information on composition and structure of defects.

Haller, E.E.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Constraint on the (GUT) symmetry breaking scale and topological defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In F-term supergravity inflation models, scalar fields other than the inflaton generically receive a Hubble induced mass, which may restore gauge symmetries during inflation and phase transitions may occur during or after inflation as the Hubble parameter decreases. We study topological defect formation associated with such a phase transition in chaotic inflation in supergravity and obtain a severe constraint on the symmetry breaking scale which is related with the tensor-to-scalar ratio. This talk is based on the paper [1].

Kamada, Kohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan) and Kavli institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8568 (Japan)

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

315

Theoretical assessment on the possibility of constraining point defect energetics by pseudo-phase transition pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Making use of the energetics and equations of state of defective uranium dioxide that calculated with first-principles method, we demonstrate a possibility of constraining the formation energy of point defects by measuring the transition pressures of the corresponding pseudo-phase of defects. The mechanically stable range of fluorite structure of UO2, which dictates the maximum possible pressure of relevant pseudo-phase transitions, gives rise to defect formation energies that span a wide band and overlap with the existing experimental estimates. We reveal that the knowledge about pseudo-phase boundaries can not only provide important information of energetics that is helpful for reducing the scattering in current estimates, but also be valuable for guiding theoretical assessments, even to validate or disprove a theory. In order to take defect interactions into account and to extrapolate the physical quantities at finite stoichiometry deviations to that near the stoichiometry, we develop a general formalism to describe the thermodynamics of a defective system. We also show that it is possible to include interactions among defects in a simple expression of point defect model (PDM) by introducing an auxiliary constant mean-field. This generalization of the simple PDM leads to great versatility that allows one to study nonlinear effects of stoichiometry deviation on materials' behavior. It is a powerful tool to extract the defect energetics from finite defect concentrations to the dilute limit. Besides these, the full content of the theoretical formalism and some relevant and interesting issues, including reentrant pseudo-transition, multi-defect coexistence, charged defects, and possible consequence of instantaneous defective response in a quantum crystal, are explored and discussed.

Hua Y. Geng; Hong X. Song; Q. Wu

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

316

Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appear in the gauge field which are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signalled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang-Mills fields and potential mechanisms how confinement and condensation in non-abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.

Thomas Gasenzer; Larry McLerran; Jan M. Pawlowski; Dénes Sexty

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

317

Interactions of structural defects with metallic impurities in multicrystalline silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interactions between structural defects and metallic impurities were studied in multicrystalline silicon for solar cells applications. The objective was to gain insight into the relationship between solar cell processing, metallic impurity behavior and the resultant effect on material/device performance. With an intense synchrotron x-ray source, high sensitivity x-ray fluorescence measurements were utilized to determine impurity distributions with a spatial resolution of {approx} 1{micro}m. Diffusion length mapping and final solar cell characteristics gauged material/device performance. The materials were tested in both the as-grown state and after full solar cell processing. Iron and nickel metal impurities were located at structural defects in as-grown material, while after solar cell processing, both impurities were still observed in low performance regions. These results indicate that multicrystalline silicon solar cell performance is directly related to metal impurities which are not completely removed during typical processing treatments. A discussion of possible mechanisms for this incomplete removal is presented.

McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (US). Advanced Light Source; Hieslmair, H.; Weber, E.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; Rosenblum, M.D.; Kalejs, J.P. [ASE Americas Inc., Billerica, MA (US)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Defect Prevention and Detection in Software for Automated Test Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Software for automated test equipment can be tedious and monotonous making it just as error-prone as other software. Active defect prevention and detection are also important for test applications. Incomplete or unclear requirements, a cryptic syntax used for some test applications—especially script-based test sets, variability in syntax or structure, and changing requirements are among the problems encountered in one tester. Such problems are common to all software but can be particularly problematic in test equipment software intended to test another product. Each of these issues increases the probability of error injection during test application development. This report describes a test application development tool designed to address these issues and others for a particular piece of test equipment. By addressing these problems in the development environment, the tool has powerful built-in defect prevention and detection capabilities. Regular expressions are widely used in the development tool as a means of formally defining test equipment requirements for the test application and verifying conformance to those requirements. A novel means of using regular expressions to perform range checking was developed. A reduction in rework and increased productivity are the results. These capabilities are described along with lessons learned and their applicability to other test equipment software. The test application development tool, or “application builder”, is known as the PT3800 AM Creation, Revision and Archiving Tool (PACRAT).

E. Bean

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Multiple stalk formation as a pathway of defect-induced membrane fusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose that the first stage of membrane fusion need not be the formation of a single stalk. Instead, we consider a scenario for defect-induced membrane fusion that proceeds cooperatively via multiple stalk formation. The defects (stalks or pores) attract each other via membrane-mediated capillary interactions that result in a condensation transition of the defects. The resulting dense phase of stalks corresponds to the so-called fusion intermediate.

D. B. Lukatsky; Daan Frenkel

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The self-energy of a charged particle in the presence of a topological defect distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we study a charged particle in the presence of both a continuous distribution of disclinations and a continuous distribution of edge dislocations in the framework of the geometrical theory of defects. We obtain the self-energy for a single charge both in the internal and external regions of either distribution. For both distributions the result outside the defect distribution is the self-energy that a single charge experiments in the presence of a single defect.

A. M. de M. Carvalho; Fernando Moraes; Claudio Furtado

2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

322

First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs : numerical supplement.  

SciTech Connect

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz, 'First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in Aluminum Arsenide, AlAs', Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1370 (2011; SAND2011-2436C), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Mechanism for recombination of radiation-induced point defects at interphase boundaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interfaces play a critical role in the extraordinary resistance to irradiation damage in nanostructured materials. Atomistic simulations are performed to examine defect production and recovery at incoherent interphase ...

Demkowicz, Michael J.

324

Stress Management: X-Rays Reveal Si Thin-Film Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stress Management: X-Rays Reveal Si Thin-Film Defects. ... Advanced Photon Source, and supported in part by the Department of Energy. ...

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

325

A transmission matrix for a fused pair of integrable defects in the sine-Gordon model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within the quantum sine-Gordon model a transmission matrix describing the scattering of a soliton with a fused pair of integrable defects is proposed. The result is consistent with the classical picture of scattering and highlights the differences between two defects located at separated points and two defects fused at the same point. Moreover, the analysis reveals how, for certain choices of parameters, both the soliton-soliton and the lightest-breather-soliton S-matrices of the sine-Gordon model are embedded within the transmission matrix, supporting an interpretation in which defects may be regarded as soliton constituents.

E. Corrigan; C. Zambon

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

326

Melt Related Defects in Alloy 706 and Their Effects on Mechanical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remelting (ESR) or Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) or both. The remelting process (ESR or VAR) can introduce segregation type of defects in the material.

327

Assessment of Crack in Corrosion Defects in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pipelines are one of the safest forms of transportation for oil and gas. However, pipelines may experience some defects, such as cracks, corrosion and cracks… (more)

Hosseini, Seyed Aliakbar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Surface defects, the superconformal index and q-deformed Yang-Mills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently a prescription to compute the four-dimensional N = 2 superconformal index in the presence of certain BPS surface defects has been given. These surface defects are labelled by symmetric representations of SU(N). In the present paper we give a prescription to compute the superconformal index in the presence of surface defects labelled by arbitrary representations of SU(N). Furthermore, we extend the dictionary between the N = 2 superconformal Schur-index and correlators of q-deformed Yang-Mills to incorporate such surface defects.

Luis F. Alday; Mathew Bullimore; Martin Fluder; Lotte Hollands

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

329

K2S2O8-KOH Etching System for Revealing Defects and Pattern ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerated Light Induced Degradation, ALID, for Monitoring of Defects in PV Silicon ... Silicon Solar Cells Evaluated by LBIC and Equivalent Circuit Model.

330

Detection of Device-Process Induced Extended Defects in 4H-SiC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerated Light Induced Degradation, ALID, for Monitoring of Defects in PV Silicon ... Silicon Solar Cells Evaluated by LBIC and Equivalent Circuit Model.

331

The Role of Line Defects on the Conductivity of Thin-film Yttria ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Role of Line Defects on the Conductivity of Thin-film Yttria- stabilized Zirconia. Author(s), Edmund Mills, Nigel Browning, Yayoi Takamura, ...

332

2012 DEFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 12-17, 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meeting shall strive to develop and further the fundamental understanding of defects and their roles in the structural, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors and device structures. Point and extended defects will be addressed in a broad range of electronic materials of particular current interest, including wide bandgap semiconductors, metal-oxides, carbon-based semiconductors (e.g., diamond, graphene, etc.), organic semiconductors, photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and others of similar interest. This interest includes novel defect detection/imaging techniques and advanced defect computational methods.

GLASER, EVAN

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

333

Migration of positively charged defects in (alpha)-quartz  

SciTech Connect

We apply a newly developed quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) scheme to simulate the migration of charged oxygen defects in {alpha}-quartz. We simulate the transition mechanism and compute the potential energy and free energy surface for the puckering of the symmetric charged oxygen vacancy and the formation of the E{prime}{sub 1} center. By overcoming low energy barriers this puckering mechanism can be reiterated allowing the drift of the positive charge localized on an over-coordinated oxygen atom. This process enhances the stability of the E{prime}{sub 1} center and can be regarded as an important channel of structural reorganization of oxygen deficient silica in the presence of strong polarizing electric fields.

Laino, T; Donadio, D; Kuo, I W

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

Ion beam collimating grid to reduce added defects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A collimating grid for an ion source located after the exit grid. The collimating grid collimates the ion beamlets and disallows beam spread and limits the beam divergence during transients and steady state operation. The additional exit or collimating grid prevents beam divergence during turn-on and turn-off and prevents ions from hitting the periphery of the target where there is re-deposited material or from missing the target and hitting the wall of the vessel where there is deposited material, thereby preventing defects from being deposited on a substrate to be coated. Thus, the addition of a collimating grid to an ion source ensures that the ion beam will hit and be confined to a specific target area.

Lindquist, Walter B. (Oakland, CA); Kearney, Patrick A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Electrodes mitigating effects of defects in organic electronic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound electrode for organic electronic devices comprises a thin first layer of a first electrically conducting material and a second electrically conducting material disposed on the first layer. In one embodiment, the second electrically conducting material is formed into a plurality of elongated members. In another embodiment, the second material is formed into a second layer. The elongated members or the second layer has a thickness greater than that of the first layer. The second layer is separated from the first layer by a conducting material having conductivity less than at least the material of the first layer. The compound electrode is capable of mitigating adverse effects of defects, such as short circuits, in the construction of the organic electronic devices, and can be included in light-emitting or photovoltaic devices.

Heller, Christian Maria Anton (Albany, NY)

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

Point-defect optical transitions and thermal ionization energies from quantum Monte Carlo methods: Application to the F-center defect in MgO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an approach to calculation of point-defect optical and thermal ionization energies based on the highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo methods. The use of an inherently many-body theory that directly treats electron ...

Ertekin, Elif

337

NanoFab Equipment - Lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Image sensors, photovoltaic devices and bio-chips. Laser Pattern Generator: Heidelberg DWL 2000. The system uses a ...

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Lithography for Advanced Supercomputing Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... REFERENCE ExaScale computing study: technology challenges in achieving exascale systems (DARPA/IPTO, 2008). KEY NANOFAB PROCESS ...

2013-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

339

Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

employed to explore in detail fundamental interfacial processes. Using current-sensing atomic forcemicroscopy (CSAFM), small variations in the electronic conductance of battery...

340

EUV Lithography: New Metrology Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Photo of SEMATECH/Berkeley MET Optics Courtesy: John Taylor, LLNL 220 mm ... Wavefront Reference Source Data Courtesy of John Taylor, LLNL ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Internal hydriding in irradiated defected Zircaloy fuel rods: A review (LWBR Development Program)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although not a problem in recent commercial power reactors, including the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor, internal hydriding of Zircaloy cladding was a persistent cause of gross cladding failures during the 1960s. It occurred in the fuel rods of water-cooled nuclear power reactors that had a small cladding defect. This report summarizes the experimental findings, causes, mechanisms, and methods of minimizing internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods. Irradiation test data on the different types of defected fuel rods, intentionally fabricated defected and in-pile operationally defected rods, are compared. Significant factors affecting internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods (defect hole size, internal and external sources of hydrogen, Zircaloy cladding surface properties, nickel alloy contamination of Zircaloy, the effect of heat flux and fluence) are discussed. Pertinent in-pile and out-of-pile test results from Bettis and other laboratories are used as a data base in constructing a qualitative model which explains hydrogen generation and distribution in Zircaloy cladding of defected water-cooled reactor fuel rods. Techniques for minimizing internal hydride failures in Zircaloy-clad fuel rods are evaluated.

Clayton, J C

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Defect prediction from static code features: current results, limitations, new approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Building quality software is expensive and software quality assurance (QA) budgets are limited. Data miners can learn defect predictors from static code features which can be used to control QA resources; e.g. to focus on the parts of the code predicted ... Keywords: Defect prediction, Static code features, WHICH

Tim Menzies; Zach Milton; Burak Turhan; Bojan Cukic; Yue Jiang; Ay?e Bener

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Impurity-defect interaction in polycrystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. The role of hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the cell ? ii) Will the defects of the polycrystalline material hinder the photovoltaic properties..., leading also to a degradation of the efficiency of the photovoltaic cells ? iii) What would655 Impurity-defect interaction in polycrystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. The role

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

Principal component analysis based on wavelet characteristics applied to automated surface defect inspection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated visual inspection, a crucial manufacturing step, has been replacing the more time-consuming and less accurate human inspection. This research explores automated visual inspection of surface defects in a light-emitting diode (LED) chip. Commonly ... Keywords: hotelling statistic, machine vision system, principal component analysis, surface defect inspection, wavelet characteristics

Hong-Dar Lin; Chung-Yu Chung; Wan-Ting Lin

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Defect Clusters: Approaches for Overcoming Their Detrimental Impact on Solar Cell Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our analyses show that defect clusters can lower the efficiency of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells by 2 to 4 absolute percentage points. This large loss can be recovered if impurities precipitated at the defect cluster sites can be gettered. We describe a new technique for gettering precipitated impurities.

Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Carlson, D.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Defects and Defect Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011... data, including data from commercial reactor surveillance programs. ... Stanislav Golubov1; Alexander Barashev2; Roger Stoller1; 1ORNL; ...

347

An Atom-Wide Antennae Created from Difference-Making Defects | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

An Atom-Wide Antennae Created from Difference-Making Defects An Atom-Wide Antennae Created from Difference-Making Defects An Atom-Wide Antennae Created from Difference-Making Defects March 7, 2012 - 3:35pm Addthis Take advantage of microwave microscopy, researchers were able to locate graphene islands on graphene. “Point defects” locally enhanced the graphene’s ability to transform waves of light into electronic signals. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Take advantage of microwave microscopy, researchers were able to locate graphene islands on graphene. "Point defects" locally enhanced the graphene's ability to transform waves of light into electronic signals. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science

348

Computer code for the atomistic simulation of lattice defects and dynamics. [COMENT code  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document has been prepared to satisfy the need for a detailed, up-to-date description of a computer code that can be used to simulate phenomena on an atomistic level. COMENT was written in FORTRAN IV and COMPASS (CDC assembly language) to solve the classical equations of motion for a large number of atoms interacting according to a given force law, and to perform the desired ancillary analysis of the resulting data. COMENT is a dual-purpose intended to describe static defect configurations as well as the detailed motion of atoms in a crystal lattice. It can be used to simulate the effect of temperature, impurities, and pre-existing defects on radiation-induced defect production mechanisms, defect migration, and defect stability.

Schiffgens, J.O.; Graves, N.J.; Oster, C.A.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) for NIF  

SciTech Connect

LANL will perform two Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) implosion campaigns on NIF in July and September, 2012. This presentation describes the goals for these shots and the experimental configuration and diagnostic set up to collect the appropriate data. The first two-shot campaign will focus on executing polar direct drive (PDD) implosions of plastic CH capsules filled with deuterium gas. Gas filling will be performed through a fill tube at target chamber center. A vanadium backligher foil will provide x-rays to radiograph the last half of the implosion to compare the implosion trajectory with modeling predictions. An equatorial groove in one of the capsules will be present to determine its effect on implosion dynamics. The second DIME campaign will commission and use a spectral imager (MMI) to examine the evolution of thin capsule layers doped with either Ge or Ga at 1.85%. Spectral line emission from these layers will quantify the mix width at the inner shell radius and near an equatorial groove feature.

Schmitt, Mark J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cobble, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hakel, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kyrala, George A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murphy, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Kimberly A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shah, Rahul C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

350

Control of Suspect/Counterfeit and Defective Items  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This procedure implements portions of the requirements of MSC-MP-599, Quality Assurance Program Description. It establishes the Mission Support Alliance (MSA) practices for minimizing the introduction of and identifying, documenting, dispositioning, reporting, controlling, and disposing of suspect/counterfeit and defective items (S/CIs). employees whose work scope relates to Safety Systems (i.e., Safety Class [SC] or Safety Significant [SS] items), non-safety systems and other applications (i.e., General Service [GS]) where engineering has determined that their use could result in a potential safety hazard. MSA implements an effective Quality Assurance (QA) Program providing a comprehensive network of controls and verification providing defense-in-depth by preventing the introduction of S/CIs through the design, procurement, construction, operation, maintenance, and modification of processes. This procedure focuses on those safety systems, and other systems, including critical load paths of lifting equipment, where the introduction of S/CIs would have the greatest potential for creating unsafe conditions.

Sheriff, Marnelle L.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

351

Exploiting imperfections: Directed assembly of surface colloids via bulk topological defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We exploit the long-ranged elastic fields inherent to confined nematic liquid crystals to assemble colloidal particles trapped at the liquid crystal interface into reconfigurable structures with complex symmetries and packings. Spherical colloids with homeotropic anchoring trapped at the interface between air and the nematic liquid crystal 5CB create quadrupolar distortions in the director field causing particles to repel and consequently form close-packed assemblies with a triangular habit. Here we report on complex, open structures organized via interactions with defects in the bulk. Specifically, by confining the nematic liquid crystal in an array of microposts with homeotropic anchoring conditions, we cause defect rings to form at well-defined locations in the bulk of the sample. These defects source elastic deformations that direct the assembly of the interfacially-trapped colloids into ring-like assemblies, which recapitulate the defect geometry even when the microposts are completely immersed in the nematic. When the surface density of the colloids is high, they form a ring near the defect and a hexagonal lattice far from it. Since topographically complex substrates are easily fabricated and liquid crystal defects are readily reconfigured, this work lays the foundation for a new, robust mechanism to dynamically direct assembly over large areas by controlling surface anchoring and associated bulk defect structure.

Marcello Cavallaro Jr.; Mohamed A. Gharbi; Daniel A. Beller; Simon ?opar; Zheng Shi; Tobias Baumgart; Shu Yang; Randall D. Kamien; Kathleen J. Stebe

2013-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

352

Normalization of the scattered light from an isolated defect illuminated by a Gaussian beam  

SciTech Connect

The intensity distribution of the beam from a laser operated in the zero order configuration for the transverse electromagnetic field (TEM/sub 00/ mode) is Gaussian in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the beam. In some applications it is desirable to have a uniform intensity over a certain region in space. For example, when a Gaussian beam is incident on a smooth surface containing small isolated defects, the light scattered by a defect will depend on the position of the defect relative to the center of the beam. In the past, several techniques have been devised to convert a Gaussian intensity profile into a uniform intensity over a specified region in space. In the present work a different approach is taken. A method of normalization is described which makes direct use of the Gaussian intensity distribution of the TEM/sub 00/ mode. By this method the amount of light scattered by a defect can be normalized to the value which would be observed if the defect were located at the center of the beam, for a defect small in size compared with the 1/e/sup 2/ diameter of the Gaussian profile. The normalization requires that three measurements be made of the scattering by the defect for an arbitrary location of the defect relative to the center of the Gaussian beam, and that the 1/e/sup 2/ radius of the Gaussian beam and the interval between adjacent illuminated spots on the surface are known. Experimental data verifying the theory were obtained from isolated defects on a superfinished spherical surface.

Klingsporn, P.E.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Analysis, Simulation and Prediction of Cosmetic Defects on Automotive External Panel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first feeling of quality for a vehicle is linked to its perfect appearance. This has a major impact on the reputation of a car manufacturer. Cosmetic defects are thus more and more taken into account in the process design. Qualifying a part as good or bad from the cosmetic point of view is mainly subjective: the part aspect is considered acceptable if no defect is visible on the vehicle by the final customer. Cosmetic defects that appear during sheet metal forming are checked by visual inspection in light inspection rooms

A. Le Port; S. Thuillier; C. Borot; J. Charbonneaux; Aethra Automotive Systems

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Correlation between nuclear response and defects in CZT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) was considered until now to be the most successful crystal growth method to produce Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (CZT), (0.04 < x < 0.24), for X- and gamma-ray detector crystals. Recently Horizontal Bridgman (HB) Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te crystals produced by IMARAD Co. have also been successfully fabricated into nuclear spectroscopic radiation detectors. In view of the database of many years' study of the electrical properties of VHPB CZT grown and obtained from various sources, the authors also studied the HB CZT crystals in order to compare the defects present in both different kinds of crystals grown by different methods. The VHB-grown samples were examined using thermoelectric emission spectroscopy (TEES), X- and gamma ray spectroscopy and laser induced transient charge technique (TCT). The surface and the bulk crystalline homogeneity were mapped using triaxial double crystal x-ray diffraction (TADXRD) and infrared transmission spectroscopy (IR). They have found a correlation between crystallinity, IR transmission microstructure and trapping times. Spectrometer grade VHPB CZT crystals exhibit trapping times of 20 {micro}s for electrons and 7 {micro}s for holes, however, regions, which were opaque to IR transmission, had trapping times shorter by one order of magnitude. The trapping times of HB CZT for electrons, were 10--15 {micro}s. A similar trend has been observed on VHPB CZT crystals with poor crystallinity. The HB CZT crystals that they measured in this study had a crystallinity that was inferior to that of the best spectroscopic grade VHPB crystals.

H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B. James; E. Lee; E. Cross; M. Goorsky; T. Lam; T. E. Schlesinger; M. Greaves

1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

Joint Summer School on "The Evolution and Impact of Microstructural Defects  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Joint Summer School on "The Evolution and Impact Joint Summer School on "The Evolution and Impact of Microstructural Defects on In-Reactor Material Response" Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications Contact BES Home 11.08.10 Joint Summer School on "The Evolution and Impact of Microstructural Defects on In-Reactor Material Response" Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page June 6 - 10, 2011 :: The International Summer School, "The Evolution and Impact of Microstructural Defects on In-Reactor Material Response", at Idaho National Laboratories will be sponsored by the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuel (Idaho National Laboratory), the Center for Defect

356

Electrical properties and defect structures of praseodymium-cerium oxide solid solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A defect chemistry model consistent with observed trends in the pO2 and temperature dependence of electrical conductivity in praseodymium cerium oxide (PCO) was developed. Four point DC conductivity measurements were made ...

Stefanik, Todd Stanley, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Release of impurities from structural defects in polycrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is critical to understand the behavior of metallic impurities in polycrystalline silicon used for solar cells. These impurities significantly increase the minority carrier recombination rate and, in turn, degrade cell performance. Impurity gettering is a commonly used method to remove these impurities from the material, however, past work has suggested that impurity release from structural defects drastically limits the gettering process. Presently, there is only a limited understanding of impurity release from structural defects. In this work, a correlation between structural defects and the location of metal impurities in as-grown material is established and the release of nickel and copper from structural defects in polycrystalline silicon was studied in as-grown material and after sequential thermal treatments which dissolve the impurities into the silicon matrix. Synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence impurity mapping with spatial resolution of {approx} 1 {micro}m, was used to determine impurity distributions after each thermal treatment.

McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Imaizumi, M. [Toyota Technological Inst., Nagoya (Japan)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Structure and Effects of Extended Defects in Polycrystalline Si Thin Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The structure and effects of extended defects in rapid deposited polycrystalline Si thin films were studied using a combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and first-principles total energy calculations.

Yan, Y.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Wang, T. H.; Ciszek, T. F.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Origin of radiation tolerance in 3C-SiC with nanolayered planar defects  

SciTech Connect

We have recently found that the radiation tolerance of SiC is highly enhanced by introducing nanolayers of stacking faults and twins [Y. Zhang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 13429 (2012)]. To reveal the origin of this radiation resistance, we used in situ transmission electron microscopy to examine structural changes induced by electron beam irradiation in 3C-SiC containing nanolayers of (111) planar defects. We found that preferential amorphization, when it does occur, takes place at grain boundaries and at 111 and 111 planar defects. Radiationinduced point defects, such as interstitials and vacancies, migrate two-dimensionally between the (111) planar defects, which probably enhances the damage recovery.

Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu [Osaka University; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University; Weber, William J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Electrostatic in Reissner-Nordstrom space-time with a conical defect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the electrostatic potential generated by a point charge in the space-time of Reissner-Nordstrom with a conical defect. An expression for the self-energy is also presented.

J. Spinelly; V. B. Bezerra

2000-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Origin of radiation tolerance in 3C-SiC with nanolayered planar defects  

SciTech Connect

We have recently found that the radiation tolerance of SiC is highly enhanced by introducing nanolayers of stacking faults and twins [Y. Zhang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 13429 (2012)]. To reveal the origin of this radiation resistance, we used in situ transmission electron microscopy to examine structural changes induced by electron beam irradiation in 3C-SiC containing nanolayers of (111) planar defects. We found that preferential amorphization, when it does occur, takes place at grain boundaries and at (111) and (111) planar defects. Radiation-induced point defects, such as interstitials and vacancies, migrate two-dimensionally between the (111) planar defects, which probably enhances the damage recovery.

Ishimaru, Manabu [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Zhang Yanwen; Weber, William J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee 37831-6138 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Shannon, Steven [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Defect-Band Emission Photoluminescence Imaging on Multi-Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Defect-band photoluminescence (PL) imaging with an InGaAs camera was applied to multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers, which were taken from different heights of different Si bricks. Neighboring wafers were picked at six different processing steps, from as-cut to post-metallization. By using different cut-off filters, we were able to separate the band-to-band emission images from the defect-band emission images. On the defect-band emission images, the bright regions that originate from the grain boundaries and defect clusters were extracted from the PL images. The area fraction percentage of these regions at various processing stages shows a correlation with the final cell electrical parameters.

Yan, F.; Johnston, S.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Al-Jassim, M.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Impact of defect type on hydrogen passivation effectiveness in multicrystalline silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we examine the effectiveness of hydrogen passivation at grain boundaries as a function of defect type and microstructure in multicrystalline silicon. We analyze a specially prepared solar cell with alternating ...

Bertoni, Mariana I.

364

Hydrogen effects on the point defect spectrum in Fe-C alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As part of a multi-scale approach for modeling hydrogen embrittlement in hardened steels we have investigated, employing density functional theory methods, the stability and concentrations of the point defect clusters ...

Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Defect structure of indium tin oxide and its relationship to conductivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Doping In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with tin results in an improved transparent conducting oxide (TCO). Although indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most frequently used commercial TCO, its defect structure is still uncertain. Previously, its defect chemistry has been inferred based on the conductivity of the material. To directly study the defect structure of ITO, the authors prepared powders under different processing environments and performed neutron powder diffraction. Structural information was obtained by performing Rietveld analysis. The results include positions of the atoms, their thermal displacements, the fractional occupancy of the defect oxygen site, and the fractional occupancies of Sn on each of the two nonequivalent cation sites, showing a strong preference for the b site. These structural results are correlated with the measured electrical properties of the same samples.

Gonzalez, G. B.; Cohen, J. B.; Hwang, J.-H.; Mason, T. O.; Hodges, J. P.; Jorgensen, J. D.

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

366

Unified high-level synthesis and module placement for defect-tolerant microfluidic biochips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microfluidic biochips promise to revolutionize biosensing and clinical diagnostics. As more bioassays are executed concurrently on a biochip, system integration and design complexity are expected to increase dramatically. This problem is also identified ... Keywords: biochip, defect tolerance, microfluidics, placement, synthesis

Fei Su; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Correlations Between Crystal Defects and Performance of CdZnTe Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poor crystallinity remains a major problem affecting the availability and cost of CdZnTe (CZT) detectors. Point defects are responsible for small gradual charge loss and correlated with the electron clouds' drift times, which allows electronic correction of the output signals to achieve high spectral-resolution even with large-volume CZT detectors. In contrast, extended defects causes significant charge losses, which typically are uncorrelated, and, thus, result in much greater fluctuations of the output signals that cannot be corrected. Although extended defects do not affect all the interaction events, their fraction rapidly increases with the crystal's thickness and volume. In this paper, we summarize our recent results from testing CZT material and detectors that emphasize the particular roles of two types of extended defects, and their contributions to the device's overall performance.

A Bolotnikov; S Babalola; G Camarda; Y Cui; R Gul; S Egarievwe; P Fochuk; M Fuerstnau; J Horace; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base.

Snead, C.L. Jr. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies  

SciTech Connect

Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base.

Snead, C.L. Jr. [ed.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Impurity-Point Defect Interaction in Fe-Cr Alloys: Size Effects versus ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Impurity-Point Defect Interaction in Fe-Cr Alloys: Size Effects versus Magnetic Behaviour by D. Nguyen-Manh, M.Y. Lavrentiev and S.L. ...

371

Defects and instabilities in Hf-dielectric/SiON stacks (Invited Paper)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a review on the recent progress in understanding defects and instabilities in Hf-dielectric/SiON stacks will be given for both nMOSFETs and pMOSFETs. The key issues addressed for nMOSFETs include the capture cross section of electron traps, ... Keywords: Defects, Hf-silicates, HfO2, High-k dielectrics, Instability, NBTI, PBTI, Positive charges, Traps

J. F. Zhang

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A Transformer Coupling Method for Imaging Defects in Concentrically Arranged Steel Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a system that uses a transformer coupling method for imaging defects in the outer tube of a concentric steel tube pair. Transformer coupling is employed where a receiver is mounted opposite to the transmitter. Magnetic field coupling is used, in which the field propagates through the inner steel tube towards the outer steel tube. Defects in the outer section distort the field and the change is detected by the receiver.

Miller, G.; Hussin, H.; Fernandes, B.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.; El-Madaani, F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

373

REFLECTED LIGHT INTENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM DEFECTS ON HIGHLY REFLECTIVE SPHERES PDO 6984778, Topical Report  

SciTech Connect

A light reflection technique suitable for development into an automated surface quality certification system was investigated to determine if reflected light intensity distributions could be corre]ated with surface defect depths. Reflected laser light intensity distributions from pit and scratch defects on highly reflective spheres were studied with a commercial multi-element photodetector. It was found that the intensity distributions --Goll'lf be correlated with depths of pits and scratches in a size range of concern on highly reflective' spheres.

Klingsport, P. E.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

H Diffusion for Impurity and Defect Passivation: A Physical Model for Solar Cell Processing; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose a physical model for diffusion of H in Si containing impurities and defects. The diffusion occurs via several parallel mechanisms, involving complex formation (trapping) and dissociation (detrapping) at impurities and defects, hopping in lattice interstitial sites, and charge-state conversion. The role of bulk and process-induced traps is considered to explain observations from plasma, ion implantation, and PECVD-nitridation processes.

Sopori, B. L.; Zhang, Y.; Reedy, R.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Annihilation dynamics of stringlike topological defects in a nematic lyotropic liquid crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Topological defects can appear whenever there is some type of ordering. Its ubiquity in nature has been the subject of several studies, from early Universe to condensed matter. In this work, we investigated the annihilation dynamics of defects and antidefects in a lyotropic nematic liquid crystal (ternary mixture of potassium laurate, decanol and deionized-destilated water) using the polarized optical light microscopy technique. We analyzed Schlieren textures with topological defects produced due to a symmetry breaking in the transition of the isotropic to nematic calamitic phase after a temperature quench. As result, we obtained for the distance D between two annihilating defects (defect-antidefect pair), as a function of time t remaining for the annihilation, the scaling law D ~ t^{\\alpha}, with \\alpha = 0.390 and standard deviation \\sigma = 0.085. Our findings go in the direction to extend experimental results related to dynamics of defects in liquid crystals since only thermotropic and polymerics ones had been investigated. In addition, our results are in good quantitative agreement with previous investigations on the subject.

R. R. Guimarães; R. S. Mendes; P. R. G. Fernandes; H. Mukai

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

Defect Levels of Indium-doped CdMnTe Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using photoluminescence (PL) and current deep-level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS), we investigated the electronic defects of indium-doped detector-grade CdMnTe:In (CMT:In) crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method. We similarly analyzed CdZnTe:In (CZT:In) and undoped CdMnTe (CMT) crystals grown under the amount of same level of excess Te and/or indium doping level to detail the fundamental properties of the electronic defect structure more readily. Extended defects, existing in all the samples, were revealed by synchrotron white beam x-ray diffraction topography and scanning electron microscopy. The electronic structure of CMT is very similar to that of CZT, with shallow traps, A-centers, Cd vacancies, deep levels, and Te antisites. The 1.1-eV deep level, revealed by PL in earlier studies of CZT and CdTe, were attributed to dislocation-induced defects. In our I-DLTS measurements, the 1.1-eV traps showed different activation energies with applied bias voltage and an exponential dependence on the trap-filling time, which are typical characteristics of dislocation-induced defects. We propose a new defect-trap model for indium-doped CMT crystals.

K Kim; A Bolotinikov; G Camarda; R Gul; A Hossain; G Yang; Y Cui; R James

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

3D Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface Defects in Light Water Reactor Fuel Rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cladding on light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods provides a stable enclosure for fuel pellets and serves as a first barrier against fission product release. Consequently, it is important to design fuel to prevent cladding failure due to mechanical interactions with fuel pellets. Cladding stresses can be effectively limited by controlling power increase rates. However, it has been shown that local geometric irregularities caused by manufacturing defects known as missing pellet surfaces (MPS) in fuel pellets can lead to elevated cladding stresses that are sufficiently high to cause cladding failure. Accurate modeling of these defects can help prevent these types of failures. Nuclear fuel performance codes commonly use a 1.5D (axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial) or 2D axisymmetric representation of the fuel rod. To study the effects of MPS defects, results from 1.5D or 2D fuel performance analyses are typically mapped to thermo-mechanical models that consist of a 2D plane-strain slice or a full 3D representation of the geometry of the pellet and clad in the region of the defect. The BISON fuel performance code developed at Idaho National Laboratory employs either a 2D axisymmetric or 3D representation of the full fuel rod. This allows for a computational model of the full fuel rod to include local defects. A 3D thermo-mechanical model is used to simulate the global fuel rod behavior, and includes effects on the thermal and mechanical behavior of the fuel due to accumulation of fission products, fission gas production and release, and the effects of fission gas accumulation on thermal conductivity across the fuel-clad gap. Local defects can be modeled simply by including them in the 3D fuel rod model, without the need for mapping between two separate models. This allows for the complete set of physics used in a fuel performance analysis to be included naturally in the computational representation of the local defect, and for the effects of the local defect to be coupled with the global fuel rod model. This approach for modeling fuel with MPS defects is demonstrated and compared with alternative techniques. The effects of varying parameters of the MPS defect are studied using this technique and presented here.

B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; R.L. Williamson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Defect-related internal dissipation in mechanical resonators and the study of coupled mechanical systems.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding internal dissipation in resonant mechanical systems at the micro- and nanoscale is of great technological and fundamental interest. Resonant mechanical systems are central to many sensor technologies, and microscale resonators form the basis of a variety of scanning probe microscopies. Furthermore, coupled resonant mechanical systems are of great utility for the study of complex dynamics in systems ranging from biology to electronics to photonics. In this work, we report the detailed experimental study of internal dissipation in micro- and nanomechanical oscillators fabricated from amorphous and crystalline diamond materials, atomistic modeling of dissipation in amorphous, defect-free, and defect-containing crystalline silicon, and experimental work on the properties of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled mechanical oscillator arrays. We have identified that internal dissipation in most micro- and nanoscale oscillators is limited by defect relaxation processes, with large differences in the nature of the defects as the local order of the material ranges from amorphous to crystalline. Atomistic simulations also showed a dominant role of defect relaxation processes in controlling internal dissipation. Our studies of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled oscillator arrays revealed that it is possible to create mechanical systems that should be ideal for the study of non-linear dynamics and localization.

Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Czaplewski, David A.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Modine, Normand Arthur; Wendt, Joel Robert; Aslam, Dean (Michigan State University, Lansing, MI); Sepulveda-Alancastro, Nelson (University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Studies on relative effects of charged and neutral defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the third year of a continuing research study to understand the relative importance of charged and neutral defects in amorphous silicon. The objective of the study is to explore the electronic structure, including neutral and charged defects, an optoelectronic effects including the formation of Staebler-Wronski defects. The study concentrated on exploring electroluminescence experimentally and interpreting the results employing a simple guiding model. The simple guiding model assumes an exponential density of states and recombination rate constants (radiative and non-radiative) which are governed by hopping transitions. Measurements were also made as a function of photodegradation of the material. The results implicate that the radiative recombination processes are not distant pair tunneling but rather results from electrons hopping down due to the coulomb interactions. Preliminary experiments have been made on the effect of photodegradation on transient space charge limited currents in n/i/n structures. These experiments can directly yield information on the occupied defects centers induced by the photodegradation and are not a result of recombination processes. To date the results seems to be consistent with a picture which places the doubly occupied defects at quite a high energy ({approx equal} 0.4 e.v. below the conduction band).

Silver, M. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

CHARACTERIZATION OF PD IMPURITIES AND TWIN BOUNDARY DEFECTS IN DETECTOR GRADE CDZNTE CRYSTALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic CdZnTe or ''CZT'' crystals are highly suitable for {gamma}-spectrometers operating at the room temperature. Secondary phases (SP) in CZT are known to inhibit detector performance, particularly when they are present in large numbers or dimensions. These SP may exist as voids or composites of non-cubic phase metallic Te layers with bodies of polycrystalline and amorphous CZT material and voids. Defects associated with crystal twining may also influence detector performance in CZT. Using transmission electron microscopy, we identify two types of defects that are on the nano scale. The first defect consists of 40 nm diameter metallic Pd/Te bodies on the grain boundaries of Te-rich composites. Although the nano-Pd/Te bodies around these composites may be unique to the growth source of this CZT material, noble metal impurities like these may contribute to SP formation in CZT. The second defect type consists of atom-scale grain boundary dislocations. Specifically, these involve inclined ''finite-sized'' planar defects or interfaces between layers of atoms that are associated with twins. Finite-sized twins may be responsible for the subtle but observable striations that can be seen with optical birefringence imaging and synchrotron X-ray topographic imaging.

Duff, M.

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Impact of hydrogen and oxygen defects on the lattice parameter of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The lattice parameter of cubic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS with measured oxygen concentrations < 0.6 at.% and hydrogen impurities of < 0.015 at.% have been measured and found to vary between -0.10% and +0.09% relative to the reference lattice parameter (5.4093 Å) of oxygen-free cubic ZnS as reported in the literature. Defects other than substitutional O must be invoked to explain these observed volume changes. The structure and thermodynamic stability of a wide range of native and impurity induced defects in ZnS have been determined by Ab initio calculations. Lattice contraction is caused by S-vacancies, substitutional O on S sites, Zn vacancies, H in S vacancies, peroxy defects, and dissociated water in S-vacancies. The lattice is expanded by interstitial H, H in Zn vacancies, dihydroxy defects, interstitial oxygen, Zn and [ZnHn] complexes (n=1,…,4), interstitial Zn, and S2 dumbbells. Oxygen, though present, likely forms substitutional defects for sulfur resulting in lattice contraction rather than as interstitial oxygen resulting in lattice expansion. It is concluded based on measurement and calculations that excess zinc atoms either at anti-sites (i.e. Zn atoms on S-sites) or possibly as interstitial Zn are responsible for the relative increase of the lattice parameter of commercially produced CVD ZnS.

McCloy, John S.; Wolf, Walter; Wimmer, Erich; Zelinski, Brian

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

382

Dynamic coupling between a multistable defect pattern and flow in nematic liquid crystals confined in a porous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a nematic liquid crystal is confined in a porous medium with strong anchoring conditions, topological defects, called disclinations, are stably formed with numerous possible configurations. Since the energy barriers between them are large enough, the system shows multistability. Our lattice Boltzmann simulations demonstrate dynamic couplings between the multistable defect pattern and the flow in a regular porous matrix. At sufficiently low flow speed, the topological defects are pinned at the quiescent positions. As the flow speed is increased, the defects show cyclic motions and nonlinear rheological properties, which depend on whether or not they are topologically constrained in the porous networks. In addition, we discovered that the defect pattern can be controlled by controlling the flow. Thus, the flow path is recorded in the porous channels owing to the multistability of the defect patterns.

Takeaki Araki

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

383

The role of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in HfO2 and ZrO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in monoclinic HfO"2 and ZrO"2 using first-principles calculations based on a hybrid functional. We examine how the formation energy of these defects depend on the Fermi level ... Keywords: Defects in semiconductors, First-principles calculations, HfO2, High-k dielectrics, Hydrogen impurities, Oxygen interstitial, Oxygen vacancy, Sources of fixed charge, ZrO2

J. L. Lyons; A. Janotti; C. G. Van de Walle

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Improvement of thermoelectric properties for half-Heusler TiNiSn by interstitial Ni defects  

SciTech Connect

We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ti-Ni-Sn half-Heusler thermoelectrics in order to investigate the relation between randomly distributed defects and thermoelectric properties. A small change in the composition of Ti-Ni-Sn causes a remarkable change in the thermal conductivity. An excess content of Ni realizes a low thermal conductivity of 2.93 W/mK at room temperature while keeping a high power factor. The low thermal conductivity originates in the defects generated by an excess content of Ni. To investigate the detailed defect structure, we have performed first-principles calculations and compared with x ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement. Based on these analyses, we conclude that the excess Ni atoms randomly occupy the vacant sites in the half-Heusler structure, which play as phonon scattering centers, resulting in significant improvement of the figure of merit without any substitutions of expensive heavy elements, such as Zr and Hf.

Hazama, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Masato; Asahi, Ryoji [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Takeuchi, Tsunehiro [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

A Theoretical Study of the Magnetic Structure of Bulk Iron with Radiation Defects  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental understanding of the radiation damage effects in solids is of great importance in assisting the development of improved materials with ultra-high strength, toughness, and radiation resistance for nuclear energy applications. In this presentation, we show our recent theoretical investigation on the magnetic structure evolution of bulk iron in the region surrounding the radiation defects. We applied the locally self-consistent multiple scattering method (LSMS), a linear scaling ab-initio method based on density functional theory with local spin density approximation, to the study of the magnetic structure in a low energy cascade in a 10,000-atom sample for a series of time steps for the evolution of the defects. The primary damage state and the evolution of all defects in the sample were simulated using molecular dynamics with empirical, embedded-atom inter-atomic potentials. We also discuss the importance of thermal effect on the magnetic structure evolution.

Wang, Yang [Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Rusanu, Aurelian [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Eisenbach, Markus [ORNL; Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Higher-Order Mass Defect Analysis for Mass Spectra of Complex Organic Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Higher-order mass defect analysis is introduced as a unique formula assignment and visualization method for the analysis of complex mass spectra. This approach is an extension of the concepts of Kendrick mass transformation widely used for identification of homologous compounds differing only by a number of base units (e.g., CH2, H2, O, CH2O, etc.) in complex mixtures. We present an iterative renormalization routine for defining higher order homologous series and multidimensional clustering of mass spectral features. This approach greatly simplifies visualization of complex mass spectra and increases the number of chemical formulae that can be confidently assigned for given mass accuracy. The potential for using higher-order mass defects for data reduction and visualization is shown. Higher-order mass defect analysis is described and demonstrated through third-order analysis of a de-isotoped high-resolution mass spectrum of crude oil containing nearly 13,000 peaks.

Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Defect and dopant properties of MgTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomistic computer simulation techniques have been used, for the first time, to reproduce the crystal structure of MgTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} and to investigate the defect chemistry and dopant properties of this material. The calculated defect energetics suggest that the concentration of intrinsic atomic defects in this phase is insignificant and that the system is probably stable to both oxidation and reduction. Dopant solution energy versus ion size trends are found for both isovalent and aliovalent dopant incorporation at Mg and Ta sites. Divalent dopants (e.g. Ca, Cu) preferentially occupy the Mg site whereas dopants with higher charge (e.g. Sc, Zr, Nb) are more favorable on the Ta site. High migration activation energies (>2eV) predict limited ionic conductivity in this material.

Tealdi, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica 'M. Rolla', Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Viale Taramelli, No. 16, PV 27100, Pavia (Italy); Saiful Islam, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Malavasi, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica 'M. Rolla', Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Viale Taramelli, No. 16, PV 27100, Pavia (Italy)]. E-mail: lorenzo.malavasi@unipv.it; Flor, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica 'M. Rolla', Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Viale Taramelli, No. 16, PV 27100, Pavia (Italy)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Defects in metal crystals. Progress report, May 1, 1979-April 30, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A broad investigation of the properties of crystal defects in metals and semiconductors was made. Attention during the past year has focused on fundamental properties of point defects (vacancies and self-interstitial atoms); aggregates of point defects (i.e., depleted zones); the range profiles of low-energy (< 1000 eV) implanted /sup 4/He and /sup 1/H in tungsten, the diffusive properties of /sup 4/He and /sup 1/H; the adsorption kinetics and sticking coefficient of hydrogen on tungsten; the imaging of silicon by field-ion microscopy; the chemical analysis of ordered Ni/sub 4/Mo and GaAs - on an atomic scale - via atom-probe field microscopy; and the low-temperature isochronal recovery behavior of ion-irradiated Ni/sub 4/Mo and Pt/sub 3/Co. Heavy use was made of the high-resolution field-ion microscope and the atom-probe field-ion microscope.

Seidman, D.N.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

The DNA repair endonuclease XPG interacts directly and functionally with the WRN helicase defective in Werner syndrome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Functionally with the WRN Helicase Defective in Wernersynthesis via its helicase activity. J Biol Chem 2003; 27:Nairn RS. Depletion of Werner helicase results in mitotic

Trego, Kelly S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Estimate of the allowable dimensions of diagnosed defects in category III and IV welded pipeline joints{sup 1}  

SciTech Connect

An approach for estimating the permissible dimensions of technological defects in butt welded joints in category III and IV pipelines is described. The allowable size of a welding defect is determined from the condition of compliance with the specifications on strength for a reference cross section (damaged joint) of the pipeline taking into account its weakening by a given defect.With regard to the fairly widespread discovery of technological defects in butt welded joints during diagnostics of auxiliary pipelines for thermal electric power plants, the proposed approach can be used in practice by repair and consulting organizations.

Grin', E. A.; Bochkarev, V. I. [JSC 'All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute' (JSC 'VTI') (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute' (JSC 'VTI') (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Postirradiation examination of Pressure Tubes 2755 and 1054 Part 1: Dimensional, hydride, inner surface defects, and corrosion measurements: Addendum 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This addendum is issued to document additional postirradiation examinations that were conducted on Pressure Tubes 2755 and 1054 for evaluation of inner surface defects, corrosion and hydride measurements.

Chastain, S.A.; Trimble, D.J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Molecular dynamics simulations of swift heavy ion induced defect recovery in SiC  

SciTech Connect

Swift heavy ions induce a high density of electronic excitations that can cause the formation of amorphous ion tracks in insulators. No ion tracks have been observed in the semiconductor SiC, but recent experimental work suggests that irradiation damaged SiC can undergo defect recovery under swift heavy ion irradiation. It is believed that local heating of the lattice due to the electronic energy deposition can anneal, and thereby recover, some of the disordered structure. We simulate the local heating due to the ions by the inelastic thermal spike model and perform molecular dynamics simulations of dierent model damage states to study the defect recovery on an atomistic level. We find significant recovery of point defects and a disordered layer, as well as recrystallization at the amorphous-to-crystalline interface of an amorphous layer. The simulation results support the swift heavy ion annealing hypothesis.Swift heavy ions induce a high density of electronic excitations that can cause the formation of amorphous ion tracks in insulators. No ion tracks have been observed in the semiconductor SiC, but recent experimental work suggests that irradiation damaged SiC can undergo defect recovery under swift heavy ion irradiation. It is believed that local heating of the lattice due to the electronic energy deposition can anneal, and thereby recover, some of the disordered structure. We simulate the local heating due to the ions by the inelastic thermal spike model and perform molecular dynamics simulations of dierent model damage states to study the defect recovery on an atomistic level. We find significant recovery of point defects and a disordered layer, as well as recrystallization at the amorphous-to-crystalline interface of an amorphous layer. The simulation results support the swift heavy ion annealing hypothesis.

Backman, Marie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Toulemonde, Marcel [CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-University of Caen, FRANCE; Pakarinen, Olli H [University of Helsinki; Juslin, Niklas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Djurabekova, Flyura [University of Helsinki; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Debelle, Aurelien [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Weber, William J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Measurement of oxygen disorder and nano-twin microstructure associated with columnar defects in YBCO.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of defects generated by high energy (>1 GeV) heavy ion irradiation in high-Tc superconductors have been performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study shows that high dose irradiation leads to the formation of nano-twins, by which the columnar defects are connected. An analysis of the local Fourier components of the image intensity in [001] lattice images indicates that these new ''twin'' boundaries are much more diffuse than pre-existing twin boundaries in YBCO. The mechanism of the formation of nano-twin boundaries on {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes and their possible relation to superconducting properties are discussed.

Yan, Y,

1998-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

394

Defect mode suppression in a photonic crystal structure with a resonance nanocomposite layer  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the key features of the transmission and reflection spectra of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure in which a nanocomposite layer is sandwiched between dielectric Bragg mirrors. Two orthogonal polarisations of an incident wave correspond to different plasmon resonance frequencies of the nanocomposite. If one of the plasmon frequencies coincides with the defect mode frequency in one of the photonic bandgaps, complete suppression of the defect mode in the transmission spectrum is possible, which makes the spectra of such structures polarisation-sensitive.

Moiseev, Sergey G; Ostatochnikov, Vladimir A; Sementsov, Dmitrii I

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

Photoluminescence in Chemical Vapor Deposited ZnS: insight into electronic defects  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence spectra taken from chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS are shown to exhibit sub-band-gap emission bands characteristic of isoelectronic oxygen defects. The emission spectra vary spatially with position and orientation with respect to the major axis of CVD growth. These data suggest that a complex set of defects exist in the band gap of CVD ZnS whose structural nature is highly dependent upon local deposition and growth conditions, contributing to inherent heterogeneity in optical behavior throughout the material.

McCloy, John S.; Potter, B.g.

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

396

Modified analytical interatomic potential for a W-H system with defects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We construct modified W-H and W-W analytical bond-order potentials for a W-H system. In combination with Brenner’s H-H potential, we demonstrate that such potentials can reproduce energetics and structural properties of W and W-H systems, including defect formation energies, surface energies and diffusion barriers as well as melting point determined from first-principles or experiments. The present potentials can be employed for modelling the behaviour of H in W containing defects such as vacancies and surfaces.

Li, Xiaochun; Shu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yinan; Gao, Fei; Lu, Guang-Hong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Single Defect Center Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy on Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate high resolution scanning fluorescence resonance energy transfer 10 microscopy between a single nitrogen-vacancy center as donor and graphene as acceptor. 11 Images with few nanometer resolution of single and multilayer graphene structures were 12 attained. An energy transfer efficiency of 30% at distances of 10nm between a single 13 defect and graphene was measured. Further the energy transfer distance dependence of 14 the nitrogen-vacancy center to graphene was measured to show the predicted d-4 15 dependence. Our studies pave the way towards a diamond defect center based versatile 16 single emitter scanning microscope.

J. Tisler; T. Oeckinghaus; R. Stöhr; R. Kolesov; F. Reinhard; J. Wrachtrup

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

398

RTL-Based Functional Test Generation for High Defects Coverage in Digital Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Functional test has long been viewed as unfitted for high-quality production test. The purpose of this paper is to propose a RTL-based test generation methodology which can rewardingly be used both for design validation and to enhance the test effectiveness ... Keywords: Defect-Oriented Test (DOT), RTL, low-energy test, test generation

M. B. Santos; F. M. Gonçalves; I. C. Teixeira; J. P. Teixeira

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Research on Magnetic Signal Extracting and Filtering of Coal Mine Wire Rope Belt Conveyer Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of wire rope conveyer belt with high load operating and complex conditions of coal mine, it is prone to cause conveyer belt horizontal rupture. It will bring tremendous hazards for coal mine safe production. Defects of wire rope and joints displacement ...

Qinghua Mao; Hongwei Ma; Xuhui Zhang; Dawei Zhang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Gravity-driven Transport along Cylindrical Topological Defects : Possible Dark Matter and Nearly Frictionless States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gravity-driven flow along an annular topological defect (string) with transversely corrugations is investigated by using the verified transition-rate model and boundary perturbation method. We found that for certain activation volume and energy there exists possible frictionless states which might be associated with the missing momentum of inertia or dark matter.

Zotin K. -H. Chu

2009-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ARMORY: An automatic security testing tool for buffer overflow defect detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Program Buffer Overflow Defects (PBODs) are the stepping stones of Buffer Overflow Attacks (BOAs), which are one of the most dangerous security threats to the Internet. In this paper, we propose a kernel-based security testing tool, named ARMORY, for ...

Li-Han Chen, Fu-Hau Hsu, Yanling Hwang, Mu-Chun Su, Wei-Shinn Ku, Chi-Hsuan Chang

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Artificial recognition system for defective types of transformers by acoustic emission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An artificial recognition system of defective types for epoxy-resin transformers through acoustic emission (AE) from partial discharge (PD) experiment is proposed. PD detection is an efficient diagnosis method to prevent the failure of electric equipments ... Keywords: Acoustic emission, Neural network, Partial discharge, Particle swarm optimization, Transformer

Cheng-Chien Kuo

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Modification of Defect Structures in Graphene by Electron Irradiation: Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Defects play an important role on the unique properties of the sp2-bonded materials, such as graphene. The creation and evolution of mono-vacancy, di-vacancy, Stone-Wales (SW) and grain boundaries (GBs) under irradiation in graphene are investigated using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations. It is of great interest to note that the patterns of these defects can be controlled through electron irradiation. The SW defects can be created by electron irradiation with energy of above the displacement threshold energy (Td, {approx}19 eV) and can be healed with an energy (14-18 eV) lower than Td. The transformation between four types of divacancies, V2(5-8-5), V2(555-777), V2(5555-6-7777), and V2(55-77) can be realized through bond rotation induced by electron irradiation. The migrations of divancancies, SW defects, and GBs can also be controlled by electron irradiation. Thus, electron irradiation can serve as an important tool to modify morphology in a controllable manner, and to tailor the physical properties of graphene.

Wang, Zhiguo; Zhou, Yungang; Bang, Junhyeok; Prange, Micah P.; Zhang, Shengbai; Gao, Fei

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

404

Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps  

SciTech Connect

Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Schaeffer, Jon Conrad (Greenville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Back-side hydrogenation technique for defect passivation in silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-step back-side hydrogenation process includes the steps of first bombarding the back side of the silicon substrate with hydrogen ions with intensities and for a time sufficient to implant enough hydrogen atoms into the silicon substrate to potentially passivate substantially all of the defects and impurities in the silicon substrate, and then illuminating the silicon substrate with electromagnetic radiation to activate the implanted hydrogen, so that it can passivate the defects and impurities in the substrate. The illumination step also annihilates the hydrogen-induced defects. The illumination step is carried out according to a two-stage illumination schedule, the first or low-power stage of which subjects the substrate to electromagnetic radiation that has sufficient intensity to activate the implanted hydrogen, yet not drive the hydrogen from the substrate. The second or high-power illumination stage subjects the substrate to higher intensity electromagnetic radiation, which is sufficient to annihilate the hydrogen-induced defects and sinter/alloy the metal contacts.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Back-side hydrogenation technique for defect passivation in silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-step back-side hydrogenation process includes the steps of first bombarding the back side of the silicon substrate with hydrogen ions with intensities and for a time sufficient to implant enough hydrogen atoms into the silicon substrate to potentially passivate substantially all of the defects and impurities in the silicon substrate, and then illuminating the silicon substrate with electromagnetic radiation to activate the implanted hydrogen, so that it can passivate the defects and impurities in the substrate. The illumination step also annihilates the hydrogen-induced defects. The illumination step is carried out according to a two-stage illumination schedule, the first or low-power stage of which subjects the substrate to electromagnetic radiation that has sufficient intensity to activate the implanted hydrogen, yet not drive the hydrogen from the substrate. The second or high-power illumination stage subjects the substrate to higher intensity electromagnetic radiation, which is sufficient to annihilate the hydrogen-induced defects and sinter/alloy the metal contacts. 3 figures.

Sopori, B.L.

1994-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

407

Development of OLED panel defect detection system through improved otsu algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OLED (Organic light-emitting) displays have been called the next generation of display devices for their unique properties: colorful images, large viewing angle, light weight and power efficiency. Complex manufacture processing makes the screen have ... Keywords: OLED panel, Otsu method, defect detection, image segmentation, subtraction operation

Jian Gao; Zhiliang Wang; Yanyun Liu; Chuanxia Jian; Xin Chen

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Lithium implantation at low temperature in silicon for sharp buried amorphous layer formation and defect engineering  

SciTech Connect

The crystalline-to-amorphous transformation induced by lithium ion implantation at low temperature has been investigated. The resulting damage structure and its thermal evolution have been studied by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy channelling (RBS/C) and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Lithium low-fluence implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature is shown to produce a three layers structure: an amorphous layer surrounded by two highly damaged layers. A thermal treatment at 400 Degree-Sign C leads to the formation of a sharp amorphous/crystalline interfacial transition and defect annihilation of the front heavily damaged layer. After 600 Degree-Sign C annealing, complete recrystallization takes place and no extended defects are left. Anomalous recrystallization rate is observed with different motion velocities of the a/c interfaces and is ascribed to lithium acting as a surfactant. Moreover, the sharp buried amorphous layer is shown to be an efficient sink for interstitials impeding interstitial supersaturation and {l_brace}311{r_brace} defect formation in case of subsequent neon implantation. This study shows that lithium implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature can be suitable to form a sharp buried amorphous layer with a well-defined crystalline front layer, thus having potential applications for defects engineering in the improvement of post-implantation layers quality and for shallow junction formation.

Oliviero, E. [CSNSM, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 108, 91405 Orsay (France); David, M. L.; Beaufort, M. F.; Barbot, J. F. [Institut Pprime, CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, SP2MI, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, BP30179, 86962 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Fichtner, P. F. P. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av Bento Goncalves 9500, Caixa Postal 15051, 90035-190 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

409

Theoretical calculations of the primary defects induced by pions and protons in SiC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work, the bulk degradation of SiC in hadron (pion and proton) fields, in the energy range between 100 MeV and 10 GeV, is characterised theoretically by means of the concentration of primary defects per unit fluence. The results are compared to the similar ones corresponding to diamond, silicon and GaAs.

Sorina Lazanu; Ionel Lazanu; Emilio Borchi; Mara Bruzzi

2000-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

410

Defect gap states on III-V semiconductor-oxide interfaces (invited)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interfaces models of (100)GaAs and various high K oxides such as HfO"2, Gd"2O"3 or Al"2O"3 are used to study the interfacial defects and mis-bonded sites which can introduce states into the semiconductor gap, and cause the Fermi level pinning observed ... Keywords: Calculation, FET, GaAs, Interface states, Oxide, Passivation

J. Robertson; L. Lin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Wind turbine composite blade manufacturing : the need for understanding defect origins, prevalence, implications and reliability.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Renewable energy is an important element in the US strategy for mitigating our dependence on non-domestic oil. Wind energy has emerged as a viable and commercially successful renewable energy source. This is the impetus for the 20% wind energy by 2030 initiative in the US. Furthermore, wind energy is important on to enable a global economy. This is the impetus for such rapid, recent growth. Wind turbine blades are a major structural element of a wind turbine blade. Wind turbine blades have near aerospace quality demands at commodity prices; often two orders of magnitude less cost than a comparable aerospace structure. Blade failures are currently as the second most critical concern for wind turbine reliability. Early blade failures typically occur at manufacturing defects. There is a need to understand how to quantify, disposition, and mitigate manufacturing defects to protect the current wind turbine fleet, and for the future. This report is an overview of the needs, approaches, and strategies for addressing the effect of defects in wind turbine blades. The overall goal is to provide the wind turbine industry with a hierarchical procedure for addressing blade manufacturing defects relative to wind turbine reliability.

Cairns, Douglas S. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Riddle, Trey (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Nelson, Jared (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Point defect engineered Si sub-bandgap light-emitting diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Point defect engineered Si sub-bandgap light-emitting diode Jiming Bao1 , Malek Tabbal1,2 , Taegon light emission in Si and demonstrate a sub-bandgap light emitting diode based on the introduction.3670) Light-emitting diodes; (160.6000) Semiconductors; (130-0250) Optoelectronics. References and links 1. S

413

Unusual defects in silicon carbide thin films grown by multiple or interrupted growth technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the growth and characterization of 3C-SiC films on Si (100) and (111) substrates using hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) as the source material in a resistance-heated furnace as well as the formation and microstructure of various types of ... Keywords: 3C-SiC, 3C-SiC nanowires, CVD, Defects, HMDS, Interrupted growth, Voids

A. Gupta; C. Jacob

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

@ Pergamon SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM Nouember 1993; accepted I March 1994) Abstract-e3Nb and 7Li wideline- as well as MAS-NMR measurements were could be reduced to 0.6kHz by using MAS-NMR with a rotational lrequency of 4000Hz, thsre was no second 7

Bluemel, Janet

415

An analytical study of rail grinding optimization for rail-head fatigue defect prevention  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last two decades, the railroad industry has experienced a significant increase in heavy axle loads acting on railroad rails. In addition, railroad operations have been consolidated resulting in the elimination of redundant routes and increased train traffic on the remaining routes. These changes in railroad industry practice have caused an increase in the rate of occurrence of rail head fatigue defects, one potential cause of train derailment. The primary form of maintenance employed by the individual railroads to combat the formation of fatigue defects is rail grinding. Current rail grinding practices involve removal of surface defects and reshaping worn rail, but they do not involve grinding as a means to mitigate internal fatigue damage. In this study, a model for optimizing a grinding schedule which will prevent the formation of internal fatigue defects is proposed. The model includes a statistical representation of wheel loads, a rail head stress analysis, a rail head fatigue analysis, and optimization of a grinding schedule via mathematical programming. Results from using this model indicate that rail grinding might be performed in such a way as to double the useful service life of railroad rail.

Jones, Scott Laurence

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Tuning of defects in ZnO nanorod arrays used in bulk heterojunction solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-circuit volt- age (Voc) values peak (Figure 3b and Table 1). The 400°C sample shows a surprisingly very similar (and reproducible) J-V curve to the 300°C sample. Con- sidering the different defect landscapes between these samples (Figure 2) and the different...

Iza, Diana C; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Jia, Quanxi; Swartzentruber, Brian; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

A Power Transmission Line Fault Distance Estimation VLSI Chip: Design and Defect Tolerance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a system-on-a-chip for fault detection and fault-distance-estimation for power transmission lines in the smart grid. Toward this goal we have designed and fabricated three chips: PGS4, PGS5 and PGS6, each successively more advanced ... Keywords: Smart grid, fault distance, arcing fault, system on a chip, defect tolerance, Radojevic algorithm.

E. MacLean; V. K. Jain

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

The optical properties of magnesium oxide containing transition metal ions and defects produced by fast neutron irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photoluminescence (PL), its excitation (PLE) and optical absorption of MgO crystals containing transition metal ions and defects produced by fast neutron irradiation fluence up to 1020cm-2 (E>0.1 MeV) are investigated. Three ... Keywords: absorption, luminescence spectra, magnesium oxide, radiation defect, transition metal ions

Vera Skvortsova; Laima Trinkler

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A vision inspection system for the surface defects of strongly reflected metal based on multi-class SVM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the designing and testing process of a vision system for strongly reflected metal's surface defects detection. In the authors' view, an automatic inspection system has the following stages: image acquisition, image pre-processing, ... Keywords: Defect classification, Feature extraction, Strongly reflected metal, Support vector machine, Wavelet transform

Zhang Xue-wu; Ding Yan-qiong; Lv Yan-yun; Shi Ai-ye; Liang Rui-yu

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

FTIR and 27 Al MAS NMR analysis of the effect of framework Al-and Si-defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FTIR and 27 Al MAS NMR analysis of the effect of framework Al- and Si-defects in micro- and micro 2011 Keywords: Micro-mesoporous H-ZSM-5 zeolite Framework defects FTIR 27 Al MAS NMR Methanol, and their activity was investigated in transformation of methanol to low olefins, aromatics and paraffins. 27 Al MAS

Sklenak, Stepan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

I point my heart with the tip of my ngers -Biometry for the diagnosis congenital heart defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I point my heart with the tip of my ngers - Biometry for the diagnosis congenital heart defects Vasculaires, Hôpital de Pontchaillou, Rennes, France Abstract Congenital heart defects are characterized by abnormal positioning of some anatomical structures relative to a normal heart. Classically the classication

Recanati, Catherine

422

Review of the Lawrence Livermore Nationa Laboratory Identiified Defective Department of Transportation Hazardous Material Packages  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 Site Visit Report - Review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Identified Defective Department of Transportation Hazardous Material Packages This site visit report documents the results of Office of Health, Safety and Security's review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) identification, immediate actions, communications, documentation, evaluation, reporting and follow-up to the discovery of defective Department of Transportation (DOT) UN1A2 55- and 30-gallon open head single bolt closure steel drums intended for storage and transportation of hazardous waste and materials. This review, conducted on January 26-29, 2010, was sponsored by the DOE Livermore Site Office (LSO) to support interface with the lab and this report is intended to support follow-up

423

Theory, Simulation and Nanotechnological Applications of Adsorption on a Surface with Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theory of adsorption on a surface with nanolocal defects is proposed. Two efficacy parameters of surface modification for nanotechnological purposes are introduced, where the modification is a creation of nanolocal artificial defects. The first parameter corresponds to applications where it is necessary to increase the concentration of certain particles on the modified surface. And the second one corresponds to the pattern transfer with the help of particle self-organization on the modified surface. The analytical expressions for both parameters are derived with the help of the thermodynamic and the kinetic approaches for two cases: jump diffusion and free motion of adsorbed particles over the surface. The possibility of selective adsorption of molecules is shown with the help of simulation of the adsorption of acetylene and benzene molecules in the pits on the graphite surface. The process of particle adsorption from the surface into the pit is theoretically studied by molecular dynamic technique. Some possi...

Lozovik, Yu E; Lozovik, Yu.E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Optical Soliton Propagation in a Free-Standing Nonlinear Graphene Monolayer with Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, optical soliton propagation in an intrinsic nonlinear graphene monolayer configuration has been discovered. However, optical soliton behavior in a free-standing graphene monolayer with defects has not yet been studied. The objective of this article is to employ the generalized finite- difference time-domain (G-FDTD) method to efficiently simulate bright optical solitons, illustrating propagation of the electric field distribution in a free-standing nonlinear layer with variation in nonlinearity along its width. These variations of nonlinearity along the width represent graphene impurities, or defects. Results show that solitons propagate effectively even in the presence of strong spatial variations in the nonlinearity, implying the robustness of the medium with respect to optical propagation.

Frederick Ira Moxley III; Tim Byrnes; Adarsh Radadia; Weizhong Dai

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

425

Evaluation of defects and degradation in GaAs-GaAlAs wafers using transmission cathodoluminescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large number of GaAs substrates GaAlAs double-heterostructure (DH) wafers, and high-radiance GaAlAs DH light-emitting diodes (LEDS) were evaluated using transmission cathodoluminescence (TCL). We show that only epitaxial wafers with a high defect density as revealed by TCL readily develop dark line defects (DLDs) with current injection, optical excitation, or electron beam excitation. Furthermore, in agreement with the previous work, the electron-beam-induced DLDs originate at dislocations and their growth requires minority-carrier injection. Based on these results, it is inferred that TCL can serve as a nondestructive screening technique for the selection of materials that produces a high yield of reliable LEDs.

Chin, A.K.; Keramidas, V.G.; Johnston, W.D. Jr.; Mahajan, S.; Roccasecca, D.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Simulation of 7050 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Wheel Die Forging and its Defects Analysis based on DEFORM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defects such as folding, intercrystalline cracking and flow lines outcrop are very likely to occur in the forging of aluminum alloy. Moreover, it is difficult to achieve the optimal set of process parameters just by trial and error within an industrial environment. In producing 7050 wrought aluminum alloy wheel, a rigid-plastic finite element method (FEM) analysis has been performed to optimize die forging process. Processing parameters were analyzed, focusing on the effects of punch speed, friction factor and temperature. Meanwhile, mechanism as well as the evolution with respect to the defects of the wrought wheel was studied in details. From an analysis of the results, isothermal die forging was proposed for producing 7050 aluminum alloy wheel with good mechanical properties. Finally, verification experiment was carried out on hydropress.

Huang Shiquan; Yi Youping; Zhang Yuxun [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Sixth workshop on the role of impurities and defects in silicon device processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Sixth Workshop on the Role of Impurities and Defects in Silicon Device Processing was held in Snowmass Village, August 12-14, 1996. The workshop was attended by 87 participants from academic institutions and photovoltaic industry representatives, from the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Belgium, and The Netherlands. The workshop consisted of nine sessions that addressed different aspects of impurities and defects in silicon and applications to solar-cell processing. Each session opened with some review talks summarizing recent advances in this field and introduced important issues for further discussions during a subsequent panel discussion session. In addition, the latest research results were presented in two poster sessions.

Tan, T.; Swanson, R.; Sopori, B.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Selective nucleation induced by defect nanostructures: A way to control cobalt disilicide precipitation during ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we show a way to control cobalt disilicide precipitation during Co ion implantation at high temperatures (650 Degree-Sign C) by affecting radiation defects involved in precipitate nucleation and growth. We demonstrate that the relative shares of different precipitate types nucleated by implantation are strongly affected by defect microstructures deliberately created in investigated samples prior to cobalt implantation. Especially interesting is the effect of a dense ensemble of extremely small (1-3 nm) cavities, which promotes the formation of a relatively uniform layer of coherent cobalt disilicide precipitates with a narrow size distribution. In order to better understand the mechanism of the microstructural influence on the precipitate nucleation modes during Co implantation, we investigate the disilicide precipitation using different implantation setups and compare the results with those for cavity-free Si specimens implanted in similar conditions.

Fortuna, F.; Nguyen, M.-A.; Ruault, M.-O. [CSNSM, batiment 108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Kirk, M. A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Borodin, V. A. [NRC 'Kurchatov Institute,' 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ganchenkova, M. G. [NRNU MEPhI, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Effect of Extended Defects in Planar and Pixelated CdZnTe Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated a spectroscopy-grade 15 x 15 x 7 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe (CZT) crystal with a high {mu}{tau}-product, > 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}/V, but impaired by microscopic extended defects, such as walls of dislocations, low-angle and sub-grain boundaries, and Te inclusions. First, we evaluated a planar detector fabricated from this crystal using a Microscale X-ray Detector Mapping (MXDM) technique. Then, we fabricated from the same crystal a pixel detector to study local non-uniformities of the electric field. The measured X-ray response maps confirmed the presence of non-uniformities in the charge transport, and they showed that the global- and local-distortions of the internal E-field correlated to the extended defects and space-charge buildup on the side surfaces.

C Camarda; K Andreini; A Bolotnikov; Y Cui; A Hossain; R Gul; K Kim; L Marchini; L Xu; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

Electron Scattering in InSb Quantum Wells due to Micro-twin Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport electron scattering due to micro-twin (MT) defects in InSb quantum wells (QWs) has been investigated at room temperature (RT). A linear-regression-based scattering analysis showed that Matthiessen's rule is applicable to the RT electron mobility in 20-nm-thick InSb QWs that contain MTs (whose density is 5.6x10{sup 2}-1.2x10{sup 4} /cm) and threading dislocations (8.7x10{sup 8}-3.2x10{sup 9} /cm{sup 2}) as dominant structural defects. For such an InSb QW whose local electron mobility in its non-MT regions is 2.8x10{sup 4}-4.5x10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/(Vs), the MT-originated energy barrier against the electron transport is deduced to be 0.081-0.093 eV at RT.

Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructure University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Magnetically active vacancy related defects in irradiated GaN layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the studies of magnetic properties of 2 MeV {sup 4}He{sup +}-irraadiated GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Particle irradiation allowed controllable introduction of Ga-vacancy in the samples. The magnetic moments with concentrations changing between 4.3 and 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} showing superparamagnetic blocking at room temperature are observed. The appearance of clear hysteresis curve at T=5K with coercive field of about H{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 270 Oe suggests that the formation of more complex Ga vacancy related defects is promoted with increasing Ga vacancy content. The small concentration of the observed magnetically active defects with respect to the total Ga-vacancy concentration suggests that the presence of the oxygen/hydrogen-related vacancy complexes is the source of the observed magnetic moments.

Kilanski, L.; Tuomisto, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto Espoo (Finland); Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kruszka, R. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

432

Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

Dunbar, J.B.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Nondestructive method for detecting defects in photodetector and solar cell devices  

SciTech Connect

The invention described herein is a method for locating semiconductor device defects and for measuring the internal resistance of such devices by making use of the intrinsic distributed resistance nature of the devices. The method provides for forward-biasing a solar cell or other device while it is scanning with an optical spot. The forward-biasing is achieved with either an illuminator light source or an external current source.

Sawyer, David E. (Rockville, MD)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys to achieve defect-free, structurally sound and reliable welds  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to seek improved process control and weldment reliability during laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys while retaining the high speed and accuracy of the laser beam welding process. The effects of various welding variables on the loss of alloying elements and the formation of porosity and other geometric weld defects such as underfill and overfill were studied both experimentally and theoretically.

DebRoy, T.

2000-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

435

Defects in Photovoltaic Materials and the Origins of Failure to Dope Them: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

I will review the basic physical principles underlying the formation energy of various intrinsic defects in common photovoltaic materials. I then use the above principles to explain why doping of semiconductors is, in general, limited and which design principles can be used to circumvent such limits. This work can help design strategies of doping absorber materials as well as explain how TCOs work. Recent results on the surprising stability of polar (112)+ surfaces of CIS will also be described in this context.

Zunger, A.; Kilic, C.; Wang, L.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Generalized beta prior models on fraction defective in reliability test planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many reliability analyses, the probability of obtaining a defective unit in a production process should not be considered constant even though the process is stable and in control. Engineering experience or previous data of similar or related products ... Keywords: 62N03, 62N05, Average producer and consumer risks, Generalized beta distribution, Maximum entropy prior, Quantiles, Reliability demonstration sampling plan, Shifted exponential distribution

Arturo J. Fernández; Carlos J. Pérez-González

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Energy levels and decoherence properties of single electron and nuclear spins in a defect center in diamond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coherent behavior of the single electron and single nuclear spins of a defect center in diamond and a 13C nucleus in its vicinity, respectively, are investigated. The energy levels associated with the hyperfine coupling of the electron spin of the defect center to the 13C nuclear spin are analyzed. Methods of magnetic resonance together with optical readout of single defect centers have been applied in order to observe the coherent dynamics of the electron and nuclear spins. Long coherence times, in the order of microseconds for electron spins and tens of microseconds for nuclear spins, recommend the studied system as a good experimental approach for implementing a 2-qubit gate.

I. Popa; T. Gaebel; M. Domhan; C. Wittmann; F. Jelezko; J. Wrachtrup

2004-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

438

Space-radiation-induced point defect formation in optical materials. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

One of the central problems man has faced in his exploration of space is the long and short term effects of the space environment on the performance of spacecraft systems. The results presented in this dissertation represent the first time a definite connection has been made between the space-induced damage of optical systems and the microscopic mechanisms of point defect formation that lead to the damage. Point defect formation was observed in two, and possibly three different optical materials subjected to short-duration space exposure. Three calcium fluoride, two lithium fluoride, and three magnesium fluoride samples were flown on Space Shuttle flight STS-46 as part of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials - Third Phase experiment. Pre-flight and post-flight optical absorption measurements were performed on all of the samples. With the possible exception of the magnesium fluoride samples, every sample clearly showed the formation of F-centers in that section of the sample that was exposed to the low earth orbit environment. Analysis of the flight samples and laboratory experiments on control samples identify solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation as the most probable primary cause of the defect formation.

Allen, J.L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

1 Thermodynamics and quantum cosmology Continuous topological evolution of topologically coherent defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a point of departure it is suggested that Quantum Cosmology is a topological concept independent from metrical constraints. Methods of continuous topological evolution and topological thermodynamics are used to construct a cosmological model of the present universe, using the techniques based upon Cartan’s theory of exterior differential systems. Thermodynamic domains, which are either Open, Closed, Isolated, or in Equilibrium, can be put into correspondence with topological systems of Pfaff topological dimension 4, 3, 2 and 1. If the environment of the universe is assumed to be a physical vacuum of Pfaff topological dimension 4, then continuous but irreversible topological evolution can cause the emergence of topologically coherent defect structures of Pfaff topological dimension less than 4. As galaxies and stars exchange radiation but not matter with the environment, they are emergent topological defects of Pfaff topological dimension 3 which are far from equilibrium. DeRham topological theory of period integrals over closed but not exact exterior differential systems leads to the emergence of quantized, deformable, but topologically coherent, singular macrostates at all scales. The method leads to the conjecture that dark matter and energy is represented by those thermodynamic topological defect structures of Pfaff dimension 2 or less. 2

R. M. Kiehn

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Infrared birefringence imaging of residual stress and bulk defects in multicrystalline silicon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manuscript concerns the application of infrared birefringence imaging (IBI) to quantify macroscopic and microscopic internal stresses in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell materials. We review progress to date, and advance four closely related topics. (1) We present a method to decouple macroscopic thermally-induced residual stresses and microscopic bulk defect related stresses. In contrast to previous reports, thermally-induced residual stresses in wafer-sized samples are generally found to be less than 5 MPa, while defect-related stresses can be several times larger. (2) We describe the unique IR birefringence signatures, including stress magnitudes and directions, of common microdefects in mc-Si solar cell materials including: {beta}-SiC and {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} microdefects, twin bands, nontwin grain boundaries, and dislocation bands. In certain defects, local stresses up to 40 MPa can be present. (3) We relate observed stresses to other topics of interest in solar cell manufacturing, including transition metal precipitation, wafer mechanical strength, and minority carrier lifetime. (4) We discuss the potential of IBI as a quality-control technique in industrial solar cell manufacturing.

Ganapati, Vidya; Schoenfelder, Stephan; Castellanos, Sergio; Oener, Sebastian; Koepge, Ringo; Sampson, Aaron; Marcus, Matthew A.; Lai, Barry; Morhenn, Humphrey; Hahn, Giso; Bagdahn, Joerg; Buonassisi1, Tonio

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Defect scriber  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure describes a device for repeatably scribing a V-shaped scratch having sharply defined dimensions on the interior surface of a nuclear reactor fuel rod tube. A cutting tool having a V-shaped cutting tip is supported within the fuel rod tube so that the V-shaped cutting tip can be pivoted about an axis and scribe a scratch on the interior surface of the fuel rod tube. Lengthwise the scratch runs parallel to a line drawn through the axis of the fuel rod tube and is in the shape of an arc, and widthwise the scratch is V-shaped. This shape is used because the dimensions of the scratch can be plugged into appropriate formulas to calculate stress intensity of cracks in fuel rod tubes. Since the fuel rod tubes which are to be scribed may be radioactive, the scratching assembly is designed for use in a fixture which allows it to be operated in a cave by remote control handling devices.

Russell, Harold C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Interplay between intrinsic defects, doping, and free carrier concentration in SrTiO[subscript 3] thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using both computational and experimental analysis, we demonstrate a rich point-defect phase diagram in doped strontium titanate as a function of thermodynamic variables such as oxygen partial pressure and electronic ...

Ertekin, Elif

443

Automated laser scatter detection of surface and subsurface defects in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon Nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramics are currently a primary material of choice to replace conventional materials in many structural applications because of their oxidation resistance and desirable mechanical and thermal properties at elevated temperatures. However, surface or near-subsurface defects, such as cracks, voids, or inclusions, significantly affect component lifetimes. These defects are currently difficult to detect, so a technique is desired for the rapid automated detection and quantification of both surface and subsurface defects. To address this issue, the authors have developed an automated system based on the detection of scattered laser light which provides a 2-D map of surface or subsurface defects. This system has been used for the analysis of flexure bars and button-head tensile rods of several Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. Mechanical properties of these bars have also been determined and compared with the laser scatter results.

Steckenrider, J.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Bond Angles for O-H Defects in Sno2 from Polarization Properties of Their Vibrational Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared absorption experiments made with polarized light yield significant insights into the possible structures of one- and two-O-H defects in SnO2 that are produced by thermal annealing treatments. These polarized absorption results reveal that a two-O-H defect must involve symmetry-equivalent O-H sites, and that the axes of both one- and two-O-H defects are 63 - 68 from the c-axis of the rutile structure. These O-H bond angles found by experiment restrict the microscopic defect structures that are possible and suggest structures associated with either a metal atom substituting for Sn, or an interstitial metal atom (such as Sn).

BEKISLI, F [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; FOWLER, W B [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Stavola, M. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Spahr, E. J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA; Luepke, G [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Electrical Properties of Point Defects in CdS and ZnS Thin-film PV ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Electrical Properties of Point Defects in CdS and ZnS Thin-film PV Buffer ... but whose band gap is too small for complete transparency to solar radiation.

446

The effect of native point defect thermodynamics on off-stoichiometry in beta-Mg17Al12  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanical strength of Mg-Al-Zn alloys can be affected by a fine spatial dispersion of {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} precipitates in the Mg matrix. In an effort to understand the phase stability and the unusual asymmetric off-stoichiometry observed in {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}, we have performed a series of first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations of bulk and defect properties of Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}. Specifically, we consider native point defects (i.e. vacancies and anti-sites) in all four sublattices of Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}, i.e. 2a, 8c, 24g (Mg) and 24g (Al). The T = 0 K static energies of defect Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} supercells indicate that anti-site defects are energetically favored over vacancies, and the lowest anti-site defect formation energies are in 24g sites for both Al{sub Mg} and Mg{sub Al}. These Al-rich and Mg-rich anti-site defect formation energies are similar in magnitude, and thus do not explain the asymmetric off-stoichiometry of Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}. We also investigate the effect of atomic vibrations via DFT phonon calculations on native point defect free energies of Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and combine these entropic contributions with the point defect formation energies to evaluate the thermodynamics of off-stoichiometry in this phase. We find that the formation of the Al{sub Mg} anti-site is not strongly stabilized by vibrational entropy. Thus, we conclude that the observed asymmetry in the off-stoichiometry of the {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase in the Mg-Al phase diagram is not explained by simple native point defect thermodynamics, and must involve a more complicated defect formation mechanism, such as multi-defect clustering.

Wolverton, Christopher [Northwestern University, Evanston

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Evaluation of nitrogen- and silicon-vacancy defect centres as single photon sources in quantum key distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a quantum key distribution (QKD) testbed for room temperature single photon sources based on defect centres in diamond. A BB84 protocol over a short free-space transmission line is implemented. The performance of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) as well as silicon-vacancy defect (SiV) centres is evaluated and an extrapolation for next-generation sources with enhanced efficiency is discussed.

Matthias Leifgen; Tim Schröder; Friedemann Gädeke; Robert Riemann; Valentin Métillon; Elke Neu; Christian Hepp; Carsten Arend; Christoph Becher; Kristian Lauritsen; Oliver Benson

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

448

Model for Electron-Beam-Induced Current Analysis of mc-Si Addressing Defect Contrast Behavior in Heavily Contaminated PV Material: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Much work has been done to correlate electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) contrast behavior of extended defects with the character and degree of impurity decoration. However, existing models fail to account for recently observed contrast behavior of defects in heavily contaminated mc-Si PV cells. We have observed large increases in defect contrast with decreasing temperature for all electrically active defects, regardless of their initial contrast signatures at ambient temperature. This negates the usefulness of the existing models in identifying defect character and levels of impurity decoration based on the temperature dependence of the contrast behavior. By considering the interactions of transition metal impurities with the silicon lattice and extended defects, we attempt to provide an explanation for these observations. Our findings will enhance the ability of the PV community to understand and mitigate the effects of these types of defects as the adoption of increasingly lower purity feedstocks for mc-Si PV production continues.

Guthrey, H.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Temperature-Dependent Photoluminescence Imaging and Characterization of a Multi-Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Defect Area: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is used to detect areas in multi-crystalline silicon that appear dark in band-to-band imaging due to high recombination. Steady-state PL intensity can be correlated to effective minority-carrier lifetime, and its temperature dependence can provide additional lifetime-limiting defect information. An area of high defect density has been laser cut from a multi-crystalline silicon solar cell. Both band-to-band and defect-band PL imaging have been collected as a function of temperature from ~85 to 350 K. Band-to-band luminescence is collected by an InGaAs camera using a 1200-nm short-pass filter, while defect band luminescence is collected using a 1350-nm long pass filter. The defect band luminescence is characterized by cathodo-luminescence. Small pieces from adjacent areas within the same wafer are measured by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). DLTS detects a minority-carrier electron trap level with an activation energy of 0.45 eV on the sample that contained defects as seen by imaging.

Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Li, J.; Romero, M. J.; Al-Jassim, M.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

A Comparative Study of the Structure and Energetics of Elementary Defects in 3C- and 4H-SiC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential non-equivalent defects in both 3C- and 4H-SiC are classified by a new method that is based on symmetry considerations. In 4H-SiC, their number is considerably higher than in 3C-SiC, since the hexagonal symmetry leads to diversification. The different theoretical methods hitherto used to investigate defects in 3C-SiC are critically reviewed. Classical MD simulations with a recently developed interatomic potential are employed to investigate the stability, structure and energetics of the large number of potential non-equivalent defects that may exist in 4H-SiC. Most of the potential defects in 4H-SiC are found to be stable. The interstitials between hexagonal and trigonal rings, which do not exist in 3C-SiC, are characteristic for 4H-SiC and other hexagonal polytypes. The structure and energetics of some complex and anisotropic dumbbells depend strongly on the polytype. On the other hand, polytypism does not have a significant influence on the properties of the more compact and isotropic defects, such as vacancies, antisites, hexagonal interstitials, and many dumbbells. The results allow conclusions to be drawn about the energy hierarchy of the defects.

Posselt, Matthias; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.; Belko, V

2004-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

451

Defect states in plasma-deposited a-Si:H. Technical progress report, May-July 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three preprints are presented. The first, entitled ''Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy Measurement of Dopant Concentrations in a-Si:H,'' reports significant differences between the ratio of boron to silicon of the films and that of their deposition plasmas. The second, entitled ''Growth Morphology and Defects in Plasma-Deposited a-Si:H Films,'' presents structural studies that show that a major class of defect is an anisotropic density fluctuation. Studies of the hydrogen environment suggest that an inhomogeneous hydrogen distribution is associated with these fluctuations. From considerations of the deposition chemistry and nucleation theory, a model is proposed to describe the film growth process and its relationship to defects. The third, entitled ''Luminescence and ESR Studies of Defects in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,'' demonstrates that the two experiments involve identical recombination transitions, and identify two separate processes. One process involves defect states, and from the doping dependence of light induced ESR, it is deduced that the electronically active defects are dangling bonds with positive electronic correlation energy. (LEW)

Knights, J C

1979-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFECTS IN ALLOY 152, 52 AND 52M WELDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defect distributions have been documented by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction in alloy 152 and 52 mockups welds, alloy 52 and 52M overlay mockups and an alloy 52M inlay. Primary defects were small cracks at grain boundaries except for more extensive cracking in the dilution zone of an alloy 52 overlay on 304SS. Detailed characterizations of the dilution zone cracks were performed by analytical transmission electron microscopy identifying grain boundary titanium-nitride precipitation associated with the intergranular separations. I. INTRODUCTION Weldments continue to be a primary location of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in light-water reactor systems. While problems related to heat-affected-zone (HAZ) sensitization and intergranular (IG) SCC of austenitic stainless alloys in boiling-water reactors (BWRs) have been significantly reduced, SCC has now been observed in HAZs of non-sensitized materials and in dissimilar metal welds where Ni-base alloy weld metals are used. IGSCC in weld metals has been observed in both BWRs and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) with recent examples for PWR pressure vessel penetrations producing the most concern. This has led to the replacement of alloy 600/182/82 welds with higher Cr, more corrosion-resistant replacement materials (alloy 690/152/52/52M). Complicating this issue has been a known susceptibility to cracking during welding [1-7] of these weld metals. There is a critical need for an improved understanding of the weld metal metallurgy and defect formation in Ni-base alloy welds to effectively assess long-term performance. A series of macroscopic to microscopic examinations were performed on available mockup welds made with alloy 52 or alloy 152 plus selected overlay and inlay mockups. The intent was to expand our understanding of weld metal structures in simulated LWR service components with a focus on as-welded defects. Microstructural features, defect distributions, defect characteristics and weld residual strains were examined by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Industry-supplied mock-up welds were characterized including alloy 52 and 152 weldments, alloy 52M overlay and inlay welds, and an alloy 52 overlay. II. WELDMENTS II.A. Alloy 52 and 152 Weld Mockups The alloy 52 and 152 weld mockups were fabricated by MHI for the Kewaunee reactor and were obtained from the EPRI NDE Center. The mockups were U-groove welds joining two plates of 304SS as shown in Figure 1. Alloy 152 butter (heat 307380) was placed on the U-groove surface for both mockups by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). For the alloy 152 weld mockup, the alloy 152 fill (heat 307380) was also applied using SMAW while for the alloy 52 weld mockup, the alloy 52 fill (heat NX2686JK) was applied using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Welding parameters for the fill materials were substantially different with the alloy 152 SMAW having a deposition speed of 4-25 cm/min with a current of 95-145 A and the alloy 52 GTAW having a deposition speed of 4-10 cm/min with a current of 150-300 A. One prominent feature in these mockup welds is the presence of a crack starting at the 304SS butt joint at the bottom of the U-groove and extending up into the weld. It appears that the 304SS plate on either side of the butt joint acted as an anchor for the weld resulting in a stress rise across the slit that drove crack formation and extension up into the fill weld. As will be shown in the next section, the extent of the cracking around this stress riser was much greater in the MHI 52 weld mockup.

Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Seffens, Rob J.; Efsing, Pal G.

2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

453

Determination of Electrochemical Performance and Thermo-Mechanical-Chemical Stability of SOFCs from Defect Modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research was focused on two distinct but related issues. The first issue concerned using defect modeling to understand the relationship between point defect concentration and the electrochemical, thermo-chemical and mechano-chemical properties of typical solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials. The second concerned developing relationships between the microstructural features of SOFC materials and their electrochemical performance. To understand the role point defects play in ceramics, a coherent analytical framework was used to develop expressions for the dependence of thermal expansion and elastic modulus on point defect concentration in ceramics. These models, collectively termed the continuum-level electrochemical model (CLEM), were validated through fits to experimental data from electrical conductivity, I-V characteristics, elastic modulus and thermo-chemical expansion experiments for (nominally pure) ceria, gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with consistently good fits. The same values for the material constants were used in all of the fits, further validating our approach. As predicted by the continuum-level electrochemical model, the results reveal that the concentration of defects has a significant effect on the physical properties of ceramic materials and related devices. Specifically, for pure ceria and GDC, the elastic modulus decreased while the chemical expansion increased considerably in low partial pressures of oxygen. Conversely, the physical properties of YSZ remained insensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure within the studied range. Again, the findings concurred exactly with the predictions of our analytical model. Indeed, further analysis of the results suggests that an increase in the point defect content weakens the attractive forces between atoms in fluorite-structured oxides. The reduction treatment effects on the flexural strength and the fracture toughness of pure ceria were also evaluated at room temperature. The results reveal that the flexural strength decreases significantly after heat treatment in very low oxygen partial pressure environments; however, in contrast, fracture toughness is increased by 30-40% when the oxygen partial pressure was decreased to 10{sup -20} to 10{sup -22} atm range. Fractographic studies show that microcracks developed at 800 oC upon hydrogen reduction are responsible for the decreased strength. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, electrical impedance spectra from symmetric LSM/YSZ/LSM cells was de-convoluted to obtain the key electrochemical components of electrode performance, namely charge transfer resistance, surface diffusion of reactive species and bulk gas diffusion through the electrode pores. These properties were then related to microstructural features, such as triple-phase boundary length and tortuosity. From these experiments we found that the impedance due to oxygen adsorption obeys a power law with pore surface area, while the impedance due to charge transfer is found to obey a power-law with respect to triple phase boundary length. A model based on kinetic theory explaining the power-law relationships observed was then developed. Finally, during our EIS work on the symmetric LSM/YSZ/LSM cells a technique was developed to improve the quality of high-frequency impedance data and their subsequent de-convolution.

Eric Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in concert with sophisticated molecular-dynamics calculations of surface and defect-mediated NW thermal transport. This proposal seeks to elucidate long standing material science questions for GaN while addressing issues critical to realizing reliable GaN NW devices.

Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Defective insulators in live working on a 550kV compact steel lattice tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research was conducted to determine the minimum number of healthy insulator units needed to ensure worker safety in live working on a compact 550 kV steel lattice tower. A large variety of worksite conditions was investigated. Test results confirm the conservative nature of the CIGRE formula for defective insulator units, and modifications to the formula are suggested. The recommended number of healthy units is 12 in a string of 24 units for the case of live work on the compact 550 kV tower, when the Portable Protective Gap (PPG) is used. Adjustment for altitude should be made above 900 m (3,000 ft).

Gela, G. [EPRI Power Delivery Center, Lenox, MA (United States); Kientz, H. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States); Fox, H.J. Jr. [Public Service Electric and Gas, Bridgewater, NJ (United States); Mitchell, J.D. [Alabama Power Co., Birmingham, AL (United States); Lyons, P.F. [EPRI, Haslet, TX (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Method for enhancement of useful luminescence from vacancy defects in refractory oxides for tunable lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Refractory oxide crystals suitable for use in tunable lasers and a method for preparing the same are provided. The crystals are characterized by high quantum efficiency, high thermal stability, good crystal transparency, and a high percentage of useful luminescence. The method for preparation of the crystals involves removing substantially all the hydrogen, thermochemically reducing the crystal's oxygen content to produce oxygen (anion) vacancy defects, and subsequently irradiating the crystal with electrons to inactivate trace H.sup.- ions so that an increased amount of short lived F.sup.+ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Fifth workshop on the role of impurities and defects in silicon device processing. Extended abstracts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This workshop dealt with engineering aspects and material properties of silicon electronic devices. Crystalline silicon growth, modeling, and properties are discussed in general and as applied to solar cells. Topics considered in discussions of silicon growth include: casting, string ribbons, Al backside contacts, ion implantation, gettering, passivation, and ultrasound treatments. Properties studies include: Electronic properties of defects and impurities, dopant and carrier concentrations, structure and bonding, nitrogen effects, degradation of bulk diffusion length, and recombination parameters. Individual papers from the workshop are indexed separately on the Energy Data Bases.

Sopori, B.L.; Luque, A.; Sopori, B.; Swanson, D.; Gee, J.; Kalejs, J.; Jastrzebski, L.; Tan, T.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the latter determined by the thickness of the spacer gaskets. Since the calcium fluoride windows were found that enables the fluid to be reused for many 100 expo- sure fields will be both necessary and possible

French, Roger H.

459

Available Technologies: Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Tools  

Capable of working with incoherent light sources; Does not require excessive spatial or temporal filtering; Large depth of focus (depending on source properties)

460

Advanced flow lithography and barcoded particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anisotropic multifunctional particles have drawn much attention, leading to wide ranges of applications from biomedical areas to electronics. Despite their enormous potentials, particles with geometrically and chemically ...

Bong, Ki Wan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

CNST NanoFab Equipment - Lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Use: Nano-Magnetic media; Bio-Nanomatrix; Polymer nanostructure property ... Exposure methods: flood, proximity, soft and hard contacts, low ...

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

462

EXCESS OXYGEN DEFECTS IN LAYERED CUPRATES P. Lightfoot, S.-Y. Pei, J. D. Jorgensen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EXCESS OXYGEN DEFECTS IN LAYERED CUPRATES EXCESS OXYGEN DEFECTS IN LAYERED CUPRATES P. Lightfoot, S.-Y. Pei, J. D. Jorgensen Materials Science Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne,IL 60439 and A. Manthiram and J. B. Goodenough Center for Materials Science and Engineering University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 CONF-900813-1 DE90 017669 C g 3 3 * o f E , < * > 3' 5' S B O ? c 8 5 o q ft 8 a 2, o o The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. W - 3 M 0 9 - E N G - 3 8 . Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-lrea license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. ° 8 c (tm) 8.= M 8 S g-« I. 2,-, 9 ^ n - i f s £ : 6. " c < B o September 1990 3 5- 8 " ^ B _

463

Engineering Nanocolumnar Defect Configurations for Optimized Vortex Pinning in High Temperature Superconducting Nanocomposite Wires  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconducting (HTS), coated conductor wires based on nanocomposite films containing self-assembled, insulating BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumnar defects have previously been reported to exhibit enhanced vortex pinning. Here, we report on microstructural design via control of BZO nanocolumns density in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO)+BZO nancomposite films to achieve the highest critical current density, Jc(H, ,T). X-ray diffraction and microstructural examination shows increasing number density of epitaxial BZO nanocolumns in the highly cube-textured YBCO matrix with increasing nominal BZO additions. Transport property measurement reveals that an increase in BZO content upto 4 vol% is required to sustain the highest pinning and Jc performance as the magnetic field increases. By growing thicker, single-layer nanocomposite films (~4 m) with controlled density of BZO columnar defects, the critical current (Ic) of ~1000 A/cm at 77 K, self-field and the minimum Ic of 455 A/cm at 65 K and 3 T for all magnetic field orientations were obtained. This is the highest Ic reported to date for films on metallic templates which are the basis for the 2nd generation, coated conductor-based HTS wires.

Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Ahuja, Raj [Waukesha Electric Systems Inc.; Abiade, J. [North Carolina A& T State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATIONS OF INTRINSIC DEFECTS AND Mg TRANSMUTANTS IN 3C-SiC  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide (SiC) possesses many desirable attributes for applications in high-temperature and neutron radiation environments. These attributes include excellent dimensional and thermodynamic stability, low activation, high strength, and high thermal conductivity. Therefore, SiC based materials draw broad attention as structural materials for the first wall (FW) and blanket in fusion power plants. Under the severe high-energy neutron environment of D-T fusion systems, SiC suffers significant transmutation resulting in both gaseous and metallic transmutants. Recent calculations by Sawan, et al. [2] predict that at a fast neutron dose of ~100 dpa, there will be about 0.5 at% Mg generated in SiC through nuclear transmutation. Other transmutation products, including 0.15 at% Al, 0.2 at% Be and 2.2 at% He, also emerge. Formation and migration energies of point defects in 3C-SiC have been widely investigated using density functional theory (DFT). However, the properties of defects associated with transmutants are currently not well understood. Fundamental understanding of where the transmutation products go and how they affect microstructure evolution of SiC composites will help to predict property evolution and performance of SiC-based materials in fusion reactors.

Hu, Shenyang Y.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

465

Silicon surface and bulk defect passivation by low temperature PECVD oxides and nitrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effectiveness of PECVD passivation of surface and bulk defects in Si, as well as phosphorous diffused emitters, Is investigated and quantified. Significant hydrogen incorporation coupled with high positive charge density in the PECVD SiN layer is found to play an important role in bulk and surface passivation. It is shown that photo-assisted anneal in a forming gas ambient after PECVD depositions significantly improves the passivation of emitter and bulk defects. PECVD passivation of phosphorous doped emitters and boron doped bare Si surfaces is found to be a strong function of doping concentration. Surface recombination velocity of less than 200 cm/s for 0.2 Ohm-cm and less than 1 cm/s for high resistivity substrates ({approximately} Ohm-cm) were achieved. PECVD passivation improved bulk lifetime in the range of 30% to 70% in multicrystalline Si materials. However, the degree of the passivation was found to be highly material specific. Depending upon the passivation scheme, emitter saturation current density (J{sub oe}) can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 9. Finally, the stability of PECVD oxide/nitride passivation under prolonged UV exposure is established.

Chen, Z.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Univ. Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education; Ruby, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A VISUAL STUDY OF THE CORROSION OF DEFECTED ZIRCALOY-2-CLAD FUEL SPECIMENS BY HOT WATER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The failure of defected Zircaloy-2-clad uranium and uranium -2 wt.% zircorium fuel specimens in high-purity high-pressure water at 200 to 345 deg C was observed in a windowed antcclave. Time-lapse color motion pictures were taken to provide a record of the progressive changes ending in the complete disintegration of the core material in the specimens. Continuous measurement of the pressure increase caused by accumulation of hydrogen served to monitor the progress of the reaction when clouding of the water by corrosion products made visual observation impossible. The nature of the attack of all specimens was similar, although the time at which different stages occurred varied. Following an induction period, the first evidence of attack was the slow formation of a blister in the cladding area surrounding the defect. Eventually, a copions evolution of hydrogen occurried at the base of the swollen area. In general, a crack could be seen in the cladding at this stage. Catastrophic failure of the specimen followed swiftly. The time required for each phase of the reaction was reduced as the temperature was raised. Initial swelling occurred after about 24 min at 345 deg C but only after 8 hr at 200 deg C. Diffusion-treated uranium2 wt.% zirconium-cored specimens were most resistant to attack. Specimens with beta-treated water-quenched natural-uranium cores were least resistant (auth)

Stephan, E.F.; Miller, P.D.; Fink, F.W.

1959-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

467

Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and Laser Fluorescent Analysis of Defects in DNA Double Helix  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real time laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy usage for microanalysis of DNA double helix defects is shown. The method is based on Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in intercalator-donor pair (acridine orange as a donor and ethidium bromide as an acceptor). Transition metal ions such as Cu(II), Cu(I), Ag(I), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), photo- and thermo effects were used to cause double helix defects in DNA. FRET radii were experimentally estimated in background electrolyte solution (0.01 M NaNO3) and proved to be 3.9 +- 0.3 nm and the data are in satisfactory agreement with the theoretically calculated value Ro = 3.5 +- 0.3 nm. Concentration of DNA sites, exposed to Cu(II), Cu(I), Ag(I) ions, AgNPs impact as well as laser irradiation ({\\lambda} = 457 nm) and temperature, which are applicable for intercalation, were estimated in relative units. FRET method allows to estimate the concentration of double helix areas with high quality stability applicable for intercalation in DNA after it was subjec...

Bregadze, Vasil G; Giorgadze, Tamar G; Jaliashvili, Zaza V; Chkhaberidze, Jemal G; Monaselidze, Jamlet R; Khuskivadze, Temur B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Band-Structure, Optical Properties, and Defect Physics of the Photovoltaic Semiconductor SnS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SnS is a potential earth-abundant photovoltaic (PV) material. Employing both theory and experiment to assess the PV relevant properties of SnS, we clarify on whether SnS has an indirect or direct band gap and what is the minority carrier effective mass as a function of the film orientation. SnS has a 1.07 eV indirect band gap with an effective absorption onset located 0.4 eV higher. The effective mass of minority carrier ranges from 0.5 m{sub 0} perpendicular to the van der Waals layers to 0.2 m{sub 0} into the van der Waals layers. The positive characteristics of SnS feature a desirable p-type carrier concentration due to the easy formation of acceptor-like intrinsic Sn vacancy defects. Potentially detrimental deep levels due to SnS antisite or S vacancy defects can be suppressed by suitable adjustment of the growth condition towards S-rich.

Vidal, J.; Lany, S.; d'Avezac, M.; Zunger, A.; Zakutayev, A.; Francis, J.; Tate, J.

2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

469

Kinetics of tunneling electron transfer between antimorphous defects in optical crystals with mobile cations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The experimental data on the transient optical absorption of wide-band-gap optical crystals of lithium borates Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, and Li{sub 6}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} and potassium (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP)) and ammonium (NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (ADP)) dihydrogen phosphates in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions are analyzed using the theory of diffusion-controlled tunneling recombination. A nanosecond pulsed radiation action on these crystals is shown to form defect pairs, such as polaron-type hole centers and electron centers based on interstitial cations. The relaxation kinetics of these centers over a wide time range of 10{sup -8}-10 s is described by a proposed model of tunneling electron transfer between antimorphous defects in the cation sublattice under the thermally stimulated mobility of recombination partners. The numerical values of the kinetic parameters are determined and the time dependences of the reaction rate constants are calculated for all crystals under study. As a result, the dynamics of change in the optical properties of these crystals under a pulsed radiation action can be simulated.

Ogorodnikov, I. N., E-mail: igor.ogorodnikov@bk.ru; Kiseleva, M. S. [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

Dunbar, J.B.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Research in Hydrogen Passivation of Defects and Impurities in Silicon: Final Report, 2 May 2000-2 July 2003  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This subcontract report describes hydrogenating Si samples by different methods such as low-energy implantation, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, and thermal diffusion. The samples were provided through NREL. The experimental work, carried out at Penn State, involved the study of hydrogen interaction with defects, trapping, migration, and formation of complexes. The principal vehicle for the latter study was ion implantation, and the intent to understand mechanisms of defect passivation and activation by hydrogen. NREL implemented a study of hydrogen passivation of impurities and defects in silicon solar cells. The work included theoretical and experimental components performed at different universities. The theoretical studies consisted of the calculation of the structure and parameters related to hydrogen diffusion and interactions of hydrogen with transition-metal impurities in silicon. Experimental studies involved measurements of hydrogen and hydrogen-impurity complexes, and diffusion properties of various species of hydrogen in Si. The experimental work at Penn State included introduction of hydrogen in a variety of PV Si by ECR plasma, low-energy ion implantation, and thermal diffusion. The specific tasks were the evaluation of hydrogen interaction with defects engineered by ion implantation; defect passivation, activation, and migration in hydrogenated Si under thermal anneal; and electrical activity of hydrogen-impurity complexes. Electrical characterization entailed I-V and C-V measurements, spreading resistance, and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS).

Ashok, S.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Electric-Field Enhancement by Nodular Defects in Multilayer Coatings Irradiated at Normal and 45 (degree) Incidence  

SciTech Connect

The standing-wave electric-field profile within multilayer coatings is significantly perturbated by a nodular defect. The intensity, which is proportional to the electric field squared, is increased in the high index material by {>=}3x at normal incidence and {>=}12x at 45 degrees incidence angle. Therefore it is not surprising that nodular defects are initiation sites of laser-induced damage. In this study, the impact of reflectance-band centering and incident angle are explored for a 1 {micro}m diameter nodular defect seed overcoated with a 24 layer high-reflector constructed of quarter-wave thick alternating layers of hafnia and silica. The modeling was performed using a three-dimensional finite-element analysis code.

Stolz, C J; Genin, F Y; Pistor,T V

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

473

Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow,highly charged ions with diamond surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on electron emission and defect formation in theinteraction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) withinsulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electronemission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) withkinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states,reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states withoutsurface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from bothdiamond types are up to a factor of two higher then from reference metalsurfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25 to 40 nm are formed bythe impact of single Xe44+ ions. High secondary electron yields andsingle ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrayson diamond surfaces.

Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S.; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D.H.; Schenkel, T.

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Collagen Scaffolds Incorporating Select Therapeutic Agents to Facilitate a Reparative Response in a Standardized Hemiresection Defect in the Rat Spinal Cord  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A multifaceted therapeutic approach involving biomaterial scaffolds, neurotrophic factors, exogenous cells, and antagonists to axon growth inhibitors may ultimately prove necessary for the treatment of defects resulting ...

Cholas, Rahmatullah

475

Exploration of Quench Initiation Due to Intentional Geometrical Defects in a High Magnetic Field Region of an SRF Cavity  

SciTech Connect

A computer program which was used to simulate and analyze the thermal behaviors of SRF cavities has been developed at Jefferson Lab using C++ code. This code was also used to verify the quench initiation due to geometrical defects in high magnetic field region of SRF cavities. We built a CEBAF single cell cavity with 4 artificial defects near equator, and this cavity has been tested with T-mapping. The preheating behavior and quench initiation analysis of this cavity will be presented here using the computer program.

J. Dai, K. Zhao, G.V. Eremeev, R.L. Geng, A.D. Palczewski; Dai, J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, A. D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Eremeev, G. V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Geng, R. L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhao, K. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Access Authorization: Defining Significant Defects in Judgement or Reliability (ORISE 05-0258, 2005)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Security Security U. S. Department of Energy Center for Human Reliability Studies Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Operated by Oak Ridge Associated Universities for the U. S. Department of Energy Access Authorization: Defining Significant Defects in Judgment or Reliability ORISE 05-0258 Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is a university consortium leveraging the scientific strength of major research institutions to advance science and education by partnering with national laboratories, government agencies, and private industry. ORAU manages the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) is a DOE facility focusing on scientific initiatives to research

477

Method for making defect-free zone by laser-annealing of doped silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a method for improving the electrical properties of silicon semiconductor material. The method comprises irradiating a selected surface layer of the semiconductor material with high-power laser pulses characterized by a special combination of wavelength, energy level, and duration. The combination effects melting of the layer without degrading electrical properties, such as minority-carrier diffusion length. The method is applicable to improving the electrical properties of n- and p-type silicon which is to be doped to form an electrical junction therein. Another important application of the method is the virtually complete removal of doping-induced defects from ion-implanted or diffusion-doped silicon substrates.

Narayan, Jagdish (Knoxville, TN); White, Clark W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Young, Rosa T. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Defect Structures in Semiconducting ReSi{sub 2-x} Epitaxial Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Narrow band gap semiconductors such as ReSi{sub 2{minus}x} (Eg {approximately} 0.12 eV) are potential materials for infrared detectors. Further, ReSi{sub 2{minus}x} is in thermodynamic equilibrium and has a very small lattice mismatch with Si offering the potential of developing ReSi{sub 2{minus}x} heterojunction devices where the detector element and the signal processing circuitry can be integrated on one Si chip. In a previous study, strong crystallographic alignment between ReSi{sub 2{minus}x} film and (001)Si substrate was observed by ion channeling. In this study, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study has been performed on ReSi{sub 2{minus}x} epitaxial films on (001) Si. Comparisons are made to our previous microscopy study on the defect structures in bulk single crystals of ReSi{sub 2{minus}x}.

Mahan, J.E.; Mirsa, A.; Mitchell, T.E.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority Carrier Trapping Defects: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Crystallization to polycrystalline silicon thin film and simultaneous inactivation of electrical defects by underwater laser annealing  

SciTech Connect

We propose a low-temperature laser annealing method of a underwater laser annealing (WLA) for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films. We performed crystallization to poly-Si films by laser irradiation in flowing deionized-water where KrF excimer laser was used for annealing. We demonstrated that the maximum value of maximum grain size of WLA samples was 1.5 {mu}m, and that of the average grain size was 2.8 times larger than that of conventional laser annealing in air (LA) samples. Moreover, WLA forms poly-Si films which show lower conductivity and larger carrier life time attributed to fewer electrical defects as compared to LA poly-Si films.

Machida, Emi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lithography mask defects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Research on the structural and electronic properties of defects in amorphous silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work performed for this contract focused on the saturation of light-induced effects, hydrogen-mediated metastability and growth, defects and electronic properties, and remote hydrogen plasma growth. This work included research on hydrogen chemical reactions, hydrogen density-of-states model and metastability, hydrogen bonding configurations, a model for the role of hydrogen complexes in the metastability, and hydrogen chemical potential and growth structure. This document also covers research on thermal generation currents in p-i-n diodes, field dependence of the generation current, metastability effects at contacts, and potential fluctuations in compensated a-Si:H. Information is included on plasma diagnostics using electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of remote hydrogen plasma films.

Street, R.A. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Defects and Polytypism in SiC: The Role of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stacking faults (SFs) and the 3C-6H polytypic transition in thick (001)-oriented 3C-SiC crystals are studied by means of diffuse X-ray scattering. The presence of SFs lying in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes gives rise to streaked reciprocal lattice points with the streaks being parallel to the directions. In the case of low SF densities the defects are uncorrelated and the simulation of the diffuse intensity distribution allows to derive the SF density. In partially transformed cryst