Sample records for lithium literature review

  1. Patients Participate! Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    Patients Participate! Literature Review Usability and human factors in citizen science projects ..............................................What is a citizen science project?! 4 .................................Human factors in citizen science projects! 6 General factors to be considered when carrying out a citizen science

  2. LITHIUM LITERATURE REVIEW: LITHIUM'S PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Showing t h e E f f e c t o f Temperature on L i q u i d L i t h i u m Absorption o f Hydrogen Reaction P r o f i l e s o f 100-125 Mesh L i t h i u m Metal Exposed t o C i r c u l...

  3. LITHIUM LITERATURE REVIEW: LITHIUM'S PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found TheHot electron dynamics in807 DE89 002669 RF and^ -RS

  4. Finding literature reviews WHAT IS A LITERATURE REVIEW?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    already been done in the field to suggest future research directions or gaps in knowledge Green, Johnson the process of writing a good literature review. To find guides from many other libraries, search online Green BN, Johnson CD, Adams A. Writing narrative literature reviews for peer-reviewed journals: secrets

  5. CROSSFLOW FILTRATON: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Filtration task EM-31, WP-2.3.6, which is a joint effort between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), tests were planned to evaluate crossflow filtration in order to the improve the use of existing hardware in the waste treatment plants at both the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. These tests included experiments to try different operating conditions and additives, such as filter aids, in order to create a more permeable filter cake and improve the permeate flux. To plan the SRNL tests a literature review was performed to provide information on previous experiments performed by DOE laboratories, and by academia. This report compliments PNNL report (Daniel, et al 2010), and is an attempt to try and capture crossflow filtration work performed in the past that provide a basis for future testing. However, not all sources on crossflow filtration could be reviewed due to the shear volume of information available. In this report various references were examined and a representative group was chosen to present the major factors that affect crossflow filtration. The information summarized in this review contains previous operating conditions studied and their influence on the rate of filtration. Besides operating conditions, other attempted improvements include the use of filter aids, a pre-filtration leaching process, the backpulse system, and various types of filter tubes and filter coatings. The results from past research can be used as a starting point for further experimentation that can result in the improvement in the performance of the crossflow filtration. The literature reviewed in this report indicates how complex the crossflow issues are with the results of some studies appearing to conflict results from other studies. This complexity implies that filtration of mobilized stored waste cannot be explained in a simple generic sense; meaning an empirical model develop from one waste-filter combination will more than likely not be applicable to another combination. It appears that filtration performance varies as wide as the range of the types of slurry wastes that exist. However, conclusions can be elicited from existing information so that filter performance can be better understood, and hopefully improved. Those conclusions and recommendations for the planned tests are listed.

  6. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  7. Geopressured habitat: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negus-de Wys, Jane

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

  8. Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

    Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation” by Chen and Clicksman (2003), were used to begin the literature search. Their references include papers, articles, and web sites presenting major contributions to the understanding...

  9. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  10. Residential Commissioning: A Review of Related Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-44535 Residential Commissioning: A Review of Related Literature C.P. Wray, M.A. Piette, M. This report was prepared as a result of work sponsored by the California Energy Commission (Commission). It does not necessarily represent the views of the Commission, its employees, or the State of California

  11. Literature Review in Mobile Technologies and Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Literature Review in Mobile Technologies and Learning REPORT 11: FUTURELAB SERIES Laura Naismith to educational policy and practice. #12;FOREWORD Mobile technologies are a familiar part of the lives of most or the wider world. Newer developments in mobile phone technology are also beginning to offer the potential

  12. ForPeerReview A Validation Study of Lithium-ion Cell Constant C-Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    ForPeerReview A Validation Study of Lithium-ion Cell Constant C-Rate Discharge Simulation and Engineering, Engineering and Public Policy Keywords: Battery Design Studio®, Lithium-ion, Battery Performance

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Stanford University at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium...

  14. A literature review of safety culture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of safety culture, organizations have a better chance of understanding, evaluating, and making positive changes towards safety within their own organization.

  15. Literature Review | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower Co LtdTNLianyungangLightingLiterature Review

  16. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  17. Transportation Shock and Vibration Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Lahti, Erik A.; Ross, Steven B.

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT-13OR08220112, "Report Documenting Experimental Activities." The purpose of this report is to document the results of a literature review conducted of studies related to the vibration and shock associated with the normal conditions of transport for rail shipments of used nuclear fuel from commercial light-water reactors. As discussed in Adkins (2013), the objective of this report is to determine if adequate data exist that would enable the impacts of the shock and vibration associated with the normal conditions of transport on commercial light-water reactor used nuclear fuel shipped in current generation rail transportation casks to be realistically modeled.

  18. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Lithium Ceramic Pebble Beds for Fusion Blankets: A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abou-Sena, A.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of lithium ceramic pebble beds has been considered in many blanket designs for the fusion reactors. Lithium ceramics have received a significant interest as tritium breeders for the fusion blankets during the last three decades. The thermal performance of the lithium ceramic pebble beds plays a key role for the fusion blankets. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket, the effective thermal conductivity of the lithium ceramics pebble beds has to be well measured and characterized. The data of effective thermal conductivity of lithium ceramic pebble beds is important for the blanket design. Several studies have been dedicated to investigate the effective conductivity of the lithium ceramics pebble beds. The objective of this work is to review and compare the available data, presented by various studies, of effective conductivity of lithium ceramic pebble beds in order to address the current status of these data.

  19. assessment literature review: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Framework for ERP Benefit Classification: A Literature Review Silja Eckartz*, Maya resource planning (ERP) benefits, carried out according to the guidelines by Webster et...

  20. Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Lienau, 1990) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Geothermal Area...

  1. Geothermal Literature Review At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Benoit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Et Al., 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Lake City Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Geothermal Literature Review Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding...

  2. Geothermal Literature Review At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGeothermalLiteratureReviewAtFishLakeValleyArea(Deymonaz,EtAl.,2008)&oldid510804...

  3. Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Smith, 1978) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Geothermal Literature Review Activity Date...

  4. Geothermal Literature Review At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Geothermal Literature Review Activity Date 1975 - 1975 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Petersen, C.A. Masters Thesis at the University of Utah...

  5. Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rafferty, 1997) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Rafferty, 1997)...

  6. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  7. A detailed systematic review of the recent literature on environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 A detailed systematic review of the recent literature on environmental Kuznets curve detailed systematic review of the recent literature on environmental Kuznets curve dealing with CO2 Marie the early 90', many articles have been published on Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), especially empirical

  8. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    June 2014 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA Issues of access, quality, equity and impact Sara Humphreys with Lee Crawfurd #12;Review of the literature on basic education in Nigeria EDOREN ­ Education Data, Research and Evaluation in Nigeria i Acknowledgements Thanks are due to many individuals who

  9. Information Technology and Productivity: A Review of the Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology and Productivity: A Review of the Literature Erik Brynjolfsson Shinkyu Yang for numerous valuable comments. #12;Information Technology and Productivity: A Review of the Literature Erik) and productivity became a source of debate: the astonishing improvements in computers' underlying capabilities

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Lithium-Bearing Mixed Polyanion Glasses as Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about lithium-bearing...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology ? High Voltage Electrolyte

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Daikin America at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lithium-Ion Battery Production and Recycling Materials Issues

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about lithium-ion...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Daikin America at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Envia Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Envia at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries for PHEV...

  17. Review of Literature for Model Assisted Probability of Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Crawford, Susan L.; Lareau, John P.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client documenting a literature review of model assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) for potential application to nuclear power plant components for improvement of field NDE performance estimations.

  18. Literature review Precipitation in creep resistant austenitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    and titanium additions. Conventional alloys such as 18 ± 8 and 16 ± 10 are included together with the new NF709 of Z phase in nitrogen bearing steels is a further complicating factor, and it is concluded that its and titanium, both of which getter carbon. Other compounds reviewed include x and G phases, which form at high

  19. Literature Review of Air Pollution Control Biofilters and Biotrickling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Literature Review of Air Pollution Control Biofilters and Biotrickling Filters for Odor Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants and Title V permitting) as well as local and state for the treatment of complex odorous waste air containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S), organic reduced sulfur com- pounds

  20. Wind Climatology Literature Review Jake Crouch October 12, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Climatology Literature Review Jake Crouch ­ October 12, 2010 The National Centers and climate forecast models and to monitor atmospheric phenomenon such as atmospheric winds, temperature dataset, including atmospheric winds, and set a precedent for using the dataset in a climate monitoring

  1. EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LITHIUM CERAMIC PEBBLE BEDS FOR FUSION BLANKETS: A REVIEW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    a significant interest as solid breeders for the fusion blankets during the last three decades. The solid for the fusion solid breeder blankets. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket, effective conductivityEFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LITHIUM CERAMIC PEBBLE BEDS FOR FUSION BLANKETS: A REVIEW A. ABOU

  2. ORNL/TM-2003/258 LITERATURE REVIEW FOR THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .6.1 Transportation Energy Survey Data Book 1.1...................................14 2.6.2 Consumer Views and Renewable Energy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, D.C. #12;Literature Review, Baseline Knowledge i 11-6073 Managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC For the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725

  3. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  4. Residential Treatment: A Review of the National Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Chris

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    – December 2003, “Juveniles with Sexual Offending Behaviors” Report # 10 – February 2004, “Attendant Care for Children and Youth with EBD/SED Part I National Literature Review” Report # 11 – June 2004, “Reactive Attachment Disorder: Concepts, Treatment... and Research” Report # 12 – October 2004, “Attendant Care for Children and Youth with EBD/SED Part II Attendant Care in Kansas” Report # 13 – November 2004, “Community Mental Health Crisis Services for Children and Adolescents” Report # 14 - April 2005...

  5. DECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM SULFATE: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM SULFATE: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE W. M.

  6. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission); Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  7. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  8. ESP 178 Applied Research Methods Research Proposal Stage 2: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    review is to find every academic article published on a particular topic ­ to assess the breadth. For the literature review you are looking for academic articles in peer-review journals ­ like the ones in your across several kinds of academic articles: research articles, literature review articles, and theoretical

  9. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid StateH. Polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. AdvancedReviews, 2010). Ozawa, K. Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

  10. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

  11. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Radel, Ross F.; Hewson, John C.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior.

  12. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  13. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    distributions from residential natural gas appliances. CH 4ng/J) distribution from residential natural gas appliances.from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

  14. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in the Emergency Department: Case Series and Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Ryan J.; Sharp, Brian; Pothof, Jeffery; Hamedani, Azita

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correspondence : Ryan J. Thompson, MD, University Bay Officeof Emergency Medicine Thompson et al. Posterior Reversibleand Literature Review Ryan J. Thompson, MD Brian Sharp, MD

  15. Historical literature review on waste classification and categorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Richmond, A.A.; Williams, J.P.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Staff of the Waste Management Document Library (WMDL), in cooperation with Allen Croff have been requested to provide information support for a historical search concerning waste categorization/classification. This bibliography has been compiled under the sponsorship of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Chemical Technology Division to help in Allen`s ongoing committee work with the NRC/NRCP. After examining the search, Allen Croff saw the value of the search being published. Permission was sought from the database providers to allow limited publication (i.e. 20--50 copies) of the search for internal distribution at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and for Allen Croff`s associated committee. Citations from the database providers who did not grant legal permission for their material to be published have been omitted from the literature review. Some of the longer citations have been included in an abbreviated form in the search to allow the format of the published document to be shortened from approximately 1,400 pages. The bibliography contains 372 citations.

  16. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  17. A Literature Review on Ruthenium Behaviour in Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accidents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Literature Review on Ruthenium Behaviour in Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accidents C. MUN , L Literature Review on Ruthenium Behaviour in Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accidents C. MUN a , L. CANTREL a , C Accidents Majeurs (DPAM), CEN Cadarache - France 1 b Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Direction de l'Energie

  18. Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    literature and how it affects access to land and mineral rights for geothermal energy production References B. C. Farhar (2002) Geothermal Access to Federal and Tribal Lands: A...

  19. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed.

  20. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 205446 (2011) First-principles study of the oxygen evolution reaction of lithium peroxide in the lithium-air battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of lithium peroxide in the lithium-air battery Yifei Mo, Shyue Ping Ong, and Gerbrand Ceder* Department) The lithium-air chemistry is an interesting candidate for the next-generation batteries with high specific-air battery systems have the potential to provide significantly higher specific energies than current lithium

  1. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Assessment: Literature Review and Laboratory Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butner, R. Scott; Reid, Douglas J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Sullivan, Greg; Blanchard, Jeremy

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the accuracy of NILM technologies, a literature review was conducted to identify any test protocols or standardized testing approaches currently in use. The literature review indicated that no consistent conventions were currently in place for measuring the accuracy of these technologies. Consequently, PNNL developed a testing protocol and metrics to provide the basis for quantifying and analyzing the accuracy of commercially available NILM technologies. This report discusses the results of the literature review and the proposed test protocol and metrics in more detail.

  2. Literature Review of Mobility Control Methods for CO2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of this report, including Jenny Bowman, Bill Kawecki, the NETL library staff, and the University of Pittsburgh library staff. The authors thank reviewers, including James Ammer...

  3. Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Results from the GRED program work at Lightning Dock lead to new ideas about the area Notes review of previous geologic and geophysical studies...

  4. Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    review; this paper covered geologic and geophysical data available at the time, as well as geochemical data to analyze the resource area. References Jonathan Callender...

  5. Literature Review on Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, P.; Cho, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ..................................................... 6 3.5. Task Ventilation Systems ................................................................................. 7 3.6. Recommendations from Experiences.............................................................. 8 IV. SUMMARY... transactions and journal papers are main sources about the UFAD systems. (More than 100 papers found) Elsevier Literature Search Engine: Keyword: Displacement Ventilation (26 papers found) Keyword: UnderFloor Air Distribution (2 papers found) Center...

  6. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to this topic, and I have divided it into five areas: · The social acceptance of renewable energy technologies that affect the social acceptance of renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency measures will be reduced. The social acceptance literature focuses mainly on large-scale developments (wind farms

  7. A Review of "Archipelagic English: Literature, History and Politics, 1603-1707" by John Kerrigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Eugene D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Green is a moving, useful, pleasurable read. John Kerrigan. Archipelagic English: Literature, History and Politics 1603- 1707. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. xiv + 599 pp. $49.95. Review by Eugene D. Hill, mount holyoke college. As the title...

  8. A review of "Carnival and Literature in Early Modern England" by Jennifer C. Vaught

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laam, Kevin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern England. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2012. xi + 195 pp. + 10 illus. $104.95. Review by kevin laam, oakland university. Jennifer C. Vaught’s Carnival and Literature in Early Modern England is a knowledgeable, if somewhat underrealized...

  9. Curriculum-Based Measurement as an Intervention: A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Cara DeMaris

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-article dissertation format is provided. The first article is a literature review of Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) as an intervention and has three purposes: a) describe foundational components of CBM; b) explain ...

  10. A review of "Moral Identity in Early Modern English Literature." by Paul Cefalu 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchar, Gary

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , religious, and cultural studies. Paul Cefalu. Moral Identity in Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2004. x + 225 pp. $75.00. Review by GARY KUCHAR, UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA. Paul Cefalu?s Moral Identity makes the persuasive...

  11. Category:Geothermal Literature Review | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual Model Add.pngpage? ForInformationLiterature

  12. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  13. Nuclear winter: A brief review and comments on some recent literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a follow-up to a memo on the subject of nuclear winter (NW), a term introduced by the so-called TTAPS authors in their elaboration (Turco, et al., 1983) of an original study by Crutzen and Birks (1982) on the climatic effects to be expected after a major nuclear conflict. A number of related new studies, reviews, comments, and discussions have since appeared in print. The present piece is a slightly expanded version of a brief review of--and commentary on--this literature originally incorporated in another internal RAND memo (Deirmendjian, 1985). What follows is a brief review with comments on some of the more recent NW-related literature. These notes do not by any means represent a complete and detailed analytical review of the current literature on NW work.

  14. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 1: The Psychological Literature Review for the IDHEAS Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.

  15. GLASS FABRICATION AND ANALYSIS LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHOD SELECTION FOR WTP WASTE FEED QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D.

    2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Scope of the Report The objective of this literature review is to identify and review documents to address scaling, design, operations, and experimental setup, including configuration, data collection, and remote handling that would be used during waste feed qualification in support of the glass fabrication unit operation. Items addressed include: ? LAW and HLW glass formulation algorithms; ? Mixing and sampling; ? Rheological measurements; ? Heat of hydration; ? Glass fabrication techniques; ? Glass inspection; ? Composition analysis; ? Use of cooling curves; ? Hydrogen generation rate measurement.

  16. Literature Review of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde for Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Garrett N.

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current report summarizes work performed throughout the scientific community and DOE complex as reported in the open literature and DOE-sponsored reports to evaluate the Cs+ ion exchange (CIX) characteristics of SRF resin. King (2007) completed a similar literature review in support of material selection for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project. Josephson et al. (2010) and Sams et al. (2009) provided a similar brief review of SRF CIX for the near-tank Cs+ removal (NTCR) project. Thorson (2008a) documented the basis for recommending SRF over SuperLigTM 644 as the primary CIX resin in the WTP. The current review expands on previous work, summarizes additional work completed to date, and provides a broad view of the literature without focusing on a specific column system. Although the focus of the current review is the SRF resin, many cited references include multiple materials such as the non-spherical GGRF and SuperLigTM 644 organic resins and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IONSIVTM IE-911, a non-elutable inorganic material. This report summarizes relevant information provided in the literature.

  17. Knowledge economy, Learning society and Lifelong Learning A review of the French literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Knowledge economy, Learning society and Lifelong Learning A review of the French literature savoir" or more often "économie de la connaissance" (knowledge economy-KE-). Similar difficulties arise economy (or society) and the initial and further education systems. But it also could explain why some

  18. LASER WELDING -Literature Review Materials Science and Metallurgy Department, University of Cambridge, England. July 2002.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    LASER WELDING - Literature Review C.A. Walsh Materials Science and Metallurgy Department industry to produce seam or stitch welds, as alternatives to conventional resistance spot welding, which are used extensively for attaching auto-body panels to sub- assemblies. The advantages of laser welding

  19. A Literature Review of the History and Future of Reclaimed Water Use in Florida Jamie Lewis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of wastewater is produced for every person in Florida. Proper treatment of this wastewater and disposal or reuse treatment or from discharge of reclaimed water for wetlands restoration; Fire protection; or Other usefulA Literature Review of the History and Future of Reclaimed Water Use in Florida Jamie Lewis

  20. Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, W. D.

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes findings from a literature review into the incremental costs associated with low-energy buildings. The goal of this work is to help establish as firm an analytical foundation as possible for the Building Technology Program's cost-effective net-zero energy goal in the year 2025.

  1. Literature Review of the Effects of UV Exposure on PV Modules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation, originally presented at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO, presents the literature review of the effects of prolonged UV exposure of PV modules, with a particular emphasis on UV exposure testing using artificial light sources, including fluorescent, Xenon, and metal halide lamps.

  2. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  3. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood,...

  4. Literature review of stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds and the implications for Hanford grouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Osborne, S.C.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted on the stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on this literature, it is likely that the limestone-containing grout will not permanently immobilize VOCs and that no presently available additives can guarantee permanent immobilization. The Westinghouse hanford company grout may be fairly effective at retarding aqueous leaching of VOCs, and commercial additives can improve this performance. Significant VOC losses do occur during stabilization/solidification, and the high temperatures of the Westinghouse Hanford Company waste and grout should exacerbate this problem. In fact, these high temperatures raise doubts about the presence of VOCs in the double-shell tanks supernates.

  5. Introduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    of fuel demands 30% of the natural gas demand (over 50% in the summer) 90% of the coal demand over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand. #12;Introduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply ChainsIntroduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  7. The Strategic Environment Assessment bibliographic network: A quantitative literature review analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caschili, Simone, E-mail: s.caschili@ucl.ac.uk [UCL QASER Lab, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); De Montis, Andrea; Ganciu, Amedeo; Ledda, Antonio; Barra, Mario [Dipartimento di Agraria, University of Sassari, viale Italia, 39, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Academic literature has been continuously growing at such a pace that it can be difficult to follow the progression of scientific achievements; hence, the need to dispose of quantitative knowledge support systems to analyze the literature of a subject. In this article we utilize network analysis tools to build a literature review of scientific documents published in the multidisciplinary field of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA). The proposed approach helps researchers to build unbiased and comprehensive literature reviews. We collect information on 7662 SEA publications and build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) employing the basic idea that two publications are interconnected if one cites the other. We apply network analysis at macroscopic (network architecture), mesoscopic (sub graph) and microscopic levels (node) in order to i) verify what network structure characterizes the SEA literature, ii) identify the authors, disciplines and journals that are contributing to the international discussion on SEA, and iii) scrutinize the most cited and important publications in the field. Results show that the SEA is a multidisciplinary subject; the SEABN belongs to the class of real small world networks with a dominance of publications in Environmental studies over a total of 12 scientific sectors. Christopher Wood, Olivia Bina, Matthew Cashmore, and Andrew Jordan are found to be the leading authors while Environmental Impact Assessment Review is by far the scientific journal with the highest number of publications in SEA studies. - Highlights: • We utilize network analysis to analyze scientific documents in the SEA field. • We build the SEA Bibliographic Network (SEABN) of 7662 publications. • We apply network analysis at macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic network levels. • We identify SEABN architecture, relevant publications, authors, subjects and journals.

  8. Analysis Tools for Sizing and Placement of Energy Storage for Grid Applications - A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sadovsky, Artyom; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report was to review pertinent literature and studies that might reveal models capable of optimizing the siting, sizing and economic value of energy storage in the future smart grid infrastructure. Energy storage technology and utility system deployment have been subjects of intense research and development for over three decades. During this time, many models have been developed that consider energy storage implementation in the electric power industry and other applications. Nevertheless, this review of literature discovered no actual models and only a few software tools that relate specifically to the application environment and expected requirements of the evolving smart grid infrastructure. This report indicates the existing need for such a model and describes a pathway for developing it.

  9. Literature review : reducing soft costs of rooftop solar installations attributed to structural considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  11. A review of "Literature, Satire and the Early Stuart State." by Andrew McRae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melissa Mohr

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capacity for compassion that has rightly earned him a place in the history of his time? (5). Andrew McRae. Literature, Satire and the Early Stuart State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ix + 250 pp. $65.00. Review by MELISSA MOHR. Mc... mode? provided a means for authors and readers to interrogate existing political structures and to imagine new ones, resulting ultimately in the Revolution. Satire, in McRae?s account, is characterized by strategies of discrimination and stigmatization...

  12. Synthesis of Isobutene and Isobutane from Synthesis Gas. A Literature Review Since 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The isosynthesis reaction is commonly referred as the reaction that converts selectively synthesis gas to isobutene and isobutane. The main feature of this reaction is the production of branched hydrocarbons in higher proportion with respect to linear hydrocarbons than expected from thermodynamic equilibrium and with a molecular weight distribution favoring iso-C4 hydrocarbons. This article reviews and summarizes isosynthesis research results reported in the open scientific literature with emphasis on the articles published in the last two decades.

  13. A review of "Moral Identity in Early Modern English Literature." by Paul Cefalu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchar, Gary

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , religious, and cultural studies. Paul Cefalu. Moral Identity in Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2004. x + 225 pp. $75.00. Review by GARY KUCHAR, UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA. Paul Cefalu?s Moral Identity makes the persuasive... favor to the community? (32). This does not mean, however, that Sidney uncritically embraces Aristotelian virtue according to Cefalu. On the contrary, for Cefalu, Sidney?s Arcadia exposes not only the limitations of an early English Reformation ethics...

  14. A review of "Familial Forms: Politics and Genealogy in Seventeenth-Century Literature" by Erin Murphy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Lissa Beauchamp

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    series. Erin Murphy. Familial Forms: Politics and Genealogy in Seventeenth- Century Literature. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2011. 307 pp. $65.00. Review by #16;#15;#31;#31;#20; #5;#30;#20;#24;#25;#26;#20;#19;#4; #18.... She o#12;ers a comprehensive analysis, drawing attention to the use of the metaphor of domesticity for politi- cal houses in literary senses as well as to the practical application of genealogies that tied monarchical families to biblical ones...

  15. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  16. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  17. Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

  18. A review of "Homoerotic Space: The Poetics of Loss in Renaissance Literature." by Stephen Guy-Bray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Levy-Navarro

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REVIEWS 73 range of expression in early modern England. Both contributions should prove useful as models. Stephen Guy-Bray. Homoerotic Space: The Poetics of Loss in Renais- sance Literature. Buffalo; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002...

  19. Environmental effects of dredging. Literature review for residue-effects relationships with hydrocarbon contaminants in marine organisms. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this literature review was to identify potential residue-effects relationships involving hydrocarbon contaminants which are described in the scientific literature. That information will be used to develop guidance for interpreting the results of bioaccumulation experiments conducted in the regulatory evaluation of dredged material.

  20. Introduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    % in the summer) 90% of the coal demand over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand. #12;Introduction LiteratureIntroduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel Market Network Framework: Theoretical Modeling

  1. A review of "Literature and Domestic Travel in Early Modern England" by Andrew McRae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aune, M. G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    century, and the kind of work it does today. Andrew McRae. Literature and Domestic Travel in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. xi + 247 pp. + 9 illus. $90.00. Review by #21;.#8;. #25;#29;#27;#30;, #24;#25; #18...;#7;#20;#31;#27;#18;#25; #29;#27;#18;#17;#30;#31;#26;#18;#19;#16; #20;#7; #6;#30;#27;#27;#26;#16; #17;#25;#27;#18;#25;. #14;e work of Andrew McRae, professor of English at the University of Exeter demonstrates a consistent interest in the intersections of lit- erature...

  2. Biotechnology to separate and treat metals in sludge and wastewater: A literature review. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.; Cha, D.K.; Song, J.S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Army industrial sludge may be classified as a hazardous waste when it contains oil and grease, metals, and energetic compounds. Biologic separation/treatment of metals from industrial sludge has been identified as a possible alternative to conventional technologies for treating industrial sludge. Biologic treatment of sludge uses naturally occurring biochemical reactions in which pollutants can be used as resources. The process offers a low-cost, highly efficient alternative to existing sludge treatment methods. This report summarizes a literature review that examined the development and status of biotechnology to separate and treat metals in sludge and wastewater.

  3. Electric coheating as a means to test duct efficiency: A review and analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent published literature on electric coheating was reviewed in order to assess its suitability for use in a method of test for the efficiency of residential duct systems. Electric coheating is the research use of electric heaters within the heated space to assess the thermal integrity of the building envelope. Information was sought in two primary areas: (1) experimental methodology and (2) accuracy of the coheating method. A variety of experimental variations was found, and the method was judged, on the basis of published data, to be capable of sufficient accuracy for use in duct testing.

  4. Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Cl, {sup 59,63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include {sup 7,10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 109,113m}Cd, and {sup 121m,126}Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations.

  5. Literature Review on the Effects of Prescription Fire on theEcology of Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, R

    2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has historically conducted prescription burns across approximately 2,000 acres of Site 300 on an annual basis to safeguard test facilities and operations from the risk of wildfire encroachment. Prescription burns began in 1960, and although fire frequency varies among the designated burn areas, all have been burned at least once. A patchwork of native perennial grassland communities and associated special-status plant and animal populations occur onsite in many areas that have been receiving these treatments. Because the size and locations of prescription burns may shift in coming years, an evaluation is warranted to determine how these shifts may affect listed biota, including rare plants, and the distinct ecological conditions present on the site. This report presents the results of a literature review conducted by ICF International (ICF) to collect basic information on native perennial grasslands in California, the influence of fire on these grasslands, and management tools for restoring and maintaining them. The objective of this study was to review the scientific literature on California native grasslands and summarize the current state of knowledge pertaining to the possible effects -- both beneficial and detrimental -- of prescribed fire on the ecology of Site 300. The results of this review are intended to inform future management practices that may be carried out at Site 300 to maintain the plant and wildlife communities and to ensure that the ecological conditions benefit the special-status species that inhabit the Site. This review is also intended to identify a study approach to investigate changes over the next 10 years in the burned areas and in areas where burning will be discontinued.

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW: REDUCTION OF NP(V) TO NP (IV)-ALTERNATIVES TO FERROUS SULFAMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessinger, G.; Kyser, E.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The baseline approach to control of Np oxidation in UREX and PUREX separation processes is the reduction of Np(V) and Np(VI) to Np(IV) using ferrous sulfamate. Use of this reagent results in increased sulfur and iron concentrations in the liquid waste streams from the process. Presence of these two elements, especially sulfur, increases the complexity of the development of wasteforms for immobilizing these effluents. Investigations are underway to identify reductants that eliminate sulfur and iron from the Np reduction process. While there are a variety of chemical reductants that will reduce Np to Np(IV) in nitric acid media, the reaction rates for most are so slow that the reductants are not be feasible for use in an operating plant process. In an attempt to identify additional alternatives to ferrous sulfamate, a literature search and review was performed. Based on the results of the literature review, it is concluded that photochemical and catalytic processes should also be investigated to test the utility of these two approaches. The catalytic process could be investigated for use in conjunction with chemical oxidants to speed the reaction rates for reductants that react slowly, but would otherwise be appropriate replacements for ferrous sulfamate. The photochemical approach, which has received little attention during the past few decades, also shows promise, especially the photocatalytic approach that includes a catalyst, such as Pt supported on SiC, which can be used in tandem with an oxidant, for Np reduction.

  7. Climate change and water supply, management and use: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, L.H.; Draves, J.D.; Hunsaker, C.T.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is evidence that atmospheric concentrations Of C0{sub 2}, tropospheric 0{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, among other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, have increased in recent decades, and that these changes may induce changes in global air temperatures and regional climate features in coming years. A literature review was conducted to sample the literature base on which our understanding of the water resource impacts of climate change rests. Water resource issues likely to be important include hydrologic response to climate change, the resilience of water supply systems to changing climatic and hydrologic conditions, and the effects of climate change on water quality and water uses (such as navigation and energy generation). A computer-assisted search of literature on the effects of climate change on these subjects was conducted. All studies were classified by type of paper (e.g., review, discussion, case study), region, water resource variable studied, and source of climate scenario. The resulting bibliography containing more than 200 references was largely annotated. Case studies of potential hydrologic impacts have been more common than studies of impacts on water management or water use, but this apparent research gap is decreasing. Case studies demonstrating methods of incorporating potential risks of climate change into water project planning and management have been performed. Considerable variability in regional coverage exists; the Great Lakes basin and California receive relatively more attention than such regions as New England and the Missouri River basin. General circulation model-based and hypothetical climate scenarios have been the dominant sources of climate scenarios used in case studies, although a variety of other methods for developing climate scenarios have been developed.

  8. By-product and discarded material utilization in highway construction and maintenance: A literature review. Interim research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsucker, D.Q.; Tilley, J.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report summarizes the findings of an extensive literature search and review conducted to determine current attitudes relative to the use of recyclable and recoverable materials in highway construction and maintenance activities. Specifically, the literature search focused upon the engineering, economic, and performance aspects of using recyclable and recoverable materials in highway construction and maintenance projects. The literature review focused on asphalt and cement concrete pavement recycling, discarded tire recycling, reuse of paint removal wastes, fly ash, glass, alternative fuels, and other miscellaneous recycled and recovered materials as related to construction and maintenance of highways. Additionally, regulatory and policy matters associated with the use of recyclable and recoverable materials in the transportation area were investigated during the review of literature.

  9. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daisey, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Angell, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Composite Electrolytes to Stabilize Metallic Lithium Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about composite...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by The Pennsylvania State University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  14. Decontamination Processes for Restorative Operations and as a Precursor to Decommissioning: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, J. L.; Divine, J. R.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an comprehensive literature review of actual reactor decontamination processes that are currently available. In general, any decontamination process should be based on the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and waste production. The information that was collected and analyzed has been divided into three major categories of decontamination: chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical. Chemical methods can be further classified as either low-concentration, singlestep processes or high-concentration, single- or multistep processes. Numerous chemical decontamination methods are detailed. Mechanical decontamination methods are usually restricted to the removal of a contaminated surface layer, whlch limits their versatility; several mechanical decontamination methods are described. Electrochemical decontamination. is both fast and easily controlled, and numerous processes that have been used in industry for many years are discussed. Information obtained from this work is tabulated in Appendix A for easy access, and a bibliography and a glossary have been provided.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Lithium Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton U.-SUNY at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Rhode Island at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the development of...

  17. MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION FOR DWPF NITRIC-GLYCOLIC ACID - LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction. ? For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 ?C. ? For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 ?C). ? For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available. ? For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the aggressive species and to verify the performance of materials in the key process vessels as well as downstream vessels and processes such as the evaporator where heating is occurring. The following testing would provide data for establishing the viability of these components. ? Electrochemical testing - evaluate the corrosion rate and susceptibility to localized corrosion within the SRAT, SME, OGCT, Quencher and Evaporator. Testing would be conducted at operational temperatures in simulants with ranges of glycolic acid, iron, chloride, sulfate, mercury, and antifoaming agents. ? Hot-wall testing – evaluate the corrosion under heat transfer conditions to simulate those for heating coils and evaporator coil surfaces. Testing would be at nominal chemistries with concentration of glycolic acid, chloride, sulfate and mercury at high expected concentrations. Some tests would be performed with antifoaming agents. ? Melter coupon testing – evaluate the performance of alloy 690 in melter feeds containing glycolic acid. This testing would be conducted as part of the melter flammability testing. ? Polymer testing – evaluate changes in polymer properties in immersion testing with DWPF simulants to provide product-specific data for service life evaluation and analyze the Hansen solubility parameters for relevant polymers in glycolic vs. formic acid. During this literature review process, the difficulties associated with measuring the liquid level in formic acid tanks were revealed. A test is recommended to resolve this issue prior to the introduction of glycolic acid into the DWPF. This testing would evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonic inspection techniques to determine liquid level and other desirable attributes of glycolic acid in DWPF storage tanks and related equipment.

  18. Do indoor environments in schools influence student performance? A review of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.

    2004-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.

  19. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  20. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  1. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steven J. Visco, CEO & CTO, PolyPlus Battery Company U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 Manufacturing of Protected Lithium...

  2. Insecticide Exposures on Commercial Aircraft: A Literature Review and Screening Level Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy I.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to provide initial estimates of the relationship between insecticide use on passenger aircraft and exposure levels present in the cabin environment. The work was initially divided into three tasks including 1) a review of insecticide application practices in commercial aircraft, 2) exploratory measurements of insecticide concentrations in treated aircraft and 3) screening level exposure modeling. Task 1 gathered information that is needed to assess the time-concentration history of insecticides in the airline cabin. The literature review focused on application practices, information about the cabin environment and existing measurements of exposure concentrations following treatment. Information from the airlines was not available for estimating insecticide application rates in the U.S. domestic fleet or for understanding how frequently equipment rotate into domestic routes following insecticide treatment. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several methods for treating aircraft with insecticide. Although there is evidence that these WHO guidelines may not always be followed, and that practices vary by airline, destination, and/or applicator company, the guidelines in combination with information related to other indoor environments provides a plausible basis for estimating insecticide loading rates on aircraft. The review also found that while measurements of exposure concentrations following simulated aerosol applications are available, measurements following residual treatment of aircraft or applications in domestic aircraft are lacking. Task 2 focused on developing an approach to monitor exposure concentrations in aircraft using a combination of active and passive sampling methods. An existing active sampling approach was intended to provide data immediately following treatment while a passive sampler was developed to provide wider coverage of the fleet over longer sampling periods. The passive sampler, based on a thin-film polymer-coated glass design, was developed specifically for deployment in the airliner ventilation system for long-term unattended monitoring of insecticide loading in the aircraft. Because access was not available for either treated aircraft or treatment records during the course of this study, the development and calibration of the passive samplers was halted prior to completion. Continued development of a field ready passive sampler for insecticides in aircraft would require collaboration with the airline industry to finalize the method for deployment and calibration conditions for the sampler. The Task 3 screening level modeling assessment used a dynamic two-box mass balance model that includes treated surfaces and air to explore the time-concentration history of insecticides in the cabin. The model was parameterized using information gathered during the literature review and run for several different insecticide use scenarios. Chemical degradation or sequestration in the surface compartment and mass transfer from the surface to the air limit the rate at which insecticides are removed from the system. This rate limiting process can result in an accumulation of insecticide in the airliner cabin following repeated applications. The extent of accumulation is a function of the overall persistence of the chemical in the system and the amount of chemical applied during each treatment.

  3. Soil Stabilization Methods with Potential for Application at the Nevada National Security Site: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillito, Rose [DRI] [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI] [DRI

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has resulted in large areas of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Much of the radionuclide contamination is found at or near the soil surface, and due to the dry climate setting, and the long half-life of radioactive isotopes, soil erosion poses a long-term health risk at the NNSS. The objective of this literature review is to present a survey of current stabilization methods used for minimizing soil erosion, both by water and wind. The review focuses on in situ uses of fundamental chemical and physical mechanisms for soil stabilization. A basic overview of the physical and chemical properties of soil is also presented to provide a basis for assessing stabilization methods. Some criteria for stabilization evaluation are identified based on previous studies at the NNSS. Although no specific recommendations are presented as no stabilization method, alone or in combination, will be appropriate in all circumstances, discussions of past and current stabilization procedures and specific soil tests that may aid in current or future soil stabilization activities at the NNSS are presented. However, not all Soils Corrective Action Sites (CASs) or Corrective Action Units (CAUs) will require stabilization of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Each Soils CAS or CAU should be evaluated for site-specific conditions to determine if soil stabilization is necessary or practical for a given specific site closure alternative. If stabilization is necessary, then a determination will be made as to which stabilization technique is the most appropriate for that specific site.

  4. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Brown, Jason W.; Wyant, Francis John

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  5. Endovascular Treatment of Active Splenic Bleeding After Colonoscopy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corcillo, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.corcillo@chuv.ch [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Departement de Medecine Interne (Switzerland)] [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Departement de Medecine Interne (Switzerland); Aellen, Steve, E-mail: steve.aellen@hopitalvs.ch; Zingg, Tobias [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service de Chirurgie Viscerale (Switzerland)] [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service de Chirurgie Viscerale (Switzerland); Bize, Pierre [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Departement de Radiologie Interventionnelle (Switzerland)] [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Departement de Radiologie Interventionnelle (Switzerland); Demartines, Nicolas [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service de Chirurgie Viscerale (Switzerland)] [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service de Chirurgie Viscerale (Switzerland); Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Departement de Radiologie Interventionnelle (Switzerland)] [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Departement de Radiologie Interventionnelle (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Colonoscopy is reported to be a safe procedure that is routinely performed for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal diseases. Splenic rupture is considered to be a rare complication with high mortality and morbidity that requires immediate diagnosis and management. Nonoperative management (NOM), surgical treatment (ST), and, more recently, proximal splenic artery embolization (PSAE) have been proposed as treatment options. The goal of this study was to assess whether PSAE is safe even in high-grade ruptures. Methods: We report two rare cases of post colonoscopy splenic rupture. A systematic review of the literature from 2002 to 2010 (first reported case of PSAE) was performed and the three types of treatment compared. Results: All patients reviewed (77 of 77) presented with intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to isolated splenic trauma. Splenic rupture was high-grade in most patients when grading was possible. Six of 77 patients (7.8 %) were treated with PSAE, including the 2 cases reported herein. Fifty-seven patients (74 %) underwent ST. NOM was attempted first in 25 patients with a high failure rate (11 of 25 [44 %]) and requiring a salvage procedure, such as PSAE or ST. Previous surgery (31 of 59 patients), adhesions (10 of 13), diagnostic colonoscopies (49 of 71), previous biopsies or polypectomies (31 of 57) and female sex (56 of 77) were identified as risk factors. In contrast, splenomegaly (0 of 77 patients), medications that increase the risk of bleeding (13 of 30) and difficult colonoscopies (16 of 51) were not identified as risk factors. PSAE was safe and effective even in elderly patients with comorbidities and those taking medications that increase the risk of bleeding, and the length of the hospital stay was similar to that after ST. Conclusion: We propose a treatment algorithm based on clinical and radiological criteria. Because of the high failure rate after NOM, PSAE should be the treatment of choice to manage grade I through IV splenic ruptures after colonoscopy in hemodynamically stabilized patients.

  6. Literature Review of Uncertainty of Analysis Methods (F-Chart Program), Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Cho, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This literature review covers the F-Chart program, which is one of the legacy programs in the ESL’s Emissions Calculator (eCALC), a web-based emissions reductions calculator. The eCALC program is a tool for those who want to see how their energy...

  7. Approved Module Information for LT1312, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Literature Review Project Module Code: LT1312

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Code: LT1312 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Rationale: Lectures/tutorials Guided reading according to issue chosen Module Assessment MethodsApproved Module Information for LT1312, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Literature Review Project Module

  8. Outline Introduction Literature Review Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    .S., electric power generation accounts for significant portions of fuel demands 30% of the natural gas demand (over 50% in the summer) 90% of the coal demand over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand #12;OutlineOutline Introduction Literature Review Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions

  9. Introduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    50% in the summer) 90% of the coal demand over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand. #12;Introduction, the wholesale electricity price in New England decreased by 38% mainly because the delivered natural gas priceIntroduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples

  10. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  11. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, An [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  12. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ?fG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than approximately one-third of these compounds. Because the temperatures of host formations that will be used for CO2 injection and sequestration will be at tempera¬tures in the range of 50ºC to 100ºC or greater, the lack of high temperature thermodynamic values for key carbonate compounds especially minerals, will impact the accuracy of some modeling calculations.

  13. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have minor/major impacts are chlorination, pH adjustment, 1st mercury removal, organics removal, 2nd mercury removal, and ion exchange. For minor impacts, the general approach is to use historical process operations data/modeling software like OLI/ESP and/or monitoring/compiled process operations data to resolve any uncertainties with testing as a last resort. For major impacts (i.e., glycolate concentrations > 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM), testing is recommended. No impact is envisaged for the following ETF unit operations regardless of the glycolate concentration - filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange resin regeneration, and evaporation.

  14. A review of "Suffering in Paradise: The Bubonic Plague in English Literature from More to Milton." by Rebecca Totaro,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, John

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the revolutionary public sphere and those who shaped it. Rebecca Totaro. Suffering in Paradise: The Bubonic Plague in English Literature from More to Milton. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 2005. xiv + 242 pp. $58.00. Review by JOHN GIBBS, TEXAS A...&M UNIVERSITY. The actual scope of Rebecca Totaro?s study is significantly less ambitious than the title implies; her more modest major premise is intriguing, however, as she reads early modern English utopian literature exclusively as a cultural response...

  15. Literature review supporting assessment of potential radionuclides in the 291-Z exhaust ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Thomas, L.M. Glissmeyer, J.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Davis, W.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This literature review was prepared to support a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess the potential deposition and resuspension of radionuclides in the 291-Z ventilation exhaust building located in the 200 West Area of the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Project near Richland, Washington. The filtered ventilation air from three of the facilities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex are combined together in the 291-Z building before discharge through a common stack. These three facilities contributing filtered exhaust air to the discharge stream are (1) the PFP, also known as the Z-Plant or 234-5Z, (2) the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF or 236-Z), and (3), the Waste Incinerator Building (WIB or 232-Z). The 291-Z building houses the exhaust fans that pull air from the 291-Z central collection plenum and exhausts the air to the stack. Section 2.0 of this report is a description of the physical characteristic of the ventilation system from the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to the exhaust stack. A description of the processes performed in the facilities that are vented through 291-Z is given in Section 3.0. The description focuses on the chemical and physical forms of potential aerosols given off from the unit operations. A timeline of the operations and events that may have affected the deposition of material in the ventilation system is shown. Aerosol and radiation measurements taken in previous studies are also discussed. Section 4.0 discusses the factors that influence particle deposition and adhesion. Mechanisms of attachment and resuspension are covered with specific attention to the PFP ducts. Conclusions and recommendations are given in Section 5.0.

  16. Hvac systems as a tool in controlling indoor air quality: A literature review. Final report, May-August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samfield, M.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). One conclusion of the review is that HVAC systems very often contribute to the indoor air pollution because of (1) poor system maintenance, (2) overcrowding or the introduction of new pollution-generating sources with buildings, and (3) the location of outdoor air near ambient pollution sources. Another conclusion is that failure to trade off between energy conservation and employee productivity may result in increased IAQ problems. The report contents are based on literature survey covering the years 1988 through 1993, involving 60 references, 32 of which are cited in the report.

  17. Radiotherapy-Related Axillary Artery Occlusive Disease: Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting. Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrugia, M., E-mail: mark.farrugia@newhamhealth.nhs.uk; Gowda, K.M.S. [Newham University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United Kingdom); Cheatle, T.R. [Oldchurch Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Ashok, T.P. [Newham University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiotherapy-related axillary artery occlusive disease is a relatively rare condition. This complication is usually encountered in patients with breast carcinoma treated by radiotherapy and might be frequently concealed by the presence of lymphoedema. We discuss this rare complication of radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer and present two cases and their successful treatment by a modified percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting technique. A review of literature on the subject is also presented.

  18. Existing air sparging model and literature review for the development of an air sparging optimization decision tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this Report are two-fold: (1) to provide overviews of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice with respect to air sparging technology, air sparging models and related or augmentation technologies (e.g., soil vapor extraction); and (2) to provide the basis for the development of the conceptual Decision Tool. The Project Team conducted an exhaustive review of available literature. The complete listing of the documents, numbering several hundred and reviewed as a part of this task, is included in Appendix A. Even with the large amount of material written regarding the development and application of air sparging, there still are significant gaps in the technical community`s understanding of the remediation technology. The results of the literature review are provided in Section 2. In Section 3, an overview of seventeen conceptual, theoretical, mathematical and empirical models is presented. Detailed descriptions of each of the models reviewed is provided in Appendix B. Included in Appendix D is a copy of the questionnaire used to compile information about the models. The remaining sections of the document reflect the analysis and synthesis of the information gleaned during the literature and model reviews. The results of these efforts provide the basis for development of the decision tree and conceptual decision tool for determining applicability and optimization of air sparging. The preliminary decision tree and accompanying information provided in Section 6 describe a three-tiered approach for determining air sparging applicability: comparison with established scenarios; calculation of conceptual design parameters; and the conducting of pilot-scale studies to confirm applicability. The final two sections of this document provide listings of the key success factors which will be used for evaluating the utility of the Decision Tool and descriptions of potential applications for Decision Tool use.

  19. A review of "Godly Letters: The Literature of the American Puritans" by Michael J. Colacurcio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheick, William J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Puritan literature. Such narrative instability, we now know, can be inadvertent or deliberate, even both simulta- neously. Congregationalists practiced a decorum of imperfection, Charles W. Mignon?s pertinent phrase for the self-conscious management...

  20. Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests; Literature Review and Site Selection, Nov. 1997 (Revised Feb. 1998)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Reddy, T. A.; Elleson, J.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the preliminary report contains the literature review and site selection recommendations for ASHRAE Research Project RP 1004 — "Determining Long-term Performance of Cool Storage Systems From Short-term Tests"....

  1. Rotational Mixing and Lithium Depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinsonneault, M H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I review basic observational features in Population I stars which strongly implicate rotation as a mixing agent; these include dispersion at fixed temperature in coeval populations and main sequence lithium depletion for a range of masses at a rate which decays with time. New developments related to the possible suppression of mixing at late ages, close binary mergers and their lithium signature, and an alternate origin for dispersion in young cool stars tied to radius anomalies observed in active young stars are discussed. I highlight uncertainties in models of Population II lithium depletion and dispersion related to the treatment of angular momentum loss. Finally, the origins of rotation are tied to conditions in the pre-main sequence, and there is thus some evidence that enviroment and planet formation could impact stellar rotational properties. This may be related to recent observational evidence for cluster to cluster variations in lithium depletion and a connection between the presence of planets and s...

  2. Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Every Teacher a Teacher of Reading?: A Systematic Literature Review of Content-Area Literacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Chyllis Elayne

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Appropriate preparation for preservice and inservice teachers for teaching content-area literacy continues to influence twenty-first century research agendas. In this systematic review (which analyzed 2,179 articles), the researcher aimed...

  4. A review of "Literatures of Exile in the English Revolution and its Aftermath, 1640-1690" edited by Philip Major 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Kathryn Vomero

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Literatures of Exile in the English Revolution and its Aftermath, 1640-1690. Farnham, England, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, #18;#17;#16;#17;. xvii + #18;#16;#14; pp. $#12;#12;.#12;#14;. Review by #6;#8;#25;#24;#21;#20;#26; #27;??#28;#21;? #29...;#8;#26;#25;?#29;, #26;#28;#19; #20;?#21;#6; #22;#26; #27;#28;#21;#29; #25;#20;. Scholars have long acknowledged that the events of the English Revolution forced many men and women into exile, but it is only in recent years that historians and literary critics have...

  5. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology. Topical report No. 1, Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gooch, J.P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Dahlin, R.S.; Faulkner, M.G. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Klett, M.G.; Buchanan, T.L.; Hunt, J.E. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gilbert Commonwealth, Southern Research Institute and the American Electric Power Service Corporation have embarked on a program to convert DOE`s Duct Injection Test Facility located at the Muskingum River Power Plant of Ohio Power Company to test alternate duct injection technologies. The technologies to be tested include slurry sorbent injection of hydrated lime using dual fluid nozzles, or a rotary atomizer and pneumatic injection of hydrated lime, with flue gas humidification before or after sorbent injection. The literature review and analysis contained in this report is a part of the preparatory effort for the test program.

  6. A review of "The Musician in Literature in the Age of Bach" by Stephen Rose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathey, Markus

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    historians of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries alike. His main sources are novels featuring musicians as major characters, and non-#23; ctional, autobiographical accounts of musicians. #22; e authors Rose chooses were all practicing... the content of them accessible to both musicologists and literary scholars. Readers less familiar with baroque literature will welcome the introductory chap- ter on the literary contexts of the novels and their place within the book market of the early...

  7. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Electrolyte Properties Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and...

  8. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Recycling Facilities Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  9. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Novel...

  10. Identification of energy conservation research opportunities: a review and synthesis of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Hauser, S.G.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty-eight studies of energy conservation research opportunities are reviewed. The 38 studies chosen for review include many of the major efforts in the identification of energy conservation research and development (R and D) opportunities and provide a representative sample of the types of studies that have been performed. The sample includes studies that focus on specific energy use (e.g., auto transport), as well as studies that focus on specific types of research (e.g., materials science). The sample also includes studies that can be further contrasted in terms of long-term vs. short-term projects, evolutionary vs. revolutionary ideas, generic vs. process-specific activities, and technology base research vs. hardware development. Each of these perspectives contributes toward assuring coverage of the breadth of energy conservation R and D opportunities. In each review the technical or end-use focus is described, the research ideas identified in the study are listed, and a critical summary is given. The reviews also indicate whether the studies present end-use consumption data, estimate potential energy savings, estimate times to commercialization, summarize existing research programs, or describe the identification methodology. In Section 2.0 the various research studies are compared. In Section 3.0 the characteristics of an aggregate list of research ideas are discussed. The characteristics were collected from the research opportunities studies, which are included in Appendix A. Appendix A contains a compilation of energy conservation R and D opportunities arranged by energy end-use applications. Appendix B contains an outline of the format followed in writing the critical reviews of the studies, the individual study reviews, and the extended bibliography of 88 studies that describe energy conservation research opportunities.

  11. Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers for improved oil recovery: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, K.C. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers are reviewed with particular emphasis on their application in improved oil recovery (IOR). These polymers are very similar to conventional water-soluble polymers used in IOR, except that they have a small number of hydrophobic groups incorporated into the polymer backbone. At levels of incorporation of less than 1 mol%, these hydrophobic groups can significantly change polymer performance. These polymers have potential for use in mobility control, drilling fluids and profile modification. This review includes synthesis, characterization, stability, rheology and flow in porous media of associating polymers in IOR are also examined. 100 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. A review of "Visual Rhetoric and Early Modern English Literature" by Katherine Acheson 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Philip S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ”—Acheson proceeds to interpret these visual genres in relation to canonical texts by Marvell, Milton, and Behn. The main contribution of Visual Rhetoric and Early Modern English Literature lies in its illuminating corrective to the common critical neglect... to trace how the “Genealogy of Good” in Paradise Lost sits in relation to its demonic double, “[t]he perversity of the Satanic family tree” (67) represented by Sin and Death. But for Adam and Eve, genealogy is also a source of restoration—“[r...

  13. Congenital Aorto-azygous Fistula Treated with Coil Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, Francisco Diaz [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (Spain); Fernandez, Eudaldo M. Lopez-Tomassetti [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Surgery (Spain)], E-mail: drtomassetti@wanadoo.es; Albelo, Tomas Perez; Gonzalez, Helio Valles [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (Spain); Gonzalez, Ivan Arteaga [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Surgery (Spain)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Arteriovenous fistulas between the aorta and the azygous vein usually manifest as a continuous audible murmur mimicking a patent ductus arteriosus when observed at birth. Symptoms when present during childhood are related to dyspnea or cardiac insufficiency. Embolotherapy of congenital vascular malformations is possible. However when this less invasive treatment fails, surgical treatment is sometimes necessary. We describe the case of a 12-year-old child with a large thoracic arteriovenous fistula between the descending thoracic aorta and the azygous vein, which was closed successfully by coil embolization. Available data in the literature suggest that coil embolization of aorto-azygous fistulas is usually successful.

  14. A review of "Excess and the Mean in Early Modern English Literature." by Joshua Scodel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ira Clark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ment, which in any event ought to be read from cover to cover. Joshua Scodel. Excess and the Mean in Early Modern English Litera- ture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. viii + 367 pp. $55.00. Review by IRA CLARK, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA...

  15. Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

  16. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  17. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

  18. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  19. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

  20. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairchild, Alysa, E-mail: alysa.fairchild@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Straube, William [Advanced Technology Consortium, Imaged-Guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Followill, David [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  1. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, C.H.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties.

  2. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  3. A review of "Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature" by Bernadette Andrea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jyotsna G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - tribution to a growing body of scholarship on Europe?s encounter with Muslim cultures in the early modern period. Andrea?s exploration of the ?significance of women?s agency in the inaugural Anglo-Ottoman encounter? from the sixteenth century... frequently represented the Ottomans reviews 7 as positive foils? (4). Clearly at stake in these early Anglo-Ottoman or Anglo-Muslim encounters is the struggle for the power of self-representation; in this climate, English cultural and literary...

  4. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  5. The Preclose Technique in Percutaneous Endovascular Aortic Repair: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffan, Abdel Aziz A., E-mail: aajaffan@gmail.com [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image-Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Prince, Ethan A., E-mail: eprince@lifespan.org [Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (United States); Hampson, Christopher O., E-mail: christopherohampson@gmail.com [Mercy Hospital (United States); Murphy, Timothy P., E-mail: tmurphy@lifespan.org [Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (United States)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose. To establish the efficacy and safety of the preclose technique in total percutaneous endovascular aortic repair (PEVAR).MethodsA systematic literature search of Medline database was conducted for series on PEVAR published between January 1999 and January 2012.ResultsThirty-six articles comprising 2,257 patients and 3,606 arterial accesses were included. Anatomical criteria used to exclude patients from undergoing PEVAR were not uniform across all series. The technical success rate was 94 % per arterial access. Failure was unilateral in the majority (93 %) of the 133 failed PEVAR cases. The groin complication rate in PEVAR was 3.6 %; a minority (1.6 %) of these groin complications required open surgery. The groin complication rate in failed PEVAR cases converted to groin cutdown was 6.1 %. A significantly higher technical success rate was achieved when arterial access was performed via ultrasound guidance. Technical failure rate was significantly higher with larger sheath size ({>=}20F). Conclusion. The preclose technique in PEVAR has a high technical success rate and a low groin complication rate. Technical success tends to increase with ultrasound-guided arterial access and decrease with larger access. When failure occurs, it is unilateral in the majority of cases, and conversion to surgical cutdown does not appear to increase the operative risk.

  6. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  7. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures - a Literature Review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this limited study was to provide an overview of the effects of elevated temperature on the behavior of concrete materials and structures. In meeting this objective the effects of elevated temperatures on the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete constituent materials and concretes are summarized. The effects of elevated temperature on high-strength concrete materials are noted and their performance compared to normal strength concretes. A review of concrete materials for elevated-temperature service is presented. Nuclear power plant and general civil engineering design codes are described. Design considerations and analytical techniques for evaluating the response of reinforced concrete structures to elevated-temperature conditions are presented. Pertinent studies in which reinforced concrete structural elements were subjected to elevated temperatures are described.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Optodot Corporation at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about innovative manufacturing...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about overcoming...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Manufacturability Study and Scale-Up for Large Format Lithium Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Stanford University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about wiring up silicon...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Characterization of Voltage Fade in Lithium-ion Cells with Layered Oxides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about characterization...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Optodot Corporation at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about innovative manufacturing...

  14. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE SORPTION OF PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AMERICIUM AND TECHNETIUM TO CORROSION PRODUCTS ON WASTE TANK LINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the risk associated with closing liquid waste tanks. The PA estimates the risk associated with a number of scenarios, making various assumptions. Throughout all of these scenarios, it is assumed that the carbon-steel tank liners holding the liquid waste do not sorb the radionuclides. Tank liners have been shown to form corrosion products, such as Fe-oxyhydroxides (Wiersma and Subramanian 2002). Many corrosion products, including Fe-oxyhydroxides, at the high pH values of tank effluent, take on a very strong negative charge. Given that many radionuclides may have net positive charges, either as free ions or complexed species, it is expected that many radionuclides will sorb to corrosion products associated with tank liners. The objective of this report was to conduct a literature review to investigate whether Pu, U, Np, Am and Tc would sorb to corrosion products on tank liners after they were filled with reducing grout (cementitious material containing slag to promote reducing conditions). The approach was to evaluate radionuclides sorption literature with iron oxyhydroxide phases, such as hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O). The primary interest was the sorption behavior under tank closure conditions where the tanks will be filled with reducing cementitious materials. Because there were no laboratory studies conducted using site specific experimental conditions, (e.g., high pH and HLW tank aqueous and solid phase chemical conditions), it was necessary to extend the literature review to lower pH studies and noncementitious conditions. Consequently, this report relied on existing lower pH trends, existing geochemical modeling, and experimental spectroscopic evidence conducted at lower pH levels. The scope did not include evaluating the appropriateness of K{sub d} values for the Fe-oxyhydroxides, but instead to evaluate whether it is a conservative assumption to exclude this sorption process of radionuclides onto tank liner corrosion products in the PA model. This may identify another source for PA conservatism since the modeling did not consider any sorption by the tank liner.

  15. Adaptation of Cancer Supportive Care to the Correctional Setting: A LiteratureAdaptation of Cancer Supportive Care to the Correctional Setting: A Literature R i & P d M d lR i & P d M d lReview & Proposed ModelReview & Proposed Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Adaptation of Cancer Supportive Care to the Correctional Setting: A LiteratureAdaptation of Cancer of Medicine Background · Significant rise in cancer diagnosis in inmate Abstract Purpose: Cancer Supportive of Structured Cancer Supportive Literature Review continued Interdisciplinary Care5:g g population due to 1

  16. (Lithium and lead-lithium corrosion and chemistry)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, P.F.

    1989-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentations on Mass Transport Processes in Li/Fe-12Cr-1MoVW Steel,'' A Lower Temperature Lithium Purification Process Incorporating Warm Trapping','' and Kinetic Analysis of Corrosion in Pb-17 at. % Li and Comparison to Pure Lithium'' were given by the traveler at the 1989 European Workshop on Lithium and Lead-Lithium Corrosion and Chemistry in Vienna, Austria. The European effort in lead-lithium appeared to be continuing unabated with a future focus on deposition and surface products reactions that can lead to corrosion control. The temperature gain realized from the use of ferritic/martensitic steels instead of austenitic steels in Pb-17 at. % Li appears to be 25--50{degrees}C. The traveler also visited the European Community's Joint Research Centre at Ispra to discuss Fe-Mn-Cr steels. He presented a seminar on Recent ORNL Results on the Development of Fe-Mn-Cr Steels,'' and toured the liquid metal laboratories. Our developmental Fe-Mn-Cr steels, which are compositionally tailored for shallow land burial, would not qualify as low activation'' materials per European standards. Because of both this and the poor sensitization resistance of these steels, our alloy development strategy for reduced activation materials should be critically reviewed.

  17. Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

    2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses, the water concentrations specified and expected for different refrigerant/lubricant systems varied depending on the products, their capacities and applications, and also on the companies. Among the problems associated with high moisture level, lubricant breakdown was of greatest concern, followed by acid formation, compressor failure and expansion valve sticking. The following research topics are suggested: 1. The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry needs to measure and record the water content and total acid number of the lubricant of newly installed systems as well as operating systems that are shutdown for service or repair. The reason for the shutdown needs to be documented. A database can then be established to correlate water content with type and cause of breakdown. 2. Detailed studies on the distribution of water in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems should be conducted to pinpoint problem areas associated with free water. 3. Research is needed to validate the current theories and mechanisms of formicary corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors need to be developed. 4. The conditions for clathrate formation and decomposition of other alternative refrigerants, such as R-23, R-41, R-116, R-125, R-143a, R-404A and R-507C, and water should be determined to avoid possible problems associated with tube plugging. The mechanism by which water facilitates or hinders lubrication needs to be studied.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Post-Test Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery Materials at Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about post-test...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thick Low-Cost, High-Power Lithium-Ion Electrodes via Aqueous Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thick low-cost,...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about studies on high...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by The Pennsylvania State University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about studies on high...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low?Cost, High?Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries through Modified Surface and Microstructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low?cost, high?capacity...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XALT Energy LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of large format...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Penn State at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy, long cycle life...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Post-Test Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery Materials at Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about post-test...

  7. A review of "Fault Lines and Controversies in the Study of Seventeenth-Century English Literature." by Claude J. Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth eds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Christopher

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Ted-Larry Pebworth, eds. Fault Lines and Controversies in the Study of Seventeenth-Century English Literature. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002. ix + 236 pp. $37.50. Review by CHRISTOPHER BAKER, ARMSTRONG ATLANTIC STATE UNIVERSITY... lacking among postmodern practitioners. His response to Rooney illustrates the thesis of Dennis Flynn?s ?Conjecture in the Writing of Donne?s Biography, with a Modest Proposal.? Flynn takes issue REVIEWS 25 with R. C. Bald?s reliance on Wotton...

  8. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ober, J.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine, compound, or metal, depending upon the end use. Most lithium compounds were consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum.

  9. A review of "Wrestling with God: Literature & Theology in the English Renaissance. Essays to Honour Paul Grant Stanwood." by Mary Ellen Henley and W. Speed Hill, eds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donald R. Dickson

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ://www.shu.ac.uk/emls/si-07/si-07toc.htm. Review by DONALD R. DICKSON, TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY. Wrestling with God is a collection of essays honoring a dis- tinguished scholar of seventeenth-century devotional literature and religious history. Anyone working in this area has...

  10. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Inexpensive, electrochemically active phosphate compounds with high functionality for...

  11. Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.; Prime, M.B.; Shevitz, D.W.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a review of the technical literature concerning the detection, location, and characterization of structural damage via techniques that examine changes in measured structural vibration response. The report first categorizes the methods according to required measured data and analysis technique. The analysis categories include changes in modal frequencies, changes in measured mode shapes (and their derivatives), and changes in measured flexibility coefficients. Methods that use property (stiffness, mass, damping) matrix updating, detection of nonlinear response, and damage detection via neural networks are also summarized. The applications of the various methods to different types of engineering problems are categorized by type of structure and are summarized. The types of structures include beams, trusses, plates, shells, bridges, offshore platforms, other large civil structures, aerospace structures, and composite structures. The report describes the development of the damage-identification methods and applications and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of the technology. The critical issues for future research in the area of damage identification are also discussed.

  12. Lithium: Measurement of Young's Modulus and Yield Strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan P Schultz

    2002-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lithium Collection Lens is used for anti-proton collection. In analyzing the structural behavior during operation, various material properties of lithium are often needed. properties such as density, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, specific heat, compressability, etc.; are well known. However, to the authors knowledge there is only one published source for Young's Modulus. This paper reviews the results from the testing of Young's Modulus and the yield strength of lithium at room temperature.

  13. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  14. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  15. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  16. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  17. Lithium 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidide-Mediated r-and -Lithiations of Epoxides: Solvent-Dependent Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidide-Mediated r- and -Lithiations of Epoxides: Solvent July 8, 2003; E-mail: dbc6@cornell.edu Abstract: Lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (Li lithium diisopropylamide, consistent with literature reports. Detailed rate studies of LiTMP/THF and Li

  18. Lithium Ion Production NDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations David Wood, Debasish Mohanty, Jianlin Li, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop #12;2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode to be meaningful and provide electrode and cell QC. #12;3 Presentation name New Directions in Lithium Ion Electrode

  19. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. RoyUSA Abstract A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion

  20. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agyemang, Charles; Addo, Juliet; Bhopal, Raj; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Stronks, Karien

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    . Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion...

  1. Jacoby Carter and Billy P. Leonard Abstract We conducted a literature review of coypu (Myocastor coypus) introduction and eradi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,which hasled to their introdlC1ctioninto manycountries outside of their native nLnge. The last review of coypus

  2. Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Occlusive Lesions of the Celiac Axis: Diagnosis, Treatment Options, Outcomes, and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flood, Karen, E-mail: karenrogers@doctors.org.uk; Nicholson, Anthony A. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose. To describe the presentation, treatment, and outcomes for 14 patients with aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries associated with occlusive lesions of the celiac axis, and to review the literature for similar cases. Methods, Over a period of 12 years, 14 patients (10 women and 4 men) ranging in age from 26 to 50 (mean 46) years were demonstrated to have aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery origin associated with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac axis. All patients were treated by a combination of surgery and interventional radiology. Results. Outcome data collected between 3 months and 4 years (mean 2 years) demonstrated that all aneurysms remained excluded, and all 14 patients were well. The 49 case reports in the literature confirm the findings of this cohort. Conclusion. In inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm resulting from celiac occlusive disease, endovascular treatment is best achieved by stenting the celiac axis and/or embolizing the aneurysm when necessary.

  3. Determining Long-Term Performance of Cool Storage Systems from Short-Term Tests; Literature Review, Preliminary Methodology Description, and Final Site Selection (Final Revision of Nov. 1997 Report)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Elleson, J.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This preliminary report contains the literature review, a preliminary description of the methodologies that have been chosen for the project and final site selection recommendations for ASHRAE Research Project RP 1004 ~ "Determining Long...

  4. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature, 2001. 414(of rechargeable lithium batteries, I. Lithium manganeseof rechargeable lithium batteries, II. Lithium ion

  5. Lithium purification technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  6. A review of "The Great Ocean of Knowledge. The Influence of Travel Literature on the Work of John Locke" by Ann Talbot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, María G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    whose relevance endures in cognitive science today. He is in this sense, like his subject, ?radically optimistic.? Ann Talbot. #31;e Great Ocean of Knowledge. #31;e In#29;uence of Travel Literature on the Work of John Locke. Leiden / Boston: Brill...?s Studies in Intellectual History vol. 184, 2010. 337 pp. 4 illus. $ 147. Review by #19;#20;#23;#1;#20; . #28;#20;#29;#20;#23;#23;#17;, #24;#28;#15;#29;#30;#23;#31;#15;#27;#22; #17;#7; #20;#19;#31;#27;#30;#23;#18;#20;#19; e researcher Ann Talbot...

  7. A review of "Heresy, Literature, and Politics in Early Modern English Culture" by David Loewenstein and John Marshall, eds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Eugene D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , to name just a few areas, will find much of value in this work. In this, Consuming Splendor may promote the most valuable exchange of all. David Loewenstein and John Marshall, eds. Heresy, Literature, and Politics in Early Modern English Culture... papers on late seven- teenth-century tolerationist thought. John Marshall provides an exemplary account of the context in which Locke penned his three Letters on Toleration in the period 1685-89, reminding us of how alive virulent earlier views re...

  8. Properties of lead-lithium solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Darnell, A.; Blink, J.A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-lithium solutions are of interest to liquid metal wall ICF reactor designers because Pb may be present to some extent in both heavy ion beam and laser-driven ICF targets; therefore, Pb will be present as an impurity in a flowing lithium wall. In addition, Pb-Li solutions containing approx. 80 a/o Pb are a strong candidate for a heavy ion beam driven HYLIFE converter and a viable alternative to a pure Li wall for a laser driven converter. The properties of Pb-Li solutions including the effect of hydrogen impurities are reviewed, and the reactor design implications are discussed.

  9. Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

  10. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

  11. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit``. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes.

  12. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  13. A review of "Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England" by Aileen Ribeiro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hentschell, Roze

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    indispensable. This is the kind of book every library should own, the kind of book that every scholar enviously wishes s/he could have written. Aileen Ribeiro. Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England. New Haven and London: Yale... of literary material of the period, imaginative and non- fiction texts alike, Ribeiro provides a more complete sense of the extent to which subjectivity in Stuart England was negotiated through attire. Ribeiro?s book is comprised of five substantial chapters...

  14. A review of "British Political Thought in History, Literature and Theory, 1500-1800" edited by David Armitage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kow, Simon

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e w s as complementary to other, more canonical outlooks, especially as contextualists have in some respects been interested in the ?practical past? as much as the ?historical past.? Skinner?s afterword reviews all of the chapters in the volume...

  15. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  16. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-A. Aging Mechanisms in Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of

  17. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atresponse of lithium rechargeable batteries,” Journal of therechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report, Sept.

  18. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  19. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. M. Directions in secondary lithium battery research-and-runaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journalrunaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journal

  20. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Rechargeable Lithium Battery," J. Power Sources, 24,Wada, "Rechargeable Lithium Battery Based on Pyrolytic Car-Li-Ion Battery," Lithium Battery Symposium, Electrochemical

  1. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in A. Nazri, G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science &structure materials in lithium cells, for a lower limitLithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates Sébastien

  2. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. -P. Gabano, Ed. , Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, Newfor Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electrochem.for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electroclzern.

  3. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science & Technology,Keywords: Lithium batteries, iron vanadates, insertionelectrode materials for lithium batteries, (mostly layered

  4. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report,applications using lithium batteries, we must be sure thattemperature range. For lithium batteries in hybrid vehicles,

  5. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries. Advanced Materials 10,Protection of Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of thein Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.

  6. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  7. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. Nature 394, 456-facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (vanadium oxides for lithium batteries. Journal of Materials

  8. ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

  9. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  10. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  11. Literature review of the History of Building Peak Load and Annual Energy Use Calculation Methods in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mao, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    about how much energy will be consumed after the buildings are put into operation. A review of the calculation methods is important to understand the methods that were used for designing existing buildings and what aspects of those methods could... be improved to better design energy efficient commercial buildings in the future. 1.1 History of Related Science The development of peak load and annual energy use calculation methods could not be performed without a solid foundation based on the related...

  12. Lithium in LP 944-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya. V. Pavlenko; H. R. A. Jones; E. L. Martin; E. Guenther; M. A. Kenworthy; M. R. Zapatero Osorio

    2007-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new estimate of the lithium abundance in the atmosphere of the brown dwarf LP 944-20. Our analysis is based on a self-consistent analysis of low, intermediate and high resolution optical and near-infrared spectra. We obtain log N(Li) = 3.25 +/-0.25 using fits of our synthetic spectra to the Li I resonance line doublet profiles observed with VLT/UVES and AAT/SPIRAL. This lithium abundance is over two orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates in the literature. In order to obtain good fits of the resonance lines of K I and Rb I and better fits to the TiO molecular absorption around the Li I resonance line, we invoke a semi-empirical model atmosphere with the dusty clouds located above the photosphere. The lithium abundance, however, is not changed by the effects of the dusty clouds. We discuss the implications of our estimate of the lithium abundance in LP 944-20 for the understanding of the properties of this benchmark brown dwarf.

  13. 46X, mar/46X, dic(Y)(qter p11::qter) - report of a case and literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siller, M.; Aizpuru, E.; Munchinick, O.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a great controversy between phenotype-karyotype in individuals having a chromosomal mosaicism involving one single line 45X, or 2 or more lines with structural rearrangements of the Y chromosome. Here we report a case in a prepuberal patient with a male phenotype, bilateral cryptorchidism, obesity (I), left nipple inversion and low scholar achievement. He was the product of a second normal gestation, with weight of 3,200 kg and height 47 cm, postnatal development reported as normal. The genealogy only shows a paternal uncle with primary sterility (never studied). Clinical findings: height 1.27 cm, weight 38 kg, C.C. 56 cm., T.C. 77 cm., A.C. 72 cm., obesity (I), inverted left nipple, bilateral cryptorchidea with both testicles in inguinal channel, but small and hypotrophic. The blood hormone level determinations were normal. In lymphocyte peripheral blood culture (66 metaphases studied) with C- and G-bands, we found 46X,mar/46X,dic(Y)(qter p11::qter). The karyotype in gonadal cell biopsy showed the presence of the one mentioned above and an additional cell line of 45X (46X,mar/45X/46Xdic). It is reported in the literature some mosaics of Turner syndrome and Y isodicentrics with female phenotype. In our case, the development of the genitals is male; that suggests that the gene determinant for the testes formation was present and active in the early stages of gonadal development.

  14. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  15. Long-Term Outcome of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma 71/2 Years After Surgery and Repeated Radiofrequency Ablation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanos, L., E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com; Mylona, S.; Nikita, A.; Ptohis, N.; Kelekis, D.A. [University of Athens, 2nd Radiology Department (Greece)

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An interesting case is presented of a 78-year-old patient with cirrhosis who was managed with combined treatment (surgery and radiofrequency (RF) ablation) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and has survived for 71/2 years. Elevation of the {alpha}-FP (alpha-fetoprotein) levels was noted 2 years after surgery. CT demonstrated two lesions: one central at the remaining right liver lobe, and the other at the excision site. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of HCC for both of them. RF ablation of these two lesions was performed in one session with technical success. Four and a half years after the first RF ablation a new recurrence was demonstrated at the CT follow-up control. RF ablation was again applied successfully. The imaging findings and the therapeutic percutaneous management of this patient along with the natural course of HCC and its recurrence are discussed, and the literature concerning risk factors is reviewed.

  16. Archaeological mounds as analogs of engineered covers for waste disposal sites: Literature review and progress report. [Appendix contains bibliography and data on archaeological mounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatters, J C; Gard, H A

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closure caps for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are typically designed as layered earthen structures, the composition of which is intended to prevent the infiltration of water and the intrusion of the public into waste forms. Federal regulations require that closure caps perform these functions well enough that minimum exposure guidelines will be met for at least 500 years. Short-term experimentation cannot mimic the conditions that will affect closure caps on the scale of centuries, and therefore cannot provide data on the performance of cap designs over long periods of time. Archaeological mounds hundreds to thousands of years old which are closely analogous to closure caps in form, construction details, and intent can be studied to obtain the necessary understanding of design performance. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a review and analysis of archaeological literature on ancient human-made mounds to determine the quality and potential applicability of this information base to assessments of waste facility design performance. A bibliography of over 200 English-language references was assembled on mound structures from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A sample of these texts was read for data on variables including environmental and geographic setting, condition, design features, construction. Detailed information was obtained on all variables except those relating to physical and hydrological characteristics of the mound matrix, which few texts presented. It is concluded that an extensive amount of literature and data are available on structures closely analogous to closure caps and that this information is a valuable source of data on the long-term performance of mounded structures. Additional study is recommended, including an expanded analysis of design features reported in the literature and field studies of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of different mound designs. 23 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating Defect Analysis and Processing NDE for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review...

  18. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges,...

  19. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  20. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  1. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Summary of past work. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the findings from a review of published documents dealing with research on the environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables used in nuclear power plants. Simulations of accelerated aging and accident conditions are important considerations in qualifying the cables. Significant research in these two areas has been performed in the US and abroad. The results from studies in France, Germany, and Japan are described in this report. In recent years, the development of methods to monitor the condition of cables has received special attention. Tests involving chemical and physical examination of cable`s insulation and jacket materials, and electrical measurements of the insulation properties of cables are discussed. Although there have been significant advances in many areas, there is no single method which can provide the necessary information about the condition of a cable currently in service. However, it is possible that further research may identify a combination of several methods that can adequately characterize the cable`s condition.

  2. Review of Literature for Inputs to the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool-Commercial/Institutional

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya; Lutz, James

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing a computer model and spreadsheet tool for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help estimate the water savings attributable to their WaterSense program. WaterSense has developed a labeling program for three types of plumbing fixtures commonly used in commercial and institutional settings: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. This National Water Savings-Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is patterned after the National Water Savings-Residential model, which was completed in 2008. Calculating the quantity of water and money saved through the WaterSense labeling program requires three primary inputs: (1) the quantity of a given product in use; (2) the frequency with which units of the product are replaced or are installed in new construction; and (3) the number of times or the duration the product is used in various settings. To obtain the information required for developing the NWS-CI model, LBNL reviewed various resources pertaining to the three WaterSense-labeled commercial/institutional products. The data gathered ranged from the number of commercial buildings in the United States to numbers of employees in various sectors of the economy and plumbing codes for commercial buildings. This document summarizes information obtained about the three products' attributes, quantities, and use in commercial and institutional settings that is needed to estimate how much water EPA's WaterSense program saves.

  3. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

  4. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes...

  5. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  6. Six-Membered-Ring Malonatoborate-Based Lithium Salts as Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    References 1. Lithium Ion Batteries: Fundamentals andProgram for Lithium Ion Batteries, U.S. Department ofas Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Li Yang a , Hanjun

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Post-Test Analysis...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Post-Test Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery Materials at Argonne National Laboratory Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Post-Test Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 2 Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 3 Electrochemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 1 Baseline Protocols and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  11. Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nickel battery systems Parthasarathy M. Gomadama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nickel battery systems Parthasarathy M. Gomadama , John W of lithium and nickel battery systems developed at the University of South Carolina is presented. Models of Li/Li-ion batteries are reviewed that simulated the behavior of single electrode particles, single

  12. Fatigue of aluminium-lithium alloys K. T. Venkateswara Rao and R. O. Ritchie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fatigue of aluminium-lithium alloys K. T. Venkateswara Rao and R. O. Ritchie Aluminium been identified as prime candidates for replacing 2000 and 7000 series aluminium alloys currently used characteristics of aluminium-lithium alloys are reviewed in detail with emphasis on the underlying micromechanisms

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Manufacturability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturability Study and Scale-Up for Large Format Lithium Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Manufacturability Study and Scale-Up for Large Format...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Utilization of UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Costs and VOCs in the Manufacture of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Miltec UV International at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about utilization of UV or...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Utilization of UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Costs and VOCs in the Manufacture of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Miltec UV International at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the utilization of UV...

  16. California Lithium Battery, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California Lithium Battery (CaLBattery), based in Los Angeles, California, is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined with other advanced battery materials, it could effectively lower battery life cycle cost by up to 70 percent. Over the next year, CALBattery will be working with Argonne National Laboratory to combine their patented silicon-graphene anode material process together with other advanced ANL cathode and electrolyte battery materials.

  17. Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

  18. Collaborative Collecting: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abreu, Amelia

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and aesthetics in the Menil Collection. University of Texasstored within the individual collections of the contributingconstitutes the selected collections is directly entered,

  19. Literature Review KMi Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3.2.1 ISIS 23 3.2.2 OPIS 24 3.2.3 SONIA 25 3.2.4 YAMS 26 3.2.5 FlyPast 27 3.2.6 S2 28 3.2.7 DAS 29 3

  20. Literature Review on Spectral Clustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Mengna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guan & Kulis. Kernel k-means, Spectral Clustering andspectral clustering and k-means clustering and spectralRelationship with kernel K-means algorithm …………………………………………

  1. Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University System Page 9 IV. REFERENCES Chen, Q., Glicksman, L.R., Yuan, X., Hu, S. Yang, X. 1999. Performance evaluation and development of design guidelines for displacement ventilation, Final report... testing, and a tracer gas (CO 2 ) step-up procedure. Alamdari, F., Butler, D.J.G., Grigg, P.F., Shaw, M. R. 1998. Chilled ceilings and displacement ventilation. Renewable Energy, Vol. 15, Issues 1-4, pp. 300-305. Abstract: Displacement ventilation...

  2. Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the cellulose chains, and in fact the observed rapid decline in the resonance absorption intensity at temperatures in excess of 600C was attributed to aromatization...

  3. Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o .FornlA Series ofTransforming Biomass

  4. Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Çelik, Gültekin, E-mail: gultekin@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Selçuk University, Campus 42049 Konya (Turkey); Gökçe, Yasin; Y?ld?z, Murat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT). We have employed numerical non-relativistic Hartree–Fock wavefunctions for expectation values of radii and the necessary energy values have been taken from the compilation at NIST. The results obtained with the present method agree very well with the Coulomb approximation results given by Caves (1975). Moreover, electric quadrupole transition probability values not existing in the literature for some highly excited levels have been obtained using the WBEPMT.

  5. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es105liang2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives...

  6. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  7. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  9. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanbook is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineersof the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have

  10. Double Photoionization of excited Lithium and Beryllium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Frank L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of excited Lithium and Beryllium F. L. Yip, 1 C. W. McCurdy,ion- ization of lithium and beryllium starting from aligned,DPI from aligned lithium and beryllium atoms in excited P-

  11. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulate those in a lithium battery. Chapter 3 TransientModel for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheRole in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

  12. Sputter deposition of lithium silicate - lithium phosphate amorphous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Robertson, J.D. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of ceramic targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gabano, Ed. , Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, New York,K. V. Kordesch, "Primary Batteries 1951-1976," J. Elec- n ~.Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc. , [20

  14. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemicalin Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.G. M. in Handbook of Batteries (eds Linden, D. & Reddy, T.

  15. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award February...

  16. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

  17. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials...

  18. Lithium-based electrochromic mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LITHIUM-BASED ELECTROCHROMIC MIRRORS Thomas J. Richardson*with pure antimony films. Electrochromic cycling speed andand silver. INTRODUCTION Electrochromic devices that exhibit

  19. Review: ??????? ????: ????????????????? ??????? ?????? ?. ?. ????????? «?????». ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ????????, ??????????; Toichkina, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    — 145 — Ocene, zapiski, poro?ila – Reviews, Notes, Reports ??????? ????: ????????- ????????? ??????? ?????? ?. ?. ????????? «?????». ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ?????-?????????, 2008. 247 ?. ? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????...- ??????, ???????????????? ?????? — 146 — Slavia Centralis 1/2011 Ocene, zapiski, poro?ila – Reviews, Notes, Reports ????????? ?? ? ????????? ????? ? ????, ? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????- ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????. ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???...

  20. Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL Robert February 3-5, 2010 #12;NSTX PAC-27 ­ Lithium Research Status and Plans 2/15February 3-5, 2010 NSTX lithium research is an integral part of a program to develop lithium as a PFC concept for magnetic fusion NSTX w

  1. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  2. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ion batteries In current lithium ion battery technology,ion batteries The first commercialized lithium-ion batteryfirst lithium-ion battery. Compared to the other batteries,

  4. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of VariousMiller, M. , Emerging Lithium-ion Battery Technologies forSymposium on Large Lithium-ion Battery Technology and

  5. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project Andrewto evaluate emerging lithium battery technologies for plug-vehicles. By emerging lithium battery chemistries were meant

  6. ELLIPSOMETRY OF SURFACE LAYERS ON LEAD AND LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard Dudley

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rate. The corrosion reaction between lithium and water vaporOpen Circuit Corrosion Bo Lithium, , L A~ueous Electrolytecalculated representing corrosion of lithium in water vapor,

  7. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic...

  8. ELLIPSOMETRY OF SURFACE LAYERS ON LEAD AND LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard Dudley

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface Layers on Lead and Lithium By Richard Dudley Peterssulfuric acid and and lithium to water, Acid concentrationsbeen observed in the reaction of lithium with water vapor. i

  9. Redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection in lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection in Lithium Batteries”, T. J. Richardson* and P.OVERCHARGE PROTECTION IN LITHIUM BATTERIES T. J. Richardson*improve the safety of lithium batteries. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  10. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.Calculations for Lithium Batteries. J. Electrostatics 1995,Modeling of Lithium Polymer Batteries. J. Power Sources

  11. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries, Journal of Powerand iron phosphate lithium batteries will be satisfactoryapplications. The cost of lithium batteries remains high ($

  12. Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEMBRANES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES AND FUEL CELLS. John Kerralso be discussed. Lithium Batteries for Transportation andpolymer membrane for lithium batteries. This paper will give

  13. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries. J. Power Sources 139,for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,nano-anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0 lithium batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.for rechargeable lithium batteries. Advanced Materials 1998,for rechargeable lithium batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  15. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  17. The structural design of electrode materials for high energy lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thackeray, M.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium batteries are used to power a diverse range of applications from small compact devices, such as smart cards and cellular telephones to large heavy duty devices such as uninterrupted power supply units and electric- and hybrid-electric vehicles. This paper briefly reviews the approaches to design advanced materials to replace the lithiated graphite and LiCoO{sub 2} electrodes that dominate today's lithium-ion batteries in order to increase their energy and safety. The technological advantages of lithium batteries are placed in the context of water-based- and high-temperature battery systems.

  18. Literature survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillay, K.K.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (US))

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The residential amount(s) of fissionable materials remaining in process equipment after the runout of bulk materials processed is referred to as ''Process Holdup of Special Nuclear Materials.'' Locating regions of holdup and estimating the quantity of fissile materials remaining as holdup are important not only to materials accountability but also to process safety. Holdup is often referred to as a ''Hidden Inventory.'' In materials accounting terminology, hidden inventories are part of ''Materials Unaccounted For'' (MUF) or ''Inventory Difference'' (ID). MUF or ID could be construed as ''Loss'' or ''Diversion''. From a safeguards perspective, all these designations are undesirable. Another terminology that is relevant to holdup is ''In-Process Inventory.'' During process operations and temporary shutdown, the holdup within the facility is also known as the in-process inventory. Estimating this inventory is just as challenging as residuals after process runout. The role of hidden inventories, or holdup, as a safeguards problem is now recognized by almost everyone interested in establishing effective safeguards for special nuclear materials. As part of this effort to organize the first INMM-sponsored Technical Workshop on Process Holdup of Special Nuclear Materials, an attempt was made to update an earlier survey of open literature publications of relevance to holdup. An attempt was made to exclude from this list those documents recognized as internal documents, progress reports, preliminary reports, abstracts, etc.

  19. Redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection in lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection in Lithium Batteries”, T. J. Richardson* and P.PROTECTION IN LITHIUM BATTERIES T. J. Richardson* and P. N.in lithium and lithium ion batteries are now available. The

  20. Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    to avoid corrosion or fire. Lithium's high electrical conductivity may possibly permit efficient, compactElectromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999 6-1 CHAPTER 6: ELECTROMAGNETICALLY RESTRAINED LITHIUM BLANKET Contributors Robert Woolley #12;Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium

  1. Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038 Lithium Diisopropylamide: Solution Kinetics Keywords: kinetics · lithium diisopropylamide · metalation · solvent effects · synthesis design D. B: lithium diiso- propylamide (LDA). LDA has played a profound role in organic synthesis, serving as the base

  2. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  3. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  4. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  5. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  6. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1987-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A rechargeable high energy density lithium-based cell is described comprising: a solvated electron lithium negative electrode comprising a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia; a lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; a liquid non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent. The liquid electrolyte contacting the lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte; and a solid lithium intercalation positive electrode contacting the liquid electrolyte.

  7. Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Kugel, H.W.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; et al

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

  8. Development of lithium deposition techniques for TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugel, H.W.; Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; Mansfield, D.; Timberlake, J.; Vocaturo, M.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

  9. Air breathing lithium power cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  10. Review of Recent Literature Relevant to the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices; Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms - Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kropp, Roy K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature search was conducted by using the Web of Science® databases component of the ISI Web of KnowledgeSM to identify recent articles that would be useful to help assess the potential environmental effects of renewable energy development in the ocean, with emphasis on seabirds and fish. Several relatively recent general review articles that included possible effects on seabirds and fish were examined to begin the search process. From these articles, several general topics of potential environmental effects on seabirds and fish were derived. These topics were used as the primary search factors. Additional sources were identified by cross-checking the Web of Science databases for articles that cited the review articles. It also became clear that the potential effects frequently w

  11. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    on larger scales. Im- provement of the safety of lithium-ion batteries must occur if they are to be utilized in aqueous cells. However, the choice of a suitable anode material for an aqueous lithium-ion battery is moreSynthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion

  12. Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam.1063/1.3643035] Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest due to their high energy density, however, various safety properties, many applications are pos- sible.10,11 One is the electrolyte of the lithium-ion batteries, where

  13. Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of 6Li-15N labeled lithium hexamethyldisilazide ([6Li,15N]- Li ligand structure and lithium amide aggregation state is a complex and sensitive function of amine alkyl

  14. SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    @ Pergamon SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM performed on powdered and single crystal lithium niobate of defectivecongruent composition (48.4%LirO;51.6% NbrOr) using a magnetic field strength of 7.05 Tesla with the aim to distinguish between a lithium

  15. A review of "Literature as Communication: The Foundations of Mediating Criticism and Mediating Criticism: Literary Education Humanized." by Roger D. Sell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan Rudrum

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    literature to students for whom English is not their first language. He will surely read with inter- est Azar Nafisi?s recent Reading Lolita in Tehran, which recounts how Lolita becomes a quite different book when read by a Muslim for whom the girl... is not under-age, since in the Iranian version of Islamic law, girls can be given in marriage at the age of nine. To the more pious Muslim student, it is obvious that Lolita is a harlot who has seduced Humbert into sin. Nafisi records an encounter...

  16. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. With the increasing demand on devices of high energy densities (>500 Wh/kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB also attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performances of these energy storage systems depend not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performances characteristics of batteries often have conflict requirements on the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflict requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate 1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and 2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties, prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  17. A review of "Self-fashioning and Metamorphosis in Early Modern English Literature" by Olav Lausund and Stein Haugom Olsen, eds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Grant Moss

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Davies? study of the little-known poet Thomas St. Nicholas. Although well-written, this essay seems more REVIEWS 195 of an introduction to the life and work of St. Nicholas than it does a treatise on Renaissance self-fashioning or metamorphosis. Despite...

  18. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  19. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vantolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission andmysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book begins with an

  4. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  5. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries by Christopher Marc Doyle Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical EngineeringDesign and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries I C. Marc Doyle Department of Chemical Engineering

  6. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  7. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

  8. COSMOLOGICAL LITHIUM PROBLEM: A DIFFERENT APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?umer, Slobodan

    LITHIUM 7Li sources BBN cosmic-ray interactions (ingredients: shock waves, magnetic field, chargedCOSMOLOGICAL LITHIUM PROBLEM: A DIFFERENT APPROACH Tijana Prodanovi, University of Novi Sad Tamara Observations - boxes 4He ­ OK D ­ right on! 7Li ­ problem! Factor of 3-4 discrepancy! LITHIUM PROBLEM

  9. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  10. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  11. Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fathpour, Sasan

    Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates Payam Rabiei,1,* Jichi Ma,1 Saeed-confined lithium niobate photonic devices and circuits on silicon substrates is reported based on wafer bonding high- performance lithium niobate microring optical resonators and Mach- Zehnder optical modulators

  12. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  13. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  14. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced...

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  17. The Primordial Lithium Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian D. Fields

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory, together with the precise WMAP cosmic baryon density, makes tight predictions for the abundances of the lightest elements. Deuterium and 4He measurements agree well with expectations, but 7Li observations lie a factor 3-4 below the BBN+WMAP prediction. This 4-5\\sigma\\ mismatch constitutes the cosmic "lithium problem," with disparate solutions possible. (1) Astrophysical systematics in the observations could exist but are increasingly constrained. (2) Nuclear physics experiments provide a wealth of well-measured cross-section data, but 7Be destruction could be enhanced by unknown or poorly-measured resonances, such as 7Be + 3He -> 10C^* -> p + 9B. (3) Physics beyond the Standard Model can alter the 7Li abundance, though D and 4He must remain unperturbed; we discuss such scenarios, highlighting decaying Supersymmetric particles and time-varying fundamental constants. Present and planned experiments could reveal which (if any) of these is the solution to the problem.

  18. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galanina, L. I., E-mail: galan_lidiya@mail.ru; Zelenskaja, N. S. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  19. Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; R. Doerner; R. Kaita; G. Antar; J. Timberlake; et al

    2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described.

  20. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  1. LITHIUM--1997 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LITHIUM--1997 46.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober After decades as the world's leading producer of lithium and its compounds, the United States was surpassed in 1997 when Chile became the world's largest lithium carbonate producer. Both lithium carbonate operations at the Salar de Atacama produced during

  2. Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytesin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

  3. Toward a Lithium-"Air" Battery: The Effect of CO2 on the Chemistry of a Lithium-Oxygen Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Toward a Lithium-"Air" Battery: The Effect of CO2 on the Chemistry of a Lithium-Oxygen Cell Hyung as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium- dioxygen

  4. Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures and Relative Reactivities of Mixed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures-1301 ReceiVed April 30, 1997. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 26, 1997 Abstract: Addition of lithiumLi and 13C NMR spectroscopies reveal lithium cyclopropylacetylide in THF to be a dimer

  5. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  6. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  7. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  8. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  9. Predicting the Voltage Dependence of Interfacial Electrochemical Processes at Lithium-Intercalated Graphite Edge Planes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Kevin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applied potential governs lithium-intercalation and electrode passivation reactions in lithium ion batteries, but are challenging to calibrate in condensed phase DFT calculations. In this work, the "anode potential" of charge-neutral lithium-intercalated graphite (LiC(6)) with oxidized edge planes is computed as a function of Li-content n(Li)) at edge planes, using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), a previously introduced Li+ transfer free energy method, and the experimental Li+/Li(s) value as reference. The voltage assignments are corroborated using explicit electron transfer from fluoroethylene carbonate radical anion markers. PF6- is shown to decompose electrochemically (i.e., not just thermally) at low potentials imposed by our voltage calibration technique. We demonstrate that excess electrons reside in localized states-in-the-gap in the organic carbonate liquid region, which is not semiconductor-like (band-state-like) as widely assumed in the literature.

  10. assessment review papers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and compiled recent peer-reviewed literature and white papers with a focus on risk perception Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: -reviewed literature and...

  11. Lithium adsorption on armchair graphene nanoribbons Dana Krepel, Oded Hod

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Oded

    Lithium adsorption on armchair graphene nanoribbons Dana Krepel, Oded Hod School of Chemistry e i n f o Available online 7 December 2010 Keywords: Density functional theory Lithium Graphene Armchair graphene nanoribbon Chemical adsorption Lithium adsorption on two dimensional graphene

  12. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 1,

  13. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  14. Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations Jennifer L. Rutherford-dimensional 6Li and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) solvated ligand concentrations are discussed. Introduction Spectroscopic studies of lithium amides at low ligand

  15. Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

  16. Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

  17. One dimensional Si/Sn -based nanowires and nanotubes for lithium-ion energy storage materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    One dimensional Si/Sn - based nanowires and nanotubes for lithium-ion energy storage materials Nam of advanced energy storage applications. In this feature article, we review recent progress on Si-based NWs to their uneven energy production. From this perspective, the interest in energy storage technology is on the rise

  18. ENDOR study of Cr3 centers substituting for lithium in lithium niobate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malovichko, Galina

    ENDOR study of Cr3¿ centers substituting for lithium in lithium niobate G. Malovichko,1, * V centers in lithium niobate crystals were investigated with the help of electron nuclear double resonance and the parameters of hyperfine and quadrupole interactions were determined. It is found that Cr3 substitutes for Li

  19. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO2.(1-x)Li2M'O3 in which 0

  20. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  1. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  2. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  3. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. Abstract: A substantial effort worldwide has been...

  4. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  5. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  6. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K. (Ocean, NJ); Chin, Der-Tau (Winthrop, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  7. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  8. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  9. Silicon sponge improves lithium-ion battery performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sponge improves lithium-ion battery performance Silicon sponge improves lithium-ion battery performance Increasing battery's storage capacity could allow devices to run...

  10. Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides 2013 DOE...

  11. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective...

  12. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Abstract: Functionalized graphene sheets (FGS)...

  13. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant...

  14. Interface Modifications by Anion Acceptors for High Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modifications by Anion Acceptors for High Energy Lithium Ion Batteries. Interface Modifications by Anion Acceptors for High Energy Lithium Ion Batteries. Abstract: Li-rich, Mn-rich...

  15. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session...

  16. Investigations of Graphite Current Collectors and Metallic Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphite Current Collectors and Metallic Lithium Anodes Investigations of Graphite Current Collectors and Metallic Lithium Anodes Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  17. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism . Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism . Abstract: Lithium metal batteries are called...

  18. Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species. Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species. Abstract: Ability to predict the solubility and...

  19. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  20. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

  1. New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

  2. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand...

  3. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  4. Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high-capacity, rechargeable cathodes Lowers...

  5. Examining Hysteresis in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Composite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hysteresis in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Composite Cathode Materials Examining Hysteresis in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Composite Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  6. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE...

  7. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    15eswise2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

  8. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

  9. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    15eswise2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

  10. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and...

  11. Electrode Structures and Surfaces for Lithium Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures and Surfaces for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Lithium-metal-oxide electrode materials with modified surfaces to protect the materials from...

  12. Optimization of mesoporous carbon structures for lithium&ndash...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mesoporous carbon structures for lithium–sulfur battery applications. Optimization of mesoporous carbon structures for lithium–sulfur battery applications. Abstract:...

  13. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Liu, Jun (Naperville, IL)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  14. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved the synthesis of nanowire ã-MnO2 and characterization as cathode material for high-power lithium-ion batteries for EV and HEV applications. The nanowire synthesis involved the edge site decoration nanowire synthesis developed by Dr. Reginald Penner at UC Irvine (a key collaborator in this project). Figure 1 is an SEM image showing ã-MnO2 nanowires electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes. This technique is unique to other nanowire template synthesis techniques in that it produces long (>500 um) nanowires which could reduce or eliminate the need for conductive additives due to intertwining of fibers. Nanowire cathode for lithium-ion batteries with surface areas 100 times greater than conventional materials can enable higher power batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The synthesis of the ã-MnO2 nanowires was successfully achieved. However, it was not found possible to co-intercalate lithium directly in the nanowire synthesis. Based on input from proposal reviewers, the scope of the project was altered to attempt the conversion into spinel LiMn2O4 nanowire cathode material by solid state reaction of the ã-MnO2 nanowires with LiNO3 at elevated temperatures. Attempts to perform the conversion on the graphite template were unsuccessful due to degradation of the graphite apparently caused by oxidative attack by LiNO3. Emphasis then shifted to quantitative removal of the nanowires from the graphite, followed by the solid state reaction. Attempts to quantitatively remove the nanowires by several techniques were unsatisfactory due to co-removal of excess graphite or poor harvesting of nanowires. Intercalation of lithium into ã-MnO2 electrodeposited onto graphite was demonstrated, showing a partial demonstration of the ã-MnO2 material as a lithium-ion battery cathode material. Assuming the issues of nanowires removal can be solved, the technique does offer potential for creating high-power lithium-ion battery cathode needed for advanced EV and HEVs. Several technical advancements will still be required to meet this goal, and are likely topics for future SBIR feasibility studies.

  15. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  16. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Godshall, Ned A. (Stanford, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  17. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories News Events Find More Like This Return to Search Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries United States Patent Patent Number: 6,528,208 Issued: March 4, 2003...

  18. ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    865.574.7308 ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites in batteries ORNL electron microscopy captured the first real-time nanoscale images of the nucleation and...

  19. Review of Recent Literature Relevant to the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms – Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kropp, Roy K.

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature search was conducted by using the Web of Science® Databases component of the ISI Web of KnowledgeSM to identify recent articles that would be useful to help assess the potential environmental effects of renewable energy development in the ocean, with emphasis on marine mammals, seabirds, and fish. Several relatively recent general review articles that included possible effects of marine renewable energy devices on marine mammals and seabirds were examined to begin the search process (e.g., Boehlert et al. 2008; Thompson et al. 2008; Simas et al. 2009). From these articles, several general topics of potential environmental effects on marine mammals, seabirds, and fish were derived. These topics were used as the primary search factors. Searches were conducted with reference to the potential effects of offshore wind farms and MHK devices on marine mammals, seabirds, and fish. Additional sources were identified by cross-checking the Web of Science databases for articles that cited the review articles. It also became clear that often the potential effects were offered as hypotheses that often were not supported by the presentation of appropriate documentation. Therefore, the search was refined and focused on trying to obtain the necessary information to support or challenge a proposed potential effect to a specific concern. One of the expressed concerns regarding MHK devices is that placing wave parks in coastal waters could compromise the migration patterns of whales. Disruption of the annual migration of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which swims at least 30,000 km on its round trip from breeding grounds in Baja California to feeding areas in the Bering Sea, is of particular concern. Among the hypothesized effects on the migrating gray whales are increased predation risk by constricting migration corridor to between array and shore or by forcing the whales to swim into deeper waters, increased metabolic energy costs and delays in reaching the destinations, and interrupting feeding by blocking access to benthic areas under arrays. The literature search focused on identifying published studies that could provide information to evaluate these concerns. The results were developed into a case study that evaluated the potential effects of the placement of wave parks in coastal waters along the migration route of the gray whale. Wave parks and other MHK arrays may have additional effects on gray whales and other marine mammals, including entanglement in mooring lines and interference with communications among other effects, that were not included in this case study. The case study results were rewritten into a simpler form that would be suitable for placement on a web blog

  20. The Negro in Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Sadie Malinda

    1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the soil before it is ready for literature. With all the advantages of European learning and cult­ ure, the first American literature consisted only of dry reports and treatises and tedious sermons. It was a hun­ dred years or more before any literature...

  1. Lithium in LMC carbon stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Hatzidimitriou; D. H. Morgan; R. D. Cannon; B. F. W. Croke

    2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nineteen carbon stars that show lithium enrichment in their atmospheres have been discovered among a sample of 674 carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Six of the Li-rich carbon stars are of J-type, i.e. with strong 13C isotopic features. No super-Li-rich carbon stars were found. The incidence of lithium enrichment among carbon stars in the LMC is much rarer than in the Galaxy, and about five times more frequent among J-type than among N-type carbon stars. The bolometric magnitudes of the Li-rich carbon stars range between -3.3 and -5.7. Existing models of Li-enrichment via the hot bottom burning process fail to account for all of the observed properties of the Li-enriched stars studied here.

  2. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  5. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  6. XPS analysis of lithium surface and modification of surface state for uniform deposition of lithium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanamura, K.; Shiraishi, S.; Takehara, Z. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface modification of lithium deposited at various current densities in propylene carbonate containing 1.0 ml dm{sup {minus}3} LiClO{sub 4} was performed by addition of various amounts of HF into the electrolyte, in order to investigate the effect of the HF addition on the surface reaction of lithium. XPS and SEM analyses showed that the surface state of lithium was influenced by the concentration of HF and the electrodeposition current. These two parameters are related to the chemical reaction rate of the lithium surface with HF and the electrodeposition rate of lithium, respectively. The surface modification was highly effective in suppressing lithium dendrite formation when the chemical reaction rate with HF was greater than the electrochemical deposition rate of lithium.

  7. Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60 DATE: MarchNEPA/309 ReviewersAdvanced Lithium

  8. Lithium electric dipole polarizability M. Puchalski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pachucki, Krzysztof

    Lithium electric dipole polarizability M. Puchalski Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz, 00-681 Warsaw, Poland The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state phenomena, such as van der Waals interactions in ultra-cold collisions [1­3] and Bose- Einstein condensation

  9. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  10. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  11. Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries Frontiers in Materials Science Seminar / Chemistryg g g g g y University at Buffalo ­ The State University of New York (SUNY) Abstract Batteries for implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) are based on the Lithium/Silver vanadium oxide (SVO, Ag2V4O11

  12. A literature Review on Radioactivity Transfer to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as possible. Suggestions for further research have also been given. INIS descriptors; CESIUM 137; DEPOSITION be exposed by ingestion of contaminated terrestial foodstuffs. Even though the intermediate transfer

  13. Aging of polymeric composites : a literature review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treviño-Garrido, Margie N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to their increased use in today's society, an extensive survey was undertaken in this report to condense what's been, thus far, discovered as to the effects of aging on polymeric composites. Special emphasis was placed ...

  14. University Research Management: An Exploratory Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuetzenmeister, Falk

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requirements of universities and funding programs as well aschanges in the university funding policies. A preliminary2005. Industry funding and university professors research

  15. Literature Review in Languages, Technology and Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is committed to sharing the lessons learnt from our research and development in order to inform positive change OF GOOD TEACHING AND GOOD TEACHING MATERIALS 10 SECTION 7 RELEVANT TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNOLOGY'S FUTURE, University of Wales Swansea This report has been designed to enable both rapid identification of the key

  16. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Literature review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    in turbinated flow discharge into the river. Ecological value of river reaches af- fected by hydropeaking turbines are closed, rapid lowering of the water surface level brings the fish to be trapped. Schleiss Laboratory of Hydraulic Constructions (LCH), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL

  17. Geothermal Literature Review At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hvalfjordur Fjord area, re: Heat flow References G. Ranalli, L. Rybach (2005) Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples...

  18. Geothermal Literature Review At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Latera area, Tuscany, re: Heat Flow References G. Ranalli, L. Rybach (2005) Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples...

  19. Geothermal Literature Review At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Taupo, North Island, re: Heat Flow References G. Ranalli, L. Rybach (2005) Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples...

  20. Travel of Diverse Populations: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Licensing System. ” Accident Analysis and Prevention 34:among adults. ” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35(3).Race and Ethnicity. ” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37(

  1. Geothermal Literature Review | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to libraryOpen Energy

  2. OpenEI Community - Literature Review

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorthOlympia Green Fuels JumpData+entrepreneurSystems(Jain

  3. Lithium-Assisted Electrochemical Welding in Silicon Nanowire Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Lithium-Assisted Electrochemical Welding in Silicon Nanowire Battery Electrodes Khim Karki, Eric-healing, interfacial lithium diffusivity, in situ TEM, lithium-ion battery Silicon is an auspicious candidate to replace today's widely utilized graphitic anodes in lithium ion batteries because its specific energy

  4. Impact of Lithium Availability on Vehicle Electrification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the relationship between electric drive vehicles and the availability of lithium.

  5. Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton Plasma. Temperature of the streams. 2. Lithium jets. 3. Injection into vacuum chamber. 4. Propulsion inside the vacuum chamber. 5. Stability of the lithium streams. 6. Expulsion of the lithium. 7. Summary. PRINCETON PLASMA

  6. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammels, A.F.

    1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvated electron lithium negative electrode is described containing: containment means holding a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia to form a solvated electron solution, the solvated electron solution contacting a lithium intercalating membrane and providing lithium to the intercalating membrane during discharge and accepting it from the intercalating membrane during charge.

  7. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variousare presented for lithium-ion cells and modules utilizingAdvisor utilizing lithium-ion batteries of the different

  8. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miller, M. , Emerging Lithium-ion Battery Technologies forCharacteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variousand Simulation Results with Lithium-ion Batteries, paper

  9. Characterization of high-power lithium-ion cells-performance and diagnostic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by an arrow. Key words: Lithium ion battery, diagnostics,Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Handbook ofTechnology Development For Lithium- Ion Batteries: Gen 2

  10. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energysolvent decomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Funct.

  11. Characterization of an Electroactive Polymer for Overcharge Protection in Secondary Lithium Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoying; Thomas-Alyea, Karen E.; Newman, John; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Secondary Lithium Batteries Guoying Chen, Karen E.protection agents in lithium batteries is relatively new,rechargeable lithium batteries with a variety of different

  12. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether any of the lithium battery chemistries can meetgeneral the higher cost lithium battery chemistries have thecosts for various lithium battery chemistries Electrode

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Shrayesh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Copolymer: Application in Lithium Battery Electrodes. Angew.Schematic of the Proposed lithium battery electrode with aBlock Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes By Shrayesh

  14. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the solid state thin-film lithium battery S8-ES ( Front EdgeLithium-Ion Polymer Battery ..Mikhaylik, "Lithium-Sulfur Secondary Battery: Chemistry and

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATIC DISCHARGE BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    composition profiles in lithium/sulfur battery analogues hasTHE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATICthe Lithium-Aluminum, Iron Sulfide Battery I. Galvanostatic

  16. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the lithium- transition metal electrostatic interaction. Thecation electrostatic interactions. 1 Lithium ions occupy theinteractions or by inhibiting the complete removal of lithium

  17. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure. Abstract: Suppressing lithium (Li)...

  18. Design Principles for the Use of Electroactive Polymers for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas-Alyea, Karen E.; Newman, John; Chen, Guoying; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling of Lithium Batteries. Kluwer Academic Publishers,of interest for lithium batteries. Therefore, we can use y =and J. Newman, Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries, ch.

  19. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are not useful for lithium batteries. We are therefore nowapplications using lithium batteries, we must be sure thattemperature range. For lithium batteries in hybrid vehicles,

  20. Characterization of an Electroactive Polymer for Overcharge Protection in Secondary Lithium Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoying; Thomas-Alyea, Karen E.; Newman, John; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection in Secondary Lithium Batteries Guoying Chen,protection agents in lithium batteries is relatively new,in rechargeable lithium batteries with a variety of

  1. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the manufacture of lithium batteries (References 2 and 3).Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of VariousAdvisor utilizing lithium-ion batteries of the different

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Shrayesh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection in Secondary Lithium Batteries. Electrochim. ActaFacing Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Nature 2001, 414,for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Using Electroactive

  3. A Failure and Structural Analysis of Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Gregory Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries By Gregory Michaelfor Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries by Gregory Michaelin rechargeable lithium metal batteries. The block copolymer

  4. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Layered Oxides for Lithium Batteries. Nano Lett. 13, 3857–O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energydecomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-principles

  5. Layered manganese oxide intergrowth electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries: Part 1-substitution with Co or Ni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolle, Mickael; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cathode Materials for Lithium Batteries, 2003, Massachusettsfor Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: Part 1-Substitution withelectrode materials for lithium batteries because of their

  6. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electricfast charging of the lithium batteries should be possiblefast charging of the lithium batteries will be is possible

  7. Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoying

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and LowIntroduction Rechargeable lithium batteries are known forfor rechargeable lithium batteries. When impregnated into a

  8. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser Deposition for Lithium Batteries Seung-Wan Song, a, *in rechargeable lithium batteries. Introduction Sb-in rechargeable lithium batteries. Two advantages of

  9. A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells Yvonne Krämer*[a] , Claudia Birkenmaier[b] , Julian Feinauer[a,c] , Andreas lithium-ion cells is presented. Graphite anode samples were extracted from pristine and differently aged lithium-ion cells. The samples present a variety of anodes with various states of lithium plating

  10. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113,9575-9585 9575 Mixed Aggregation of Lithium Enolates and Lithium Halides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113,9575-9585 9575 Mixed Aggregation of Lithium Enolates and Lithium Halides with Lithium 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidide(LiTMP) Patricia L. Hall, James H. Gilchrist, Aidan T. Harrison]-lithiumdi-tert-butylamide and conformationally locked [6Li]-lithium2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylpiperidide shed further light

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: IR Thermography...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IR Thermography as a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Tool for Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: IR Thermography as a Non-Destructive...

  12. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive and Polyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-Ion Battery; Electrode Design; Polymer Composite. Introduction Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

  13. Literature survey results: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Solutions: Coupled Lithium-Ion and Electron Mobility.lithium batteries, II. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries.1/4)Ni(3/4)O(2) for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochimica

  15. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation and Anionic Fries Rearrangement of Aryl Carbamates: Role of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation and Anionic Fries Rearrangement of Aryl of the lithium diisopropylamide (LDA)-mediated anionic Fries rearrangements of aryl carbamates are described, an LDA-lithium phenolate mixed dimer, and homoaggregated lithium phenolates. The highly insoluble

  16. Lithium abundances in exoplanet-hosts stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Castro; S. Vauclair; O. Richard; N. C. Santos

    2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Exoplanet-host stars (EHS) are known to present surface chemical abundances different from those of stars without any detected planet (NEHS). EHS are, on the average, overmetallic compared to the Sun. The observations also show that, for cool stars, lithium is more depleted in EHS than in NEHS. The overmetallicity of EHS may be studied in the framework of two different scenarii. We have computed main sequence stellar models with various masses, metallicities and accretion rates. The results show different profiles for the lithium destruction according to the scenario. We compare these results to the spectroscopic observations of lithium.

  17. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C.storage using rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become

  18. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam and Marcarechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an integral

  19. Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOBin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

  20. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam andusing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an

  1. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  2. Lithium-cation conductivity and crystal structure of lithium diphosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronin, V.I., E-mail: voronin@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics Urals Branch RAS, S.Kovalevskoy Street 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sherstobitova, E.A. [Institute of Metal Physics Urals Branch RAS, S.Kovalevskoy Street 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Blatov, V.A., E-mail: blatov@samsu.ru [Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS), Samara State University, Ac.Pavlov Street 1, 443011 Samara (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shekhtman, G.Sh., E-mail: shekhtman@ihte.uran.ru [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry Urals Branch RAS, Akademicheskaya 20, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical conductivity of lithium diphosphate Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been measured and jump-like increasing of ionic conductivity at 913 K has been found. The crystal structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been refined using high temperature neutron diffraction at 300–1050 K. At 913 K low temperature triclinic form of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms into high temperature monoclinic one, space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=8.8261(4) Å, b=5.2028(4) Å, c=13.3119(2) Å, ?=104.372(6)°. The migration maps of Li{sup +} cations based on experimental data implemented into program package TOPOS have been explored. It was found that lithium cations in both low- and high temperature forms of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} migrate in three dimensions. Cross sections of the migrations channels extend as the temperature rises, but at the phase transition point have a sharp growth showing a strong “crystal structure – ion conductivity” correlation. -- Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at 950 K. Red balls represent oxygen atoms; black lines show Li{sup +} ion migration channels in the layers perpendicular to [001] direction. Highlights: • Structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been refined using high temperature neutron diffraction. • At 913 K triclinic form of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms into high temperature monoclinic one. • The migration maps of Li{sup +} implemented into program package TOPOS have been explored. • Cross sections of the migrations channels at the phase transition have a sharp growth.

  3. Solid State Thin Film Lithium Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.

    Solid state thin film lithium microbatteries fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are suggested. During deposition the following process parameters must be considered, which are laser energy and fluence, laser pulse ...

  4. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Engineering Analysis, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Early Flight Fission -- Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  5. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric...

  6. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  7. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson; Christopher S. (Naperville, IL), Thackeray; Michael M. (Naperville, IL), Vaughey; John T. (Elmhurst, IL), Kahaian; Arthur J. (Chicago, IL), Kim; Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  8. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  9. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model for the Graphite Anode in Li-Ion Batteries. Journal ofgraphite Chapters 2-3 have developed a method using ferrocene to characterize the SEI in lithium- ion batteries.

  10. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse; Jean Audouze

    1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to supernova explosions in galactic superbubbles.

  11. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  12. Electrode for a lithium cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  13. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, H; Stienkemeier, F; Bogomolov, A S; Baklanov, A V; Reich, D M; Skomorowski, W; Koch, C P; Mudrich, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li+ and LiI+ ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V=650(20) reciprocal cm. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  14. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  15. Some comments on the Butler-Volmer equation for modeling Lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, A M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article the Butler-Volmer equation used in describing Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is discussed. First, a complete mathematical model based on a macro-homogeneous approach developed by Neuman is presented. Two common mistakes found in the literature regarding a sign in a boundary conditions and the use of the transfer coefficient are mentioned. The paper focuses on the form of the Butler-Volmer equation in the model. It is shown how practical problems can be avoided by taking care in the form used, particularly to avoid difficulties when the solid particle in the electrodes approaches a fully charged or discharged state or the electrolyte gets depleted. This shows that the open circuit voltage and the exchange current density must depend on the lithium concentration in both the solid and the electrolyte in a particular way at the extremes of the concentration ranges.

  16. Deproto-metallation using mixed lithium-zinc and lithium-copper bases and computed CH acidity of 2-substituted quinolines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Deproto-metallation using mixed lithium-zinc and lithium-copper bases and computed CH acidity of 2 corresponding iodo derivatives or 2-chlorophenyl ketones using the lithium-zinc or the lithium using the lithium-zinc base. With 3-pyridyl, 2-furyl and 2-thienyl substituents, the reaction took place

  17. (Data in metric tons of contained lithium, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world, followed by China,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , but growing through the recycling of lithium batteries. Import Sources (1994-97): Chile, 96%; and other, 4 lithium salts from battery recycling and lithium hydroxide monohydrate from former Department of Energy102 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of contained lithium, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production

  18. Expansion of Domestic Production of Lithium Carbonate and Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt010esgroves2012...

  19. Expansion of Domestic Production of Lithium Carbonate and Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt010esgroves2011...

  20. Expansion of Domestic Production of Lithium Carbonate and Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. esarravt010groves2010...

  1. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggan, Ruth A.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  2. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D...

  3. area liquid lithium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquid lithium plasma-facing surface will be used 11 Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim* and Nina MahootcheianAsl...

  4. Design of novel lithium storage materials with a polyanionic framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jae Chul, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium ion batteries for large-scale applications demand a strict safety standard from a cathode material during operating cycles. Lithium manganese borate (LiMnBO?) that crystallizes into a hexagonal or monoclinic framework ...

  5. LITHIUM--2002 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    domestic producer of lithium carbonate from brine is Chemetall Foote's operation in Nevada. Nevada brines enriched in lithium chloride, which averaged about 300 parts per million (ppm) when Foote Mineral Co. (the

  6. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever...

  7. California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand May 21, 2013 - 5:54pm Addthis Through funding provided by the...

  8. Direct Evidence of Lithium-Induced Atomic Ordering in Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence of Lithium-Induced Atomic Ordering in Amorphous TiO2 Nanotubes . Direct Evidence of Lithium-Induced Atomic Ordering in Amorphous TiO2 Nanotubes . Abstract: In this paper,...

  9. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  10. Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life. Molecular Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long...

  11. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE...

  12. Interaction of Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . Interaction of Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . Abstract: The two-step reaction between LiH and NH3BH3 in THF leads to the...

  13. Lithium-based inorganic-organic framework materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Hamish Hei-Man

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes research into lithium-based inorganic-organic frameworks, which has led to an increased understanding of the structural diversity and properties of these materials. The crystal structures of 11 new forms of lithium...

  14. Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Lithium Diffusion in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Lithium Diffusion in Mixed MnTi Oxides. Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Lithium Diffusion in Mixed MnTi Oxides. Abstract: Mixed...

  15. aqueous lithium hydroxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Prediction of the theoretical capacity of non-aqueous lithium-air batteries Peng Tan, Zhaohuan Wei of non-aqueous lithium-air batteries is predicted. Key...

  16. aqueous lithium bromide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    France Abstract In order to develop a LISICON separator for an aqueous lithium-air battery, a thin was coated with a lithium oxynitrured phosphorous (LiPON) thin film to...

  17. Electrochemical Isotope Effect and Lithium Isotope Separation Jay R. Black,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    results showing a large lithium isotope separation due to electrodeposition. The fractionation is tunable lithium were plated from solutions of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC) on planar nickel electrodes

  18. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  19. A Literature Review, Bibliographic Listing, and Organization of Selected References Relative to Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Abiotic and Biotic Attributes of the Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Marine and Riverine Environs for Various Historical Periods : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 4 of 4, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costello, Ronald J.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of a literature review on the carrying capacity of Pacific salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of the review was to find the information gaps relative to the determinants of salmon carrying capacity in the Columbia River Basin. The review was one activity designed to answer questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information learned during the literature review and the other work accomplished during this study the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) state concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. To increase understanding of ecology, carring capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The PNNL team suggests that the regions evaluated carrying capacity from more than one view point. The PNNL team recommends that the region use the contextualistic view for evaluating capacity.

  20. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schutts, Scott M. (Menomonie, WI); Kinney, Robert J. (Woodbury, MN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.